pcr cloning and nucleotide sequence determination of the 18s rrna genes and internal transcribed spacer 1 of the protozoan parasites cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris.the genes encoding 18s rrna and internal transcribed spacer 1 (1ts1) of cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris were amplified from oocysts by pcr utilizing primers complementary to conserved regions of the 5' end of 18s and 5.8s rrna. pcr products were cloned and the complete nucleotide sequences of two clones of each cryptosporidium species were determined. the 18s rrna genes of c. parvum and c. muris showed more than 99% sequence identity.19921627648
immune responses to cryptosporidium muris and cryptosporidium parvum in adult immunocompetent or immunocompromised (nude and scid) murine models of cryptosporidium infection involving cryptosporidium muris and c. parvum were used to study immunity to cryptosporidiosis in the mammalian host. immunocompetent balb/c or c57bl/6 mice developed a highly patent infection with the rn 66 strain of c. muris but overcame the infection and were immune to reinfection. in contrast, severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice or nude mice had a chronic infection lasting at least 109 days. the development of the c. muris infection a ...19921639500
prevalence of cryptosporidium muris-like oocysts among cattle populations of the united states: preliminary part of a national survey for bovine, cryptosporidium muris oocysts, fecal smears in the form of up to 144, 3- to 5-mm dots per glass slide were prepared from pen samples at dairies and feedlots in the eastern and western united states. acid-fast staining was followed by light microscopic evaluation at x100. samples from 150 dairies numbered 48,810 and those from 30 feedlots, 47,064. positive samples were found at 102 (68%) dairies and 24 (80%) feedlots. overall, prevalence of positive sample ...19911818141
cryptosporidium muris in cattle. 19911897110
cryptosporidium muris is particularly hazardous for people with suppressed immune systems from drugs or diseases, e.g. aids. 19901980509
infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66) in various laboratory animals.the infectivity of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66), originally isolated from the house rat (iseki 1986), to various laboratory animals was studied by transmission experiments. after oral inoculation with 1 x 10(6) oocysts, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and cats all discharged endogenously produced oocysts in their feces. among these host species, mice and cats were highly susceptible to the parasite. the prepatent period for six 3-week-old specific pathogen-free (spf) mice was 5 days po ...19892523540
treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.the infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. the infections most commonly encountered in patients with aids are pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these pa ...19852996829
abomasal cryptosporidiosis in cattle.a 6-week-old calf and nine feedlot steers shed oocysts similar to cryptosporidium muris-like oocysts. there were massive populations of this cryptosporidium in the peptic glands of most of these animals. the oocysts were larger and more oval than the frequently reported type which is generated in the intestines of many animal species and thought to be similar to cryptosporidium parvum. the pattern of shedding of this newly discovered cryptosporidium in the steers was continuous over a period of ...19873603962
[abdominal pain in childhood due to a cryptosporidium parasitosis].three cases of cryptosporidiosis in children are described. abdominal pain without concomitant acute diarrhoea, was the main clinical symptom. no other intestinal pathological agent was isolated. all children were males, aged between 25-27 months, living in urban area and with a high socioeconomic level. they went to day nurseries and only one was contacted with home animal. this last child had a previous giardiasis treated with metronidazole. nutritional status was normal. neither humoral nor c ...19863752746
the species of cryptosporidium (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) infecting mammals.oocysts of cryptosporidium muris (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae) were obtained from the feces of naturally infected calves. oocysts were fully sporulated in fresh feces, measured 7.4 x 5.6 (6.6 - 7.9 x 5.3 - 6.5) micron, and possessed a longitudinal suture along one pole of the oocyst wall. morphologic and biologic evidence obtained from this study demonstrated that c. muris is a species distinct from cryptosporidium parvum, which has smaller oocysts.19854057006
natural cryptosporidium muris infection of the stomach in laboratory mice.histopathological findings were described in naturally infected laboratory mice in conjunction with the presence of oocysts in the feces related to cryptosporidiosis of the stomach. diagnosis of infection was made by the observation of oocysts which were indistinguishable from those of tyzzer's original description of cryptosporidium muris seen in feces. in addition to this, endogenous developmental stages of the parasite in histologic preparations of tissues obtained at the time of postmortem e ...19947886910
[first cases of verified spontaneous infection of cattle by cryptosporidium muris tyzzer (1907), 1910 in the czech republic]. 19948009784
detection of oocysts and igg antibodies to cryptosporidium parvum in asymptomatic adult cattle.infection by cryptosporidium was detected in 94 (71.75%) asymptomatic adult cattle from 131 fecal samples examined microscopically. in two cases cryptosporidium oocysts were observed which were distinctly larger (5.5-6.5 microns x 6.6-7.0 microns) than those we had seen in the majority of feces examined (4.0-4.5 microns x 4.0-4.5 microns) and these specimens were considered to be cryptosporidium muris; it is possible that the other oocysts should be considered as cryptosporidium parvum. the sero ...19938493772
resolution of cryptosporidial infection in mice correlates with parasite-specific lymphocyte proliferation associated with both th1 and th2 cytokine secretion.this study was designed to investigate and characterize t-cell responses which lead to elimination of a primary infection of cryptosporidium muris in balb/c mice. the proliferative response of spleen cells to parasite antigen was measured by uptake of 3h-thymidine and, in parallel, supernatants were removed from cells to measure levels of ifn-gamma, tnf, il-2 and il-4 by elisa. oocyst excretion in faeces was first detected on day 10 post infection (p.i.); the level of shedding subsequently incre ...19958552414
[the first finding of a spontaneous gastric cryptosporidiosis infection in hamsters (phodopus roborovskii satunin, 1903)].the desert hamster (phodopus roborovskii satunin, 1903) represents a new host of cryptosporidium muris tyzzer (1907), 1910. this very first finding was made in the laboratories of the national veterinary institute, prague, czech republic. in september 1994 three 11-month and one 3-month desert hamsters were sent for laboratory examination. parasitological examination post mortem of a 3-month desert hamster revealed "large" cryptosporidium oocysts in excrements as well as in the contents of intes ...19958585141
