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a proline racemase based pcr for identification of trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.a study was conducted to develop a trypanosoma vivax (t. vivax) specific pcr based on the t. vivax proline racemase (tvprac) gene. forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. to assess its specificity, tvprac pcr was conducted on dna extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: t. vivax from nigeria, ethiopia and venezuela, t. congolense savannah type, t. brucei brucei, t. evansi, t. equiperdum, t. theileri, theileria parva, anaplasma margina ...201424416292
a longitudinal assessment of the serological response to theileria parva and other tick-borne parasites from birth to one year in a cohort of indigenous calves in western kenya.tick-borne diseases are a major impediment to improved productivity of livestock in sub-saharan africa. improved control of these diseases would be assisted by detailed epidemiological data. here we used longitudinal, serological data to determine the patterns of exposure to theileria parva, theileria mutans, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale from 548 indigenous calves in western kenya. the percentage of calves seropositive for the first three parasites declined from initial high levels d ...201424838078
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
molecular detection of babesia bigemina infection in apparently healthy cattle of central plain zone of punjab.bovine babesiosis is an important tick-borne disease caused by the parasites belonging to the genus babesia, distributed worldwide and infecting a wide range of domesticated and wild cattle, occasionally man. the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of b. bigemina infection in apparently healthy cattle from central plain zone of punjab, india. examination of giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed 2.45 % (5/204) animals to be positive for piroplasms of b. bigemina ...201426688628
prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, and babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil. a total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and s ...201424563780
identification and characterization of a trypanosoma congolense 46 kda protein as a candidate serodiagnostic antigen.trypanosoma congolense is a major livestock pathogen in africa, causing large economic losses with serious effects on animal health. reliable serodiagnostic tests are therefore urgently needed to control t. congolense infection. in this study, we have identified one t. congolense protein as a new candidate serodiagnostic antigen. the 46.4 kda protein (tcp46, gene id: tcil3000.0.25950) is expressed 5.36 times higher in metacyclic forms than epimastigote forms. the complete nucleotide sequences of ...201424492330
study of vitellogenin in boophilus annulatus tick larvae and its immunological aspects.boophilus annulatus is an important one-host tick in the mediterranean regions and iran. it can transmit the babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and anaplasma marginale to cattle. nowadays, immunization programs by tick proteins is one of the potential methods for the control and prevention of tick infestations. therefore, the characterization and identification of various tick proteins are necessary. vitellogenin is a precursor of vitellin that is produced in mid gut cells and fat bodies in ticks. ...201425382465
piroplasmosis in wildlife: babesia and theileria affecting free-ranging ungulates and carnivores in the italian alps.piroplasmosis are among the most relevant diseases of domestic animals. babesia is emerging as cause of tick-borne zoonosis worldwide and free-living animals are reservoir hosts of several zoonotic babesia species. we investigated the epidemiology of babesia spp. and theileria spp. in wild ungulates and carnivores from northern italy to determine which of these apicomplexan species circulate in wildlife and their prevalence of infection.201424533742
first evaluation of an outbreak of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in southern brazil using multiplex pcr.outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in santa catarina, brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen dna has never been determined. in this study, the first survey of anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, and babesia bovis dna on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in ponte alta municipality, santa catarina, brazil, has been carried out. a multiplex pcr detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. the most preval ...201425352699
nested pcr detection and phylogenetic analysis of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle from peri-urban localities in gauteng province, south africa.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are tick-borne hemoparasites causing babesiosis in cattle worldwide. this study was aimed at providing information about the occurrence and geographical distribution of b. bovis and b. bigemina species in cattle from gauteng province, south africa. a total of 268 blood samples collected from apparently healthy animals in 14 different peri-urban localities were tested using previously established nested pcr assays for the detection of b. bovis and b. bigemina sp ...201424065081
a pcr method targeting internal transcribed spacers: the simultaneous detection of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in cattle.in this study, two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacers (itss) of babesia bigemina and b. bovis isolates from china. the primers were used in a multiplex pcr to detect parasite dna in blood samples from cattle. there was no cross reactions with b. ovata, b. major, b. sp. kashi, theileria annulata, t. sergenti, t. sinensis or normal bovine dna. the sensitivity of multiplex pcr assay was 1 pg and 10 pg dna for b. bi ...201424570060
