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[application of peracetic acid for the treatment of juvenile sander (sander lucioperca) during ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation].white spot disease caused by the ciliate protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (i. m.), is one of the most dangerous diseases in aquaculture and ornamental fish breeding worldwide. the parasite is characterized by three developmental stages: a reproductive tomont, an infective theront and a parasitic trophont. in sander (sander lucioperca) breeding i. m. causes serious economic losses. after banning of the traditional therapeutic agent malachite green we have to face a state of emergen ...200717724932
protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases.the demand for and costs of producing land-based animal protein continues to escalate as the world population increases. fish is an excellent protein, but the catch-fishery is stagnant or in decline. intensive cage culture of fish is a viable option especially in countries with lakes/rivers and/or a long coastline; however, disease outbreaks will likely occur more frequently with cage culture. hence protective strategies are needed, and one approach is to exploit the piscine immune system. this ...200718410078
differential expression of cysteine proteases in developmental stages of the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.an expressed sequence tag database of the freshwater fish parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ciliophora) was analyzed to seek for proteases potentially involved in the invasion and degradation of host tissues during infection. the translation of the database revealed two cathepsin l cysteine proteases (icp1 and icp2) of the c1a peptidase subfamily. the analysis of icp1 and icp2 sequences suggested that both proteases would be synthesized as preproproteins, with a mature domain of 27.9 and 2 ...200717227460
treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics.the goal of this laboratory study was to provide better knowledge about the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (causative agent: ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliate bacteria) in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp cyprinus carpio. the following questions were investigated: (1) the effectiveness of different chemicals (formalin, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, perotan, virkon, aquahumin, baycox, and ivomec) and at different concentrations and durations of application, (2) the n ...200718201060
protective immunity of nile tilapia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis post-immunization with live theronts and sonicated trophonts.two immunization trials were conducted to evaluate host protection of nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus against ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). immunizations were done with live theronts or sonicated trophonts by bath immersion and intraperitoneal (ip) injection. the immunized fish were challenged with theronts 21 days post-immunization in trial i and 180 days post-immunization in trial ii. the serum anti-ich antibody and cumulative mortalities of tilapia were determined after theront chal ...200818442922
effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on survival and reproduction of the fish ectoparasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the fish extoparasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis was subjected to tricaine methanesulfonate (tm) exposure while fish were anesthetized for parasite collection. no information is available on the effects of tm exposure to i. multifiliis. this study evaluated the effects of tm on the survival and reproduction of i. multifiliis. significant differences were not observed in survival and reproduction of tomonts collected from fish anesthetized using unbuffered or buffered tm or in control fish not ...200818553189
immune-relevant genes expressed in rainbow trout following immunisation with a live vaccine against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss were immunised by intra-peritoneal injection using a live vaccine based on ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) theronts, which previously has shown protection against white spot disease. samples were taken pre-vaccination and on day 1, 7, 21 and 28 post-immunisation (p.i.). expression of immune relevant genes in the liver, spleen and head kidney was monitored by qpcr. to describe the immune reaction following this immunisation, a series of genes encoding cytokine ...200818814544
fish immunity and parasite infections: from innate immunity to immunoprophylactic prospects.the increasing economic importance of fish parasitoses for aquaculture and fisheries has enhanced the interest in the defence mechanisms against these infections. both innate and adaptive immune responses are mounted by fish to control parasite infections, and several mechanisms described for mammalian parasitoses have also been demonstrated in teleosts. innate immune initiation relies on the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) by pathogen recognizing receptors (prrs). ...200818783835
efficacy of in-feed probiotics against aeromonas bestiarum and ichthyophthirius multifiliis skin infections in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum).the aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of in-feed probiotics as a preventive measure against skin infections caused by aeromonas bestiarum and ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) in rainbow trout.200818422955
development of specific pcr assays for the detection of cryptocaryon irritans.cryptocaryon irritans is one of the most important protozoan pathogens of marine fish, causing the "white spot" disease and posing a significant problem to marine aquaculture. in the present study, a c. irritans-specific reverse primer (s15) was designed based on the published sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (its-2) of ribosomal dna (rdna) of c. irritans and used together with the conserved forward primer p1 to develop a specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay for direc ...200818463896
activity of the antimicrobial polypeptide piscidin 2 against fish ectoparasites.abstract the antiparasitic effects of piscidin 2, an antimicrobial polypeptide (ampp) first isolated from mast cells of hybrid striped bass, were tested against three protistan ectoparasites of marine fish (the ciliates cryptocaryon irritans and trichodina sp., and the dinoflagellate amyloodinium ocellatum) and one ciliate ectoparasite of freshwater fish (ichthyophthirius multifiliis). i. multifiliis was the most susceptible parasite, with all theronts killed at 6.3 microg ml(-1) piscidin 2. the ...200818471098
antimicrobial peptides derived from hemoglobin are expressed in epithelium of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus, rafinesque).the beta-chain of the respiratory protein hemoglobin (hbbeta), has recently been identified in novel sites, including mammalian macrophages and alveolar epithelium, as well as in gill microsomes of fish. however, the functional significance of extra-erythrocytically expressed hemoglobin has been unclear. here we show inducible expression and upregulation of antimicrobial peptides (amps) homologous to hbbeta in the gill epithelium of channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) in response to parasitic ...200818538841