oocyst production and immunogenicity of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) in mice.three-week-old icr spf mice were orally inoculated with one of 5 doses ranging from 2 x 10(2) to 2 x 10(6) oocysts of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) per mouse. oocyst inoculation was directly proportional to the amount of oocysts shed and was inversely proportional to the period required for peak oocyst production and to the prepatent period. peak oocyst production occurred between fifteen and thirty-one days with a patent period from 61 to 64 days. three days after all mice stopped shedding ...19958591016
[cryptosporidia and other endoparasites in heifers imported into the czech republic].totally 887 heifers of holstein-friesian breed mostly in late pregnancy imported to the czech republic from france (597), germany (89), denmark (181) and holland (20) were examined coprologically from september 1993 to march 1995 in the parasitological laboratory of the national veterinary institute (nvi). prague. feces were sampled individually, rectally, always on days 1-3 following importation from heifers housed in particular quarantine sheds. in compliance with presently valid veterinary re ...19958659084
detection of cryptosporidium muris oocysts in the faeces of adult dairy cattle in scotland. 19968686154
immunity to cryptosporidium muris infection in mice is expressed through gut cd4+ intraepithelial lymphocytes.the role of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (iel) in immunity to cryptosporidial infection was investigated with a murine infection model involving cryptosporidium muris. oocyst shedding was monitored in severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice infected with c. muris following intravenous injection of mesenteric lymph node (mln) cells or intestinal iel from balb/c donor mice which were naive or previously infected with c. muris. scid mice receiving no lymphoid cells developed chronic infecti ...19968698479
helicobacter felis as a cofactor alone or together with stress in cryptosporidial activation in mice.cryptosporidiosis is caused by a protozoan parasite, mainly found in animals, which usually results in transient, mild gastroenteritis in humans but can cause severe and prolonged disease in immunocompromised individuals. immunocompetent mice, naturally infected with cryptosporidium muris, were used to investigate the effects of inoculation with helicobacter felis and of stress on the activity of the c. muris infection, as indicated by histopathological examination of their stomachs. the results ...19958746615
survival of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) oocysts under cryopreservation.we have successfully maintained cryptosporidium muris by cryopreservation. oocysts were suspended in distilled water, stored at -20 degrees c for 24 hrs, and then cryopreserved at -70 degrees c. cryopreserved specimens were slowly thawed at 5 degrees c. oocysts, which had been cryopreserved for 15 months without cryoprotective agents, retained their infectivity by the mouse titration method. oocysts stored at 5 degrees c in 2.5% potassium dichromate failed to retain their infectivity beyond 6.5 ...19968925249
infectivity of cryptosporidium muris directly isolated from the murine stomach for various laboratory animals.oocysts of cryptosporidium muris, directly isolated from the stomach of experimentally infected laboratory mice were orally inoculated into rats, gerbils, guinea pigs, dogs, and rabbits. weaned rats developed patent c. muris infection as evidenced by the endogenous stages in gastric glands and oocyst shedding 10-17 days later. no signs of clinical illness or macroscopic findings were detected in mice and rats. laboratory raised suckling rabbits, guinea pigs, gerbils and dogs fed c. muris rarely ...19969017888
cryptosporidium infection in major histocompatibility complex congeneic strains of mice: variation in susceptibility and the role of t-cell cytokine responses.studies with murine infection models have shown that immunity to the protozoan parasite cryptosporidium involves t-cells and interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) activity. the present study was performed to compare the course of infection of cryptosporidium muris in major histocompatibility complex (mhc) congeneic strains of mice and examine the relationship between susceptibility to infection and production of t-cell cytokines. in experiments with balb mice, the balb/c strain (h-2d) produced significan ...19979089722
prevalence of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle and wildlife in morogoro region, tanzania.prevalences of cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle (n = 486) on five selected farms in morogoro municipality and three species of herbivorous wildlife (n = 87) from mikumi national park, morogoro, tanzania, were determined using the modified ziehl-neelsen staining technique. of 486 bovine faecal samples, 5.3% were positive for cryptosporidium spp. the prevalence of cryptosporidium was higher in calves less than 3 months of age compared to weaned calves and adults. cryptosporidium spp. oocysts ...19979234442
heterogeneous distribution of membrane cholesterol at the attachment site of cryptosporidium muris to host cells.distribution of membrane cholesterol at the attachment site of cryptosporidium muris was investigated by freeze-fracture cytochemistry using a polyene antibiotic filipin. since the host plasma membrane enveloped c. muris, the inner and outer membranes were continuous with the parasite plasma membrane at the annular ring and with host membrane at the dense band, respectively. although many filipin-cholesterol complexes were observed on the plasma membrane of host cells and parasites, a line showi ...19979304814
giardia and cryptosporidium in dairy calves in british columbia.a study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of giardia infections in dairy calves and to compare giardia and cryptosporidium infections in calves of different ages. fresh fecal samples were collected from 386 male and female holstein calves (newborn to 24 wk) in 20 dairies located in the lower fraser river valley area of british columbia. giardia intestinalis, cryptosporidium parvum, and cryptosporidium muris were enumerated in each sample after concentration by sucrose gradient centrifug ...19979360789
effects of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) infection on gastric mucosal mast cells in mice.the responses of gastric mucosal mast cells (gmmcs) to infection with coccidian protozoa, cryptosporidium muris, in mice were examined during primary and challenge infections. each of three-week old icr spf mice was orally inoculated with a single dose of 2 x 10(6) oocysts of c. muris (strain mcr). after oocyst shedding ceased, the mice were orally challenged with a single dose of 2 x 10(6) oocysts of the same species. gmmcs reached a peak on days 20-30 postinoculation (pi) in number, and decrea ...19979446905
