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the effect of short-interval deltamethrin applications to control tsetse on the seroprevalence of babesiosis in cattle.for the past decade, treatment of cattle with 0.00375% deltamethrin (decatix, coopers) at two-weekly intervals has been part of an integrated approach to counteract continuous invasion of zimbabwe by tsetse from the mozambique fly-belt. to determine the effect of these regular deltamethrin treatments on the epidemiology of babesiosis, a survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against babesia bigemina in adult communal cattle. the seroprevalence of antibodies against b. bige ...199910504101
transmission of babesia spp by the cattle tick (boophilus microplus) to cattle treated with injectable or pour-on formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin.to assess the efficacy of ivermectin and moxidectin to prevent transmission of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina by boophilus microplus to cattle under conditions of relatively intense experimental challenge.199910590793
a serological survey of bovine babesiosis in northern and eastern zimbabwe.the geographical distribution of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina antibodies in communal herds in northern and eastern zimbabwe was determined using the elisa technique. the animals in different herds in the study region had different levels of natural exposure to b. bovis (mean 32%, range 0-79%) and b. bigemina (mean 52%, range 5-92%) infections. the majority of herds (90%) were endemically unstable for b. bigemina and 62% were unstable for b. bovis. natural region 5 and manicaland province h ...199910689698
bovine cd4(+) t-lymphocyte clones specific for rhoptry-associated protein 1 of babesia bigemina stimulate enhanced immunoglobulin g1 (igg1) and igg2 synthesis.optimal protective immunity against babesial infection is postulated to require both complement-fixing and opsonizing antibodies in addition to gamma interferon (ifn-gamma)-mediated macrophage activation. the rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rap-1) of babesia bigemina induces partial protective immunity and is a candidate vaccine antigen. previous studies demonstrated that cattle immunized with native protein that were subsequently protected against challenge had a strong ifn-gamma and weaker inter ...19999864210
upregulation of interleukin-4 and ifn-gamma expression by ifn-tau, a member of the type i ifn family.trophoblast interferon-tau (ifn-tau) is a new member of the type i ifn family that is produced in large quantities by the ruminant conceptus. like other type i ifn, ifn-tau inhibits viral replication and activates natural killer (nk)-mediated cytotoxicity. in mice and humans, type i ifn enhances type 1 t helper (th) cell responses, but the effects of type i ifn, including ifn-tau, on cytokine expression by bovine th cells have not been described. the present study determined the effects of ifn-t ...199910090403
general review of tick species present in portugal.at present, 24 species are known to occur in portugal: argas vespertilionis, ornithodoros maritimus and ornithodoros erraticus in argasidae; ixodes acuminatus, ixodes bivari, ixodes canisuga, ixodes frontalis, ixodes hexagonus, ixodes ricinus, ixodes simplex simplex, ixodes ventalloi, ixodes vespertilionis, dermacentor marginatus, dermacentor pictus', haemaphysalis hispanica, haemaphysalis inermis, haemaphysalis punctata, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus pusillus, rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhi ...199911071535
identification of theileria buffeli/orientalis and babesia bigemina in apulian cattle using molecular techniques and study of changes in blood parameters.recently several cases of theileriosis due to the haemoprotozoan theileria buffeli/orientalis have been recorded in the apulian region, italy. in this area other tick-borne pathogens were usually identified such as anaplasma marginale and babesia bigemina. outbreaks were recorded showing that these pathogens can be observed separately or in mixed infections. sub-clinical cases and carrier animals were also previously identified. a lack of specific techniques could not rule out the presence of ot ...199911071538
bovine babesiosis in sicily: preliminary study on pathology.in this study, the authors report the preliminary pathological features of an outbreak of spontaneous babesiosis detected in a group of thirty-five, five to six months-old simmenthal calves imported in sicily in november 1998. five of them showed fever, anaemia, haemoglobinuria, inappetence, depression, thirst, swollen lymph-nodes and poor body conditions a few days after being introduced in the farm. several ticks were present particularly at the basis of the horns and near the ears of the sick ...199911071540
development of sero-diagnostic and molecular tools for the control of important tick-borne pathogens of cattle in africa.tick-borne diseases (tbds) are a major economic constraint to livestock production in sub-saharan africa. ilri is focussing on developing a range of products, such as vaccines, diagnostics and decision support services to underpin improved control programmes against these diseases. we have developed three highly sensitive and specific enzyme linked immuno-assays (elisas), which allow precise diagnosis of theileria parva, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale. these tests have been standardise ...199911071549
tick-borne diseases in ruminants of central and southern italy: epidemiology and case reports.sera and blood from cattle and sheep were examined for the presence of babesia and theileria spp by microscopy and serology at the parasitology department of the istituto zooprofilattico sperimentale of abruzzo and molise (izsam). of the 47 bovine herds (323 animals) tested, 15 were found positive for babesia bigemina and 1 for babesia bovis. two outbreaks occurred, one caused by b. bigemina and one by b. bovis. the b. bigemina outbreak occurred in abruzzo and has been followed for two years. th ...199911071553
babesia bovis and b. bigemina dna detected in cattle and ticks from zimbabwe by polymerase chain reaction.from blood collected from 94 cattle at 12 locations in the eastern and northeastern areas of zimbabwe, dna was extracted and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with primers previously reported to be specific for babesia bigemina and babesia borvis. overall, dna of babesia bigemina was detected in the blood of 33/94 (35%) cattle and dna from b. bovis was detected in 27/58 (47%) of cattle. the prevalence of dna of b. bigemina was significantly higher in young animals (<2 years) (23/46) than in ...200010949512
the beta-tubulin gene of babesia and theileria parasites is an informative marker for species discrimination.a fragment of the beta-tubulin gene was polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified from genomic dnas of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, babesia major, babesia caballi, babesia equi, babesia microti, theileria annulata and theileria sergenti. single amplification products were obtained for each of these species, but the size of the amplicons varied from 310 to 460 bp. sequence analysis revealed that this variation is due to the presence of a single intron, which ranged from 20 ...200011027785