[physiological response of experimental challenge of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet, 1876) in jundiá (rhamdia quelen quoy and gaimard, 1824) fingerlings rather fed with different lipid sources].a limiting factor in the early stage of the jundiá (rhamdia quelen quoy; gaimard, 1824) culture is the presence of diseases such as ichthyophthiriasis or "ich". dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas) have a potent immunomodulatory activity; and this activity depend of the fish species, quantity/quality of the dietary pufas. the aim of this study was evaluate the physiologic response of jundiá, rather fed diets with different sources of fatty acids when challenge to ich disease. fingerlings ...200818823575
cutaneous antibody-secreting cells and b cells in a teleost fish.antibodies in cutaneous mucus and skin of teleosts play a critical role in the protective immune response against infection. we demonstrate by elispot that antibody-secreting cells (asc), which include lps-inducible b cells (plasmablasts) and non-replicating plasma cells, reside in low numbers in the skin of channel catfish. following immunization against the protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis, which infects skin and gills, the number of asc in skin increased 20-fold, indicating tha ...200818045689
mtt2, a copper-inducible metallothionein gene from tetrahymena thermophila.metallothioneins (mts) are ubiquitous, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins whose transcriptional activation is induced by a variety of stimuli, in particular heavy metals such as cadmium, copper and zinc. here we describe the sequence and organization of a novel copper-inducible metallothionein gene (mtt2) from tetrahymena thermophila. based on its deduced sequence, the gene encodes a protein 108 amino acids, containing 29 cysteine residues (30%) arranged in motifs characteristic of vertebrate ...200818068524
differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2m) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. it is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. carp a2m consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. previously, three a2m alpha chain sequences were reported for east-asian common carp. we studied a2m alpha chain variability in european c ...200817662386
ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection induces apoptosis in different species of tilapia.the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is one of the most important protozoan pathogens of freshwater fish worldwide. examination of 4 species of tilapia from the river nile recorded highest rate infection in oreochromis niloticus, followed by oreochromis aureus, sarotherodon galilaeus and tilapia zilli. by electron microscopy, apoptotic cells collected from tilapia species infected with "ich" showed an aggregation on the apical and basal parts of the ciliated and non-ciliated ...200919795773
outbreaks of ichthyophthirius multifiliis in redtail barbs barbus haasi in a mediterranean stream during drought.in 2008, inland waterways in catalonia (northeast iberian peninsula, spain) experienced one of the worst droughts recorded in this region in recent decades. during this period, an epizootic of ichthyophthirius multifiliis was detected for the first time in a mediterranean stream, with 21% prevalence in a population of redtail barbs barbus haasi. environmental features and the fish population in this stream were compared during 2007-2009. fish density and the average fish size were reduced signif ...200920043406
transcriptomic profiling of ichthyophthirius multifiliis reveals polyadenylation of the large subunit ribosomal rna.polyadenylation of eukaryotic transcripts is usually restricted to mrna, providing transcripts with stability from degradation by nucleases. conversely, an rna degradation pathway can be signaled through poly (a) tailing in prokaryotic, archeal, and organellar biology. recently polyadenylated transcripts have also been discovered in rrna in some eukaryotes including humans and yeast. here we report the discovery of polyadenylated rrnas in the ciliate teleost parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis ...200920403762
endosymbiotic bacteria in the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.endosymbiotic bacteria were identified in the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a common pathogen of freshwater fish. pcr amplification of dna prepared from two isolates of i. multifiliis, using primers that bind conserved sequences in bacterial 16s rrna genes, generated an approximately 1,460-bp dna product, which was cloned and sequenced. sequence analysis demonstrated that 16s rrna gene sequences from three classes of bacteria were present in the pcr product. these included alph ...200919820157
toxicity of peracetic acid (paa) to tomonts of iichthyophthirius multifiliis.the free-living infective theront of ichthyophthirius multifiliis historically has been thought to be the only stage susceptible to treatment. here we introduce a technique to determine the toxicity of compounds to the newly released tomont, the encysted tomont and the developing tomites within the tomont that emerge as theronts. the toxicity of wofasteril e400 (40% peracetic acid, paa) to free-living forms of i. multifiliis was determined shortly after tomonts were physically removed from the s ...200919899349
enhanced mortality in nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus following coinfections with ichthyophthiriasis and streptococcosis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich) and streptococcus iniae are 2 major pathogens of cultured nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus (l). currently there is no information available for the effect of coinfection by ich and s. iniae on fish. the objective of this study was to determine the effects of parasite load and ich development size on fish mortality following s. iniae infection. low mortality (< or =20%) was observed in tilapia exposed to ich or s. iniae alone. mortalities increased fro ...200919750806
effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.two trials were conducted to determine the effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich). in trial i, catfish were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with: 1) 1% formalin-inactivated trophonts, 2) 3% formalin-inactivated trophonts and 3) freeze-thawed trophonts. positive and negative control catfish were immunized with live theronts and 5% bovine serum albumin (bsa), respec ...200918973816
acute toxicity of peracetic acid (paa) formulations to ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts.peracetic acid (paa) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing, and medical facilities. it has recently been suggested as a means to control infestations of ichthyophthirius multifiliis. the purpose of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of two products containing 4.5% and 40% paa to i. multifiliis theronts from two geographically separate isolates. theronts were exposed to concentrations of paa in 96-well plates containing groundwater at 23 degrees c. acut ...200919221794
