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polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in dojo loach (misgurnus anguillicaudatus): molecular characterization and expression analysis in response to bacterial and parasitic challenge.the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pigr) is an essential component of the mucosal immune system in jawed vertebrates including teleost fish, which mediate transepithelial transport of secretory immunoglobulins (sigs) to protect organisms against environmental pathogens. in this study, we firstly cloned and identified the pigr from dojo loach (misgurnus anguillicaudatus). the full-length cdna of ma-pigr was of 1145 bp, containing an open reading frame (orf) of 1101 bp encoded a predicted prot ...201829248629
ichthyophthirius multifiliis impairs splenic enzymes of the phosphoryl transfer network in naturally infected rhamdia quelen: effects on energetic homeostasis.its integrated energetic and metabolic signaling roles place the phosphoryl transfer network, through the enzymes creatine kinase (ck), adenylate kinase (ak), and pyruvate kinase (pk), as a regulatory system coordinating components of the cellular bioenergetics network. analysis of these enzymes provides new information and perspectives with which to understand disturbances in energetic metabolism between sites of adenosine triphosphate (atp) generation and utilization. thus, the aim of this stu ...201829247443
essential oils of varronia curassavica accessions have different activity against white spot disease in freshwater fish.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of essential oils from varronia curassavica accessions against different stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis. essential oils from each accession were tested in vitro at the concentrations 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/l. the vcur-001, vcur-202, vcur-509, and vcur-601 accessions presented the major compounds α-pinene, germacrene d-4-ol, (e)-caryophyllene and epiglobulol, and sabinene, respectively. these isolated compounds w ...201829119307
serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activities in silver catfish naturally infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis: the influence of these enzymes on inflammatory and oxidative status.adenosine deaminase (ada) activity, through adenosine (ado) levels, as well as xanthine oxidase (xo) activity through uric acid levels exerts an essential role on immune and inflammatory responses during infectious diseases. thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of seric ada and xo activities in the inflammatory and oxidative status of silver catfish naturally infected with ichthyophthirius multifiliis. seric ada activity decreased, while ado levels increased in infected an ...201829027691
vertebrate adaptive immunity-comparative insights from a teleost model.the channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) and the ciliated protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis are used to study pathogen-specific protective immunity. in this review, we briefly describe this host-parasite system and discuss the comparative insights it provides on the adaptive immune response of vertebrates. we include studies related to cutaneous mucosal immunity, b cell memory responses, and analyses of αβ t cell receptor (tcr) repertoires. this host-parasite model has played an i ...201729123524
diversity of parasites in wild astronotus ocellatus (perciformes, cichlidae), an ornamental and food fish in brazil.the community composition of parasites was characterized in astronotus ocellatus from a tributary of the amazon river, northern brazil. the prevalence was 87.9%, and a total of 526,052 parasites were collected, with a mean of 15,941 parasites per host. nine taxa of ecto- and endo-parasites were identified, but ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, while piscinoodinium pillulare, clinostomum marginatum and argulus multicolor were the least prevalent parasites. the parasite commun ...201729044314
the effect of dietary immunostimulants on the susceptibility of common carp (cyprinus carpio) to the white spot parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis.one of the main obstacles in freshwater aquaculture is the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), the causative agent of white spot disease. the use of immunostimulants as feed additives may be a promising approach to control ich infection. in the present study, we tested the prophylactic effect of orally administered β-1,3/1,6-glucan and propolis extract e50 against ich infection in common carp. in total, 122 fish were separated into three experimental groups fed with a control, ...201729256279
antiparasitic efficacy of curcumin from curcuma longa against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. in the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-i. multifiliis theronts. anti-i. multifiliis efficacy of curcumin was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of i. multifiliis theronts at a concentration of 1mg/l within 21.7±1.2min and killed all tomonts a ...201728288756
transcriptomic profiling of tibetan highland fish (gymnocypris przewalskii) in response to the infection of parasite ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.gymnocypris przewalskii is a native cyprinid in the lake qinghai of the qinghai-tibetan plateau. g. przewalskii is highly susceptible to the infection of a parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis, in the artificial propagation and breeding. to better understand the host immune reaction to i. multifiliis infection, we characterize the gene expression profiles in the spleen of healthy and i. multifiliis infected g. przewalskii by rna-seq. totally, the transcriptomic analysis produces 463,031,110 hi ...201728882799
ectoparasites community in satanoperca jurupari (cichlidae) from the jari river, a tributary from amazon river in northern brazil.the aim of this study was to investigate the gills parasites in satanoperca jurupari from the jari river, state of amapá, in eastern amazon (brazil). the gills of 100% of the hosts were parasitized by ichthyophthirius multifiliis (protozoa), sciadicleithrum juruparii (monogenoidea) genarchella genarchella, posthodiplostomum sp. (digenea) ergasilus coatiarus and argulus multicolor (crustacea), and a total of 27,043 parasites were collected. however, the dominance was of i. multifiliis and there w ...201728746443
the essential oil of hyptis mutabilis in ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection and its effect on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters in silver catfish, rhamdia quelen.this study evaluated the activity of leaf essential oil (eo) from hyptis mutabilis as well as its major constituent, (-)-globulol, in infections by the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). effects on hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of silver catfish, rhamdia quelen, exposed to same samples also were evaluated. in the first experiment, naturally infected fish were treated with eo (0, 10 and 20 mgl-1) and ethanol, using several methods of exposure. fish mortality an ...201728731834
antiprotozoal effects of metal nanoparticles against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a widespread, ciliated protozoan ectoparasite of fish. in the present study, we investigated the effects of metal nanoparticles on the reproduction and infectivity of free-living stages of i. multifiliis. we determined that ~50% of theronts could be killed within 30 min of exposure to either 20 ng ml-1 gold, 10 ng ml-1 silver or 5 ng ml-1 zinc oxide nanoparticles. silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles at concentration of 10 and 5 ng ml-1 killed 100 and 97% of theron ...201728697814