cryptosporidium muris in dairy cattle in brazil.a total of 580 fecal samples from 30 cows and their calves from three dairy farms in são paulo state, brazil, was collected monthly over a period of 1 year (april 1994 to march 1995). a combination of water-ether centrifugal sedimentation technique followed by sucrose centrifugal flotation was used for neonatal samples and sucrose centrifugal flotation for the remainder of the samples. cryptosporidium muris was found in calves from all farms, although the parasite was not detected in the dams. c ...19979477522
experimental transmission of cryptosporidium oocyst isolates from mammals, birds and reptiles to captive snakes.groups of four to five, 3-month-old rat snakes (elaphe obsoleta) were separately gastrically inoculated with 2.0 x 10(6) viable oocysts of cryptosporidium muris (mice and calves), c. muris-like (bactrian camels), c. wrairi (guinea pigs), c. baileyi (chickens), c. meleagridis (turkeys), cryptosporidium sp. (turtles, tortoises, chameleons and lizards) and c. serpentis from clinically (fatal case) and subclinically infected snakes. none of the snakes inoculated with oocysts originating from homothe ...19989601150
infectivity of cryptosporidium muris isolated from cattle.the infectivity of a bovine isolate of cryptosporidium muris for various animals was studied by transmission experiments. neonatal balb/c mice, adult balb/c mice, scid mice, common voles (microtus arvalis), bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus), common field mice (apodemus sylvaticus), mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus), desert gerbils (gerbilus gerbilus), guinea pigs, rats, rabbits and goats were used to test the infectivity of this isolate. among these host species, only mongolian gerbil ...19989615952
survey of cryptosporidium oocysts from adult cattle in a slaughter house.cryptosporidian oocysts were surveyed in rectal stools of adult cattle which were carried into slaughterhouse from april 1995 to july 1996. we morphologically and histologically investigated oocysts, and experimentally infected the isolated oocysts to mice and rats. cryptosporidian oocysts were detected from 24 of 512 cattle (4.7%). they were spherical or ovoid, and the size was 7.0-7.9 x 5.3-6.1 microm. mice and rats inoculated orally with 10(5)-10(7) oocysts became infected and discharged oocy ...19989637292
infection kinetics and developmental biology of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) in korean native kids and corriedale lambs.a total of nine korean native kids and two corriedale lambs, 1-20 days old, were each inoculated per os with a single dose of 2 x 10(7) oocysts of cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) originated from mice to elucidate the kinetics and developmental stages of the coccidium in small ruminants. irrespective of host's age, the prepatent period for both animals ranged from 19 to 35 days (28.1 days, on the average) and the patent period 16-85 days (47.8 days), and the total oocyst outputs showed enormou ...19989755588
cryptosporidiosis in bovine and human health.cryptosporidiosis, which is caused by cryptosporidium parvum and was discovered in mice at the turn of the century, emerged as a frequently reported intestinal disease of animals and humans in the 1980s when its zoonotic potential was recognized. in recent years, the public has become aware of severe cryptosporidiosis because of its incidence in aids patients and because of massive outbreaks of cryptosporidial enteritis among the general populace worldwide from contaminated drinking water. lives ...19989839243
phylogenetic analysis of cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rrna gene locus.biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. in order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rrna genes of cryptosporidium parvum, cryptosporidium baileyi, cryptosporidium muris, and cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ...199910103253
age-dependent resistance to cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) infection in golden hamsters and age-dependent aspect of resistance to cryptosporidium muris (strain mcr) infection was monitored in syrian golden hamsters, mesocricetus auratus, at 1-, 5- and 10-week of age and in icr mice. mus musculus, at 3-, 12-, and 15-week of age orally inoculated with a single dose of 2 x 10(6) oocysts, respectively. the prepatent periods for both animals were similar, independent of age, but the patency was significantly longer in younger hamsters (p < 0.001) and a long tendency in younger mice. hams ...199910188381
biallelic polymorphism in the intron region of beta-tubulin gene of cryptosporidium parasites.nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified intron region of the cryptosporidium parvum beta-tubulin gene in 26 human and 15 animal isolates revealed distinct genetic polymorphism between the human and bovine genotypes. the separation of 2 genotypes of c. parvum is in agreement with our previous genotyping data based on the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (trap-c2) gene, indicating these genotype characteristics are linked at 2 genetic loci. characterization of cryptospo ...199910207387
phylogenetic analysis of cryptosporidium isolates from captive reptiles using 18s rdna sequence data and random amplified polymorphic dna analysis.sequence alignment of a polymerase chain reaction-amplified 713-base pair region of the cryptosporidium 18s rdna gene was carried out on 15 captive reptile isolates from different geographic locations and compared to both cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris isolates. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis was also performed on a smaller number of these samples. the data generated by both techniques were significantly correlated (p < 0.002), providing additional evidence to ...199910386447
the pathogenesis of experimental infections of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66) in outbred nude mice.three groups of six-week-old nude outbred mice were orally infected with 400, 20,000 and 1,000,000 oocysts of cryptosporidium muris (strain rn 66) per mouse, respectively. oocysts were detected in the faeces from 10-18 days post-infection (p.i.) and continued to be shed in large numbers in all groups until the termination of the trial on day 89 p.i. clinical signs were not observed in any of the infected mice and there was no significant effect on weight gain compared to uninfected controls. his ...199910489201
the identification of cryptosporidium species and cryptosporidium parvum directly from whole faeces by analysis of a multiplex pcr of the 18s rrna gene and by pcr/rflp of the cryptosporidium outer wall protein (cowp) gene.a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) procedure to amplify 18s rrna gene fragments has been developed. amplified dna fragments of the expected size were obtained which were specific for cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium wrairi (422 bp), cryptosporidium baileyi (11106 bp) and cryptosporidium muris (1346 bp). criptosporidium parvum and c. wrairi can be distinguished using a pcr/restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of the cryptosporidium outer wall protein (cowp) ...199910576575