copper sulfate toxicity to two isolates of ichthyophthirius multifiliis relative to alkalinity.theronts from 2 different strains of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ar1 and ar5) were exposed to copper sulfate (cuso4) in waters of different total alkalinities and observed for 4 h to determine relative toxicity and kinetics of parasite mortality. consistent with the known solubility properties of the metal, cu was significantly more toxic to cells maintained under low (48 mg l(-1)) compared with high (243 mg l(-1)) total alkaliniity conditions. this was reflected in both the median lethal conc ...200919301634
parasites of apollonia melanostoma (pallas 1814) and neogobius kessleri (guenther 1861) (osteichthyes, gobiidae) from the danube river in austria.two invasive fish species, the round goby apollonia melanostoma syn. neogobius melanostomus (pallas 1814) and the bighead goby neogobius kessleri (günther, 1861), have established a firm population in austrian waters during the past 15 years. as there have been no records of the parasite fauna from these populations, a total of 79 specimens of a. melanostoma and 12 specimens of n. kessleri were examined for parasites between may and october 2007 from three different sampling sites from the danub ...201019627624
evaluation of continuous 4-day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. the most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in europe and north america for use in food fish production. peracetic acid (paa) was found to be toxic to i. multifiliis theronts at low concentrations. i. multifiliis-infested carp were exposed to 1 mg/l paa in a dynamic exposure by means of peristaltic pumps. five days after infestation, ...201019902253
increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. for example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of ...201020580904
parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle negro river in the brazilian amazon region.twenty-seven specimens of cardinal tetra paracheirodon axelrodi, 33 rosy tetra hyphessobrycon copelandi (characidae), 28 marbled hatchetfish carnegiella strigata, 26 blackwing hatchetfish carnegiella martae (gasteropelecidae), 27 bodó ancistrus hoplogenys (loricariidae), 31 brown pencilfish nannostomus eques, 38 oneline pencilfish nannostomus unifasciatus (lebiasinidae) and 13 angelfish pterophyllum scalare (cichlidae) were collected from the middle negro river, state of amazonas, brazil, for pa ...201020624347
effect of sanguinarine from the leaves of macleaya cordata against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis is one of the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. in this study, effects of crude extracts, fractions, and compounds from the leaves of macleaya cordata against i. multifiliis were investigated under in vitro conditions by bioactivity-guided isolation method. the dried ethanol extract of m. cordata was extracted successively in a separating funnel with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-butanol. among them, only the ch ...201020625767
the parasite community of the nase chondrostoma nasus (l. 1758) from austrian rivers.between april 2003 and november 2006 a total of 191 individuals of the predominantly herbivorous fish species nase chondrostoma nasus (l. 1758) were examined for parasites from six river sites in austria. the following parasite taxa were recovered - ciliata: trichodina sp., chilodonella piscicola, ichthyophthirius multifiliis; myxozoa: myxobolus muelleri (cysts) and myxobolus sp. (cysts); monogenea: dactylogyrus vistulae, d. chondrostomi and dactylogyrus spp., gyrodactylus sp., diplozoon paradox ...201020831848
prevention of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (carassius auratus) by potassium ferrate(vi) treatment.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important freshwater teleost pathogen that often leads to significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. the purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of potassium ferrate(vi) to i. multifiliis theront and the concentration needed to prevent i. multifiliis infestation in goldfish, carassius auratus. five hundred theronts were exposed to concentrations of potassium ferrate(vi) in each well of a 96-well microtiter plate and observed for 4h ...201020006444
antiparasitic activity of the antimicrobial peptide hbbetap-1, a member of the beta-haemoglobin peptide family.a family of antimicrobial peptides (amps) derived from the beta-subunit of haemoglobin was recently isolated from channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus, infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), an important freshwater fish parasite that causes ichthyophthiriosis. we previously discovered that one of these amps, hbbetap-1, had strong cidal activity against ich as well as another ectoparasite, tetrahymena pyriformis. hbbetap-1 toxicity was specific, primarily affecting the trophozoite (tro ...201020561143
functional characterization of the 5'-upstream region of mtt5 metallothionein gene from tetrahymena thermophila.metallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins that play important roles in intracellular metal homeostasis and detoxification. very few data are available on the promoter region and the mechanism of metallothionein transcription in protozoa. in this study, we focused on tetrahymena thermophila mtt5 5'-flanking region. to define the sequence elements underlying the metal-responsiveness of this promoter, we constructed a series of deletions and mutations starting wit ...201019674934
A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria.A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment) over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue) and cultured (pond) environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of ...201122028952
consequent effects of the great cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (cyprinus carpio).lesions ranging from surface wounds to deep tissue wounds caused by cormorant predation were observed on several species of the farmed fish in pohořelice, czech republic. two-year-old stocked common carp cyprinus carpio harvested in late march were examined for ectoparasites and endoparasites, injuries extent, and lysozyme concentration in skin mucus. additionally, three body condition indices were measured. endoparasite infection occurred only scarcely. wounded fish were more susceptible to the ...201121979786
treatment of fish parasites: 5. the effects of sym. triazinone (toltrazuril) on fish parasitic ciliophora (ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, apiosoma amoebea grenfell, 1884, trichodina sp. ehrenberg, 1831).for chemotherapy of fish parasitized by different ciliophora (protozoa) toltrazuril was tested in vivo and in vitro against skin and gill parasitizing species (e.g. ichthyophthirius multifiliis, apiosoma amoebea and trichodina sp.). for in vitro treatment naturally infected fish were incubated at 20 °c for 0.3,1,2,4.5 h in water containing 0,1,5,10,20 or 50 μg toltrazuril/ml. lethal damages already occurred in about one third of the trophozoites of i. multifiliis after incubation in 5 μg/ml for ...201123195567
efficacy of quinine against ichthyophthiriasis in common carp cyprinus carpio.ichthyophthiriasis, caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, is an economically important worldwide parasitic disease that infects all freshwater fish. since the banning of malachite green for use in food fish, there has been a great need for alternative therapeutants. the goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of quinine against i. multifiliis. parasite developmental stages from our laboratory-established life cycle in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to quinine in vitr ...201121932533
cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections: molecular and immunohistochemical studies.the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting skin, fins and gills of fish induces a protective immune response in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) surviving the infection and a similar protection can be conferred by i.p. injection of live theronts. a combined molecular and immunohistochemical approach has been used in this work for pinpointing cellular and humoral immune factors in gill tissue involved in the response and indicating interactions between the systemic and local ...201121272651
the serum of rabbitfish (siganus oramin) has antimicrobial activity to some pathogenic organisms and a novel serum l-amino acid oxidase is isolated.the serum of rabbitfish (siganus oramin) has been confirmed previously to have killing effect to cryptocaryon irritans, an important marine ciliate protozoan that causes a disease referred to as "marine white spot disease". herein, we find the serum of the rabbitfish also shows antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and has killing effect on two other parasites: trypanosoma brucei brucei, ichthyophthirius multifiliis. results of scanning electron microscopy ...201121333741
The anti-protozoal activity of bronopol on the key life-stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Ciliophora).Pyceze™ (Novartis Animal Vaccines Ltd.) is licensed as a veterinary medicine to treat fungal infections in salmon, trout and their eggs. The active ingredient is bronopol, which due to its broad-spectrum activity has the potential to be an effective treatment against other important aquatic pathogens. In this study the efficacy of bronopol against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro trials demonstrated a 30min exposure to 100mgL(-1) bronopol killed 51.7% o ...201122153260
parasite diversity in oxydoras niger (osteichthyes: doradidae) from the basin of solimões river, amazonas state, brazil, and the relationship between monogenoidean and condition factor.this study describes the parasitic fauna of oxydoras niger from the coari lake, tributary of the medium solimões river, state of amazonas, brazil, and the relationship between the number of monogenoidea and the condition factor. from a total of 27 examined fish, 70.3% were parasitised by at least one parasite species as follows: ichthyophthirius multifiliis (protozoa), chilodonella sp. (protozoa), cosmetocleithrum gussevi, c. confusus, c. parvum and cosmetocleithrum sp. (monogenoidea), paracavis ...201121881805
parasitism by protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis enhanced invasion of aeromonas hydrophila in tissues of channel catfish.protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet (ich) and bacterium aeromonas hydrophila are two common pathogens of cultured fish, which cause high fish mortality. currently there is no information available for the effect of parasitism by ich on survival of channel catfish and invasion of a. hydrophila in fish tissues following exposure to a. hydrophila. a trial was conducted in this study to: (1) determine whether a. hydrophila increased fish mortality in ich-parasitized channel catfish; and ( ...201122033433
an assessment of the use of drug and non-drug interventions in the treatment of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a protozoan parasite of freshwater fish.summaryinfection by the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876 causes significant economic losses in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. following the ban on the use of malachite green for treating food fish, there has been extensive research aimed at identifying suitable replacements. in this paper we critically assess drug and non-drug interventions, which have been tested for use or have been employed against this parasite and evaluate possibilities for their application i ...201122078025
comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control.abstract: background: ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for "white spot", a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. options for disease control are extremely limited, and ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, ich belongs to a phylum comprised primarily of free-living members. indeed, it is closely related to t ...201122004680
an infection of gyrodactylus anguillae ergens, 1960 (monogenea) associated with the mortality of glass eels (anguilla anguilla l.) on the north-western mediterranean sea board of spain.the association of gyrodactylus anguillae ergens, 1960 with the glass eel stage of anguilla anguilla (l.) (total body length 61.4±4.9mm; range 55-70) is reported from the north-western mediterranean coast of spain for the first time. a sample of 12,600 glass eels, caught by professional fishermen operating in the mouth of the rivers fluvià, la muga and ter (north-east spain), was subject to mortalities of ∼1.75% of stock/day following transfer to a research facility. subsequent losses over a 31- ...201121482028
effect of potassium ferrate(vi) on survival and reproduction of ichthyophthirius multifiliis tomonts.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important freshwater teleost pathogen that can infect most species of freshwater fish worldwide and often leads to significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. potassium ferrate(vi), as a potential therapeutic agent for external protozoan parasite infections, has been proven to kill i. multifiliis theronts effectively; however, no information is available on effects of potassium ferrate(vi) exposure to i. multifiliis tomonts. this study evaluated th ...201121519866
transcriptional profiling of stage specific gene expression in the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the parasitic ciliate, ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), is among the most important protozoan pathogens of freshwater fish. ichthyophthirius cannot be grown in cell culture, and the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic treatments has been hampered by a lack of information regarding genes involved in virulence, differentiation and growth. to help address this issue, we have generated est libraries from the two major stages of the parasite life cycle that infect and develop wit ...201121524669
antiparasitic efficacy of dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine from macleaya microcarpa against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in richadsin (squaliobarbus curriculus).ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a holotrichous protozoan that invades the gills and skin surfaces of fish and can cause morbidity and high mortality in most species of freshwater fish worldwide. the present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the leaves of macleaya microcarpa. the chloroform extract showed a promising antiparasitic activity against i. multifiliis. based on these finding, the chloroform extract was fractionated ...201121813242
expression, secretion and surface display of a human alkaline phosphatase by the ciliate tetrahymena thermophila.tetrahymena thermophila possesses many attributes that render it an attractive host for the expression of recombinant proteins. surface proteins from the parasites ichthyophthirius multifiliis and plasmodium falciparum and avian influenza virus antigen h5n1 were displayed on the cell membrane of this ciliate. furthermore, it has been demonstrated that t. thermophila is also able to produce a functional human dnase i. the present study investigates the heterologous expression of the functional hu ...201121281462
oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (rhamdia quelen) juveniles infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at different levels of water ph.the aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress parameters in the liver, gill and muscle of silver catfish juveniles infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at ph 5.0 or 7.0 for three days. juveniles were infected by adding one i. multifiliis-infected juvenile and water containing theronts to tanks. after the appearance of white spots on the skin, infected juveniles exposed to ph 5.0 and 7.0 showed significantly higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (tbars) lev ...201121255934
ultrastructural and cytochemical study of food vacuoles and primary lysosomes in ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ciliophora).in the trophozoites of the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis many food vacuoles can be found in different stages of the digestive cycle. newly formed food vacuoles are large and contain remains of the fish cells that have been phagocyted by the ciliate. in some food vacuoles it was possible to observe evaginations in the membrane. primary lysosomes of i. multifiliis are small dense bodies with about 0.2 μn in diameter. enzyme cytochemistry revealed the presence of acid phosphatase and a ...201123195467
gene expression profiling of a fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis: insights into development and senescence-associated avirulence.the ciliate parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) infects many freshwater fish, causing white spot disease that leads to heavy economic losses to aquaculture and ornamental industries. despite its economic importance, molecular studies examining fundamental processes such as life stage regulation and infectivity have been scarce. in this study, we developed an oligo microarray platform using all available i. multifiliis expressed sequence tag (est) information as well as probes designed th ...201121890440
Effects of long duration, low dose bronopol exposure on the control of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora), parasitising rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 infections on intensively reared fish stocks can increase rapidly, which if left unmanaged, can result in the heavy loss of stock. The present study explores the efficacy of long duration, low dose (1, 2 and 5mgL(-1)) treatments of bronopol (marketed as Pyceze™, Novartis Ltd.) in reducing the number of trophonts establishing on juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss held under small scale culture conditions. The effect of bronopol on the colonisation success of i ...201122154252
Comparative effects of four feed types on white spot disease susceptibility and skin immune parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).The effects on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), immune parameters by differently formulated fish feed types containing immunostimulants have been tested in a double-blind, duplicated and controlled study performed over 50 days. A total of 800 rainbow trout (10-12 g) were kept in eight duplicate fish tanks (each containing 100 fish) and fed at a daily feeding rate of 1.5% of the biomass. The feed types were (1) control feed (C) without additives, (2) feed containing beta-glucan, nucl ...201122175907
experimental evidence for direct in situ binding of igm and igt to early trophonts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet) in the gills of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).freshwater fish are able to mount a protective immune response against the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) following a non-lethal exposure. factors involved in immunity comprise cellular and humoral factors, but antibodies have been suggested to play a prominent role in protection. however, host antibodies have not yet been demonstrated to bind to the parasite in situ. by the use of immunohistochemical techniques, this study demonstrated that igt and igm bind to surface structures, i ...201121916900
temperature effects on immune response and hematological parameters of channel catfish ictalurus punctatus vaccinated with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.this study evaluated the influence of temperature on the immune responses and hematological parameters in channel catfish ictalurus punctatus immunized via intraperitoneal injection with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis. fish were distributed in 18 aquaria and received 9 treatments: 4 groups of fish were vaccinated with live theronts and maintained at constant temperature 15 °c, 20 °c, 25 °c and 30 °c; 3 groups of fish vaccinated and subjected to cycling temperature regime from 15-2 ...201121791246
structure-activity relationships of piscidin 4, a piscine antimicrobial peptide.piscidin 4, an antimicrobial peptide recently isolated from mast cells of hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops female × morone saxatilis male), is unusual in that it is twice as long (44 amino acids) as the typical members of the piscidin family. we previously showed that native piscidin 4 had a modified amino acid at position 20, but synthetic piscidin 4 (having an unmodified trp at position 20) had similar potent activity against a number of both human and fish bacterial pathogens. in this stu ...201121355570
in vitro assessment of the chemotherapeutic action of a specific hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic, and peroctanoic acid-based formulation against the free-living stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ciliophora).traditionally, malachite green administrated as in-bath treatment was the most effective and common strategy used in freshwater aquaculture systems to control infections of the ciliate protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876. after the ban of malachite green in the usa and europe to be used in fish for human consumption, there has been extensive research destined to find efficacious replacements. recently, peracetic acid-based compounds have demonstrated a strong cytotoxic ...201121826488
approaches towards dna vaccination against a skin ciliate parasite in fish.rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with plasmid dna vaccine constructs encoding selected antigens from the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis. two immobilization antigens (i-ags) and one cysteine protease were tested as genetic vaccine antigen candidates. antigenicity was evaluated by immunostaining of transfected fish cells using i-ag specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. i. multifiliis specific antibody production, regulation of immune-relevant genes and/or protection in ...201223144852
antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).ichthyophthiriasis is a widespread disease in aquaculture and causes mass mortalities of fish. the development of new antiprotozoal agents for the treatment of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections is of increasing interest. the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of 30 medicinal plants against i. multifiliis. the results showed that the methanol extracts of magnolia officinalis and sophora alopecuroides displayed the highest antiprotozoal activity against theronts, with 4 ...201222864919
