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genome-wide identification, expression and chromosomal location of the genes encoding chitinolytic enzymes in zea mays.chitinolytic enzymes are important pathogenesis and stress related proteins. we identified 27 putative genes encoding endochitinases in the maize genome via in silico techniques and four exochitinases. only seven of the endochitinases and segments of the exochitinases were heretofore known. the endochitinases included members of family 19 chitinases (classes i-iv of pr3, ii of pr4) and members of family 18 chitinases (class iii of pr8). some similar enzymes were detected on adjacent regions of t ...200818560892
water deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes.the aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of mutualistic interactions between the fungus trichoderma harzianum and two wheat genotypes, triticum aestivum cv. talhuén and t. turgidum subsp. durum cv. alifén, and the extent to which water deficit affected these interactions. two wheat genotypes were cultivated in the presence or absence of t. harzianum and in the presence or absence of water deficit. t. harzianum was in turn cultivated in the presence or absence of wheat plants and in the ...200818192424
mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum by cell wall of laetiporus sulphureus and its application for mutan removal from oral biofilms.the cell wall material from fruiting bodies of laetiporus sulphureus has been suggested as a new alternative to mutan for the mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum. structural analyses revealed that the alkali-soluble wall fraction from this polypore fungus contained 56.3% of (1-->3)-linked alpha-glucans. when the strain t. harzianum f-340 was grown on a cell wall preparation from l. sulphureus, the maximal enzyme productivity obtained after 3 days of cultivation was 0.71 u/ml. this yield ...200818667864
characterization of a novel fungal chitosanase csn2 from gongronella sp. jg.a 28kda chitosanase designated as csn2 was purified from the culture broth of the fungus gongronella sp. jg through three chromatography steps: cm-sepharose ff, superdex 200 and sp-sepharose ff. its optimal reaction ph and temperature were ph 5.6 and between 55 degrees c and 60 degrees c. the half-lives of csn2 at 50 degrees c and 55 degrees c were estimated to be 30min and 11min, respectively. the k(m) value of csn2 in sodium acetate buffer (ph 5.6) at 55 degrees c was 8.86mg/ml. mn(2+), ca(2+) ...200818722595
the logarithmic transformation should be avoided for stabilising the variance of mould growth rate.radial growth rate, micro (mm d(-1)) was evaluated by plotting the radius of the colony, r (mm) versus time (d) for alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, cladosporium cladosporioides, mucor racemosus, rhizopus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum at different t and a(w). for each of the 12 data sets, an analysis of variance of the raw growth rate data was performed. it was observed from the p-values that all square-root transformed values of micro were non-significant at the significance level a ...200818031858
environmental dynamics of bacillus amyloliquefaciens ccmi 1051 antifungal activity under different nitrogen patterns.the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on the antifungal activity of the bacillus sp. ccmi 1053 cultures.200817953685
identification and investigation on antagonistic effect of trichoderma spp. on tea seedlings white foot and root rot (sclerotium rolfsii sacc.) in vitro condition.the aim of this two years research work is to recognize bio control agents and its antagonistic efficiency on sclerotium rolfsii in vitro condition. sclerotium rolfsii sacc. is a causal agent of white foot and root rot disease in many plants. this fungi causing damage in tea nurseries of tea cultivated countries especially in iran. due to importance this disease in tea nurseries of iran and impossibility using of chemical control against this damaging agent in this research, five species of tric ...200819137869
attempts to control fusarium root rot of bean by seed dressing.in summer 2006, a root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv billò and borlotto. a study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. in the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, trichoderma harzianum t 22, bacillus subtilis qst 713, followed by pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. their ...200819226744
management of root knot nematode on tomato through application of fungal antagonists, acremonium strictum and trichoderma harzianum.management of root knot nematode disease infecting tomato, by the use of fungal bioagents acremonium strictum and trichoderma harzianum isolated from egg masses of m. incognita infecting tomato has been carried out. the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of root knot nematode infested tomato revealed consistent association of acremonium strictum. in the present study a. strictum and other fungal bioagents viz. aspergillus niger, paecilomyces lilacinus, rhizoctonia solani and trichoderma harzianum isolat ...200818368544