immunological and parasitological studies of cryptosporidium muris, tyzzer (1907).oocysts of c. muris and the events of excystation using 0.5% sodium hypochlorite as excystation medium were described with light microscope. the response of the immunocompetent balb/c mice against infection was studied using sera of orally infected mice at different periods postinoculation by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test using 1:150 fitc conjugated rabbit serum antimouse polyclonal igg. from the patterns of ifat, it was suggested that the dominant antigen in c. muris was restricted ...199910605505
cryptosporidium andersoni n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporiidae) from cattle, bos taurus.a new species of cryptosporidium is described from the feces of domestic cattle, bos taurus. oocysts are structurally similar to those of cryptosporidium muris described from mice but are larger than those of cryptosporidium parvum. oocysts of the new species are ellipsoidal, lack sporocysts, and measure 7.4 x 5.5 microm (range, 6.0-8.1 by 5.0-6.5 microm). the length to width ratio is 1.35 (range, 1.07-1.50). the colorless oocyst wall is < 1 microm thick, lacks a micropyle, and possesses a longi ...200010651302
short report: possible cryptosporidium muris infection in humans.oocysts of cryptosporidia whose morphology resembled that of cryptosporidium muris were found in the stool of 2 healthy girls in surabaya, indonesia. the oocysts were predominantly oval and measured 7.75+/-0.17 x 5.55+/-0.13 microm (mean+/-sd). the number of oocysts excreted were more than 10(5) per gram of stool. the oocysts were well stained with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody to cryptosporidium. the specimens from both girls containing the oocysts showed a positive result by the p ...200010761726
molecular and phylogenetic analysis of cryptosporidium muris from various hosts.isolates of cryptosporidium muris and c. serpentis were characterized from different hosts using nucleotide sequence analysis of the rdna 18s and its1 regions, and the heat-shock (hsp-70) gene. phylogenetic analysis confirmed preliminary evidence that c. muris is not a uniform species. two distinct genotypes were identified within c. muris; (1) c. muris genotype a; comprising bovine and camel isolates of c. muris from different geographical locations, and (2) c. muris genotype b comprising c. mu ...200010840975
prevalence of giardia sp. cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium andersoni (syn. c. muris) [correction of cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris (c. andersoni)] in 109 dairy herds in five counties of southeastern new york.a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of giardia sp. (g. duodenalis group), cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium andersoni (c. muris) [corrected] in dairy cattle in three different age groups, and to evaluate the association of age and season with prevalence. one hundred and nine dairy farms, from a total of 212 farms, in five counties of southeastern new york volunteered to participate. on these farms, 2943 fecal samples were collected from three defined age g ...200011027856
characterization of cryptosporidium parvum by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) was used to investigate whole and freeze-thawed cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. whole oocysts revealed some mass spectral features. reproducible patterns of spectral markers and increased sensitivity were obtained after the oocysts were lysed with a freeze-thaw procedure. spectral-marker patterns for c. parvum were distinguishable from those obtained for cryptosporidium muris. one spectral marker appears ...200011055915
morphologic, host specificity, and genetic characterization of a european cryptosporidium andersoni isolate.this study was undertaken in order to characterize a cryptosporidium muris-like parasite isolated from cattle in hungary and to compare this strain with other cryptosporidium species. to date, the large-type oocysts isolated from cattle were considered as c. muris described from several mammals. the size, form, and structure of the oocysts of the hungarian strain were identical with those described by others from cattle. an apparent difference between the morphometric data of c. muris-like paras ...200011191899
infectivity and oocyst excretion patterns of cryptosporidium muris in slightly infected determine the infectivity of cryptosporidium to hosts in slight infections, we examined the infectivity and oocyst output patterns of cryptosporidium muris in mice inoculated with small numbers of oocysts. one of the 25 icr mice inoculated with 2.4 x 10(1) oocysts and 19 of the 25 mice inoculated with 2.4 x 10(2) oocysts shed oocysts in the feces after inoculation. four of the 50 mice inoculated with 2.4 x 10(1) oocysts for 10 consecutive days also shed oocysts and their opg values were simil ...200111307934
cryptosporidium muris infection in an hiv-infected adult, kenya.we describe a case of cryptosporidium muris infection in an hiv-infected adult with diarrhea in kenya. sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18s rrna gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with c. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a c. muris "calf" isolate, 95.5% with c. serpentis, but only 87.8% with c. parvum "human" type.200211897075
cryptosporidium muris-like infection in stomach of cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis).abstract. protozoa were present in routine sections of the gastric fundus of 15 cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) that were being studied in three toxicity studies with novel immunosuppressive agents. upon detailed light microscopic and ultrastructural evaluation, all stages of parasite development (trophozoites, schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts) were seen and they structurally resembled cryptosporidium muris, which normally is found in stomachs of rodents. cryptosporidia were primarily pr ...200212014500
immunomagnetic separation (ims)-fluorescent antibody detection and ims-pcr detection of seeded cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in natural waters and their limitations.detection and enumeration of cryptosporidium parvum in both treated and untreated waters are important to facilitate prevention of future cryptosporidiosis incidents. immunomagnetic separation (ims)-fluorescent antibody (fa) detection and ims-pcr detection efficiencies were evaluated in two natural waters seeded with nominal seed doses of 5, 10, and 15 oocysts. ims-fa detected oocysts at concentrations at or below the three nominal oocyst seed doses, illustrating that ims-fa is sensitive enough ...200212039759
a common oocyst surface antigen of cryptosporidium recognized by monoclonal antibodies.two hybridoma clones, cmyl3 and cmyl30, were generated by immunizing balb/c mice with excysted oocysts of cryptosporidium muris. both clones secreted monoclonal antibodies against an oocyst-wall antigen with apparent molecular mass of 250 kda (called cm250) from c. muris and c. parvum. the epitope appeared to be periodate-sensitive, suggesting the involvement of a carbohydrate moiety. immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy on purified oocysts and infected mouse tissues revealed staining conf ...200212049457