risk of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in different ecological zones of santa cruz department, bolivia.a cross-sectional study was done of seroprevalence of babesia bigemina, b.bovis, and anaplasma marginale in cattle from eastern bolivia, to characterise the risk of tick-borne disease in three ecological zones. nineteen farms were sampled in the subtropical humid zone, 13 in the dry subtropical zone and nine in the lower western valleys of the andean massif. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used. all three pathogens were widespread. for b. bovis, seroprevalences were high (75-78%) in th ...200011027858
detection of theileria annulata in cattle and vector ticks by pcr using the tams1 gene sequences.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and southern blot hybridization for the detection of theileria annulata are described. the pcr used primers amplifying a 785 base-pair fragment of the t. annulata gene which encodes the 30 kda major merozoite surface antigen, tams1. the sensitivity of the pcr in bovine blood was 1 piroplasm in 1 microl of blood. t. buffeli, t. parva, babesia bigemina, b. bovis and b. divergens were not detected. the pcr detected down to 1 infected acinus/tick in resting and part ...200010759082
cloning, characterization, and expression of a 200-kilodalton diagnostic antigen of babesia bigemina.current serological tests for babesia bigemina use semipurified merozoite antigens derived from infected erythrocytes. one of the major drawbacks of these tests is that antigen quality can vary from batch to batch. since the quality of the antigen contributes to the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests, the use of standardized recombinant antigens should ensure consistency in assay quality. previously, a 200-kda merozoite antigen (p200) was identified as a candidate diagnostic antige ...200010834983
phosphatidylcholine formation is the predominant lipid biosynthetic event in the hemoparasite babesia bovis.this work examines the lipid composition and metabolism of bovine red blood cells infected by apicomplexan babesia parasites, organisms closely related to plasmodium sp. we found that erythrocytes infected with babesia bovis (i-rbc) accumulate lipids and show striking increases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters as compared to uninfected erythrocytes cultured under the same conditions (n-rbc). a similar pattern was observed in cultures of erythrocyte ...200010743618
development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of igm antibodies to babesia bigemina in cattle.a crude antigenic preparation of babesia bigemina was used to develop an elisa for the detection of igm antibodies. optimal dilutions of the antigen, using positive and negative reference sera, were determined by checkerboard titrations. negative sera from cattle imported from tick-free areas, serum samples collected from infected b. bigemina cattle were used to validate the test. the specificity was 94% and sensitivity of the elisa 87.5%. sera from 385 cattle deriving from areas free from tick- ...200111285503
molecular basis for variable expression of merozoite surface antigen gp45 among american isolates of babesia bigemina.immunization with the merozoite surface glycoprotein gp45 induces protection against challenge using the homologous babesia bigemina strain. however, gp45 b-cell epitopes are highly polymorphic among b. bigemina strains isolated from different geographical locations within north and south america. the molecular basis for this polymorphism was investigated using the jg-29 biological clone of a mexico strain of b. bigemina and comparison with the puerto rico, st. croix, and texcoco strains. the mo ...200111349043
identification of trypanosoma evansi by dna hybridisation using a non-radioactive probe generated by arbitrary primer pcr: short communication.a highly reproducible, dominant, monomorphic fragment of 473 base pair (bp) amplified from the genome of trypanosoma evansi by arbitrary primer-polymerase chain reaction (ap-pcr) was labelled with digoxigenin and investigated for its potential as dna probe. dot-blot hybridisation of total genomic dna with the probe proved useful in detecting bubaline, cameline and equine strains of t. evansi down to 10 pg of parasite template dna. no cross-hybridisation was seen with babesia bigemina, theileria ...200111402647
bovine piroplasms in minorca (balearic islands, spain): a comparison of pcr-based and light microscopy detection.the present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by theileria and babesia piroplasms in cattle in minorca. more than 94% of the studied animals were positive for the presence of theileria sp., and of those, 41.3% were positive for the presence of theileria annulata. these results indicate that the prevalence of mediterranean theileriosis caused by t. annulata is very high in minorcan dairy farms and that other theileria sp. are also present in the area. the prevalenc ...200111502372
seroprevalences of vector-transmitted infections of small-holder dairy cattle in coastal kenya.a cross-sectional study was carried out from july to september 1989 in kaloleni division, coast province, kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. one hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in kaloleni division were surveyed. these were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management ...200111566374
detection of babesia equi (laveran, 1901) by nested polymerase chain reaction.we describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of babesia equi in equine infected erythrocytes using oligonucleotides designed on the published sequence of a b. equi merozoite antigen gene (ema-1). a 102bp dna fragment is specifically amplified from b. equi but not from babesia caballi, babesia bovis or babesia bigemina dna. in a mock infection we were able to detect down to six infected cells in 10(8) equine erythrocytes or to detect the parasite in blood with an equival ...200111587829
genotypically unique babesia spp. isolated from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) in the united states.two morphologically dissimilar babesia spp. were cultured from reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) in placer county, calif. the smaller isolate, designated rd61, was morphologically similar to babesia odocoilei. serum from rd61-infected reindeer reacted equally strongly to b. odocoilei and rd61 parasites in the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene-sequence analysis showed 99.0% identity to that of b. odocoilei. the larger piroplasm, designated r ...200212049456
simultaneous detection of anaplasma and ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of ehrlichia ruminantium in amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization.the detection of anaplasma and ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific pcr assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously. to this end, we developed a reverse line blot (rlb) assay for simultaneous detection and identification of anaplasma and ehrlichia species in domestic ruminants and ticks. in a pcr the hypervariable v1 region of the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for members of the ge ...200212243899
reverse line blot hybridization used to identify hemoprotozoa in minorcan cattle.piroplasmosis, a tick-borne protozoal disease, is an important disease affecting domestic and wild animals. we performed pcr-based reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) assays on blood samples obtained from 133 cattle exposed to ticks in field conditions in minorca (balearic islands, spain) in three different seasons. the oligonucleotides used were those for theileria annulata, t. buffeli, t. taurotragi, t. velifera, babesia bigemina, b. bovis, b. divergens, and b. major. the rlb technique allow ...200212381567