expression of immune genes in systemic and mucosal immune tissues of channel catfish vaccinated with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthiriasis caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) has a worldwide distribution and affects most freshwater fishes. fish surviving natural infection and/or immunized with ich develop strong innate and adaptive immune responses. however, there is a lack of the knowledge regarding immune gene expression patterns in systemic and mucosal immune tissues, and how immune genes interact and lead to innate and adaptive immune protection against ich infection in fish. the objective of this st ...201728546022
combined effects of chinese medicine feed and ginger extract bath on co-infection of ichthyophthirius multifiliis and dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid in grass carp.dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid and ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two important ectoparasites of freshwater fish. co-infection by the two parasites leads to high fish mortality and results in heavy economic losses. this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of medicated feed and a ginger extract bath against d. ctenopharyngodonid and i. multifiliis on grass carp and investigate the hematological response of grass carp co-infected by the two parasites. these results demonstrated that red blood ...201728528516
diversity and universality of endosymbiotic rickettsia in the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.although the presence of endosymbiotic rickettsial bacteria, specifically candidatus megaira, has been reported in diverse habitats and a wide range of eukaryotic hosts, it remains unclear how broadly ca. megaira are distributed in a single host species. in this study we seek to address whether ca. megaira are present in most, if not all isolates, of the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis. conserved regions of bacterial 16s rrna genes were either pcr amplified, or assembled from deep ...201728232825
a comparative in-silico analysis of autophagy proteins in ciliates.autophagy serves as a turnover mechanism for the recycling of redundant and/or damaged macromolecules present in eukaryotic cells to re-use them under starvation conditions via a double-membrane structure known as autophagosome. a set of eukaryotic genes called autophagy-related genes (atgs) orchestrate this highly elaborative process. the existence of these genes and the role they play in different eukaryotes are well-characterized. however, little is known of their role in some eukaryotes such ...201728123910
antiparasitic activity, histopathology and physiology of colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) exposed to the essential oil of lippia sidoides (verbenaceae).in vivo and in vitro antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of lippia sidoides and blood and histological alterations were assessed in colossoma macropomum (tambaqui). essential oil concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320mg/l were assayed in vitro against monogenoideans anacanthorus spathulatus, notozothecium janauachensis and mymarothecium boegeri from fish gills. lippia sidoides essential oil concentrations of 320 and 160mg/l were 100% effective against monogenoideans in 10min and 1 ...201728115182
activity of two extracts of cynanchum paniculatum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis theronts and tomonts.the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from cynanchum paniculatum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis. the antiparasitic activities of two bioassay-guided fractionationated compounds from c. paniculatum identified as cynatratoside-a and cynanversicoside c, by comparing spectral data (nmr and esi-ms) with literature values, were evaluated by in vitro assay. these showed that both could kill theronts of i. multifiliis at a concentration of 10·0 mg l-1, ...201727928976
proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the two developmental stages of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius is a severe disease of farmed freshwater fish caused by the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). this disease can lead to considerable economic loss, but the protein profiles in different developmental stages of the parasite remain unknown. in the present study, proteins from trophonts and theronts of ich were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq). a total of 2300 proteins were identified in the two developmental stages, of w ...201727864673
the expressed tcrβ cdr3 repertoire is dominated by conserved dna sequences in channel catfish.we analyzed by high-throughput sequencing t cell receptor beta cdr3 repertoires expressed by αβ t cells in outbred channel catfish before and after an immunizing infection with the parasitic protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis. we compared cdr3 repertoires in caudal fin before infection and at three weeks after infection, and in skin, pbl, spleen and head kidney at seven and twenty-one weeks after infection. public clonotypes with the same cdr3 amino acid sequence were expressed by αβ t cells ...201727838245
expression of immune genes in skin of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the objective of this study was to evaluate differential expression of innate and adaptive immune genes, including immunoglobulin, immune cell receptor, cytokine, inflammatory protein, toll-like receptors (tlr) and recombination-activating gene (rag) in skin from channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus after immunization with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) by intraperitoneal injection. the immunized catfish showed significantly higher survival rate (95%) than those of mock-immu ...201727801984
the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis - host immunology, vaccines and novel treatments.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. the parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease, making vaccine strategies feasible. however, there is no prophylactic treatment available and repetitive treatments with auxiliary substances are needed to control the infection. historically, a variety of ...201728634009
high genetic diversities between isolates of the fish parasite cryptocaryon irritans (ciliophora) suggest multiple cryptic species.the ciliate protozoan cryptocaryon irritans parasitizes marine fish and causes lethal white spot disease. sporadic infections as well as large-scale outbreaks have been reported globally and the parasite's broad host range poses particular threat to the aquaculture and ornamental fish markets. in order to better understand c. irritans' population structure, we sequenced and compared mitochondrial cox-1, ssu rrna, and its-1 sequences from 8 new isolates of c. irritans collected in china, japan, a ...201728428147
ectoparasites and endoparasites community of ageneiosus ucayalensis (siluriformes: auchenipteridae), catfish from amazon river system in northern brazil.this study investigated the community of ectoparasites and endoparasites in ageneiosus ucayalensis (auchenipteridae) of a tributary from the amazon river system, in northern brazil. of 34 fish examined, 100% were parasitized by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus, demidospermus sp., metacercariae of genarchella genarchella, clinostomum marginatum and herpetodiplostomum sp., procamallanus (spirocamallanus) belenensis, cucullanus ageneiosus and larvae of contracaecum sp. dig ...201728848252