cryptosporidium andersoni from a danish cattle herd: identification and preliminary november 1997, cryptosporidium andersoni, for the first time, was isolated from a danish heifer. the isolate was characterised morphologically, molecularly, and furthermore inoculated into mice and one calf. data on the distribution of cryptosporidia in the herd of origin were obtained at two separate visits in december 1997 and april 1998. c. andersoni was detected in 27 (19.0%) of 142 cattle examined at the first visit, whereas c. parvum was found in six (4.2%). at the following visit 42 (2 ...200212072212
genetic diversity of cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in michigan: implications for understanding the transmission dynamics.epidemiological and molecular data on 248 bovine, 17 human, and 16 water samples of cryptosporidium spp. collected from the lower peninsula of michigan between 1997 and 2000 were analysed. cryptosporidium parvum bovine genotype and cryptosporidium andersoni were found in 56 and four cattle samples, respectively. a total of six c. parvum subgenotypes were found in 34 bovine samples, and five of the eight farms had two or three subgenotypes in cattle. six water samples from these farms had c. ande ...200312783304
natural infection of cryptosporidium muris (apicomplexa: cryptosporiidae) in siberian chipmunks.coprologic examination of nine siberian chipmunks (eutamias sibiricus) imported from southeast asia revealed infection with cryptosporidium sp. experimental inoculation of balb/c mice proved their susceptibility to the infection. infected mice shed oocysts 14-35 days postinfection. oocyst morphology was similar to that reported for c. muris in previous studies, oocysts were 8.1 (7.0-9.0) x 5.9 (5.0-6.5) microns. clinical signs were absent in naturally infected chipmunks and experimental mice. hi ...200312910775
cryptosporidium muris, a rodent pathogen, recovered from a human in perú.cryptosporidium muris, predominantly a rodent species of cryptosporidium, is not normally considered a human pathogen. recently, isolated human infections have been reported from indonesia, thailand, france, and kenya. we report the first case of c. muris in a human in the western hemisphere. this species may be an emerging zoonotic pathogen capable of infecting humans.200314519260
immobilized enzyme-linked dna-hybridization assay with electrochemical detection for cryptosporidium parvum hsp70 electrochemical enzyme-linked immobilized dna-hybridization assay for the detection of cryptosporidium parvum in water has been developed. the target molecule was a 121-nucleotide sequence from the c. parvum heat shock protein 70 (hsp70 mrna from u71181 gene). this analyte offers the possibility of distinguishing dead from live oocysts. the assay involves covalent attachment of a primary dna probe via its 5'-amine-terminus to self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoundecanoic acid to a gold surf ...200314572058
genetic diversity of cryptosporidium spp. in captive reptiles.the genetic diversity of cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rrna gene. a total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for cryptosporidium: nine different types of cryptosporidium were found, including cryptosporidium serpentis, cryptosporidium desert monitor genotype, cryptosporidium muris, cryptosporidium parvum bovine and mou ...200414766569
cryptosporidium muris infection in bilbies (macrotis lagotis).cryptosporidiosis is an enteric disease of animals and humans that can be fatal in immunocompromised individuals. there is no known effective treatment for cryptosporidiosis. bilbies are threatened marsupials and are bred in captivity as part of a recovery program to re-introduce this species to the southwest of western australia. cryptosporidium muris infection was detected in the faeces of bilbies at a captive breeding colony. stress associated with a high density of bilbies in enclosures may ...200315080483
detection and genotyping of entamoeba histolytica, entamoeba dispar, giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. the morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. in this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and di ...200415243091
prevalence of giardia and cryptosporidium in beef cows in southern ontario and in beef calves in southern british 1998 and 1999, fecal samples were collected from 669 beef cows on 39 farms located within 10 counties of ontario. overall prevalences of giardia, cryptosporidium muris, and cryptosporidium parvum in cows were 8.7%, 10.6%, and 18.4%, respectively. of the 39 farms sampled, giardia was detected on 64%, cr. muris on 72%, and cr. parvum on 90%. cryptosporidium parvum was detected in 28% of the cows in 1998 and in 5.2% in 1999. differences between the 2 y were attributed to sampling during calving ...200515759828
infectivity of a novel type of cryptosporidium andersoni to laboratory mice.previously, we reported 'a novel type' of cryptosporidium andersoni detected from cattle in japan, and showed that the isolate was infective to mice. in the present study, we examined the patterns of oocyst shedding in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice, as well as pathological lesions in the infected mice. after oral inoculation with 1 x 10(6) oocysts, all five severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice began to shed endogenously produced oocysts on day 6 post-inoculation (p.i.). ...200515817217
a novel genotype of cryptosporidium muris from large japanese field mice, apodemus speciosus.cryptosporidium muris-like oocysts were isolated from large japanese field mice, apodemus speciosus. morphologically, these oocysts resembled those obtained from a c. andersoni kawatabi isolate but were smaller in size than those from a c.muris isolate. following oral inoculation of the oocysts into large japanese field mice and scid mice, developing stages were found in the stomach epithelium. the infectivity of the isolate to wild and laboratory mice was slightly different from that of c.muris ...200516151744
identification and determination of the viability of giardia lamblia cysts and cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) and monoclonal the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish) and monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of giardia lamblia, cryptosporidium parvum, and cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. a total of 50 fecal human samples positive for g. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for c. parvum, and 23 positive for c. hominis were studied. also, 18 water supply samples positive for giardia spp. and cryptosporidium spp. ...200516261356
[measurement of morphological parameters of cryptosporidium muris oocysts by digital image processing technology].to establish and analyze the morphological parameters of the oocysts of cryptosporidium muris for defining their morphological change.200516300014