tick-borne diseases (tbds) of dairy cows in a mediterranean environment: a clinical, serological, and hematological study.a longitudinal study of tick-borne diseases (tbds) in southern italy was carried out by monitoring two dairy farms (a and b) located in the apulia region. on each farm ten calves and ten heifers were observed monthly from may 1999 to february 2001 for clinical signs and blood parameters; antibodies against babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale using an elisa test were also monitored for the first eight months of the study. totals of 28 and 14 cases of tbds were observed in the complete herds ...200212381611
calf morbidity, mortality and parasite prevalences in the cotton zone of burkina faso.the objective of this study is to describe morbidity and mortality in calves <1-year-old and to associate the impact of gastrointestinal and haemoparasitoses on morbidity and mortality by comparing these parameters in ill and well calves in the cotton zone of burkina faso. fifty-nine herds selected in two villages were involved. calves born between february 1997 and february 1999 were monitored up to 1 year of age or until the end of the study in april 1999. blood and faecal samples were taken f ...200212383657
theobald smith--the discoverer of ticks as vectors of disease.the cause of texas fever in cattle, which is characterised by lysis of erythrocytes leading to anaemia, icterus, haemoglobinuria, and death, remained unsolved for many decades and assorted theories were proposed as an explanation for a disease being transmitted by apparently healthy animals. from 1889 to 1893, theobald smith and frederick l. kilbourne could demonstrate in elegantly conducted experiments how the disease was spread from cattle to cattle by ticks serving as the vector of transmissi ...200212422586
organization, transcription, and expression of rhoptry associated protein genes in the babesia bigemina rap-1 locus.the babesia bigemina rap-1 gene locus contains five tandemly arranged copies of rap-1a genes. however, the size of the locus, as defined by conserved, unrelated orfs at the 5' and 3' ends, suggests that additional genes may be present. in this study, we identified all additional genes in the locus and characterized their pattern of expression in merozoites. the rap-1a genes are separated by 3.38-kbp intergenic (ig) regions, each of which contains an identical copy of a related gene designated ra ...200312672519
growth inhibitory effect of triclosan on equine and bovine babesia parasites.we evaluated the growth inhibitory effect of triclosan, which has recently been reported to inhibit the growth of plasmodium species and toxoplasma gondii, on bovine and equine babesia parasites in in vitro cultures the growth of babesia bovis and b. bigemina was significantly inhibited in the presence of 100 microg/ml of triclosan, while b. caballi and b. equi were susceptible to as low as 50 microg/ml. babesia bigemina and b. caballi were completely cleared as early as on the first and second ...200312685641
stimulation of t-helper cell gamma interferon and immunoglobulin g responses specific for babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rap-1) or a rap-1 protein lacking the carboxy-terminal repeat region is insufficient to provide protective immunity against virulent b. bovis challenge.rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rap-1) is a targeted vaccine antigen for babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infections of cattle. the 60-kda b. bovis rap-1 is recognized by antibodies and t lymphocytes from cattle that recovered from infection and were immune to subsequent challenge. immunization with native or recombinant protein was reported to reduce parasitemias in challenged animals. we recently reported that the nt domain of b. bovis rap-1 contained immunodominant t-cell epitopes, whereas th ...200312933845
overcoming constraints to meeting increased demand for babesia bigemina vaccine in australia.demand for live trivalent tick fever vaccine containing babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma centrale produced by the department of primary industries, queensland, has increased from less than 10,000 doses in 1988 to 500,000 doses in 2001. this paper describes a series of trials aimed at overcoming certain constraints to obtain b. bigemina parasitised erythrocytes (pes) on a large enough scale from infected splenectomised calves to meet the demand. passage through a series of splenectom ...200312935736
attainment of endemic stability to babesia bigemina in cattle on a south african ranch where non-intensive tick control was applied.the seroprevalence of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis antibodies in non-vaccinated cattle was monitored on a south african ranch. the main objective was to assess the endemic stability to bovine babesiosis in cattle maintained under relaxed tick-control measures. cattle were bled at the age of 7, 8, 10, 17, 20 and 30-120 months and the sera tested for the presence of antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. none of the animals were positive to b. bovis. seroprevalence of ...200314580798
pcr-based detection of the transovarial transmission of uruguayan babesia bovis and babesia bigemina vaccine strains.bovine babesiosis is responsible for serious economic losses in uruguay. haemovaccines play an important role in disease prevention, but concern has been raised about their use. it is feared that the attenuated babesia bovis and babesia bigemina vaccine strains may be transmitted by the local tick vector boophilus microplus, and that reversion to virulence could occur. we therefore investigated the possibility that these strains could be transmitted via the transovarial route in ticks using a ba ...200314621315
clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and clodinafop-propargyl inhibit the in vitro growth of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis (phylum apicomplexa).we evaluated the growth inhibitory efficacy of the imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole (clt) and ketoconazole (kc), and the herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (cp), in in vitro cultures of babesia bovis and b. bigemina. clotrimazole was effective in a dose range of 15 to 60 microm (ic50: 11 and 23.5 microm), followed by kc (50 to 100 microm; ic50: 50 and 32 microm) and cp (500 microm; ic50: 265 and 390 microm). in transmission electron microscopy, extensive damage was observed in the cytoplasm of dr ...200314636017
development of an immunohistochemical assay for the detection of babesiosis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.the hemoparasite babesia can cause life-threatening infections to neonates, elderly and immunocompromised people, and people who have undergone splenectomy. by using pooled hamster serum samples collected 21 days after infection with babesia microti, we developed an immunohistochemical assay for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (ffpet) samples and blood smears. by use of the immunohistochemical assay, parasites were detected inside erythrocytes present in the heart, spleen, and liver of ...200314671971
differentiation of babesia bigemina, b. bovis, b. divergens and b. major by western blotting--first report of b. bovis in austrian cattle.to establish an assay for the serological differentiation of bovine babesia species ( b. bigemina, b. bovis, b. divergens and b. major), antigens from experimentally infected cattle were western blotted and probed with homologous and heterologous sera. varying antigen patterns for each species allowed the determination of species-specific diagnostic antigens. blood samples from 36 naturally infected cattle from the province of styria were tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat ...200414745547