inhibitory effect of allicin on the growth of babesia and theileria equi parasites.allicin is an active ingredient of garlic that has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiprotozoal activity. however, the inhibitory effects of allicin on babesia parasites have not yet been examined. in the present study, allicin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equine babesia parasites and the in vivo growth of babesia microti in a mouse model. the in vitro growth of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, or theileria equi was inhibi ...201424173810
molecular and seroepidemiological survey of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections in cattle and water buffaloes in the central region of vietnam.in the present study, a total of 137 blood samples were collected from cattle and water buffaloes in central region of vietnam and tested using nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to determine the molecular and serological prevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. in cattle, the prevalence of b. bovis and b. bigemina was 21.3% and 16.0% by npcr, 73.4% and 42.6% by elisa and 60.6% and 59.6% by ifa ...201425382466
genetic characterization of babesia and theileria parasites in water buffaloes in sri lanka.water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. in the present study, we surveyed sri lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis using parasite-specific pcr assays. when 320 blood-derived dna samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (polonnaruwa, mannar, and mullaitivu) of sri lanka were pcr screened, b. bovis, b. bigemina, and t ...201424365246
diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen tegm6-4r in t. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. tegm6-4r-based elisa was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from w ...201424524896
vaccines against bovine babesiosis: where we are now and possible roads ahead.summary bovine babesiosis caused by the tick-transmitted haemoprotozoans babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia divergens commonly results in substantial cattle morbidity and mortality in vast world areas. although existing live vaccines confer protection, they have considerable disadvantages. therefore, particularly in countries where large numbers of cattle are at risk, important research is directed towards improved vaccination strategies. here a comprehensive overview of currently used ...201425068315
evaluation of the inhibitory effects of miltefosine on the growth of babesia and theileria parasites.miltefosine, a membrane-active synthetic ether-lipid analogue, has antiproliferative and antiparasitic effects. in this study, the inhibitory effects of miltefosine were evaluated against three babesia species and theileria equi in vitro and against babesia microti in mice. the drug showed significant growth inhibition from an initial parasitemia of 1% for babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, and t. equi with ic50 values of 25, 10.2, 10.4, and 99 μm, respectively. complete inhibitio ...201424938827
typification of virulent and low virulence babesia bigemina clones by 18s rrna and rap-1c.the population structure of original babesia bigemina isolates and reference strains with a defined phenotypic profile was assessed using 18s rrna and rap-1c genes. two reference strains, bbis2p-c (virulent) and bbis1a-c (low virulence), were biologically cloned in vitro. the virulence profile of the strains and clones was assessed in vivo. one fully virulent and one low-virulence clone were mixed in identical proportions to evaluate their growth efficiency in vitro. each clone was differentiate ...201424681200
tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection.ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. the traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. vaccination with the tick midgut antigen bm86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. however, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. t ...201424450836
control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant subolesin-major surface protein 1a chimeric antigen.despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, subolesin (sub), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. furthermore, escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of sub fused ...201424398155
emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus in assam, india.the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a babesia and anaplasma endemic geographical area from assam, india and to see its transmission through rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus ticks.201527047205
in vitro cultivation and cryopreservation of babesia bigemina sporokinetes in hemocytes of rhipicephalus microplus.cultures of tick hemocytes represent alternative cell lines for the isolation and cultivation of a variety of hemoparasites. the present study reports the development and evaluation of methods for the in vitro culture and maintenance of sporokinetes of babesia bigemina in association with hemocytes of the tick rhipicephalus microplus. hemolymph, from engorged females infected with b. bigemina sporokinetes, was incubated at 28 °c in l15 culture medium supplemented with 40% fetal bovine serum. adh ...201526198431
tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, midwestern brazil.anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. the present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and hepatozoon spp. dna in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of campo grande, state of mato grosso do sul, midwestern brazil. between january and april 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two with ...201526187416