cryptosporidium contamination in harvesting areas of bivalve molluscs.cryptosporidium contamination was evaluated in areas in galicia (northwestern spain) where bivalve molluscs are harvested. galicia is the main mussel-producing region in europe. data were collected on water contamination of effluents that are discharged into these areas. cryptosporidium spp. were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and molecular methods in 71% of the river water samples (n = 7), 64% of raw sewage samples (n = 11), 50% of effluents from wastewater treatment plants (n = 16), ...200616416917
accumulation of tropomyosin isoform 5 at the infection sites of host cells during cryptosporidium invasion.the actin cytoskeleton of host cells has been implicated in cryptosporidium invasion. however, the underlying mechanism of how actin filaments and associated proteins modulate this process remains unclear. in this study, we use in vitro cultured cell lines, human ileocecal adenocarcinoma hct-8 and chinese hamster ovary (cho), and an in vivo mouse model to investigate the roles of tropomyosin isoforms in cryptosporidium invasion. using isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies, we found that the maj ...200616479376
characterization of a single dose methylprednisolone acetate immune suppression model using cryptosporidium muris and cryptosporidium immunosuppressive dose of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) was compared with a non-immunosuppressive dose using cryptosporidium oocyst production as an indicator of immunosuppression. to be classified as immunosuppressive, the dose had to satisfy five criteria. first, the dose had to abrogate normal immune defenses allowing the propagation of an organism to which the host is normally resistant, i.e. cryptosporidium parvum in adult mice. second, the dose had to decrease overall circulating cd4 ...200616757117
direct counting of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts using fluorescence in situ hybridization on a membrane filter.this report describes the development of a direct and rapid detection method for the pathogenic protozoan, cryptosporidium parvum, from environmental water samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) on a membrane filter. the hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe) membrane filter with fish-stained oocysts yielded the highest signal to noise (s/n) ratio of the different membrane filters tested. ptfe membranes retained 98.8+/-0.4% of the concentrated oocysts after washing, simultan ...200616793153
chemically and genetically immunocompromised mice are not more susceptible than immunocompetent mice to infection with cryptosporidium muris.the prevailing paradigm is that immunosuppressed individuals are more susceptible to infection and are at higher risk of infection from cryptosporidium oocysts if present in drinking water. to test this hypothesis, three immune conditions were examined: genetically immunocompromised t cell deficient cd-1 nude mice, b and t cell deficient fox chase cb-17/icrclb scid mice, and chemically immunosuppressed c57bl/6 mice. chemical immunosuppression was induced with a single subcutaneous injection of m ...200716962704
pcr amplification and sequence analyses of its-1 rdna from cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle.the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its-1) of the ribosomal dna (rdna) from gd, hn, and ah strains of cryptosporidium andersoni was amplified and sequenced to assess whether the its-1 rdna could be used as genetic markers of c. andersoni from different geographic origins in china and to differentiate c. andersoni from other cryptosporidium species. the result showed that the its-1 sequences of gd, hn, and ah strains were basically identical, which were unequivocally different with the sequences o ...200717096139
the first finding of a natural infection of cryptosporidium muris in a cat.little is known about the species of cryptosporidium infecting cats. the limited number of genetic studies conducted to date, have all identified c. felis as the species of cryptosporidium in cats. we report a morphological and genetic description of a natural c. muris infection in a cat. oocysts were viable and were successfully transmitted to laboratory mice. further studies are required to determine the range and prevalence of cryptosporidium species infecting cats.200717110043
characterization of a cryptosporidium muris infection and reinfection in cf-1 establish control values for circulating cells and immune associated organs over the course of a self-limiting cryptosporidium muris infection and rechallenge infection, mice were sacrificed at intervals starting before oral inoculation and ending after oocyst shedding had ceased. these values were used in other experiments to evaluate changes in these parameters induced by a single dose glucocorticoid immunosuppression model and in other immunosuppression studies. flow cytometry counts of ci ...200717197093
prevalence of cryptosporidium species in intensively farmed pigs in ireland.natural cryptosporidium infections in pigs are widespread but generally apathogenic. this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of zoonotic cryptosporidium spp. in piggeries in ireland, where the drinking water supply is particularly vulnerable to contamination with zoonotic species. overall, infections were detected in 39 out of 342 animals (11.4%), with highest infection rates among weaners (15%) and sows (13.3%). twenty-nine positive samples were genotyped based on ssu rrna sequenc ...200717565758
methylprednisolone acetate immune suppression produces differing effects on cryptosporidium muris oocyst production depending on when different times after inoculation with cryptosporidium muris, infected cf-1 female mice were immunosuppressed with a single subcutaneous dose of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa; 600 mg/kg). mpa immunosuppression decreases circulating cd3, cd4 and cd8 t-lymphocytes and b-lymphocytes by greater than 90% for approximately 14 days with numbers not returning to pre-suppression levels until after 41 days post-suppression. immunosuppression was initiated at selected times before, during, and after o ...200717719178
cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma.cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. this infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in hiv-infected persons. however, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. additionally, it has been difficult to find suitab ...200718031572
cryptosporidia: epicellular parasites embraced by the host cell membrane.the ultrastructure of two gastric cryptosporidia, cryptosporidium muris from experimentally infected rodents (mastomys natalensis) and cryptosporidium sp. 'toad' from naturally infected toads (duttaphrynus melanostictus), was studied using electron microscopy. observations presented herein allowed us to map ultrastructural aspects of the cryptosporidian invasion process and the origin of a parasitophorous sac. invading parasites attach to the host cell, followed by gradual envelopment, with the ...200818158154