parasites of some freshwater fish from armand river, chaharmahal va bakhtyari province, iran.the aim of this study was to detect the occurrence of parasites in fish in armand river, chaharmahal va bakhtyari province regarding the importance of native fish population in the river.201223133475
chlorophyllin for the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet).tests were conducted to determine the efficiency of the photodynamic substance chlorophyllin to kill different life stages of the protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius mulftifiliis (fouquet) which causes the white spot disease in many freshwater fish species. this study has developed a new treatment for the control of ichthyophthiriosis, and demonstrated that non-toxic water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) is a potential remedial agent at low concentrations for this serious parasitic disease.201222476598
the potential utility of the leopard pleco (glyptoperichthys gibbiceps) as a biological control of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis.infections of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, can cause heavy mortalities in freshwater aquaculture systems. following the ban of malachite green on fish for human consumption, currently available chemical therapies are only partially efficacious even when repeatedly applied. there is, therefore, an urgent necessity to identify more efficient and environmentally friendly control strategies. in the present study, the use of a substrate algae feeder leopard pleco, ...201222311586
susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish, ictalurus furcatus (valenciennes), to ichthyophthirius multifiliis.this study compared the susceptibility of three blue catfish strains (d&b, usda 101 and usda 102) to the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). in trial i, a cohabitation study (all strains stocked communally) was conducted and fish were exposed to theronts at 0, 200, 1000, 5000 or 25 000 theronts fish(-1), respectively. all fish died when exposed to theronts at 5000 or 25 000 theronts fish(-1). when exposed to 1000 theronts fish(-1), usda 102 strain of blue catfish showed significantly lo ...201222913314
effects of aqueous extract of capsicum frutescens (solanaceae) against the fish ectoparasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important fish ectoparasite that often results in significant economic losses to freshwater aquaculture. the search of alternative substances to control infections of i. multifiliis became stringent after malachite green, an effective and widely used chemotherapeutant, is banned on fish farms because of its carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. in this study, the effects of the aqueous extract of capsicum frutescens, which is readily available and affordable, wer ...201222526288
identification of dactylogyrus spp. and other parasites of common carp in northeast of iran.this research was carried out in order to get overview of current status of infestation with dactylogyrus spp. and other parasites in common carp (cyprinus carpio) collected from the ponds around mashhad in northeast of iran. a total of 100 common carps from march to december 2011, 61 (61 %) specimens were hosts to parasites. monogenea dominated the parasite load most of all fishes, whereas argulus foliaceus (arthropoda) was the less parasite. parasites were found as followed: dactylogyrus exten ...201224082535
effect of ichthyophthirius multifiliis parasitism on the survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish previously exposed to edwardsiella ictaluri.the effect of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) parasitism on survival, hematology and bacterial load in channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus, previously exposed to edwardsiella ictaluri was studied. fish were exposed to e. ictaluri 1 day prior to ich in the following treatments: (1) infected by e. ictaluri and ich at 2,500 theronts/fish; (2) infected by e. ictaluri only; (3) infected by ich at 2,500 theronts/fish only; and (4) non infected control. mortality was significantly higher in fish pr ...201222699968
enhanced susceptibility of channel catfish to the bacterium edwardsiella ictaluri after parasitism by ichthyophthirius multifiliis.bacterium edwardsiella ictaluri and parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) are two common pathogens of cultured fish. the objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of channel catfish ictalurus punctatus to e. ictaluri and determine bacterial loads in different fish organs after parasitism by ich. fish received the following treatments: (1) infected by i. multifiliis at 5000 theronts/fish and exposed to e. ictaluri; (2) infected by i. multifiliis alone; (3) exposed to e. ict ...201222397934
ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a potential vector of edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish.there is limited information on whether parasites act as vectors to transmit bacteria in fish. in this trial, we used ichthyophthirius multifiliis and fluorescent edwardsiella ictaluri as a model to study the interaction between parasite, bacterium, and fish. the percentage (23-39%) of theronts fluorescing after exposure to e. ictaluri was significantly higher than control theronts (~ 6%) using flow cytometry. theronts exposed to e. ictaluri at 4 × 10(7)  cfu ml(-1) showed a higher percentage (~ ...201222309484
combined exposure of carps (cyprinus carpio l.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease.under environmental conditions, fish can be exposed to multiple stressors including natural toxins and infectious agents at the same time. this study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in fish. the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish.201223353848
inflammatory response of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) larvae against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.at hatching, the immune system of the rainbow trout larva is not fully developed. the larva emerges from the egg and is exposed to the aquatic freshwater environment containing pathogenic organisms. at this early stage, protection from disease causing organisms is thought to depend on innate immune mechanisms. here, we studied the ability of young post-hatch rainbow trout larvae to respond immunologically to an infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis and also report on the localization of 5 ...201323261502
b cell memory following infection and challenge of channel catfish with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.b cell responses in channel catfish to infection with the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis were followed for 3 years. high titers of serum igm antibodies recognizing i. multifiliis immobilization antigens were present 5weeks after immunizing infection, but by 1 year titers were at low or undetectable levels. two to three years after infection the numbers of antibody secreting cells recognizing immobilization antigens in skin and head kidney of immune fish had decreased to the level ...201323041614