structure of parasites community in chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (cichlidae), a host from the amazon river system in northern brazil.the aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the amazon river system, in northern brazil. in 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including ichthyophthirius multifiliis, piscinoodinium pillulare, sciadicleithrum geophagi, posthodiplostomum sp., clinostomum marginatum, echinorhynchus paranensis, neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and dolops longicauda. i. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant p ...201728667520
rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) immune response towards a recombinant vaccine targeting the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the protective effect in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) of an experimental subunit vaccine targeting antigens in the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis has been evaluated and compared to effects elicited by a classical parasite homogenate vaccine. three recombinant parasite proteins (two produced in e. coli and one in insect cells) were combined and injected i.p., and subsequently, protection and antibody responses were analysed. both the experimental and the benchmark vaccine induced pa ...201728548690
phylogenomic analysis of integral diiron membrane histidine motif-containing enzymes in ciliates provides insights into their function and evolutionary relationships.the integral membrane histidine motif-containing enzymes (imhme) are a class of binuclear non-heme iron proteins widely distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. they are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif consisting of eight to ten histidine residues. their known function is the activation of the dioxygen moiety to serve as efficient catalysts for reactions of hydroxylation, desaturation or reduction. to date most studies on imhme were carried out in metazoan, phototrophic or par ...201728559213
effects of oral administration of whole plants of artemisia annua on ichthyophthirius multifiliis and aeromonas hydrophila after parasitism by i. multifiliis.since the use of malachite green was banned, it is desirable to search for alternative drug to control ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection. moreover, route of administration which is easy to implement and less stressful to fish is important to treat infection of fish with this parasite. it is also important to enhance protective effect against aeromonas hydrophila infection after parasitism by i. multifiliis. the present study evaluated the protective effect of diet supplemented with artemisi ...201727726019
two in vitro methods for screening potential parasiticides against ichthyophthirius multifiliis using tetrahymena thermophila.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is a ciliate parasite that infects many species of freshwater fishes worldwide and causes heavy economic losses in aquaculture. currently, parasiticides for controlling this parasite are limited, and few pond-practical chemical therapies exist. hence, the search for new parasiticides is urgently needed. one challenge confronting the screening of potential parasiticides is the difficulty in raising enough parasite for efficacy testing as ich is an obligate paras ...201625857201
zebrafish danio rerio as a model to study the immune response against infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis. 201627495112
the dynamics of neutrophils in zebrafish (danio rerio) during infection with the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite infecting the skin and gills of freshwater fish. neutrophils are attracted to the infection sites, as a part of the innate immune response. in this study a transgenic line of zebrafish (tg(mpo:gfp)(i114)) with gfp-tagged neutrophils was infected with i. multifiliis and the neutrophil influx in the caudal fin was quantified. twenty-four hours post infection (pi) the neutrophil count had gone up with an average of 3.4 fold. forty-eight ...201627231191
diversity of parasites in curimata incompta (curimatidae), a host from amazon river system in brazil.this paper is the first study on host-parasite relationship in wild curimata incompta vari, 1984 (curimatidae) from amazon river system, northern brazil. in 40 specimens examined from december 2012 to november 2013, 615,818 parasites were collected, such as ichthyophthirius multifiliis, piscinoodinium pilullare, urocleidoides sp., posthodiplostomum sp., gorytocephalus elongorchis and braga patagonica. the parasites' component community had a low brillouin diversity (0.16 ± 0.15), a low species r ...201627876934
parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x p. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of monogenea parasites.this study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x p. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in mato grosso do sul, central brazil, south america. a total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. histopathology was ...201627334818
parasitological assessment in the hybrid surubim (pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x p. corruscans), with uncommon occurrence of monogenea parasites.this study evaluated the parasite fauna of farmed hybrid surubim (pseudoplatystoma reticulatum x p. corruscans) and the host-parasite-environment relationship in two fish farms located in mato grosso do sul, central brazil, south america. a total of 120 hybrids from two different farms, 60 in each season (30 in the hot and 30 in cold season) were examined during a year. water quality was weekly measured to evaluate the interaction among environmental conditions and parasitism. histopathology was ...201627304519
are similar the parasite communities structure of trachelyopterus coriaceus and trachelyopterus galeatus (siluriformes: auchenipteridae) in the amazon basin?the aim of this study was to compare the parasite communities in two sympatric host populations, trachelyopterus coriaceus andtrachelyopterus galeatus, which were caught in tributary of the amazon river in brazil. all the specimens of t. galeatusand t. coriaceus were infected by one or more parasites, such as ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tripartiella tetramerii, trichodina nobilis, cosmetocleithrum striatuli, contracaecumsp., cystidicoloides sp., dadaytremoides parauchenipteri and gorytocephalu ...201627007248
parasite communities of the predatory fish, acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in brazilian amazon.this study investigated the parasite communities of wild acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in brazilian amazon. in these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83%) a ...201627334822
parasite communities of the predatory fish, acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in brazilian amazon.this study investigated the parasite communities of wild acestrorhynchus falcatus and acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in brazilian amazon. in these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83%) a ...201627304523