molecular characterization of the israeli b. bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates.the present study demonstrated the genetic character of the israeli babesia bigemina vaccine strain and field isolates, based on rap-1a and rap-1c gene sequences. the rap-1a of blood-derived israeli b. bigemina field isolates shared 100% amino acid sequence identity. however, comparison of rap-1c from various israeli b. bigemina field isolates revealed that the total sequence identity among the field isolates ranged from 98.2 to 100%. high identity was observed when rap-1a sequences from the isr ...201526154404
serologic evidence for babesia bigemina infection in wild yak (bos mutus) in qinghai province, china.piroplasmosis, caused by tick-borne protozoan parasites of the genera theileria and babesia, is one of the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in china. we evaluated the prevalence of antibodies to babesia bigemina in wild yaks (bos mutus) from qinghai province, china. of 91 samples, 24% had detectable b. bigemina antibodies, and significant differences in prevalence were observed between those older than 5 yr and those younger than 5 yr. we collected 1,679 ticks belongi ...201526267460
molecular identification of theileria and babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the black sea region of turkey.a molecular survey was undertaken in the black sea region of turkey to determine the presence of theileria and babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. the ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by pcr-based reverse line blot (rlb) and sequencing. a total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (mle ...201525260692
molecular and parasitological survey of bovine piroplasms in the black sea region, including the first report of babesiosis associated with babesia divergens in turkey.clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine babesia and theileria parasites was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. in addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. dna isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for babesia and theileri ...201526336265
an epidemiological survey of bovine babesia and theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in egypt.cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. in this study, we analyzed the infection rates of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, and theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific pcr assays in blood-dna samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in menoufia, behera, giza, and sohag provinces of egypt. in cattle, the p ...201525305419
artificial feeding of rhipicephalus microplus female ticks with anti calreticulin serum do not influence tick and babesia bigemina acquisition.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites considered the principal vectors of disease among animals. rhipicephalus microplus and r. annulatus ticks are the most important vectors for babesia bigemina and b. bovis, two of the most important intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites species in cattle, responsible for babesiosis which together with anaplasmosis account for substantial economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. anti-tick vaccines are a proved alternative to traditional t ...201525262467
what's in your next-generation sequence data? an exploration of unmapped dna and rna sequence reads from the bovine reference individual.next-generation sequencing projects commonly commence by aligning reads to a reference genome assembly. while improvements in alignment algorithms and computational hardware have greatly enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of alignments, a significant percentage of reads often remain unmapped.201526714747
species distribution modelling for rhipicephalus microplus (acari: ixodidae) in benin, west africa: comparing datasets and modelling algorithms.rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most widely distributed and economically important ticks, transmitting babesia bigemina, b. bovis and anaplasma marginale. it was recently introduced to west africa on live animals originating from brazil. knowing the precise environmental suitability for the tick would allow veterinary health officials to draft vector control strategies for different regions of the country. to test the performance of modelling algorithms and different sets of environmental ...201525466219
first report of babesia bigemina infection in white yaks in china.white yaks, a unique yak breed and the pearl of the plateau, only live in tianzhu tibetan autonomous county (ttac), gansu province, northwest china, contributing significantly to local economy. however, there was no information on the prevalence of babesia bigemina in white yaks. in this study, a total of 974 serum samples collected from white yaks in ttac were examined for specific antibodies against b. bigemina using a commercially available elisa kit. the overall seroprevalence of b. bigemina ...201525700713
detection of babesia bigemina infection in cattle from north-eastern india by polymerase chain reaction and its genetic relatedness with other isolates.a total of 333 blood samples were collected from cattle suspected for haemoprotozoan infections from three states of north-eastern part of india. all the samples were examined for diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection using pcr for detection of specific dna. out of these, 12 (3.60%) samples were found positive for b. bigemina dna on pcr using the organism-specific primers derived from 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene of b. bigemina. an expected size of 1124-bp pcr product was visualized on agaros ...201525663024