application of a reverse line blot assay to the study of haemoparasites in cattle in uganda.recent advances in genomic technology have focused many veterinary researchers on the possibility of producing one multivalent recombinant vaccine against all the haemoparasites that infect cattle in the tropics. before such a vaccine is developed it is essential to define target cattle populations as well as the range of anti-pathogen vaccines required in order to control disease. to further this objective, we have evaluated a reverse line blot (rlb) assay, which simultaneously detects the prin ...200415064125
improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using c-terminal truncated recombinant antigens of babesia bovis rhoptry-associated protein-1 for detection of specific antibodies.an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) based on a recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1 (rap-1) of babesia bovis has been previously developed, but it was imperfect because some cross-reactions were still present in babesia bigemina-infected bovine sera. to improve its accuracy for the specific detection of the antibodies to b. bovis, we constructed three c-terminal truncated recombinant antigens of the rap-1-rct1 (amino acids [aa] 301 to 408), rct2 (aa 388 to 490), and rct3 (aa 466 to ...200415071011
disease survey of free-ranging grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia.samples from 17 free-ranging hunter-killed grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) in the gran chaco, bolivia, were collected during june-august 1999. all 17 deer appeared to be in good condition at the time of death. gross necropsies were performed, serum was collected for serologic evaluation of selected infectious disease agents, and feces and ectoparasites were collected for evaluation of internal and external parasites. serologic tests were positive for antibodies against bovine respiratory ...200415137493
genetic variability of brazilian toxoplasma gondii strains detected by random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) and simple sequence repeat anchored-pcr (ssr-pcr).the genetic variability of 19 toxoplasma gondii strains isolated from humans and animals in brazil was detected by both random amplified polymorphic dna-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) and simple sequence repeat anchored-pcr (ssr-pcr) for the first time. two reference strains, rh (highly virulent) and me49 (avirulent), were submitted to both assays. besnoitia sp., plasmodium falciparum and babesia bigemina were used as outgroups. rapd-pcr and ssr-pcr profiles were used for building phenetic ...200415157631
a sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern free state, south africa.a survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386) was conducted in the north eastern free state between august 1999 and july 2000. giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. a total of 94% of the cattle were sero-positive for babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87% were sero-positive for anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for ana ...200415185577
incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in ghana.giemsa-stained thin blood smears prepared monthly from cattle, sheep and goats in the greater accra region of ghana between may 1994 and december 1996 were examined for presence of tick-borne haemoparasites. the majority of animals were less than 2 months old at the start of the survey. monthly and cumulative incidences are presented of anaplasma sp., babesia bigemina, borrelia sp., eperythrozoon sp., theileria mutans and theileria velifera in cattle, anaplasma sp., borrelia sp., and theileria s ...200415350659
effect of diminazene block treatment on live redwater vaccine reactions.one third of the manufacturer's prescribed dose of diminazene has long been used to block treat the south african unfrozen babesia bigemina and babesia bovis (redwater) vaccine reactions, with no known adverse effects. it is known that the inhibitory effect of antibabesial drugs is more pronounced in animals inoculated with the frozen vaccine than those with the unfrozen vaccine. reports of vaccine failures in some animals in which diminazene was used for block treatment of the reactions followi ...200415373333
bacteriophage t4 alpha-glucosyltransferase: a novel interaction with gp45 and aspects of the catalytic mechanism.the bacteriophage t4 alpha- and beta-glucosyltransferases (agt and bgt) catalyse the transfer of glucose from uridine diphosphoglucose to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine of t4 dna in an alpha- and beta-conformation, respectively. following the 3d structure of bgt and a secondary structure alignment of agt and bgt, we performed a site-directed mutagenesis of agt. a two-domain structure was deduced, with an open substrate-free and a closed substrate-bound conformation. we also identified specific amino a ...200415381072
babesia bigemina sexual stages are induced in vitro and are specifically recognized by antibodies in the midgut of infected boophilus microplus ticks.babesia bigemina, a causative agent of bovine babesiosis, is transmitted from one bovine to another only by infected ticks. the life cycle of b. bigemina includes a sexual phase in the tick host; however, molecules from sexual stages of any babesia species have not been characterized. this is the first report of the induction of sexual stages of any babesia species in vitro, free of tick antigens. intraerythrocytic parasites were cultured in vitro for 20h using an induction medium. extraerythroc ...200415491585
immune response to babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.the objective of this study was to characterize the immune response of babesia bigemina-infected cows during the second trimester of pregnancy. twelve animals were divided into four groups (i, ii, iii, iv); groups i and ii were pregnant cows, groups iii and iv were non-pregnant cows. groups i and iii were infected with a virulent strain of babesia bigemina, the doses utilized was 1 x 10(7) infected red blood cells im. groups ii and iv were noninfected control groups. all the infected animals wer ...200415604482
babesia bigemina: sporozoite isolation from boophilus microplus nymphs and initial immunomolecular characterization.it has been hypothesized that babesial sporozoites express specific antigens that induce protective immunologic responses in cattle. however, they remain uncharacterized, partly for lack of research on the sporozoite stage of babesia spp. this field suffers from complete knowledge of parasite development in the tick salivary gland; limited amounts of sporozoites from ticks, and a lack of protocols for induction and purification of sporozoites. in this work, boophilus microplus larvae infected wi ...200415604497
field challenge of cattle vaccinated with a combined babesia bovis and babesia bigemina frozen immunogen.to determine the optimal dose of a combined, frozen immunogen containing in vitro culture-derived strains of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, twenty-four 14-month-old bos taurus steers from a boophilus microplus-free area in northern mexico were used in this experiment. cattle were randomly allocated into six groups with four animals each, and were intramuscularly inoculated as follows: group 1 (control animals) were administered with normal bovine erythrocytes; group 2 received 1 x 10(7) b. ...200415604506