infectivity, pathogenicity, and genetic characteristics of mammalian gastric cryptosporidium spp. in domestic ruminants were infected experimentally with four mammalian gastric cryptosporidium, namely cryptosporidium andersoni li03 originated from cattle and three isolates of cryptosporidium muris from brown rat (isolate rn66), bactrian camel (isolate cb03) and firstly characterized isolate from east african mole rat (isolate ts03). sequence characterizations of the small-subunit rrna gene showed that the li03 isolate was c. andersoni and the other three isolates belonged to c. muris, although the ...200818343038
effects of low and high temperatures on infectivity of cryptosporidium muris oocysts suspended in water.cryptosporidium muris oocysts suspended in 200 microl of water were pipetted into plastic microcentrifuge tubes which were stored at 4 degrees c or frozen at -5 degrees c for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days and at -20 degrees c for 1, 3, 5, and 8h, respectively. other samples of c. muris oocysts suspended in water were heated in the metal block of a thermal dna cycler. block temperatures were set at 5 degrees c incremental temperatures from 40 to 70 degrees c. at each high temperature setting microcentr ...200818372114
cryptosporidium muris in a texas canine population.molecular technology has led to the discovery of previously unrecognized cryptosporidium species in new hosts, such as c. canis in humans. the notion that dogs may transmit cryptosporidium species to humans has significant public health implications, and additional studies are merited. the purpose of this study was to examine a group of kenneled dogs to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium species infection and to identify parasite species. prevalence of active infection was 71%. six posi ...200818541769
new species of cryptosporidium tyzzer, 1907 (apicomplexa) from amphibian host: morphology, biology and phylogeny.cryptosporidium fragile sp. n. (apicomplexa) is described from black-spined toads, duttaphrynus melanostictus (schneider) (amphibia, anura, bufonidae) from the malay peninsula. the parasitized animals were directly imported from malaysia and harboured c. fragile at the time of arrival. oocysts were subspherical to elliptical with irregular contour in optical section, measuring 6.2 (5.5-7.0) x 5.5 (5.0-6.5) microm. oocyst wall was smooth and colourless in light microscopy. the endogenous developm ...200818666410
cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).cryptosporidium spp. infection in captive exotic mammals was investigated using staining and molecular biological methods. a total of 323 fecal samples from 100 mammalian species (62 artiodactyla, 33 rodentia, 3 perissodactyla, and 2 paenungultata) in 4 zoological gardens in the czech republic was examined. only in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) sample was cryptosporidium sp. infection detected. the partial small subunit rrna sequence obtained from the isolate was iden ...201019685941
an extracellular coccidium, cryptosporidium muris (gen. et sp. nov.), of the gastric glands of the common mouse. 191019971982
development of a visible-light-sensitized europium complex for time-resolved fluorometric application.the time-resolved luminescence bioassay technique using luminescent lanthanide complexes as labels is a highly sensitive and widely used bioassay method for clinical diagnostics and biotechnology. a major drawback of the current technique is that the luminescent lanthanide labels require uv excitation (typically less than 360 nm), which can damage living biological systems and is holding back further development of time-resolved luminescence instruments. herein we describe two approaches for pre ...201020151708
activation of protective cell-mediated immune response in gastric mucosa during cryptosporidium muris infection and re-infection in immunocompetent mice.gastric cryptosporidia only inhabit the glandular part of the stomach of all age categories of their hosts and can cause chronic life-long infections independent of a host's immune status. the immune response in the stomach mucosa during the primary infection and re-infection with cryptosporidium muris (ts03 and cb03) in immunocompetent balb/c mice was characterized using flow cytometry analysis and measurement of ifn-gamma and il10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisa). significantly, e ...201020155366
diagnostic exercise: chronic vomiting in a approximately one-and-a-half-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented for a chronic history of vomiting. profuse diarrhea was also noted during examination. an exploratory laparotomy was performed, bone chips were removed from the stomach, and a raised, circular area of gastric mucosa was biopsied. histologically, there was severe gastric cryptosporidiosis as well as numerous spiral bacteria, consistent with helicobacter spp. polymerase chain reaction revealed visible bands for ...201020574071
biological and genetic characterization of cryptosporidium spp. and giardia duodenalis isolates from five hydrographical basins in northern understand the situation of water contamination with cryptosporidium spp. and giardia spp. in the northern region of portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. a total of 283 samples were analyzed using the method 1623 epa, usa. genetic characterization ...201020585525
concentrations, viability, and distribution of cryptosporidium genotypes in lagoons of swine facilities in the southern piedmont and in coastal plain watersheds of georgia.waste lagoons of swine operations are a source of cryptosporidium oocysts. few studies, however, have reported on oocyst concentrations in swine waste lagoons; none have reported on oocyst viability status, nor has there been a systematic assessment of species/genotype distributions across different types of swine facilities. ten swine waste lagoons associated with farrowing, nursery, finishing, and gestation operations were each sampled once a month for a year. oocysts were extracted from tripl ...201020639363
development of a multilocus sequence tool for typing cryptosporidium muris and cryptosporidium andersoni.although widely used for the characterization of the transmission of intestinal cryptosporidium spp., genotyping tools are not available for c. muris and c. andersoni, two of the most common gastric cryptosporidium spp. infecting mammals. in this study, we screened the c. muris whole-genome sequencing data for microsatellite and minisatellite sequences. among the 13 potential loci (6 microsatellite and 7 minisatellite loci) evaluated by pcr and dna sequencing, 4 were eventually chosen. dna seque ...201020980577
morphological and molecular characterisation of a mixed cryptosporidium muris/cryptosporidium felis infection in a date cryptosporidium muris has been identified by microscopy and genotyping in cats in two studies. we report morphological and genetic evidence of a mixed c. muris and c. felis infection in a cat and provide the first histological, immunohistochemical, in situ hybridisation and genetic confirmation of a c. muris infection in the stomach of a cat. the cat suffered persistent diarrhoea after the initial consultation, which remained unresolved, despite several medical interventions. further stu ...201021044819