tick-borne diseases in syntopic populations of fallow deer (dama dama) and axis deer (axis axis) in northern mexico.we harvested 21 fallow deer (dama dama) and 17 axis deer (axis axis) in northern mexico. two fallow deer were positive for babesia bigemina and one for babesia bovis. amplicons had the expected 170 and 291 base pairs and were identical to b. bigemina (s45366) and b. bovis (m38218), respectively.201525647599
functional genomics of tick vectors challenged with the cattle parasite babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites considered as vectors of animal diseases, having a huge economic impact in cattle industry. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. control of tick infestations is mainly based on the use of acaricides, which have limited efficacy reducing tick infestations, mostly due to wrong usage, and is often accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks, environmental co ...201525399115
co-immunization of cattle with a vaccine against babesiosis and lactobacillus casei increases specific igg1 levels to babesia bovis and b. bigemina.the effect of lactobacillus casei administered along with a live attenuated vaccine vs. bovine babesiosis (vac) on induction of igg1 and igg2 antibodies to babesia bovis and babesia bigemina was assessed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) in bovines of an endemic babesiosis area before (day 0) and after vaccination (days 15 and 30). we previously reported that l. casei increases the efficiency of vac under controlled conditions and under extreme conditions in the field; however, th ...201525936971
bmvdac upregulation in the midgut of rhipicephalus microplus, during infection with babesia bigemina.the molecular mechanisms involved during the infection of rhipicephalus microplus midgut cells by babesia bigemina are of great relevance and currently unknown. in a previous study, we found a voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac)-like protein (bmvdac) that may participate during parasite invasion of midgut cells. in this work, we investigated bmvdac expression at both mrna and protein levels and examined bmvdac localization in midgut cells of ticks infected with b. bigemina at different times ...201526141408
babesia bigemina infection in a 14-day old jersey crossbred calf: a case report.babesia bigemina infection was diagnosed in a 14-day old jersey female calf. the infected calf showed clinical symptoms of high fever, increased respiratory rate, pale conjunctival mucous membrane and haemoglobinuria. blood smears were prepared and subjected for giemsas staining method. microscopic examination of the stained blood smear confirmed the characteristic intra-erythrocytic b. bigemina organisms.201526064014
genetic characterization and molecular survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia ovata in cattle, dairy cattle and yaks in china.babesiosis is an important haemoparasitic disease, caused by the infection and subsequent intra-erythrocytic multiplication of protozoa of the genus babesia that impacts the livestock industry and animal health. the distribution, epidemiology and genetic characterization of b. bigemina, b. bovis, and b. ovata in cattle in china as well as the prevalence of these protozoan agents were assessed.201526452623
molecular epidemiological survey and genetic analysis of vector-borne infections of cattle in luzon island, the philippines.in the philippines, vector-borne disease is one of the important problems in the livestock industry. to elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in cattle on luzon island, the philippines, the prevalence of five protozoan agents was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. out of the 339 samples, 324 (95.5%), 154 (45.4%), 209 (61.6%), 140 (41.3%), and 2 (0.6%) were positive for anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, babesia bovis, theileria spp., and trypanosoma evansi infections, respe ...201526138152
molecular biological identification of babesia, theileria, and anaplasma species in cattle in egypt using pcr assays, gene sequence analysis and a novel dna microarray.in this preliminary study, a novel dna microarray system was tested for the diagnosis of bovine piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in comparison with microscopy and pcr assay results. in the dakahlia governorate, egypt, 164 cattle were investigated for the presence of piroplasms and anaplasma species. all investigated cattle were clinically examined. blood samples were screened for the presence of blood parasites using microscopy and pcr assays. seventy-one animals were acutely ill, whereas 93 were ...201525591406
molecular detection and characterization of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria species and anaplasma marginale isolated from cattle in kenya.infections with babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria species and anaplasma marginale are endemic in kenya yet there is a lack of adequate information on their genotypes. this study established the genetic diversities of the above tick-borne hemoparasites infecting cattle in kenya.201526420543
molecular detection and genetic identification of babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, theileria orientalis and anaplasma marginale in turkey.babesia spp., theileria spp. and anaplasma spp. are significant tick-borne pathogens of livestock globally. in this study, we investigated the presence and distribution of babesia bigemina, theileria annulata, theileria orientalis and anaplasma marginale in cattle from 6 provinces of turkey using species-specific pcr assays. the pcr were conducted using the primers based on the b. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1a (bbirap-1a), t. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 (tams-1), t. orientalis ...201626492823
