are similar the parasite communities structure of trachelyopterus coriaceus and trachelyopterus galeatus (siluriformes: auchenipteridae) in the amazon basin?the aim of this study was to compare the parasite communities in two sympatric host populations, trachelyopterus coriaceus andtrachelyopterus galeatus, which were caught in tributary of the amazon river in brazil. all the specimens of t. galeatusand t. coriaceus were infected by one or more parasites, such as ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tripartiella tetramerii, trichodina nobilis, cosmetocleithrum striatuli, contracaecumsp., cystidicoloides sp., dadaytremoides parauchenipteri and gorytocephalu ...201627007248
parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the peruvian amazon.the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. the study was conducted from august 2007 to september 2009. we sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. crenicichla anthurus (28.57%) was the most parasitized, followed by aequidens diadema (26.32%), pterophyllum scalar ...201525909258
first study on parasites of hemibrycon surinamensis (characidae), a host from the eastern amazon region.this study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of hemibrycon surinamensis. all the fish collected in a tributary of the amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. the brillouin diversity index (hb) was 0.46 ± 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 ± 1.2 parasites per host. a total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including ichthyophthirius multifiliis and piscinoodinium pillulare (protozoa); jainus hexops and tereancistrum sp. ( ...201625271454
parasitic infections of piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) cultured in brazil.this study evaluated the occurrence of parasitic infections in the "pacu" fish piaractus mesopotamicus and the "patinga" hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) in the northwest of são paulo state, brazil. fish from the following three fish farms were evaluated every two months: a, a hatchery and larviculture farm (n = 16 pacu / n = 19 patinga), b, a growout farm (n = 35 patinga) and c, a fee-fishing property (n = 28 pacu / n = 7 patinga). thirty-five fish from each property were colle ...201324142174
the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis - host immunology, vaccines and novel treatments.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. the parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease, making vaccine strategies feasible. however, there is no prophylactic treatment available and repetitive treatments with auxiliary substances are needed to control the infection. historically, a variety of ...201728634009
high genetic diversities between isolates of the fish parasite cryptocaryon irritans (ciliophora) suggest multiple cryptic species.the ciliate protozoan cryptocaryon irritans parasitizes marine fish and causes lethal white spot disease. sporadic infections as well as large-scale outbreaks have been reported globally and the parasite's broad host range poses particular threat to the aquaculture and ornamental fish markets. in order to better understand c. irritans' population structure, we sequenced and compared mitochondrial cox-1, ssu rrna, and its-1 sequences from 8 new isolates of c. irritans collected in china, japan, a ...201728428147
transcriptome-wide identification, molecular evolution and expression analysis of toll-like receptor family in a tibet fish, gymnocypris przewalskii.toll-like receptors (tlr) are key components of innate immunity that play significant roles in immune defense against pathogens invasion. recent frequent outbreaks of the "white spot disease" caused by parasitic infection in farmed tibetan fishes had resulted in great economic losses. however, to our knowledge, the roles of tlrs in mediating immune response to parasitic infection in tibetan fishes remain to be determined. here, we performed data-mining on a widely-farmed tibetan fish (gymnocypri ...201526102458
ichthyophthiriasis: emphases on the epizootiology.ichthyophthiriasis (white spot disease) is an economically important protozoosis caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater fish. medication prevention and curation are the main methods to control this disease with vaccines in laboratory, but the efficacy of drugs practically acts on the free-living (nonparasitic) stage of i. multifiliis and can be easily impaired by a variety of environmental factors. thus, study on the biological properties of i. multifiliis and the complicated ecolo ...201323565747
chlorophyllin for the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet).tests were conducted to determine the efficiency of the photodynamic substance chlorophyllin to kill different life stages of the protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius mulftifiliis (fouquet) which causes the white spot disease in many freshwater fish species. this study has developed a new treatment for the control of ichthyophthiriosis, and demonstrated that non-toxic water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) is a potential remedial agent at low concentrations for this serious parasitic disease.201222476598
ectoparasites and endoparasites community of ageneiosus ucayalensis (siluriformes: auchenipteridae), catfish from amazon river system in northern brazil.this study investigated the community of ectoparasites and endoparasites in ageneiosus ucayalensis (auchenipteridae) of a tributary from the amazon river system, in northern brazil. of 34 fish examined, 100% were parasitized by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus, demidospermus sp., metacercariae of genarchella genarchella, clinostomum marginatum and herpetodiplostomum sp., procamallanus (spirocamallanus) belenensis, cucullanus ageneiosus and larvae of contracaecum sp. dig ...201728848252
structure of parasites community in chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (cichlidae), a host from the amazon river system in northern brazil.the aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the amazon river system, in northern brazil. in 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including ichthyophthirius multifiliis, piscinoodinium pillulare, sciadicleithrum geophagi, posthodiplostomum sp., clinostomum marginatum, echinorhynchus paranensis, neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and dolops longicauda. i. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant p ...201728667520
rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the protective effect in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) of an experimental subunit vaccine targeting antigens in the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis has been evaluated and compared to effects elicited by a classical parasite homogenate vaccine. three recombinant parasite proteins (two produced in e. coli and one in insect cells) were combined and injected i.p., and subsequently, protection and antibody responses were analysed. both the experimental and the benchmark vaccine induced pa ...201728548690
phylogenomic analysis of integral diiron membrane histidine motif-containing enzymes in ciliates provides insights into their function and evolutionary relationships.the integral membrane histidine motif-containing enzymes (imhme) are a class of binuclear non-heme iron proteins widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. they are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif consisting of eight to ten histidine residues. their known function is the activation of the dioxygen moiety to serve as efficient catalysts for reactions of hydroxylation, desaturation or reduction. to date most studies on imhme were carried out in metazoan, phototrophic or par ...201728559213
the potential utility of the leopard pleco (glyptoperichthys gibbiceps) as a biological control of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis.infections of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, can cause heavy mortalities in freshwater aquaculture systems. following the ban of malachite green on fish for human consumption, currently available chemical therapies are only partially efficacious even when repeatedly applied. there is, therefore, an urgent necessity to identify more efficient and environmentally friendly control strategies. in the present study, the use of a substrate algae feeder leopard pleco, ...201222311586
transcriptomic profiling of tibetan highland fish (gymnocypris przewalskii) in response to the infection of parasite ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.gymnocypris przewalskii is a native cyprinid in the lake qinghai of the qinghai-tibetan plateau. g. przewalskii is highly susceptible to the infection of a parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis, in the artificial propagation and breeding. to better understand the host immune reaction to i. multifiliis infection, we characterize the gene expression profiles in the spleen of healthy and i. multifiliis infected g. przewalskii by rna-seq. totally, the transcriptomic analysis produces 463,031,110 hi ...201728882799
ectoparasites community in satanoperca jurupari (cichlidae) from the jari river, a tributary from amazon river in northern brazil.the aim of this study was to investigate the gills parasites in satanoperca jurupari from the jari river, state of amapá, in eastern amazon (brazil). the gills of 100% of the hosts were parasitized by ichthyophthirius multifiliis (protozoa), sciadicleithrum juruparii (monogenoidea) genarchella genarchella, posthodiplostomum sp. (digenea) ergasilus coatiarus and argulus multicolor (crustacea), and a total of 27,043 parasites were collected. however, the dominance was of i. multifiliis and there w ...201728746443
the essential oil of hyptis mutabilis in ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection and its effect on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in silver catfish, rhamdia quelen.this study evaluated the activity of leaf essential oil (eo) from hyptis mutabilis as well as its major constituent, (-)-globulol, in infections by the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). effects on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of silver catfish, rhamdia quelen, exposed to same samples also were evaluated. in the first experiment, naturally infected fish were treated with eo (0, 10 and 20 mgl-1) and ethanol, using several methods of exposure. fish mortality an ...201728731834
antiprotozoal effects of metal nanoparticles against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a widespread, ciliated protozoan ectoparasite of fish. in the present study, we investigated the effects of metal nanoparticles on the reproduction and infectivity of free-living stages of i. multifiliis. we determined that ~50% of theronts could be killed within 30 min of exposure to either 20 ng ml-1 gold, 10 ng ml-1 silver or 5 ng ml-1 zinc oxide nanoparticles. silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentration of 10 and 5 ng ml-1 killed 100 and 97% of theron ...201728697814
expression of immune genes in systemic and mucosal immune tissues of channel catfish vaccinated with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthiriasis caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) has a worldwide distribution and affects most freshwater fishes. fish surviving natural infection and/or immunized with ich develop strong innate and adaptive immune responses. however, there is a lack of the knowledge regarding immune gene expression patterns in systemic and mucosal immune tissues, and how immune genes interact and lead to innate and adaptive immune protection against ich infection in fish. the objective of this st ...201728546022
combined effects of chinese medicine feed and ginger extract bath on co-infection of ichthyophthirius multifiliis and dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid in grass carp.dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid and ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two important ectoparasites of freshwater fish. co-infection by the two parasites leads to high fish mortality and results in heavy economic losses. this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of medicated feed and a ginger extract bath against d. ctenopharyngodonid and i. multifiliis on grass carp and investigate the hematological response of grass carp co-infected by the two parasites. these results demonstrated that red blood ...201728528516