role of bacillus spp. in antagonism between pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma harzianum in heat-treated wheat-straw substrates.this study aimed to identify bacteria involved in trichodermaharzianum inhibition while promoting pleurotus ostreatus defences in order to favour cultivation-substrate selectivity for mushroom production. pcr-dgge profiles of total dna from wheat-straw substrate showed weak differences between bacterial communities from substrate inoculated with p. ostreatus with or without t. harzianum. the major cultivable bacteria were isolated from three batches of wheat-straw-based cultivation substrates sh ...200818295481
defence-related gene expression in transgenic lemon plants producing an antimicrobial trichoderma harzianum endochitinase during fungal infection.constitutive over-expression of antifungal genes from microorganisms involved in plant defence mechanisms represents a promising strategy for conferring genetic resistance against a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi. in the present work, two transgenic lemon clones with the chit42 gene from trichoderma harzianum were tested for resistance to fungal disease and expression level of defence-related genes was evaluated. different resistance-related processes, such as production of reactive oxyge ...200818306055
bioactive lipopeptides of ice-nucleating snow bacterium pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1.the production of secondary metabolite lipopeptides by ice-nucleating pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1 was investigated. pseudomonas syringae strain 31r1 is a rifampicin-resistant derivative of p. syringae no. 31 used for the commercial production of snow. it is shown that p. syringae strain 31r1 produces antifungal lipodepsipeptides, syringomycins e and g, and, in addition, a novel and unique lipopeptide, peptin31. spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses revealed that peptin31 is a linear unde ...200818789127
greenhouse evaluation of bacillus subtilis ap-01 and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.two biological control agents, bacillus subtilis ap-01 (larminar(™)) and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 (trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (cercospora nicotiana). tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed ...200824031219
[agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase gene transformation for pinellia ternata].to obtain transgenic pinellia ternata plants resistant to fungus by transfer chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase gene from trichoderma harzianum.200919894502
antifungal mechanism of a novel antifungal protein from pumpkin rinds against various fungal pathogens.a novel antifungal protein (pr-2) was identified from pumpkin rinds using water-soluble extraction, ultrafiltration, cation exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 14865.57 da. automated edman degradation showed that the n-terminal sequence of pr-2 was qgigvgdndgkrgkr-. the pr-2 protein strongly inhibited in vitro growth of bot ...200919807165
fungal spores: a critical review of the toxicological and epidemiological evidence as a basis for occupational exposure limit setting.fungal spores are ubiquitous in the environment. however, exposure levels in workplaces where mouldy materials are handled are much higher than in common indoor and outdoor environments. spores of all tested species induced inflammation in experimental studies. the response to mycotoxin-producing and pathogenic species was much stronger. in animal studies, nonallergic responses dominated after a single dose. allergic responses also occurred, especially to mycotoxin-producing and pathogenic speci ...200919863384
fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of tenerife (canary islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors.knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. tenerife island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. to understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analy ...200918830279
genetic and metabolic biodiversity of trichoderma from colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.the genus trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. the biodiversity of trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. in the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from mexico, guatemala, panama, ecuador, peru, brazil and colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. a comparatively high diversity of species was found, c ...200919439189
molecular identification of trichoderma species associated with pleurotus ostreatus and natural substrates of the oyster mushroom.green mold of pleurotus ostreatus, caused by trichoderma species, has recently resulted in crop losses worldwide. therefore, there is an emerging need for rapid means of diagnosing the causal agents. a pcr assay was developed for rapid detection of trichoderma pleurotum and trichoderma pleuroticola, the two pathogens causing green mold of p. ostreatus. three oligonucleotide primers were designed for identifying these species in a multiplex pcr assay based on dna sequences within the fourth and f ...200919735461
biodiversity of trichoderma strains in tunisia.trichoderma strains were sampled in 4 different bioclimatic zones of tunisia, a mediterranean north african country with strong climatic and edaphic variability from north to south, to assess the genetic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma and their relationship to the bioclimatic zones. in all, 53 strains were isolated and identified at the species level by analysis of their internal transcribed spacers regions 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) of the rdna cluster and (or) a fragment of the trans ...200919295648