type-specific pcr assays for babesia bovis msa-1 genotypes in asia: revisiting the genetic diversity in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam.babesia bovis is the most virulent babesia organism, resulting in a high mortality rate in cattle. the genetic diversity of b. bovis merozoite surface antigens (msas), such as msa-1, msa-2b, and msa-2c, might be linked to altered immune profiles in the host animals. the present study aimed to develop type-specific pcr assays for asian msa-1 genotypes, thereby re-analyzing the genetic diversity of msa-1 in sri lanka, mongolia, and vietnam. specific primers were designed for nine asian msa-1 genot ...201626520797
clinicopatho-biochemical alterations associated with subclinical babesiosis in dairy animals.present investigation is based on the clinicopatho-biochemical alteration related to natural tick borne bovine babesiosis in punjab state.201627308284
cholinesterases as markers of the inflammatory process associated oxidative stress in cattle infected by babesia bigemina.the objective of this study was to assess the influence of an asymptomatic experimental infection by babesia bigemina on cholinesterase's as markers of the inflammatory process and biomarkers of oxidative imbalance. for this purpose, eight naive animals were used, as follows: four as controls or uninfected; and four infected with an attenuated strain of b. bigemina. blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 11 post-inoculation (pi). parasitemia was determined by blood smear evaluation, showi ...201627260803
diagnosis and management of bovine babesiosis outbreaks in cattle in punjab state.the aim of the present study was to diagnose severe outbreaks of bovine babesiosis in punjab state, in the year 2015 and to suggest control and preventive measures to animal owners.201628096607
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
molecular and serological detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-infection in bovines and water buffaloes raised jointly in an endemic field.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are causative agents of bovine babesiosis, a tick-borne disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. babesia spp. infection adversely affects cattle health and can be fatal resulting in considerable economic loss worldwide. under endemic stability conditions, herds contain high numbers of chronically infected, asymptomatic carrier animals, in which no parasitemia is detected by microscopic blood smear examination. in addition to bovines, also water bu ...201626827869
molecular epidemiology of bovine babesia spp. and theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern thailand.beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in thailand. their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. in this study, we determined the prevalence of babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for babesia spp. and genetic diversity of t. orientalis. fur ...201626475202
seasonal incidence of parasitic diseases in bovines of south western gujarat (junagadh), india.the current study was conducted to investigate the incidence of parasitic diseases in bovines which were sick and brought at veterinary hospital for treatment. a total of 366 samples were investigated from cattle (n = 175) and buffaloes (n = 191) presented at teaching veterinary clinical complex (tvcc), veterinary college, junagadh, gujarat during january to december 2014. examination of giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 58.6 % of cattle and 41.2 % of buffaloes were infected ...201627876944
improvement of the cryopreservation method for the babesia gibsoni parasite by using commercial freezing media.in vitro cultivation and cryopreservation under liquid nitrogen have already been reported and established for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina parasites. although the in vitro cultivation methods for babesia gibsoni have been reported and established, the cryopreservation methods for this parasite have not been established completely. in this paper, we compared several freezing media for the cryopreservation of b. gibsoni parasite. the cellbanker® series (1 plus and 2), stem-cellbanker®, and ...201626921519
prevalence of haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of shimoga region of karnataka state.a study was conducted to record the prevalence of haemoprotozoan infections in bovines of shimoga region for a period of 1 year from april 2012 to march 2013. a total of 300 blood samples were examined for the presence of haemoprotozoan parasites, of which 215 from cattle and 85 from buffaloes were examined by giemsa staining technique. out of 300 blood samples examined, 130 (43.3 %) were found positive for haemoprotozoan infections. out of 215 cattle blood samples examined, 62 (28.8 %) were pos ...201627605804
epidemiology of bovine hemoprotozoa parasites in cattle and water buffalo in vietnam.a pcr-based survey of hemoprotozoa parasites detected babesia bigemina, theileria orientalis and trypanosoma theileri among cattle and water buffalo in vietnam, and a new babesia sp. closely related to babesia ovata was detected in cattle only. in addition, theileria annulata and trypanosoma evansi were not detected in both cattle and water buffalo. phylogenetic analysis detected t. orientalis mpsp genotypes 3, 5, 7 and n3 in cattle and 5, 7, n1 and n2 in water buffalo. additionally, water buffa ...201627149894