the tetrahymena metallothionein gene family: twenty-one new cdnas, molecular characterization, phylogenetic study and comparative analysis of the gene expression under different abiotic stressors.ciliate metallothioneins (mts) are included in family 7 of the mt superfamily. this family has been divided into two main subfamilies: 7a or cdmts and 7b or cumts. all ciliate mts reported have been isolated from different tetrahymena species and present unique features with regard to standard mts. likewise, an expression analysis has been carried out on some of mt genes under metal stress, corroborating their classification into two subfamilies.201627165301
evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced chinese herbal medicines against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idellus).since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat ichthyophthirius multifiliis becomes urgent. this study aimed to (1) evaluate the ethanol extracts of medicinal plants cynanchum atratum, zingiber officinale, cynanchum paniculatum, immunostimulant (a), and immunostimulant (b) for their efficacy against i. multifiliis, and (2) determine effects of medicated feeds with c. atratum, z. officinale, ...201627003405
first record of protozoan parasites in cyprinid fish, schizothorax niger heckel, 1838 from dal lake in kashmir himalayas with study on their pathogenesis.trichodina heterodentata duncan, 1977 and ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876 obtained from gills during a parasitological survey conducted for the protozoan parasitic fauna of schizothorax niger a snow trout in dal lake, kashmir, india during the period october 2013 and march 2015. thirty out of 180 fish were found infected with protozoan parasites. during the study of their pathogenecity the most common deteriorating signs observed in gill tissue were necrosis, hypertrophy, hyperplasia ...201626802521
treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin.water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) exerts pronounced photodynamic activity on fish parasites. in order to determine its potential as a remedy against ectoparasites in fish carps were incubated in water with defined concentrations of chlorophyllin. the main focus of the experiments was on the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet) which is responsible for considerable losses in livestock in aquaculture. as malachite green, which in the past efficiently cured infected fishes, is ban ...201626693716
aphanius sophiae (actinoptrygii, cyprinodontidae), a new host for ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ciliophora) reported from iran.aphanius sophiae (heckel, 1849) or soffia tooth-carp is endemic species to the endorheic kor river basin, fars province, southwest of iran. in spite of importance of this species as a biologic control of anopheles larvae, little attention has been paid to its diseases particularly parasitic infections. a total of 24 a. sophiae (12 males and 12 females) in safashahr spring, kor river basin, were collected by using dip net in february 2012. surface of all fish were gross examined and screened for ...201627605832
infection and immunity against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in zebrafish (danio rerio).ichthyophthirius multifiliis, causing white spot disease, is a serious pathogen in aquaculture as well as for the ornamental fish industry. in carp, channel catfish and rainbow trout the immune responses against the parasite have been partly elucidated and these species are able to acquire a high level of immunity against the disease. zebrafish are however, known to be more resilient towards the disease than channel catfish but the pathology and the ability to obtain protection is unknown. in th ...201627567935
puffy skin disease is an emerging transmissible condition in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum.the transmission of puffy skin disease (psd) to rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum was tested in the laboratory by conducting co-habitation challenges with puffy skin (ps)-affected fish (trojans) collected from the field. two separate challenges were conducted using trojans sourced from two different sites and diploid (first trial) or triploid (second trial) naïve fish. psd-specific clinical signs were observed in both groups of naïve fish, with 66% of the fish sampled during the challeng ...201627391648
molecular immune response of channel catfish immunized with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. the fish surviving natural infections or immunized with live theronts develop strong specific and non-specific immune responses. little is known about how these immune genes are induced or how they interact and lead to specific immunity against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in channel catfish ictalurus punctatus. this stud ...201627044331
essential oils to control ichthyophthiriasis in pacu, piaractus mesopotamicus (holmberg): special emphasis on treatment with melaleuca alternifolia.in vitro effect of the melaleuca alternifolia, lavandula angustifolia and mentha piperita essential oils (eos) against ichthyophthirius multifiliis and in vivo effect of m. alternifolia for treating ichthyophthiriasis in one of the most important south american fish, piaractus mesopotamicus (holmberg), were evaluated. the in vitro test consisted of three eos, each at concentrations of 57 μl l(-1) , 114 μl l (-1) , 227 μl l(-1) and 455 μl l (-1) , which were assessed once an hour for 4 h in micro ...201626776242
seasonal pattern in parasite infracommunities of hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and hoplias malabaricus (actinopterygii: erythrinidae) from the brazilian amazon.the present study investigated the effects of seasonal variation in parasites infracommunities of hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and hoplias malabaricus from a tributary of amazon river. for h. unitaeniatus and h. malabaricus, 11 parasite species were similar, and greatest parasite richness occurred during the rainy season. ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant parasite species for both hosts. in h. unitaeniatus, infection by whittingtonocotyle caetei, whittingtonocotyle jeju, urocleidoides ...201626751882
parasitic infection in various stages life of cultured acipenser persicus.the present study was conducted to evaluate the status of the parasite fauna in acipenser persicus at different development stages, in order to find prevention protocols for parasitic diseases in this valuable species. for this purpose, sampling from each sex breeder, 10 egg samples, 5-day-old larvae (n = 20), 20-day-old larvae (n = 80) and fingerling of a. persicus (n = 60) released in earthen ponds were done. after the bioassay and preparing wet mount from the internal and external organs, ide ...201627226891
live recombinant lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing immobilization antigen (i-ag) for protection against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) has been reported in various freshwater fishes worldwide and results in severe losses to both food and aquarium fish production. lactobacillus strains have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for the presentation to the mucosa of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. here, the present study was conducted to evaluate a live recombinant lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing immobi ...201627663853