the thpg1 endopolygalacturonase is required for the trichoderma harzianum-plant beneficial interaction.considering the complexity of the in vivo interactions established by a mycoparasitic biocontrol agent at the plant rhizosphere, proteomic, genomic, and transcriptomic approaches were used to study a novel trichoderma gene coding for a plant cell wall (pcw)-degrading enzyme. a proteome analysis, using a three-component (trichoderma spp.-tomato plantlets-pathogen) system, allowed us to identify a differentially expressed trichoderma harzianum endopolygalacturonase (endopg). spot 0303 remarkably i ...200919589077
a new serine protease gene from trichoderma harzianum is expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae.serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. these proteases can be involved in development and have been related to biocontrol processes. difficulties in heterologous expression in a bacterial or yeast host have hampered engineering of these proteases for industrial application. we report here a successful expression of the serine protease sl41 from a biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum in saccharomyces cerevisia ...200919235505
[molecular diagnosis of human histoplasmosis in whole blood samples].to assess the value of using whole blood samples for the molecular diagnosis of histoplasmosis, we applied an in-house dna extraction method and a nested pcr targeting a 210 bp specific segment of the histoplasma capsulatum hcp100 gene. a whole blood volume of 2.5-3 milliliters was centrifuged and the cellular pellet was treated with trichoderma harzianum lyticase and proteinase k prior to applying a conventional phenol dna extraction. this procedure allowed complete cell lysis, high dna yield a ...200919391520
identification of potential marker genes for trichoderma harzianum strains with high antagonistic potential against rhizoctonia solani by a rapid subtraction hybridization approach.a rapid subtraction hybridization approach was used to isolate genes differentially expressed during mycelial contact between trichoderma harzianum (hypocrea lixii) and rhizoctonia solani, and could serve as marker genes for selection of superior biocontrol strains. putatively positive clones were evaluated by transcription analysis during mycelial contact with r. solani versus growth on glucose, and for their differential transcription between two strains with either strong or poor biocontrol c ...200919116716
a laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator bombus terrestris.this study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (mcas) on the bumblebee, bombus terrestris l., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (ipm). aq10 (ampelomyces quisqualis), binab-t-vector (hypocrea parapilulifera + t. atroviride; 1/1), prestop-mix (gliocladium catenulatum j1446), serenade (bacillus subtilis qst713), trianum-p (trichoderma harzianum t22), botanigard (beauveria bassiana gha) and granup ...200919437453
molecular cloning and expression of the trichoderma harzianum c4 endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae.an endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (beta-xylanase) from trichoderma harzianum c4 was purified without cellulase activity by sequential chromatographies. the specific activity of the purified enzyme preparation was 430 units/mg on d-xylan. the complementary dna (cdna) encoding beta-xylanase (xynii) was amplified by pcr and isolated from cdna pcr libraries constructed from t. harzianum c4. the nucleotide sequence of the cdna fragment contained an open reading frame of 663 bp that encodes 221 amino acids, o ...200919734721
trichoderma species form endophytic associations within theobroma cacao trichomes.trichoderma species are usually considered soil organisms that colonize plant roots, sometimes forming a symbiotic relationship. recent studies demonstrate that trichoderma species are also capable of colonizing the above ground tissues of theobroma cacao (cacao) in what has been characterized as an endophytic relationship. trichoderma species can be re-isolated from surface sterilized cacao stem tissue, including the bark and xylem, the apical meristem, and to a lesser degree from leaves. sem a ...200919765658
contribution of the saprobic fungi trametes versicolor and trichoderma harzianum and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi glomus deserticola and g. claroideum to arsenic tolerance of eucalyptus globulus.the presence of high concentrations of arsenic (as) decreased the shoot and root dry weight, chlorophyll and p and mg content of eucalyptus globulus colonized with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi glomus deserticola or g. claroideum, but these parameters were higher than in non-am plants. as increased the percentage of am length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) activity in the root of e. globulus. trichoderma harzianum, but not trametes versicolor, increased the shoot and root ...200919648001
harzianic acid, an antifungal and plant growth promoting metabolite from trichoderma harzianum.a trichoderma harzianum strain, isolated from composted hardwood bark in western australia, was found to produce a metabolite with antifungal and plant growth promoting activity. the structure and absolute configuration of the fungal compound, harzianic acid (1), were determined by x-ray diffraction studies. harzianic acid showed antibiotic activity against pythium irregulare, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and rhizoctonia solani. a plant growth promotion effect was observed at low concentrations of ...200919894739