identification and characterization of profilin antigen among babesia species as a common vaccine candidate against babesiosis.we have characterized a member of the profilin (prof) family protein as a common antigen in three pathogens-babesia bovis (b. bovis), babesia bigemina (b. bigemina), and babesia microti (b. microti)-and evaluated its immunogenic and cross-protective properties against a challenge infection with b. microti in balb/c mice. the recombinant prof proteins of b. bovis, b. bigemina, and b. microti were successfully expressed in escherichia coli (e. coli) as soluble gst fusion proteins (rbboprof, rbbigp ...201627003460
modeling of babesipain-1 and identification of natural and synthetic leads for bovine babesiosis drug development.babesiosis is a tick-borne, zoonotic disease caused by species of the intraerythrocytic protozoan babesia. it is distributed all around the world and affects various domestic and wild animals, mainly cattle. recently, the cysteine protease enzyme, babesipain-1 from babesia bigemina has been identified as a potential target for designing new anti-babesiosis drugs. in the present study, a three-dimensional structural model of babesipain-1 was developed. an active site with three pockets (s1, s2, a ...201626969677
molecular assays reveal the presence of theileria spp. and babesia spp. in asian water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis, linnaeus, 1758) in the amazon region of brazil.approximately 50% of buffalo herds in brazil are located in pará state in northern brazil. there are several properties where cattle and buffalo live and graze together, and thus, buffalo pathogens may threaten the health of cattle and vice versa. therefore, knowledge of infectious agents of buffalo is essential for maintaining healthy livestock. clinical disease caused by theileria and babesia parasites in the asian water buffalo is not common, although these animals may act as reservoir hosts, ...201627344507
identification of interchangeable cross-species function of elongation factor-1 alpha promoters in babesia bigemina and babesia bovis.tick-borne babesia bigemina is responsible for acute and potentially lethal hemolytic disease in cattle. the development of genetic manipulation tools necessary to the better understanding of parasite biology is currently limited by the lack of a complete parasite genome and experimental tools such as transfection. effective promoters, required to regulate expression of transgenes, such as the elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1α), have been identified in other apicomplexans such as babesia bovis an ...201627835993
identification of a vertically transmitted strain from anaplasma marginale (ufmg3): molecular and phylogenetic characterization, and evaluation of virulence.bovine anaplasmosis is a disease caused by the intraerythrocytic rickettsia species anaplasma marginale and results in great economic losses in tropical and subtropical regions. vertical transmission is an important phenomenon that contributes to the persistence of different strains of the agent within the same herd. the identification of new strains and genetic characterization studies are essential to understanding their epidemiology and virulence and for vaccine development. the aim of this s ...201626381444
bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis complex: diagnosis and evaluation of the risk factors from bahia, brazil.direct diagnoses were made by using - blood smears and nested pcr (npcr) tests on 309 blood samples from crossbred dairy cattle in the municipality of ibicaraí, bahia. from diagnostic blood smear slides, the observed parasitic frequencies were 31.1% for anaplasma marginale and 20.4% for babesia sp. from npcr diagnoses, they were 63% for a. marginale, 34% for babesia bigemina and 20.4% for babesia bovis. there were significant differences (p <0.01) between the two diagnostic methods (npcr and blo ...201625271452
identification of piroplasm infection in questing ticks by rlb: a broad range extension of tick-borne piroplasm in china?sensitive and specific diagnostic method for rapid and simultaneous detection and discrimination of the different species is needed for an effective control of piroplasmosis. here, a reverse line blot (rlb) assay was developed for piroplasm detection. a general pair of primer based on 18s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was used to amplify v4 region of 18s rrna gene. general and specific probes for 13 piroplasm species were cited from previous publications or designed according to the alignment of 18s ...201626896077
evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effect of enoxacin on babesia and theileria parasites.enoxacin is a broad-spectrum 6-fluoronaphthyridinone antibacterial agent (fluoroquinolones) structurally related to nalidixic acid used mainly in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. also it has been shown recently that it may have cancer inhibiting effect. the primary antibabesial effect of enoxacin is due to inhibition of dna gyrase subunit a, and dna topoisomerase. in the present study, enoxacin was tested as a potent inhibitor against the in vitro growth of bovine and equ ...201626724376
molecular survey of babesia infections in cattle from different areas of myanmar.cattle babesiosis is one of the most important tick-borne diseases worldwide. the present study reports a molecular survey of babesia infections in cattle in myanmar. nested pcr assays based on the babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1 gene (ama-1) and b. bovis rhoptry associated protein-1 gene (rap-1) revealed that the overall percentage of b. bigemina and b. bovis infection were 9.8% (70/713) and 17.1% (122/713), respectively. a mixed infection was detected in 4.6% (33/713) of animals. an ...201626530983