evaluation of an antiparasitic compound extracted from galla chinensis against fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is an important ectoparasitic ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish resulting in massive mortality of fish. currently there is no chemotherapeutant available to treat ich effectively and economically. there is an urgent need to discover effective and safe parasiticides to control ichthyophthiriasis. in this study, anti-ich efficacy of pentagalloylglucose, a compound extracted from the plant galla chinensis was evaluated and the toxicity of ...201324070778
comparison of serum antibody responses and host protection against parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and channel × blue hybrid catfish.there is limited information available on the immune protection of channel catfish ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish i. furcatus (cb) hybrid against the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). the objective of this study was to compare serum antibody response and host protection between channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish using a cohabitation model. channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish were immunized with live theronts by immersion or by ip injection at the dose of 10,000-20,000 th ...201323435177
antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of psoralea corylifolia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling i. multifiliis infections. the present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinal plants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in v ...201323559379
expression profiles of toll-like receptors in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) after infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.toll-like receptors (tlrs) play a crucial role in the innate immune system, but to date the roles of fish tlrs in response to parasitic infection are still poorly understood. in the present study, we used channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) and the ciliate parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a model to investigate whether and which fish tlrs play important roles in the immune response against parasitic pathogens by detecting the expression profiles of a complete set of tlrs in catfish at ...201323742868
teleost skin, an ancient mucosal surface that elicits gut-like immune responses.skin homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (salt), very little is known about skin b-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a salt. due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. interestingly, teleost salt structurally resembles tha ...201323884653
grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) traf6 and tak1: molecular cloning and expression analysis after ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a pathogenic ciliate parasite, infects almost all freshwater fish species and causes significant economic losses. tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (tak1) are two important signaling molecules involved in toll-like receptor (tlr) signal transduction. to date, the roles of traf6 and tak1 in host defense against fish parasites are still poorly understood. in the present study, traf6 (citraf6) ...201323542602
ichthyophthiriasis: emphases on the epizootiology.ichthyophthiriasis (white spot disease) is an economically important protozoosis caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater fish. medication prevention and curation are the main methods to control this disease with vaccines in laboratory, but the efficacy of drugs practically acts on the free-living (nonparasitic) stage of i. multifiliis and can be easily impaired by a variety of environmental factors. thus, study on the biological properties of i. multifiliis and the complicated ecolo ...201323565747
parasitic infections of piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) cultured in brazil.this study evaluated the occurrence of parasitic infections in the "pacu" fish piaractus mesopotamicus and the "patinga" hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) in the northwest of são paulo state, brazil. fish from the following three fish farms were evaluated every two months: a, a hatchery and larviculture farm (n = 16 pacu / n = 19 patinga), b, a growout farm (n = 35 patinga) and c, a fee-fishing property (n = 28 pacu / n = 7 patinga). thirty-five fish from each property were colle ...201324142174
the use of nitazoxanide against the pathogens ichthyophthirius multifiliis and aeromonas hydrophila in silver catfish (rhamdia quelen).the antiparasitic and antibacterial activities of nitazoxanide (ntz) against ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) and aeromonas hydrophila, respectively, were evaluated in silver catfish juveniles (rhamdia quelen). in the first experiment, fish naturally infected by ich were treated with different concentrations of ntz. fish mortality and the number of trophonts/juveniles were evaluated. in the second experiment, the antimicrobial potential in vitro (mic test) and preventive potential in vivo agai ...201323830481
external parasite infection of common carp (cyprinus carpio) and big head (hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in fish farms of mashhad, northeast of iran.totally 75 common carp and 100 big head fishes were caught by using net from fish farms in mashhad, northeast of iran. in laboratory skin, eye and fin of fishes were inspected by stereomicroscope and in second phase direct smears are prepared from probable lesions. gills were dissected and its filaments were placed in petri dishes and fixed by glycerin. in total 50 parasites (consist 19 protozoa and 31 metazoa) were recorded from fishes. the parasites represented in protozoa (ichthyophthirius mu ...201324431554
immunity to ichthyophthirius infections in fish: a synopsis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects freshwater fish. it has been the subject of both applied and basic research for over 100years, which can be attributed to its world-wide distribution and its significant economic impact on both food and aquarium fish production. i. multifiliis serves as a model for studies in fish on innate and acquired immunity, as well as on mucosal immunity. although an obligate parasite, i. multifiliis is relatively easily passaged fr ...201423810781
ectoparasites of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in brazil.for this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) from the água vermelha reservoir, southeastern brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. from march 2010 to march 2011, sixty-three specimens of o. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. all fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). five s ...201425054495
parasites of native cichlidae populations and invasive oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of amazonas river (brazil).this study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive o. niloticus by parasite species of native cichlidae from the igarapé fortaleza basin, northern brazil. there were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive o. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of amazon river. the invasive o. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only ichthyophthirius multifiliis, trichodina centrostrigeata, paratrichod ...201424728360