diversity and universality of endosymbiotic rickettsia in the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.although the presence of endosymbiotic rickettsial bacteria, specifically candidatus megaira, has been reported in diverse habitats and a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, it remains unclear how broadly ca. megaira are distributed in a single host species. in this study we seek to address whether ca. megaira are present in most, if not all isolates, of the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis. conserved regions of bacterial 16s rrna genes were either pcr amplified, or assembled from deep ...201728232825
a comparative in-silico analysis of autophagy proteins in ciliates.autophagy serves as a turnover mechanism for the recycling of redundant and/or damaged macromolecules present in eukaryotic cells to re-use them under starvation conditions via a double-membrane structure known as autophagosome. a set of eukaryotic genes called autophagy-related genes (atgs) orchestrate this highly elaborative process. the existence of these genes and the role they play in different eukaryotes are well-characterized. however, little is known of their role in some eukaryotes such ...201728123910
antiparasitic activity, histopathology and physiology of colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) exposed to the essential oil of lippia sidoides (verbenaceae).in vivo and in vitro antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of lippia sidoides and blood and histological alterations were assessed in colossoma macropomum (tambaqui). essential oil concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320mg/l were assayed in vitro against monogenoideans anacanthorus spathulatus, notozothecium janauachensis and mymarothecium boegeri from fish gills. lippia sidoides essential oil concentrations of 320 and 160mg/l were 100% effective against monogenoideans in 10min and 1 ...201728115182
activity of two extracts of cynanchum paniculatum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts and tomonts.the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from cynanchum paniculatum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis. the antiparasitic activities of two bioassay-guided fractionationated compounds from c. paniculatum identified as cynatratoside-a and cynanversicoside c, by comparing spectral data (nmr and esi-ms) with literature values, were evaluated by in vitro assay. these showed that both could kill theronts of i. multifiliis at a concentration of 10·0 mg l-1, ...201727928976
proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the two developmental stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius is a severe disease of farmed freshwater fish caused by the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). this disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but the protein profiles in different developmental stages of the parasite remain unknown. in the present study, proteins from trophonts and theronts of ich were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq). a total of 2300 proteins were identified in the two developmental stages, of w ...201727864673
the expressed tcrβ cdr3 repertoire is dominated by conserved dna sequences in channel catfish.we analyzed by high-throughput sequencing t cell receptor beta cdr3 repertoires expressed by αβ t cells in outbred channel catfish before and after an immunizing infection with the parasitic protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis. we compared cdr3 repertoires in caudal fin before infection and at three weeks after infection, and in skin, pbl, spleen and head kidney at seven and twenty-one weeks after infection. public clonotypes with the same cdr3 amino acid sequence were expressed by αβ t cells ...201727838245
expression of immune genes in skin of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, inflammatory protein, toll-like receptors (tlr) and recombination-activating gene (rag) in skin from channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus after immunization with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) by intraperitoneal injection. the immunized catfish showed significantly higher survival rate (95%) than those of mock-immu ...201727801984
parasite communities of the predatory fish, acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in brazilian amazon.this study investigated the parasite communities of wild acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in brazilian amazon. in these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83%) a ...201627334822
parasite communities of the predatory fish, acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in brazilian amazon.this study investigated the parasite communities of wild acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in brazilian amazon. in these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83%) a ...201627304523
the tetrahymena metallothionein gene family: twenty-one new cdnas, molecular characterization, phylogenetic study and comparative analysis of the gene expression under different abiotic stressors.ciliate metallothioneins (mts) are included in family 7 of the mt superfamily. this family has been divided into two main subfamilies: 7a or cdmts and 7b or cumts. all ciliate mts reported have been isolated from different tetrahymena species and present unique features with regard to standard mts. likewise, an expression analysis has been carried out on some of mt genes under metal stress, corroborating their classification into two subfamilies.201627165301
evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced chinese herbal medicines against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus).since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat ichthyophthirius multifiliis becomes urgent. this study aimed to (1) evaluate the ethanol extracts of medicinal plants cynanchum atratum, zingiber officinale, cynanchum paniculatum, immunostimulant (a), and immunostimulant (b) for their efficacy against i. multifiliis, and (2) determine effects of medicated feeds with c. atratum, z. officinale, ...201627003405
first record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, schizothorax niger heckel, 1838 from dal lake in kashmir himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.trichodina heterodentata duncan, 1977 and ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of schizothorax niger a snow trout in dal lake, kashmir, india during the period october 2013 and march 2015. thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. during the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia ...201626802521
treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. in order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. the main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. as malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is ban ...201626693716
cynatratoside-c efficacy against theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells.infection by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. to find new, efficient anti-i. multifiliis agents, cynatratoside-c was isolated from cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. the present study investigated the anti-theront activity, determined the toxicity of cynatratoside-c to grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus and mammalian blood cells, and evaluated the pro ...201526575152
in vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of antiprotozoal compounds isolated from psoralea corylifolia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in fish.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, an external fish parasite, often causes significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. since the use of malachite green was banned, the search of alternative substance to control i. multifiliis infections becomes stringent. in present study, in vitro and in vivo anti-ich efficacies of isopsoralen and psoralidin, two active compounds isolated from methanol extract of psoralea corylifolia by bioassay-guided fractionation based on the efficacy of anti-ich enc ...201526042195
histological evaluation of sodium percarbonate exposure on the gills of rainbow trout.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a recurring problem in australian rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss farms and requires strategically timed, repeat treatments for effective management. sodium percarbonate (spc) is permitted for use in australia, with host safety margins based on the toxicity of acute exposures to hydrogen peroxide (hp), the active product released when spc is added to water. the effects of exposure to hp released by spc, of repeated doses and of doses exceeding 100 mg l-1 on rain ...201526036833
life cycle and settlement of an australian isolate of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876 from rainbow trout.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a ciliate parasite, is a cosmopolitan and problematic parasite of cultured freshwater fish. each geographical isolate of i. multifiliis has variations in life cycle timing under different abiotic water conditions, such as temperature and salinity. we assessed the effects of salinity and temperature on the development and the preferred settlement site of a temperate australian isolate of i. multifiliis. the time until theront release was significantly d ...201525960557
two in vitro methods for screening potential parasiticides against ichthyophthirius multifiliis using tetrahymena thermophila.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is a ciliate parasite that infects many species of freshwater fishes worldwide and causes heavy economic losses in aquaculture. currently, parasiticides for controlling this parasite are limited, and few pond-practical chemical therapies exist. hence, the search for new parasiticides is urgently needed. one challenge confronting the screening of potential parasiticides is the difficulty in raising enough parasite for efficacy testing as ich is an obligate paras ...201625857201
molecular genetic diversity and characterization of conjugation genes in the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is the etiologic agent of "white spot", a commercially important disease of freshwater fish. as a parasitic ciliate, i. multifiliis infects numerous host species across a broad geographic range. although ichthyophthirius outbreaks are difficult to control, recent sequencing of the i. multifiliis genome has revealed a number of potential metabolic pathways for therapeutic intervention, along with likely vaccine targets for disease prevention. nonetheless, major gaps e ...201525743182
identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of morus alba against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. in this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons g and o) with anti-ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. the chemical structures of kuwanons g and o were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. kuwanons g and o caused 100% mortality of i. multifiliis theronts at the concen ...201525603693
pathophysiology of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).the present study investigated the effect of experimental infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis on physiological, immunological and metabolic parameters in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus). both species developed an immune response against i. multifiliis that was detected in the peripheral blood (i.e. increase in immunoglobulin concentrations in rainbow trout, increase in lymphocyte and thrombocyte concentrations in chub), but not in the skin mucus. anaemia ...201425246183
antiparasitic efficacy of gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin from costus speciosus (koen ex. retz) sm. against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from costus speciosus against ichthyophthirius multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from c. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin. in-vitro assays revealed that gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against i. multifiliis at concentrations of 0.8 and 4.5 mg l(-1), with median effective concentration (e ...201525140457
comparative genomic analysis of integral membrane transport proteins in ciliates.integral membrane transport proteins homologous to those found in the transporter classification database (tcdb; were identified and bioinformatically characterized by transporter class, family, and substrate specificity in three ciliates, paramecium tetraurelia (para), tetrahymena thermophila (tetra), and ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). in these three organisms, 1,326 of 39,600 proteins (3.4%), 1,017 of 24,800 proteins (4.2%), and 504 out of 8,100 proteins (6.2%) integral memb ...201525099884
antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-c from cynanchum atratum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. in this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-c, isolated from cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat i. multifiliis. the cynatratoside-c at 0.25 mg/l demonstrated a 100% mortality of i. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. the 5 h median effective concentration (ec50) of cynatratoside-c to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/l. in addi ...201424980562
minimum effective concentrations of formalin and sodium percarbonate on the free-living stages of an australian isolate of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a ciliate protozoan, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of freshwater teleosts and is a recurring problem during the summer months on australian rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) farms. preventative strategies include increasing water flow and filtration, but when an infection is established, chemical intervention is often required. formalin (for) has been traditionally used on australian trout farms as a treatment for i. multifiliis. tr ...201424948105
ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild aequidens tetramerus, a cichlidae from the amazon.this study is the first investigation on seasonal dynamics of parasites component community of the aequidens tetramerus from an amazon river tributary, in northern brazil. a total of 239,2407 parasites were recovered from 92 hosts examined from february to october 2011. such parasites included ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tripartiella tetramerii and trichodina nobilis (protozoa), dolops longicauda (argulidae), gussevia alioides, gussevia disparoides (monogenoidea), digenea metacercarie, pseudop ...201424570063
parasiticidal effects of morus alba root bark extracts against ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), an important fish parasite, can cause significant losses in aquaculture. to find efficacious drugs to control ich, the root bark of white mulberry morus alba was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. bark was powdered and extracted with 1 of 5 organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, or methanol. the extracts were concentrated, dissolved in 0.1% (v/v) dmso, and used for anti-ich trials. acetone and ethyl acetate extracts signi ...201424553418
incomplete sterols and hopanoids pathways in ciliates: gene loss and acquisition during evolution as a source of biosynthetic genes.polycyclic triterpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids, are essential components of plasmatic membrane in eukaryotic organisms. although it is generally assumed that ciliates do not synthesize sterols, and many of them are indeed auxotrophic, a large set of annotated genomic sequences and experimental data from recently studied organisms indicate that they can carry putative genes and respond to the presence/absence of precursors in various ways. the pre-squalene pathway, for instance, is large ...201424525200
possibilities to control ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).in the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, leuciscus cephalus. the anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. in vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. minimum doses for killing 100 ...201424419403
meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. we found that the set of meiosis genes shared by tetrahymena thermophila, paramecium tetraurelia, ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a mus81-dependent class ii crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model ...201424336924
evaluation of an antiparasitic compound extracted from galla chinensis against fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is an important ectoparasitic ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish resulting in massive mortality of fish. currently there is no chemotherapeutant available to treat ich effectively and economically. there is an urgent need to discover effective and safe parasiticides to control ichthyophthiriasis. in this study, anti-ich efficacy of pentagalloylglucose, a compound extracted from the plant galla chinensis was evaluated and the toxicity of ...201324070778
teleost skin, an ancient mucosal surface that elicits gut-like immune homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (salt), very little is known about skin b-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a salt. due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. interestingly, teleost salt structurally resembles tha ...201323884653
expression profiles of toll-like receptors in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) after infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.toll-like receptors (tlrs) play a crucial role in the innate immune system, but to date the roles of fish tlrs in response to parasitic infection are still poorly understood. in the present study, we used channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) and the ciliate parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a model to investigate whether and which fish tlrs play important roles in the immune response against parasitic pathogens by detecting the expression profiles of a complete set of tlrs in catfish at ...201323742868
antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of psoralea corylifolia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling i. multifiliis infections. the present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinal plants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in v ...201323559379
comparison of serum antibody responses and host protection against parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and channel × blue hybrid catfish.there is limited information available on the immune protection of channel catfish ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish i. furcatus (cb) hybrid against the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). the objective of this study was to compare serum antibody response and host protection between channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish using a cohabitation model. channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish were immunized with live theronts by immersion or by ip injection at the dose of 10,000-20,000 th ...201323435177