rapid and sensitive detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.babesia spp. are apicomplexan protozoan parasites of the red blood cells of mammals and are transmitted by ticks. bovine babesiosis mainly caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina occurs worldwide, which is a great threat to animal health. microscopy examination is a gold standard for the diagnosis of babesiosis. however, its sensitivity is too low. this study was conducted to establish a simple, efficient and fast lamp-lfp method used for early diagnosis of animal babesiosis. lamp was devel ...201626921043
babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection levels estimated by qpcr in angus cattle from an endemic area of são paulo state, brazil.the levels of infection by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative pcr technique (qpcr). fifty-one contemporaneous angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. the number of standard female rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant edta. the blood samples were submitted to dna extraction and used to quantify th ...201626907097
disaggregating tropical disease prevalence by climatic and vegetative zones within tropical west africa.tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. however, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. as a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. specific to tropical africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. this finer resolution data is ...201627022740
flavonoid and galloyl glycosides isolated from saxifraga spinulosa and their antioxidative and inhibitory activities against species that cause piroplasmosis.eight new flavonoid-based 3'-o-β-d-glucopyranosides (1-8) and three new galloyl glucosides (9, 11, 12), were isolated from the aerial parts of saxifraga spinulosa, along with 25 known compounds. the structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. most of the isolated compounds exhibited potent dpph radical-scavenging activities. further, their inhibitory activities were evaluated against babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia caballi, and theileria equi, protozoan par ...201728832147
characterization of tabanid flies (diptera: tabanidae) in south africa and zambia and detection of protozoan parasites they are harbouring.tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. in the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in south africa and zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. a total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from south africa and 29·8% were from zambia. morphological analysis revealed a total of five ...201728502276
evaluation of immunochromatographic test (ict) strips for the serological detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection in cattle from western java, indonesia.three types of immunochromatographic test (ict) strips were prepared for the detection of an antibody response against spherical body protein 4 (sbp-4) of babesia bovis (bovict), c-terminal-truncated rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rrap1/ct17) of b. bigemina (bigict), and the combination of both proteins (dual-ict). the evaluation of their performance was conducted using a confirmed positive and negative serum panel for b. bovis and b. bigemina. together with elisa, the ict strips were applied to ...201728413078
recovery of bovine babesia spp. after long-term cryostorage and comparison of bovine donor erythrocytes and serum.cultured babesia bovis and babesia bigemina were recovered from liquid nitrogen storage nearly 30 years after they were cryopreserved. four cattle were compared as donors of erythrocytes and serum for microaerophilous stationary phase (masp) cultures for recovery of b. bigemina. erythrocytes and serum from only one (#913) of the four animals supported growth of b. bigemina. two b. bigemina (frozen in 1986 and 1987) and two b. bovis (both frozen in 1986) cryostocks were recovered from liquid nitr ...201728807277
inhibition of the in vitro growth of babesia bigemina, babesia caballi and theileria equi parasites by trifluralin analogues.bovine and equine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and babesia caballi, along with equine theileriosis caused by theileria equi are global tick-borne hemoprotozoan diseases characterized by fever, anemia, weight losses and abortions. a common feature of these diseases are transition from acute to chronic phases, in which parasites may persist in the hosts for life. antiprotozoal drugs are important for managing infection and disease. previous research demonstrated that triflu ...201728416183
a historical overview of research on babesia orientalis, a protozoan parasite infecting water buffalo.babesiosis is a globally important zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan of the genus babesia (phylum apicomplexa). in china, there are five species that infect cattle buffalo and cause great economic loss, which include babesia bigemina, b. bovis, b. major, b. ovata, and b. orientalis. among them, b. orientalis is the most recently identified new babesia species epidemic in china. this review summarized the work done in the past 33 years to give an overview of what l ...201728769894
seasonal prevalence of blood parasitic diseases in crossbred cattle of mysore and its surrounding districts of karnataka.the present study report the seasonal prevalence of blood parasitic diseases in cross bred cattle in mysore and its surrounding districts of karnataka such as mandya, chamaraj nagar and kodagu. the study was undertaken for a period of 2 years from august 2013 to july 2015. a total of 1655 blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle for blood parasitic diseases with clinical symptoms of anorexia, high fever, anaemia, salivation, enlargement of superficial lymphnodes, haemoglobin ...201728848277