activated cd8+ t cells contribute to clearance of gastric cryptosporidium muris infections.the role of cd4+ and cd8+ t lymphocytes in the development of a protective immune response against cryptosporidium muris infection was studied by the reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with well-defined populations of either naive or immune cd8+ or cd4+ t lymphocytes. adoptive transfer of both naive and immune cd4+ t lymphocyte subpopulations protects scid mice against cryptosporidiosis. moreover, a significant biological impact of activated cd8+ t cells against gastri ...201121204850
detection and differentiation of coccidian oocysts by real-time pcr and melting curve analysis.abstract rapid and reliable detection and identification of coccidian oocysts are essential for animal health and food-borne disease outbreak investigations. traditional microscopy and morphological techniques can identify large and unique oocysts, but are often subjective and require parasitological expertise. the objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) assay with melting curve analysis (mca) to detect, differentiate, and identify dna from coccidian species of ...201121506835
comparison of resistance to γ-irradiation between cryptosporidium parvum and cryptosporidium muris using in vivo the genus cryptosporidium, there are more than 14 species with different sizes and habitats, as well as different hosts. among these, c. parvum and c. hominis are known to be human pathogens. as c. parvum can survive exposure to harsh environmental conditions, including various disinfectants or high doses of radiation, it is considered to be an important environmental pathogen that may be a threat to human health. however, the resistance of other cryptosporidium species to various environment ...201122355212
occurrence of cryptosporidium suis and cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the czech republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices.from 2009 to 2011, the occurrence of cryptosporidium spp. was investigated on 22 farms in the czech republic. a total of 1,620 individual faecal samples of pigs of all age categories (pre-weaned, starters, pre-growers, growers, and sows) were evaluated for presence of cryptosporidium spp. by standard microscopy and molecular tools. genotyping was done through pcr amplification and characterization of the ssu rrna (species-specific protocols) and gp60 loci. cryptosporidium spp. was found on 16 of ...201223271566
cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. (apicomplexa: cryptosporidiidae): molecular and biological evidence of cryptic species within gastric cryptosporidium of mammals.the morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of cryptosporidium muris strain ts03 are described, and the species name cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. is proposed. cryptosporidium proliferans obtained from a naturally infected east african mole rat (tachyoryctes splendens) in kenya was propagated under laboratory conditions in rodents (scid mice and southern multimammate mice, mastomys coucha) and used in experiments to examine oocyst morphology and transmission. dna from the p ...201626771460
infectivity of cryptosporidium andersoni and cryptosporidium muris to normal and immunosuppressive cynomolgus monkeys.cryptosporidium andersoni and cryptosporidium muris infections have been found in the mice and/or cattle. the oocysts of c. andersoni and c. muris have been sporadically detected in human feces, but the infectious capacity and features have been unknown, because of the scarcity of reports involving human infections. to assess the infectivity and the clinical and pathological features of c. andersoni and c. muris in primates, an experimental infectious study was conducted using cynomolgus monkeys ...201424132296
a new genotype of cryptosporidium from giant panda (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in china.fifty-seven fecal samples were collected from giant pandas (ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the china conservation and research centre for the giant panda (ccrcgp) in sichuan and examined for cryptosporidium oocysts by sheather's sugar flotation technique. an 18-year-old male giant panda was cryptosporidium positive, with oocysts of an average size of 4.60×3.99 μm (n=50). the isolate was genetically analyzed using the partial 18s rrna, 70 kda heat shock protein (hsp70), cryptosporidium oocyst wall pr ...201323810821
variability in susceptibility of voles (arvicolinae) to experimental infection with cryptosporidium muris and cryptosporidium andersoni.the infectivity of cryptosporidium muris and cryptosporidium andersoni in various species of voles was studied using experimental infections. none of the experimental voles inoculated with 1 × 10(5) oocysts of cryptosporidium spp. shed any oocysts during 40 dpi, except brandt's vole (lasiopodomys brandtii), which was susceptible to c. muris infection. experiments confirmed the resistance of voles of the genus microtus sensu stricto to infection with mammalian gastric cryptosporidia, which provid ...201222302477
natural infection of cryptosporidium muris in ostriches (struthio camelus).a total of 303 fecal samples were collected from ostriches (struthio camelus) and 31 samples (10.2%) were cryptosporidium-positive upon microscopic analysis. the infection rate was 27.6% in ostriches aged 16-60 days, 1.2% in those aged 61-180 days, and 20.4% in those aged >10 years. the cryptosporidium-positive isolates were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and dna sequence analysis of the small subunit (ssu) rrna gene. the 22 isolates from ostriches aged >10 ye ...201425178556
occurrence of giardia intestinalis and cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from são paulo state, brazil, and lima, peru.the objectives of the study were to detect and genotype cryptosporidium spp. and giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the state of são paulo, brazil, and at the entrance of a wastewater treatment plant (wwtp) in lima, peru. samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. the genomic dna was extracted for molecular characterization by nested pcr for cryptosporidium and double nested pcr for giardia, followed by sequencing a ...201627638793
molecular characterization and first report of cryptosporidium genotypes in human population in the slovak our study, we examined 91 fecal samples from five different groups of people containing hiv patients, hemodialysis patients, kidney transplant recipients, immunocompetent humans without clinical signs, and humans with suspected cryptosporidiosis. the purpose of our study was to determine species and genotype composition of representatives of cryptosporidium spp. using pcr analysis of small subunit ribosomal rna gene and 60-kda glycoprotein gene and examine their phylogenetic relationship. in ...201526264819
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