immune response to babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by babesia bigemina and babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector boophilus microplus. in this study, we investigate b. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, t cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.200415604509
reduced incidence of babesia bigemina infection in cattle immunized against the cattle tick, boophilus microplus.boophilus microplus is an important vector of bovine disease agents having a major economic impact on cattle production in many tropical and subtropical countries. components of tick saliva that enable ticks to feed may also facilitate establishment of tick-borne pathogens in the vertebrate host. it has been suggested that acquired resistance against molecules in tick saliva could inhibit parasite transmission, and there is increasing evidence to support this hypothesis. the effect of immune res ...200415604511
a comparison of small-subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences of bovine babesia species transmitted by haemaphysalis spp. in china.the ribosomal small-subunit rna gene sequences of six chinese babesia stocks infective to cattle, including a babesia bigemina isolate, a b. bovis isolate, two b. ovata isolates, a babesia sp. wenchuan isolate and a b. major isolate, were compared and analyzed. the target dna segment was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product ligated into the pgem-t easy vector for sequencing. the length of the 18s rrna gene of all babesia species involved in this study varied between 1,653 and 1 ...200415609061
progression towards endemic stability to bovine babesiosis in cattle introduced onto a game ranch.an opportunity to study progression toward endemic stability to babesia bigemina arose when cattle were reintroduced onto a game ranch in 1999 after an absence of three years. the study was conducted between august 2000 and june 2001. the unvaccinated breeding cows were sampled only once. calves born during october 1999 were initially vaccinated against b. bigemina and babesia bovis at the age of 4 months and were then bled at 10, 17 and 20 months of age. calves born during 2000 were bled at 7 a ...200415732461
babesiosis of cattle.tick fever or cattle fever (babesiosis) is economically the most important arthropod-borne disease of cattle worldwide with vast areas of australia, africa, south and central america and the united states continuously under threat. tick fever was the first disease for which transmission by an arthropod to a mammal was implicated at the turn of the twentieth century and is the first disease to be eradicated from a continent (north america). this review describes the biology of babesia spp. in the ...200415938514
spatial and management factors associated with exposure of smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania to tick-borne pathogens.a cross-sectional study of serum antibody responses of cattle to tick-borne pathogens (theileria parva, theileria mutans,anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and babesia bovis) was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in tanga and iringa regions of tanzania. seroprevalence was highest for t. parva (48% in iringa and 23% in tanga) and b. bigemina (43% in iringa and 27% in tanga) and lowest for b. bovis (12% in iringa and 6% in tanga). we use spatial and non-spatial models, fitted using classical ...200516023121
[morphologic characterization and biological aspects of evolutive forms of babesia bigemina (smith and kilborne, 1893) (protozoa: babesiidae) in boophilus microplus (canestrini, 1887)].the development of babesia bigemina in boophilus microplus were studied in experimental conditions, using crossed-breed bovine from free-area of these parasites. stages of the hemoparasites were observed in the tick vector, starting from the infected red-blood cells observed in the gut of engorged females, from the first 24 hours after detachment to the emergence of sporokinets in the larvas. in the period from 24 to 48 hours after detachment of the engorged females (def), the presence of some i ...200516153336
vaccination of older bos taurus bulls against bovine babesiosis.two separate groups of bos taurus bulls, one of 106 and the second of 27 animals, imported to israel from areas free of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, were vaccinated against babesiosis with a bivalent live attenuated vaccine. in light of the fact that routine vaccination is recommended at the weaning age, these bulls--of highly susceptible breeds--were kept under close surveillance to prevent losses that might be caused by severe clinical reactions to their vaccination at the age of 16-18 ...200515845278
babesia spp. infection in boophilus microplus engorged females and eggs in sao paulo state, brazil.babesia spp. infections were investigated in bos taurus x bos indicus dairy cows and calves and in boophilus microplus engorged female ticks and eggs. blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 25 cows and 27 calves. babesia spp. was detected in ticks by microscopic examination of hemolymph of engorged female and by squashes of egg samples. cattle infection was investigated in blood thin smears and by dna amplification methods (pcr and nested pcr), using specific primers for bab ...200515893070
study on some molecular characterization of babesia orientalis.the study on buffalo babesiosis indicated that its pathogen was different from other babesia on many aspects such as morphology, transmission and pathogenicity. therefore, it was named as a new species-babesia orientalis. in order to prove the validity of this taxon, molecular taxonomic study on the pathogen was done in this experiment. the complete 18s rrna gene sequence of b. orientalis was determined by pcr. it was sequenced and blasted. the results indicated that the classification of the pa ...200515925722
a longitudinal study of sero-conversion to tick-borne pathogens in smallholder dairy youngstock in tanzania.a longitudinal study of sero-conversion of youngstock to the tick-borne pathogens theileria parva, t. mutans, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and b. bovis was conducted over two years on smallholder dairy farms in tanga region, tanzania. there was evidence of maternal antibodies to all tick-borne pathogens in animals less than 18 weeks of age. seroprevalence increased as expected with age in animals older than this but seroprevalence profiles underestimated the force of infection due to wa ...200515936149
serological survey of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, and anaplasma marginale antibodies in cattle from the semi-arid region of the state of bahia, brazil, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.the objectives of this work were to determine the prevalence of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, and anaplasma marginale detecting antibodies in cattle raised in the semi-arid region of the state of bahia, brazil, through indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (elisa) and to compare the performances of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with crude (i-elisa-cranaag) and recombinant major surface protein-5 (i-elisa-msp-5ag), as antigens to detect antibodies against a. marginale. an s ...200516302060
pcr-based detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in their natural host boophilus microplus and cattle.pcr and nested-pcr methods were used to assess the frequency of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina infection in boophilus microplus engorged females and eggs and in cattle reared in an area with endemic babesiosis. blood and the engorged female ticks were from 27 naturally infested calves and 25 crossbred cows. the frequency of both babesia species was similar in calves and cows (p>0.05). babesia bovis was detected in 23 (85.2%) calves and in 25 (100%) cows and b. bigemina was detected in 25 (92 ...200515619521
the impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in limpopo province, south africa.a 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the bushbuckridge region, limpopo province, south africa. the main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (babesia bigemina and babesia bovis) and anaplasmosis (anaplasma marginale) in the local cattle population. to this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were ass ...200516642719
molecular diagnosis of theileria and babesia species infecting cattle in northern spain using reverse line blot macroarrays.piroplasmosis in cattle is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites of the genera theileria and babesia. molecular detection techniques offer higher sensitivity and specificity than microscopy examination methods and serological tests. a reverse line blot (rlb) macroarray that included generic and species-specific probes for theileria annulata, theileria buffeli, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens and babesia major was used to study the presence and identity of the piroplasm ...200616684356
a simple and rapid method for detection of trypanosoma evansi in the dromedary camel using a nested polymerase chain reaction.a nested polymerase chain reaction (npcr)-based assay, was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected mice and naturally infected camels (camelus dromedarius). four oligonucleotide primers (te1, te2, te3 and te4), selected from nuclear repetitive gene of t. evansi, were designed and used for pcr amplifications. the first amplification, using a pair of outer primers te1 and te2, produced a 821-bp primary pcr product from t. evansi dna. the second ...200616712737
detection of babesia bigemina dna in ticks by dna hybridization using a nonradioactive probe generated by arbitrary pcr.the dig-labeled probe specific to babesia bigemina generated from monomorphic rapd fragment of approximately 873 bp size amplified by a 10 mer cggtggcgaa, detected up to 100 ng of template dna. this nonradioactive probe also detected b. bigemina in preparations of larval tick dna from two of the five samples on dot-blot hybridization.200616782278
effect of agro-ecological zone and grazing system on incidence of east coast fever in calves in mbale and sironko districts of eastern uganda.between may 2002 and february 2003 a longitudinal survey was carried out in mbale and sironko districts of eastern uganda to determine the influence of agro-ecological zones (aez) and grazing systems on tick infestation patterns and incidence of east coast fever (ecf) in bovine calves. the study area was stratified into aez (lowland, midland and upland) and grazing systems {zero grazing (zg), restricted-outdoor grazing (rog) and communal grazing (cg)}, whose strata had previously been shown to i ...200616797092
babesia spp. identified by pcr in ticks collected from domestic and wild ruminants in southern switzerland.concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant babesia spp. and their tick vectors in switzerland was conducted. a total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of switzerland and identified morphologically. t ...200617021198
comparison between indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for anaplasma marginale antibodies with recombinant major surface protein 5 and initial body antigens.indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) based on recombinant major surface protein 5 (rmsp5) and initial body (ib) antigens from a brazilian isolate of anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle. both tests showed the same sensitivity (98.2%) and specificities (100% for rmsp5 and 93.8% for ib elisa) which did not differ statistically. no cross-reactions were detected with babesia bigemina antibodies, but 5 (rmsp5 elisa) to 15% (ib elisa ...200617072454
seroprevalence of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in cattle in the soutpansberg region, limpopo province, south africa, associated with changes in vector-tick populations.a survey was conducted at 30 communal dip tanks and on 5 commercial farms in limpopo province, south africa, during 1999 and 2000 to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to babesia bovis and babesia bigemina. cattle seropositive for b. bovis were found in 97% of the herds on communal land; the overall seroprevalence changed little between 1999 (63.3%) and 2000 (62.4%). all herds surveyed were infected with b. bigemina, and overall seroprevalence decreased significantly from 56.1% in 1999 t ...200617120620
bovine babesiosis live vaccine production: use of gamma irradiation on the substrate.gamma irradiation on bovine serum and red blood cells (rbc) allows proliferation and growth of in vitro-cultured babesia sp., and has potential application to inactivate contaminating viruses and bacteria from the substrate. gamma irradiation with 25 kgy in a source of (60)co was able to inactivate infectious bovine rinotracheitis (ibr) and bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) viruses in artificially contaminated serum; besides, bacteria were also eliminated. in vitro culture of babesia bovis (b. bovis) ...200617135544
expression of c-terminal truncated and full-length babesia bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1 and their potential use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed for the serological diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection by using a full-length b. bigemina rhoptry-associated protein 1 (rrap-1) and the truncated c-terminal rap-1 (rrap-1/ct). while the rrap-1 showed cross reactivity between b. bigemina- and babesia bovis-infected bovine sera, the rrap-1/ct was highly specific to b. bigemina-infected bovine sera and proved useful in the detection of sequential sera collected f ...200616442735
genetic basis for gpi-anchor merozoite surface antigen polymorphism of babesia and resulting antigenic diversity.glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor merozoite surface antigens (gpi-anchor msa) are proposed to act in the invasion process of infective merozoites of babesia into host erythrocytes. because of their essential function in the survival of babesia parasites, they constitute good candidates for the development of vaccines against babesiosis and they have been extensively analyzed. these include babesia bovis variable msa (vmsa) and babesia bigemina gp45/gp55 proteins of the agents of bovine babesi ...200616551492
comparison of different direct diagnostic methods to identify babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in animals vaccinated with live attenuated parasites.blood smear examination, flow cytometry, duplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr), and duplex nested pcr (npcr) were evaluated for detection of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis infections in cattle vaccinated with live attenuated strains. two groups of four cattle were immunized with either b. bigemina (bi) or b. bovis (bo). on day 23 post inoculation (pi), bi cattle were vaccinated with b. bovis (bibo) and bo cattle were vaccinated with b. bigemina (bobi). babesia bigemina was first detected by ...200616580136