evaluation of the inhibitory effect of n-acetyl-l-cysteine on babesia and theileria parasites.n-acetyl-l-cysteine is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. therefore, the in vitro inhibitory effect of this hit was evaluated in the present study on the growth of babesia and theileria parasites. the in vitro growth of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, theileria equi, and babesia caballi that were tested was significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of n-acetyl-l-cysteine. the inhibitory effect of n-acetyl-l- ...201728655583
a pcr-based survey of animal african trypanosomosis and selected piroplasm parasites of cattle and goats in zambia.we screened cattle and goats from the districts of chama, monze and mumbwa in zambia for animal african trypanosomes, babesia bigemina and theileria parva using pcrs; 38.1% of the samples tested positive for at least one of the parasite species. the most common parasite was trypanosoma vivax (19.8%). its incidence was significantly higher in goats than in cattle, (p<0.05). b. bigemina was found in samples from all the three areas, making it the most widespread of the parasites in zambia. among t ...201727616437
molecular characterization of babesia and theileria species in ticks collected in the outskirt of monte romano, lazio region, central italy.in 2012-2013, an investigation was carried out in the viterbo province, lazio region, on ticks and tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa of the babesia and theileria genera. this followed the reporting of high density of ticks by soldiers operating in a military shooting range, and the signaling by owners and local veterinary authorities of several cases of babesiosis among cattle.201728361802
seroprevalence of babesia bovis, b. bigemina, trypanosoma evansi, and anaplasma marginale antibodies in cattle in southern egypt.babesia bovis, b. bigemina, trypanosoma evansi, and anaplasma marginale infections cause serious diseases in cattle, and are primarily transmitted by arthropod vectors (ticks for b. bovis, b. bigemina, and a. marginale and various types of flies for t. evansi). in the last few years, there have been many reports of a high prevalence of certain protozoan infections in northern egypt, but no accurate or adequate data are available for the southern regions. therefore, in this study, we screened for ...201727789159
seroprevalence of anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina infections and associated risk factors in machakos county, kenya.anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina are important tick-borne pathogens of cattle. a cross-sectional survey was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of a. marginale and b. bigemina infections and identify associated risk factors on traditional smallholder farms in machakos county, kenya. a total of 421 cattle from 127 farms from four divisions in the county were sampled and visited between september and november 2007. the farms were selected by a proportional allocation approach based ...201727878428
a promising new elisa diagnostic test for cattle babesiosis based on babesia bigemina apical membrane antigen-1.babesiosis due to babesia bigemina is a relevant tick-borne disease, affecting cattle worldwide. many surface proteins of the pathogen including the apical membrane antigen 1 (ama-1) - have been analysed for vaccine and diagnostic purposes. this study focused on b. bigemina ama-1 and on its use for the assessment of diagnostic tests. after bioinformatic analyses, ama-1 codifying region was amplified and cloned into an expression vector used to induce protein synthesis in escherichia coli cells. ...201727033532
molecular detection and genetic diversity of bovine babesia spp., theileria orientalis, and anaplasma marginale in beef cattle in thailand.babesia spp., theileria orientalis, and anaplasma marginale are significant tick-borne pathogens that affect the health and productivity of cattle in tropical and subtropical areas. in this study, we used pcr to detect the presence of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, and t. orientalis in 279 beef cattle from western thailand and a. marginale in 608 beef cattle from the north, northeastern, and western regions. the pcrs were performed using species-specific primers based on the b. bovis spherical ...201728028631
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. l. ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.the aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in south africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the faculty of veterinary science, university of pretoria. ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in limpopo province, 2 in gauteng province and 1 in north we ...201728281774
parasitological and molecular surveys reveal high rates of infection with vector-borne pathogens and clinical anemia signs associated with infection in cattle from two important livestock areas in colombia.in colombia, vector-borne diseases are one of the most important problems in the livestock industry. the present study reports parasitological and molecular surveys of vector-borne pathogens in cattle from two high-value livestock areas in colombia. a total of 464 samples (226 from antioquia and 238 from arauca) were analyzed. while the blood smear analysis identified 98 (21.1%), 14 (3.0%) and 30 (6.5%) positive samples for anaplasma spp., babesia spp. and trypanosoma spp., respectively, the mol ...201727956049
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