first study on parasites of hemibrycon surinamensis (characidae), a host from the eastern amazon region.this study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of hemibrycon surinamensis. all the fish collected in a tributary of the amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. the brillouin diversity index (hb) was 0.46 ± 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 ± 1.2 parasites per host. a total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including ichthyophthirius multifiliis and piscinoodinium pillulare (protozoa); jainus hexops and tereancistrum sp. ( ...201625271454
antiparasitic efficacy of gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin from costus speciosus (koen ex. retz) sm. against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from costus speciosus against ichthyophthirius multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from c. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin. in-vitro assays revealed that gracillin and zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against i. multifiliis at concentrations of 0.8 and 4.5 mg l(-1), with median effective concentration (e ...201525140457
comparative genomic analysis of integral membrane transport proteins in ciliates.integral membrane transport proteins homologous to those found in the transporter classification database (tcdb; www.tcdb.org) were identified and bioinformatically characterized by transporter class, family, and substrate specificity in three ciliates, paramecium tetraurelia (para), tetrahymena thermophila (tetra), and ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). in these three organisms, 1,326 of 39,600 proteins (3.4%), 1,017 of 24,800 proteins (4.2%), and 504 out of 8,100 proteins (6.2%) integral memb ...201525099884
evaluation of nystatin isolated from streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against the ciliate, ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiparasitic efficacy of active compounds from the bacterial extracellular products of streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against ichthyophthirius multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of compounds with antiparasitic activity were performed on n-butanol extract of s. griseus yielding a pure bioactive compound, nystatin (nys), identified by comparing spectral data (ei-ms, (1)h nmr, and (13)c nmr) with literature valu ...201525645004
structure of the parasites communities in two erythrinidae fish from amazon river system (brazil).this study compared the parasite communities of hoplias malabaricus and hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from amazon river system. hoplias malabaricus were infected by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, piscinoodinium pillulare, tetrahymena sp., urocleidoides eremitus, braga patagonica, metacercariae of clinostomum marginatum, procamallanus (spirocamallanus) inopinatus, larvae of contracaecum sp. and larvae of nomimoscolex matogrossensis. hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same specie ...201526083690
ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish carassius auratus (linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the state of são paulo.concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. histopathological examination with hematoxylin-eosin and giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmi ...201526444060
evaluation of an anti-parasitic compound extracted from streptomyces sp. hl-2-14 against fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-parasitic activity of a pure compound from streptomyces sp. hl-2-14 against fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and elucidate its chemical structure. by electron ionization mass spectrometry (esi-ms) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1h nmr and 13c nmr), the compound was identified as amphotericin b (amb). the in vitro trials revealed that amb can effectively kill the theronts and tomonts of i. multifiliis with the median lethal ...201525800565
survey of parasitic fauna of different ornamental freshwater fish species in iran.parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. in this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: goldfish (carassius auratus), guppy (poecilia reticulate), angelfish (pterophyllum scalare), discus (symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of iran during 2011 to 2012. the primary purpose of this study w ...201525992255
hemato-immunological and biochemical parameters of silver catfish rhamdia quelen immunized with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.this study investigated the immunization by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) (assay i) and immersion bath (assay ii) with live theronts of ichthyophthirius multifillis in rhamdia quelen and its influence on the hemato-immunological and biochemical parameters. fish were divided in control (non immunized no challenged); non immunized and challenged with 12,000 theronts/fish; non immunized and challenged with 22,000 theronts/fish; immunized and challenged with 12,000 theronts/fish; immunized and ch ...201526027759
cynatratoside-c efficacy against theronts of ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells.infection by ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. to find new, efficient anti-i. multifiliis agents, cynatratoside-c was isolated from cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. the present study investigated the anti-theront activity, determined the toxicity of cynatratoside-c to grass carp ctenopharyngodon idellus and mammalian blood cells, and evaluated the pro ...201526575152
in vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of antiprotozoal compounds isolated from psoralea corylifolia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in fish.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, an external fish parasite, often causes significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. since the use of malachite green was banned, the search of alternative substance to control i. multifiliis infections becomes stringent. in present study, in vitro and in vivo anti-ich efficacies of isopsoralen and psoralidin, two active compounds isolated from methanol extract of psoralea corylifolia by bioassay-guided fractionation based on the efficacy of anti-ich enc ...201526042195
histological evaluation of sodium percarbonate exposure on the gills of rainbow trout.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a recurring problem in australian rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss farms and requires strategically timed, repeat treatments for effective management. sodium percarbonate (spc) is permitted for use in australia, with host safety margins based on the toxicity of acute exposures to hydrogen peroxide (hp), the active product released when spc is added to water. the effects of exposure to hp released by spc, of repeated doses and of doses exceeding 100 mg l-1 on rain ...201526036833
life cycle and settlement of an australian isolate of ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876 from rainbow trout.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a ciliate parasite, is a cosmopolitan and problematic parasite of cultured freshwater fish. each geographical isolate of i. multifiliis has variations in life cycle timing under different abiotic water conditions, such as temperature and salinity. we assessed the effects of salinity and temperature on the development and the preferred settlement site of a temperate australian isolate of i. multifiliis. the time until theront release was significantly d ...201525960557
parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the peruvian amazon.the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. the study was conducted from august 2007 to september 2009. we sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. crenicichla anthurus (28.57%) was the most parasitized, followed by aequidens diadema (26.32%), pterophyllum scalar ...201525909258
transcriptome-wide identification, molecular evolution and expression analysis of toll-like receptor family in a tibet fish, gymnocypris przewalskii.toll-like receptors (tlr) are key components of innate immunity that play significant roles in immune defense against pathogens invasion. recent frequent outbreaks of the "white spot disease" caused by parasitic infection in farmed tibetan fishes had resulted in great economic losses. however, to our knowledge, the roles of tlrs in mediating immune response to parasitic infection in tibetan fishes remain to be determined. here, we performed data-mining on a widely-farmed tibetan fish (gymnocypri ...201526102458
molecular genetic diversity and characterization of conjugation genes in the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is the etiologic agent of "white spot", a commercially important disease of freshwater fish. as a parasitic ciliate, i. multifiliis infects numerous host species across a broad geographic range. although ichthyophthirius outbreaks are difficult to control, recent sequencing of the i. multifiliis genome has revealed a number of potential metabolic pathways for therapeutic intervention, along with likely vaccine targets for disease prevention. nonetheless, major gaps e ...201525743182
identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of morus alba against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. in this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons g and o) with anti-ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. the chemical structures of kuwanons g and o were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. kuwanons g and o caused 100% mortality of i. multifiliis theronts at the concen ...201525603693
pathophysiology of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).the present study investigated the effect of experimental infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis on physiological, immunological and metabolic parameters in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus). both species developed an immune response against i. multifiliis that was detected in the peripheral blood (i.e. increase in immunoglobulin concentrations in rainbow trout, increase in lymphocyte and thrombocyte concentrations in chub), but not in the skin mucus. anaemia ...201425246183
immunity to ichthyophthirius infections in fish: a synopsis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects freshwater fish. it has been the subject of both applied and basic research for over 100years, which can be attributed to its world-wide distribution and its significant economic impact on both food and aquarium fish production. i. multifiliis serves as a model for studies in fish on innate and acquired immunity, as well as on mucosal immunity. although an obligate parasite, i. multifiliis is relatively easily passaged fr ...201423810781
isolation of active compounds from methanol extracts of toddalia asiatica against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. the present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of the active components from toddalia asiatica against i. multifiliis. bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of compounds with antiparasitic activity were performed on the methanol extract of t. asiatica yielding two bioactive compounds: chelerythrine and chloroxylonine identified by c ...201424295957
tak1-binding proteins (tab1 and tab2) in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella): identification, characterization, and expression analysis after infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (tak1) is a key regulatory molecule in toll-like receptor (tlr), interleukin-1 (il-1), and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) signaling pathways. the activation of tak1 is specifically regulated by two tak1-binding proteins, tab1 and tab2. however, the roles of tab1 and tab2 in fish have not been reported to date. in the present study, tab1 (citab1) and tab2 (citab2) in grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) were identified and characterized, and their expr ...201424747054
mh ii-dab gene expression in grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella (valenciennes) after infection with the ciliate parasite, ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idella (valenciennes), is one of the most extensively aquacultured freshwater fish in china. however, because of the lack of effective control measures and the high-density culture environment, considerable economic losses are caused by infection of c. idella with the parasitic ciliate, ichthyophthirius multifiliis. the major histocompatibility (mh) dab gene belongs to antigen-presented genes in the class ii genomic region, which is associated with parasite resis ...201424131264
antibacterial efficacy of recombinant siganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase expressed in pichia pastoris.siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named sr-laao) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (s. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites cryptocaryon irritans, trypanosoma brucei brucei and ichthyophthirius multifiliis. in order to test whether recombinant sr-laao (rsr-laao) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast pichia pastor ...201425238719
ectoparasites of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) in cage farming in a hydroelectric reservoir in brazil.for this study, we performed a parasitological analysis of cage-cultured nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) from the água vermelha reservoir, southeastern brazil, and verified relationships with limnological data, seasonality, and fish growth phase. from march 2010 to march 2011, sixty-three specimens of o. niloticus in three growth phases (i.e., initial, intermediate, and final) were collected. all fish specimens were infested with at least one ectoparasite species (prevalence = 100%). five s ...201425054495
parasites of native cichlidae populations and invasive oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of amazonas river (brazil).this study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive o. niloticus by parasite species of native cichlidae from the igarapé fortaleza basin, northern brazil. there were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive o. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of amazon river. the invasive o. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only ichthyophthirius multifiliis, trichodina centrostrigeata, paratrichod ...201424728360
anti-parasitic activities of specific bacterial extracellular products of streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.the ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis is one of the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. in this study, effects of bacterial extracellular products of streptomyces griseus sdx-4 against i. multifiliis were determined. the fermentation liquor of s. griseus was extracted successively in a separating funnel with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. in vitro assays revealed that the n-butanol extracts (nbu-e) and ethyl acetate extracts (eto-e) of s. griseus were ob ...201425015048
antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-c from cynanchum atratum against ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. in this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-c, isolated from cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat i. multifiliis. the cynatratoside-c at 0.25 mg/l demonstrated a 100% mortality of i. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. the 5 h median effective concentration (ec50) of cynatratoside-c to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/l. in addi ...201424980562
minimum effective concentrations of formalin and sodium percarbonate on the free-living stages of an australian isolate of ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, a ciliate protozoan, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of freshwater teleosts and is a recurring problem during the summer months on australian rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) farms. preventative strategies include increasing water flow and filtration, but when an infection is established, chemical intervention is often required. formalin (for) has been traditionally used on australian trout farms as a treatment for i. multifiliis. tr ...201424948105
ecology and seasonal variation of parasites in wild aequidens tetramerus, a cichlidae from the amazon.this study is the first investigation on seasonal dynamics of parasites component community of the aequidens tetramerus from an amazon river tributary, in northern brazil. a total of 239,2407 parasites were recovered from 92 hosts examined from february to october 2011. such parasites included ichthyophthirius multifiliis, tripartiella tetramerii and trichodina nobilis (protozoa), dolops longicauda (argulidae), gussevia alioides, gussevia disparoides (monogenoidea), digenea metacercarie, pseudop ...201424570063
parasiticidal effects of morus alba root bark extracts against ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich), an important fish parasite, can cause significant losses in aquaculture. to find efficacious drugs to control ich, the root bark of white mulberry morus alba was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. bark was powdered and extracted with 1 of 5 organic solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, or methanol. the extracts were concentrated, dissolved in 0.1% (v/v) dmso, and used for anti-ich trials. acetone and ethyl acetate extracts signi ...201424553418
incomplete sterols and hopanoids pathways in ciliates: gene loss and acquisition during evolution as a source of biosynthetic genes.polycyclic triterpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids, are essential components of plasmatic membrane in eukaryotic organisms. although it is generally assumed that ciliates do not synthesize sterols, and many of them are indeed auxotrophic, a large set of annotated genomic sequences and experimental data from recently studied organisms indicate that they can carry putative genes and respond to the presence/absence of precursors in various ways. the pre-squalene pathway, for instance, is large ...201424525200
possibilities to control ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (leuciscus cephalus).in the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, leuciscus cephalus. the anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. in vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. minimum doses for killing 100 ...201424419403
meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.to establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. we found that the set of meiosis genes shared by tetrahymena thermophila, paramecium tetraurelia, ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a mus81-dependent class ii crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model ...201424336924
evaluation of an antiparasitic compound extracted from galla chinensis against fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) is an important ectoparasitic ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish resulting in massive mortality of fish. currently there is no chemotherapeutant available to treat ich effectively and economically. there is an urgent need to discover effective and safe parasiticides to control ichthyophthiriasis. in this study, anti-ich efficacy of pentagalloylglucose, a compound extracted from the plant galla chinensis was evaluated and the toxicity of ...201324070778
teleost skin, an ancient mucosal surface that elicits gut-like immune responses.skin homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (salt), very little is known about skin b-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a salt. due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. interestingly, teleost salt structurally resembles tha ...201323884653
expression profiles of toll-like receptors in channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) after infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.toll-like receptors (tlrs) play a crucial role in the innate immune system, but to date the roles of fish tlrs in response to parasitic infection are still poorly understood. in the present study, we used channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) and the ciliate parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a model to investigate whether and which fish tlrs play important roles in the immune response against parasitic pathogens by detecting the expression profiles of a complete set of tlrs in catfish at ...201323742868
antiprotozoal screening of traditional medicinal plants: evaluation of crude extract of psoralea corylifolia against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish.ichthyophthirius multifiliis (also called "ich") is an external protozoan parasite that may infest almost all freshwater fish species and caused significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. since the use of malachite green was banned, there have been relatively few effective alternative strategies for controlling i. multifiliis infections. the present study was designed to screen potential antiparasitic medicinal plants based on our previous studies, and comprehensively evaluate in v ...201323559379
comparison of serum antibody responses and host protection against parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis between channel catfish and channel × blue hybrid catfish.there is limited information available on the immune protection of channel catfish ictalurus punctatus × blue catfish i. furcatus (cb) hybrid against the fish parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich). the objective of this study was to compare serum antibody response and host protection between channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish using a cohabitation model. channel catfish and cb hybrid catfish were immunized with live theronts by immersion or by ip injection at the dose of 10,000-20,000 th ...201323435177
inflammatory response of rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) larvae against ichthyophthirius multifiliis.at hatching, the immune system of the rainbow trout larva is not fully developed. the larva emerges from the egg and is exposed to the aquatic freshwater environment containing pathogenic organisms. at this early stage, protection from disease causing organisms is thought to depend on innate immune mechanisms. here, we studied the ability of young post-hatch rainbow trout larvae to respond immunologically to an infection with ichthyophthirius multifiliis and also report on the localization of 5 ...201323261502