tak1-binding proteins (tab1 and tab2) in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella): identification, characterization, and expression analysis after infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (tak1) is a key regulatory molecule in toll-like receptor (tlr), interleukin-1 (il-1), and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) signaling pathways. the activation of tak1 is specifically regulated by two tak1-binding proteins, tab1 and tab2. however, the roles of tab1 and tab2 in fish have not been reported to date. in the present study, tab1 (citab1) and tab2 (citab2) in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) were identified and characterized, and their expr ...201424747054
mh ii-dab gene expression in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella (valenciennes) after infection with the ciliate parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idella (valenciennes), is one of the most extensively aquacultured freshwater fish in china. however, because of the lack of effective control measures and the high-density culture environment, considerable economic losses are caused by infection of c. idella with the parasitic ciliate, ichthyophthirius multifiliis. the major histocompatibility (mh) dab gene belongs to antigen-presented genes in the class ii genomic region, which is associated with parasite resis ...201424131264
antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-c from cynanchum atratum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. in this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-c, isolated from cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat i. multifiliis. the cynatratoside-c at 0.25 mg/l demonstrated a 100% mortality of i. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. the 5 h median effective concentration (ec50) of cynatratoside-c to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/l. in addi ...201424980562
parasiticidal effects of morus alba root bark extracts against ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), an important fish parasite, can cause significant losses in aquaculture. to find efficacious drugs to control ich, the root bark of white mulberry morus alba was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. bark was powdered and extracted with 1 of 5 organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, or methanol. the extracts were concentrated, dissolved in 0.1% (v/v) dmso, and used for anti-ich trials. acetone and ethyl acetate extracts signi ...201424553418
incomplete sterols and hopanoids pathways in ciliates: gene loss and acquisition during evolution as a source of biosynthetic genes.polycyclic triterpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids, are essential components of plasmatic membrane in eukaryotic organisms. although it is generally assumed that ciliates do not synthesize sterols, and many of them are indeed auxotrophic, a large set of annotated genomic sequences and experimental data from recently studied organisms indicate that they can carry putative genes and respond to the presence/absence of precursors in various ways. the pre-squalene pathway, for instance, is large ...201424525200
possibilities to control ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).in the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, leuciscus cephalus. the anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. in vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. minimum doses for killing 100 ...201424419403
meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.to establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. we found that the set of meiosis genes shared by tetrahymena thermophila, paramecium tetraurelia, ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a mus81-dependent class ii crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model ...201424336924
minimum effective concentrations of formalin and sodium percarbonate on the free-living stages of an australian isolate of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a ciliate protozoan, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of freshwater teleosts and is a recurring problem during the summer months on australian rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) farms. preventative strategies include increasing water flow and filtration, but when an infection is established, chemical intervention is often required. formalin (for) has been traditionally used on australian trout farms as a treatment for i. multifiliis. tr ...201424948105
ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild aequidens tetramerus, a cichlidae from the amazon.this study is the first investigation on seasonal dynamics of parasites component community of the aequidens tetramerus from an amazon river tributary, in northern brazil. a total of 239,2407 parasites were recovered from 92 hosts examined from february to october 2011. such parasites included ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tripartiella tetramerii and trichodina nobilis (protozoa), dolops longicauda (argulidae), gussevia alioides, gussevia disparoides (monogenoidea), digenea metacercarie, pseudop ...201424570063
pathophysiology of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).the present study investigated the effect of experimental infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis on physiological, immunological and metabolic parameters in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus). both species developed an immune response against i. multifiliis that was detected in the peripheral blood (i.e. increase in immunoglobulin concentrations in rainbow trout, increase in lymphocyte and thrombocyte concentrations in chub), but not in the skin mucus. anaemia ...201425246183
anti-parasitic activities of specific bacterial extracellular products of streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis is one of the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. in this study, effects of bacterial extracellular products of streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against i. multifiliis were determined. the fermentation liquor of s. griseus was extracted successively in a separating funnel with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. in vitro assays revealed that the n-butanol extracts (nbu-e) and ethyl acetate extracts (eto-e) of s. griseus were ob ...201425015048
isolation of active compounds from methanol extracts of toddalia asiatica against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the active components from toddalia asiatica against i. multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of compounds with antiparasitic activity were performed on the methanol extract of t. asiatica yielding two bioactive compounds: chelerythrine and chloroxylonine identified by c ...201424295957
antibacterial efficacy of recombinant siganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase expressed in pichia pastoris.siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named sr-laao) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (s. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites cryptocaryon irritans, trypanosoma brucei brucei and ichthyophthirius multifiliis. in order to test whether recombinant sr-laao (rsr-laao) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast pichia pastor ...201425238719
ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the state of são paulo.concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. histopathological examination with hematoxylin-eosin and giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmi ...201526444060
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