biological conversion of olive pomace into compost by using trichoderma harzianum and phanerochaete chrysosporium.olive pomace was composted by using a reactor for a period of 50 days in four bioreactors. urea was added to adjust c/n ration between 25-30. at the end of 50 days of composting using trichoderma harzianum and phanerochaete chrysosporium, cellulose and lignin were highly degraded. it was found that after 30 days, p. chrysosporium and t. harzianum degraded approximately 71.9% of the lignin and 59.25% of the cellulose, respectively. the percent of ash content in the raw waste mixture was 13%. this ...200919467866
cytoskeleton and mitochondrial morphology of saprotrophs and the pathogen heterobasidion annosum in the presence of suillus bovinus metabolites.ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to synthesize antifungal compounds both in vitro and in symbiosis with the host-plants. culture filtrates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus suillus bovinus (at phs of 2.5-6) showed antifungal activity towards saprotrophs trichoderma harzianum, and trichoderma virens and the pathogen heterobasidion annosum, by significantly suppressing their growth relative to sterile liquid medium at the same phs. in the presence of the culture filtrates, hyphae of the saprotrophs and ...200919539761
induced proteome of trichoderma harzianum by botrytis cinerea.as a notable biocontrol agent, trichoderma harzianum can antagonize a diverse array of phytopathogenic fungi, including botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporum. elucidating the biocontrol mechanism of t. harzianum in response to the pathogens enables it to be exploited in the control of plant diseases. two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de) was performed to obtain secreted protein patterns of t. harzianum ets 323, grown in media that contained glucose, a mixture of glucos ...200919422913
factors affecting the production of trichoderma harzianum secondary metabolites during the interaction with different plant pathogens.strains of trichoderma spp. produce numerous bioactive secondary metabolites. the in vitro production and antibiotic activities of the major compounds synthesized by trichoderma harzianum strains t22 and t39 against leptosphaeria maculans, phytophthora cinnamomi and botrytis cinerea were evaluated. moreover, the eliciting effect of viable or nonviable biomasses of rhizoctonia solani, pythium ultimum or b. cinerea on the in vitro production of these metabolites was also investigated.200919413806
thctf1 transcription factor of trichoderma harzianum is involved in 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one production and antifungal activity.we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum thctf1 gene, which shows high sequence identity with a transcription factor gene of fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. in t. harzianum, disruption of the thctf1 gene by homologous recombination gave rise to transformants that in plate experiments did not show the yellow pigmentation observed in the wild-type strain. in several trichoderma spp. a yellow pigmentation and a coconut aroma have been related to the production of 6-pen ...200919007898
cloning and heterologous expression of ss10, a subtilisin-like protease displaying antifungal activity from trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. a gene (ss10) encoding a subtilisin-like protease was cloned from t. harzianum t88, a biocontrol agent effective against soil-borne fungal pathogens. the full-length cdna was isolated by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of the cdna ends. the coding region of the gene is 1302 bp ...200919025577
an enzyme cocktail for efficient protoplast formation in aspergillus niger.novozym 234 has been traditionally used to prepare protoplasts for genetic transformation of fungi. since it is no longer on the market, a new enzyme cocktail was defined to protoplast aspergillus niger. the cocktail consists of lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum, chitinase from streptomyces griseus and beta-glucuronidase from helix pomatia.200919041907
fatal trichoderma harzianum infection in a leukemic pediatric patient.we report the repeated isolation for trichoderma.harzianum, a rare opportunistic pathogen from three sets of each of the following clinical samples; blood serum, skin lesions, sputum and throat of a pediatric all patient with neutropenia. the definition of invasive fungal infection requires evidence of the presence of fungal elements in tissue samples, in addition to the isolation of suspected etiologic agent in culture. however, invasive procedures are not always applicable due to several facto ...200919169948
gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray.it has recently been shown that the trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. with a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (hdo) microarray encompassing 14,081 expressed sequence tag (est)-based transcripts from eight trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived ...200919825185