b cell memory following infection and challenge of channel catfish with ichthyophthirius multifiliis.b cell responses in channel catfish to infection with the parasitic ciliate ichthyophthirius multifiliis were followed for 3 years. high titers of serum igm antibodies recognizing i. multifiliis immobilization antigens were present 5weeks after immunizing infection, but by 1 year titers were at low or undetectable levels. two to three years after infection the numbers of antibody secreting cells recognizing immobilization antigens in skin and head kidney of immune fish had decreased to the level ...201323041614
parasitic infections of piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) cultured in brazil.this study evaluated the occurrence of parasitic infections in the "pacu" fish piaractus mesopotamicus and the "patinga" hybrid (p. mesopotamicus x piaractus brachypomus) in the northwest of são paulo state, brazil. fish from the following three fish farms were evaluated every two months: a, a hatchery and larviculture farm (n = 16 pacu / n = 19 patinga), b, a growout farm (n = 35 patinga) and c, a fee-fishing property (n = 28 pacu / n = 7 patinga). thirty-five fish from each property were colle ...201324142174
grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella) traf6 and tak1: molecular cloning and expression analysis after ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection.ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a pathogenic ciliate parasite, infects almost all freshwater fish species and causes significant economic losses. tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (tak1) are two important signaling molecules involved in toll-like receptor (tlr) signal transduction. to date, the roles of traf6 and tak1 in host defense against fish parasites are still poorly understood. in the present study, traf6 (citraf6) ...201323542602
external parasite infection of common carp (cyprinus carpio) and big head (hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in fish farms of mashhad, northeast of iran.totally 75 common carp and 100 big head fishes were caught by using net from fish farms in mashhad, northeast of iran. in laboratory skin, eye and fin of fishes were inspected by stereomicroscope and in second phase direct smears are prepared from probable lesions. gills were dissected and its filaments were placed in petri dishes and fixed by glycerin. in total 50 parasites (consist 19 protozoa and 31 metazoa) were recorded from fishes. the parasites represented in protozoa (ichthyophthirius mu ...201324431554
ichthyophthiriasis: emphases on the epizootiology.ichthyophthiriasis (white spot disease) is an economically important protozoosis caused by ichthyophthirius multifiliis in freshwater fish. medication prevention and curation are the main methods to control this disease with vaccines in laboratory, but the efficacy of drugs practically acts on the free-living (nonparasitic) stage of i. multifiliis and can be easily impaired by a variety of environmental factors. thus, study on the biological properties of i. multifiliis and the complicated ecolo ...201323565747
the use of nitazoxanide against the pathogens ichthyophthirius multifiliis and aeromonas hydrophila in silver catfish (rhamdia quelen).the antiparasitic and antibacterial activities of nitazoxanide (ntz) against ichthyophthirius multifiliis (ich) and aeromonas hydrophila, respectively, were evaluated in silver catfish juveniles (rhamdia quelen). in the first experiment, fish naturally infected by ich were treated with different concentrations of ntz. fish mortality and the number of trophonts/juveniles were evaluated. in the second experiment, the antimicrobial potential in vitro (mic test) and preventive potential in vivo agai ...201323830481
combined exposure of carps (cyprinus carpio l.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease.under environmental conditions, fish can be exposed to multiple stressors including natural toxins and infectious agents at the same time. this study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in fish. the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish.201223353848
chlorophyllin for the control of ichthyophthirius multifiliis (fouquet).tests were conducted to determine the efficiency of the photodynamic substance chlorophyllin to kill different life stages of the protozoan parasite ichthyophthirius mulftifiliis (fouquet) which causes the white spot disease in many freshwater fish species. this study has developed a new treatment for the control of ichthyophthiriosis, and demonstrated that non-toxic water-soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin) is a potential remedial agent at low concentrations for this serious parasitic disease.201222476598
the potential utility of the leopard pleco (glyptoperichthys gibbiceps) as a biological control of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis.infections of the ciliate protozoan ichthyophthirius multifiliis fouquet, 1876, can cause heavy mortalities in freshwater aquaculture systems. following the ban of malachite green on fish for human consumption, currently available chemical therapies are only partially efficacious even when repeatedly applied. there is, therefore, an urgent necessity to identify more efficient and environmentally friendly control strategies. in the present study, the use of a substrate algae feeder leopard pleco, ...201222311586
antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants against ichthyophthirius multifiliis in goldfish (carassius auratus).ichthyophthiriasis is a widespread disease in aquaculture and causes mass mortalities of fish. the development of new antiprotozoal agents for the treatment of ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections is of increasing interest. the aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of 30 medicinal plants against i. multifiliis. the results showed that the methanol extracts of magnolia officinalis and sophora alopecuroides displayed the highest antiprotozoal activity against theronts, with 4 ...201222864919
effects of aqueous extract of capsicum frutescens (solanaceae) against the fish ectoparasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis.ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an important fish ectoparasite that often results in significant economic losses to freshwater aquaculture. the search of alternative substances to control infections of i. multifiliis became stringent after malachite green, an effective and widely used chemotherapeutant, is banned on fish farms because of its carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. in this study, the effects of the aqueous extract of capsicum frutescens, which is readily available and affordable, wer ...201222526288
approaches towards dna vaccination against a skin ciliate parasite in fish.rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) were immunized with plasmid dna vaccine constructs encoding selected antigens from the parasite ichthyophthirius multifiliis. two immobilization antigens (i-ags) and one cysteine protease were tested as genetic vaccine antigen candidates. antigenicity was evaluated by immunostaining of transfected fish cells using i-ag specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies. i. multifiliis specific antibody production, regulation of immune-relevant genes and/or protection in ...201223144852
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