inflammatory response of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) larvae against ichthyophthirius hatching, the immune system of the rainbow trout larva is not fully developed. the larva emerges from the egg and is exposed to the aquatic freshwater environment containing pathogenic organisms. at this early stage, protection from disease causing organisms is thought to depend on innate immune mechanisms. here, we studied the ability of young post-hatch rainbow trout larvae to respond immunologically to an infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis and also report on the localization of 5 ...201323261502
b cell memory following infection and challenge of channel catfish with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.b cell responses in channel catfish to infection with the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis were followed for 3 years. high titers of serum igm antibodies recognizing i. multifiliis immobilization antigens were present 5weeks after immunizing infection, but by 1 year titers were at low or undetectable levels. two to three years after infection the numbers of antibody secreting cells recognizing immobilization antigens in skin and head kidney of immune fish had decreased to the level ...201323041614
susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish, ictalurus furcatus (valenciennes), to ichthyophthirius multifiliis.this study compared the susceptibility of three blue catfish strains (d&b, usda 101 and usda 102) to the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). in trial i, a cohabitation study (all strains stocked communally) was conducted and fish were exposed to theronts at 0, 200, 1000, 5000 or 25 000 theronts fish(-1), respectively. all fish died when exposed to theronts at 5000 or 25 000 theronts fish(-1). when exposed to 1000 theronts fish(-1), usda 102 strain of blue catfish showed significantly lo ...201222913314
polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in dojo loach (misgurnus anguillicaudatus): molecular characterization and expression analysis in response to bacterial and parasitic challenge.the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pigr) is an essential component of the mucosal immune system in jawed vertebrates including teleost fish, which mediate transepithelial transport of secretory immunoglobulins (sigs) to protect organisms against environmental pathogens. in this study, we firstly cloned and identified the pigr from dojo loach (misgurnus anguillicaudatus). the full-length cdna of ma-pigr was of 1145 bp, containing an open reading frame (orf) of 1101 bp encoded a predicted prot ...201829248629
diversity of parasites in wild astronotus ocellatus (perciformes, cichlidae), an ornamental and food fish in brazil.the community composition of parasites was characterized in astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the amazon river, northern brazil. the prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while piscinoodinium pillulare, clinostomum marginatum and argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. the parasite commun ...201729044314
the effect of dietary immunostimulants on the susceptibility of common carp (cyprinus carpio) to the white spot parasite, ichthyophthirius of the main obstacles in freshwater aquaculture is the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), the causative agent of white spot disease. the use of immunostimulants as feed additives may be a promising approach to control ich infection. in the present study, we tested the prophylactic effect of orally administered β-1,3/1,6-glucan and propolis extract e50 against ich infection in common carp. in total, 122 fish were separated into three experimental groups fed with a control, ...201729256279
ichthyophthirius multifiliis impairs splenic enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in naturally infected rhamdia quelen: effects on energetic homeostasis.its integrated energetic and metabolic signaling roles place the phosphoryl transfer network, through the enzymes creatine kinase (ck), adenylate kinase (ak), and pyruvate kinase (pk), as a regulatory system coordinating components of the cellular bioenergetics network. analysis of these enzymes provides new information and perspectives with which to understand disturbances in energetic metabolism between sites of adenosine triphosphate (atp) generation and utilization. thus, the aim of this stu ...201829247443
vertebrate adaptive immunity-comparative insights from a teleost model.the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) and the ciliated protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis are used to study pathogen-specific protective immunity. in this review, we briefly describe this host-parasite system and discuss the comparative insights it provides on the adaptive immune response of vertebrates. we include studies related to cutaneous mucosal immunity, b cell memory responses, and analyses of αβ t cell receptor (tcr) repertoires. this host-parasite model has played an i ...201729123524
essential oils of varronia curassavica accessions have different activity against white spot disease in freshwater fish.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of essential oils from varronia curassavica accessions against different stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis. essential oils from each accession were tested in vitro at the concentrations 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/l. the vcur-001, vcur-202, vcur-509, and vcur-601 accessions presented the major compounds α-pinene, germacrene d-4-ol, (e)-caryophyllene and epiglobulol, and sabinene, respectively. these isolated compounds w ...201829119307
serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activities in silver catfish naturally infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis: the influence of these enzymes on inflammatory and oxidative status.adenosine deaminase (ada) activity, through adenosine (ado) levels, as well as xanthine oxidase (xo) activity through uric acid levels exerts an essential role on immune and inflammatory responses during infectious diseases. thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of seric ada and xo activities in the inflammatory and oxidative status of silver catfish naturally infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis. seric ada activity decreased, while ado levels increased in infected an ...201829027691
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