detection of babesia bigemina infection in strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus collected from outbreaks in south texas.the sudden death of several cattle infested experimentally with rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus led to a clinical investigation into the reasons for the unexpected mortality. microscopic evidence for babesia bigemina infection was found in blood smears from the affected animals and a pcr assay was designed to detect the presence of b. bigemina and babesia bovis in all r. microplus strains received and propagated at the laboratory. the assay utilizes a nested pcr approach with the first pcr a ...200717178440
genotyping of babesia bigemina from cattle from a non-endemic area (switzerland).in august 2002, bovine anaplasmosis and concurrent infections with mycoplasma sp. and piroplasms were reported in a cattle herd in an alpine region of switzerland. the piroplasms were identified by pcr/sequencing of part of the 18s rrna gene as babesia bigemina and theileria of the buffeli/sergenti/orientalis-complex, which have never been diagnosed in switzerland before. the b. bigemina isolate was genetically characterised at two loci and compared with isolates from italy, spain, turkey, kenya ...200717208377
slide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection in bovines.a slide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (selisa) for the diagnosis of babesia bigemina infection in cattle was standardized. acetone-fixed whole babesia bigemina-infected erythrocytes on micro-slides were immunoreacted with bovine serum samples followed by antibovine horseradish peroxidase conjugate and developed using diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride as a substrate. the positive immunoreactivity (staining pattern) was visualized in the form of dark brown piroplasms. using the laboratory-st ...200717285245
bovine babesiosis: anti-erythrocyte antibodies purification from the sera of naturally infected cattle.babesia bigemina and babesia bovis are intra-erythrocytic protozoan parasites transmitted by ticks to cattle in which they induce babesiosis, a disease that resembles human malaria. anemia, caused by the destruction of non-infected erythrocytes, is a critical feature of the disease. anti-erythrocyte antibodies could be one of the explanations for such destruction. these antibodies are found in the sera of dogs and mice respectively infected with b. gibsoni and b. rodhaini. however, data concerni ...200717292487
dynamics of anemia progression and recovery in babesia bigemina infection is unrelated to initiating parasite burden.to be informative, immunization-and-challenge experiments in support of vaccine development rely on host responses that enable distinctions to be made in the responses of immunized and non-immunized animals to infectious challenge. it is therefore important that animals be challenged with standardized infectious doses that allow such distinctions to be made. we report here the results of a challenge titration experiment in which cattle were challenged with babesia bigemina, at dosages ranging ov ...200717353098
babesia bigemina: attenuation of an uzbek isolate for immunization of cattle with live calf- or culture-derived parasites.the virulence of an uzbek isolate of babesia bigemina, obtained from infected boophilus annulatus ticks from an endemic area in uzbekistan, was attenuated for immunization of cattle with autochthonous calf- or culture-derived parasites in uzbekistan. after four "slow passages" in vivo the virulence was reduced, as evidenced by the response of calves inoculated with an experimental live frozen vaccine produced from the following passage. the vaccine was safe and protective against homologous viru ...200717368728
comparison of duplex pcr and microscopic techniques for the identification of babesia bigemina and babesia bovis in engorged female ticks of boophilus microplus.a single-step duplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) technique and traditional microscopic examination of haemolymph smears were used to detect babesia bigemina and/or babesia bovis infection in engorged female ticks of boophilus microplus recovered from calves raised in an endemic area of the state of minas gerais, brazil. in the pcr amplification of tick-derived dna, pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific for a 278-bp sequence from b. bigemina and for a 350-bp sequence from b. bovis were us ...200717456146
a quantitative pcr assay for the detection and quantification of babesia bovis and b. bigemina.the haemoparasites babesia bovis and babesia bigemina affect cattle over vast areas of the tropics and temperate parts of the world. microscopic examination of blood smears allows the detection of clinical cases of babesiosis, but this procedure lacks sensitivity when parasitaemia levels are low. in addition, differentiating between similar haemoparasites can be very difficult. molecular diagnostic procedures can, however, overcome these problems. this paper reports a quantitative pcr (qpcr) ass ...200717466458
detection and quantification of anaplasma marginale dna in blood samples of cattle by real-time pcr.a taqman-based real-time pcr assay was developed for the diagnosis of anaplasma marginale infection of cattle. the established assay was proven to be highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other anaplasma species of ruminants, including the closely related anaplasma centrale, or other haemoparasites of ruminants (anaplasma bovis, anaplasma ovis, anaplasma phagocytophilum, babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, theileria annulata and theileria buffeli). the detection limit was equ ...200717466470
epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan.a herd-based study was carried out in central equatoria state, southern sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne diseases. six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the year 2005. blood smears for giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected from 600 apparently healthy indigenous cattle. a total of 69 (11.5%) samples showed the presence of piroplasms in giemsa- ...200717530477
development of two immunochromatographic tests for the serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis.in this study, we developed two immunochromatographic tests (icts), which are nitrocellulose membrane-based immunoassays for the convenient and rapid serodiagnosis of bovine babesiosis caused by babesia bovis (boict) and babesia bigemina (biict). the efficacy of two icts was evaluated using 13 positive sera from experimentally infected cattle with b. bovis or b. bigemina. clear results showed that the boict and elisa detected antibodies in sera collected from 14 to 93 days post-infection, while ...200717590275
detection of theileria and babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.the present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and theileria and babesia species transmitted by these ticks in kayseri province (turkey). a total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. a total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. the most prevalent tick species was boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by hyalomma marginatum ...200717614205
seroprevalence of babesia bigemina in smallholder dairy cattle in tanzania and associated risk factors.variations in the seroprevalence of antibody to babesia bigemina infection by farm and animal level risk factors were investigated for 2 contrasting regions of tanga and iringa in tanzania. tanga is situated in the eastern part of the country and has typical tropical coast climate while iringa is situated in the southern highlands and has a tropical highland climate. two hundred farms from each region were selected using simple random sampling procedure and visited once between january 1999 and ...200717665760
advances in the development of molecular tools for the control of bovine babesiosis in mexico.the severe negative impact that bovine babesiosis has in the mexican cattle industry has not been ameliorated basically due to the lack of safe and effective commercially available vaccines and sensitive and reliable diagnostic tests. in recent years, the bovine babesiosis laboratory at the national center for disciplinary research in veterinary parasitology-inifap in morelos state, mexico has been directing efforts towards three main research areas: (1) the development of in vitro culture-deriv ...200717691602
immunologic and molecular identification of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern mexico.the suitability of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. these ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit babesia bovis and babesia bigemina, the agents responsible for bovine babesiosis. although this disease and its vectors have been eradicated from the united states and some states in northern mexico, it still is a problem in other mexican states. it i ...200717699089
a shared antigen among babesia species: ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 as a universal babesial vaccine candidate.babesia gibsoni ribosomal phosphoprotein p0 (bgp0) was previously identified as a cross-protective antigen against babesia microti infection in mice. interestingly, the same protein showed considerable antigenicity when tested with serum samples collected from babesia-infected animals. moreover, the polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant bgp0 (rbgp0) recognized the p0 homologues from other babesia species either by immunoblotting or by immunoscreening. the p0 genes from babesia cabal ...200717823817
development of taqman-based real-time pcr assays for diagnostic detection of babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.two taqman-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays devised for the detection of two bovine babesia parasites, babesia bovis and b. bigemina, were evaluated for their diagnostic utility using cultured parasites and 92 field bovine blood samples collected from cattle living in brazil. the real-time pcr assays were compared with previously established nested-pcr assays. the detection limits of both b. bovis- and b. bigemina-real-time pcr assays were identical at the value of 2.5 para ...200717984338
detection of microorganisms in the saliva and midgut smears of different tick species (acari: ixodoidea) in egypt.investigation of 1789 field-collected adult ticks in egypt for the presence of microorganisms revealed the following: the protozoan, babesia bigemina, b. canis; theileria annulata, and the rickettesia aegyptianella pullorum (carpano) were found in the saliva and the mid-guts smears of eight ixodid and two argasid tick species. the infected percent was higher in cattle and dog ticks than it was in fowl ticks; it was also higher in salivary glands (s) than in the midguts (m). identification of pro ...200717985586
[natural infection by hemoparasites in calves submitted to chemoprophylaxis at 30 days of age].the tick-borne disease (tbd) brings great damages to cattle breeding. the most important etiologic agents are babesia bigemina, b. bovis and anaplasma marginale, being the tick boophilus microplus the main vector. this work reports the occurrence of natural infection by hemoparasites of tbd in 36 calves with high ticks natural infestation submitted to chemoprophylaxis with 30 days year-old. the blood smears from animals of different ages were analized and were found b. bigemina (33.3%), b. bovis ...200718078605
[isolation of a field strain of babesia bigemina (piroplasma: babesiidae) and establishment of in vitro culture for antigen production].isolation of a field strain of babesia bigemina (piroplasma: babesiidae) and establishment of in vitro culture for antigen production. bovine b abesiosis, caused by babesia bigemina, is a barrier for livestock development; it results in high economic loss to mexican livestock. control requires adequate antigens for diagnosis and vaccination programs. however, because of antigenic variation among babesia strains, it is necessary to use antigens prepared from local strains. the purpose of the pres ...200718457120
productivity and health effects of anaplasmosis and babesiosis on bos indicus cattle and their crosses, and the effects of differing intensity of tick control in australia.tick fever is an important disease of cattle where rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus acts as a vector for the three causal organisms babesia bovis, babesia bigemina and anaplasma marginale. bos indicus cattle and their crosses are more resistant to the clinical effects of infection with b. bovis and b. bigemina than are bos taurus cattle. resistance is not complete, however, and herds of b. indicus-cross cattle are still at risk of babesiosis in environments where exposure to b. bovis is light ...200818472219
enzootic simian piroplasm (entopolypoides macaci ) in wild-caught kenyan non-human primates.three species of non-human primates comprising african green monkeys (agms), (cercopithecus aethiops, n = 89), syke's monkeys (cercopithecus mitis, n = 60) and olive baboons (papio cynocephalus anubis, n = 30), were screened for entopolypoides macaci.200818507704
detection of babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus tick.babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: nelore, angus x nelore, canchim x nelore, and simmental x nelore. microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of b. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of babesia spp. (9/549) were only ...200818565674
clinical features associated with seroconversion to anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and theileria parva infections in african cattle under natural tick challenge.a longitudinal study was conducted in southeast uganda for 14 months on 640 zebu cattle kept under natural tick challenge, with a view to identifying clinical features for prediction of seroconversion to anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina and theileria parva infections. physical examination, condition scoring and tick counts were undertaken on all cattle every 4 weeks. in addition, 5300 sera were collected and analysed for antibodies against a. marginale, b. bigemina and t. parva infections u ...200818579313
development of a rapid immunochromatographic test for simultaneous serodiagnosis of bovine babesioses caused by babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.with the objective of developing a simpler diagnostic alternative, a rapid immunochromatographic test (boiict) was constructed for the simultaneous detection of babesia bovis- and babesia bigemina-specific antibodies using b. bovis recombinant merozoite surface antigen-2c and b. bigemina recombinant rhoptry-associated protein-1. the boiict selectively detected specific antibodies to b. bovis and b. bigemina. all sera from cattle infected with other protozoan parasites (i.e., cryptosporidium parv ...200818187794
parasitic infections in dairy cattle around hanoi, northern vietnam.in northern vietnam, dairy cattle are mainly managed in small-scale farms, where animals are kept confined and feeding occurs by cut and carry methods. in the present study the occurrence of parasitic infections was examined in five provinces around hanoi. a total of 201 farms were visited, and 334 stool and 239 blood samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months, animals between 3 and 24 months and adult cows. furthermore, 254 milk samples were collected from lactating animals. copro ...200818328629
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