study on the anthraquinones separated from the cultivation of trichoderma harzianum strain th-r16 and their biological activity.the biocontrol fungal species of trichoderma, which colonizes plant roots, are well-known for their potential to control plant pathogens. six anthraquinones, of which four have been identified for the first time from trichoderma and two have already been reported in other strains, were purified from trichoderma harzianum strain th-r16 to evaluate their biological activities. the structures of the compounds were determined by one- and two-dimensional nmr. the compounds were shown to exhibit stron ...200919650641
toward understanding of carbohydrate binding and substrate specificity of a glycosyl hydrolase 18 family (gh-18) chitinase from trichoderma harzianum.surface plasmon resonance (spr) has been used to assay the roles of amino acid residues in the substrate binding cleft of trichoderma harzianum chitinase chit42, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (gh-18). nine different chit42 variants having amino acid mutations along the binding site cleft at subsites -4 to +2 were created and characterized with regard to their affinity toward chitinous and non-chitinous oligosaccharides. the catalytically inactive chit42 mutant e172q was used ...200919596709
improvement of growth of eucalyptus globulus and soil biological parameters by amendment with sewage sludge and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprobe fungi.sewage sludge is widely used as an organic soil amendment to improve soil fertility. we investigated the effects of sewage sludge (ss) application on certain biological parameters of eucalyptus globulus labill. the plant was either uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi (coriolopsis rigida and trichoderma harzianum) or arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi (glomus deserticola and gigaspora rosea). sewage sludge was applied to the surface of experimental plots at rates of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g 10 ...200919515400
removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions by ca-alginate immobilized trichoderma harzianum.the ability of ca-alginate immobilized trichoderma harzianum has been explored for removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous streams. ca-alginate as polymeric support was selected after screening different matrices. immobilization of trichoderma harzianum to ca-alginate improved the stability as well as uranium biosorption capacity of biosorbent at 28+/-2 degrees c and 200 rpm. the suitability of packed bed column operations was illustrated by obtaining break through curves at different bed h ...200919467596
implications of cysteine metabolism in the heavy metal response in trichoderma harzianum and in three fusarium species.we studied the ability of four different fungal species, trichoderma harzianum, fusarium antophyllum, fusarium compactum and fusarium phyllophilum, to grow in the presence of heavy metals, and monitored their cysteine and glutathione content and the activity of o-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (oastl), which is involved in cysteine biosynthesis. zn and pb did not affect fungal growth or sporulation at the concentrations used, whereas cd and hg did. in most cases, cysteine and glutathione content was h ...200919298998
high-yield endoglucanase production by trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 cultivated in pretreated sugarcane mill byproduct.the low-cost production of cellulolytic complexes presenting high action at mild conditions and well-balanced cellulase activities is one of the major bottlenecks for the economical viability of the production of cellulosic ethanol. in the present paper, the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 was used for the production of cellulases from a pretreated sugarcane bagasse (namely, cellulignin), by submerged fermentation. this fungal strain produced high contents of endoglucanase acti ...201021048871
biotransformation of steriodal saponins in dioscorea zingiberensis c. h. wright to diosgenin by trichoderma harzianum.diosgenin is an important starting material in the steroidal hormone industry. traditionally, diosgenin is mainly produced by acid hydrolysis of dioscorea zingiberensis c. h. wright (dzw) tubers. this method yields numerous byproducts that can cause serious pollution. in this study, diosgenin was obtained by biotransformation of steroidal saponins in dzw afforded by trichoderma harzianum cgmcc 2979. the medium was optimized for maximum diosgenin production. the addition of phosphate buffer, surf ...201019578845
mycoparasitism of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: a pathway for the entry of saprotrophic fungi into roots.within the rhizosphere, arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi interact with a cohort of microorganisms, among which is the biological control agent, trichoderma spp. this fungus parasitizes a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, a phenomenon also reported in the extraradical mycelium (erm) of am fungi. here, we question whether the mycoparasitism of the erm could be extended to the intraradical mycelium (irm), thus representing a pathway for the entry of trichoderma harzianum within the root. microc ...201020533946
purification and characterization of an acid phosphatase from trichoderma harzianum.an acid phosphatase from trichoderma harzianum was purified in a single step using a phenyl-sepharose chromatography column. a typical procedure showed 22-fold purification with 56% yield. the purified enzyme showed as a single band on sds-page with an apparent molecular weight of 57.8 kda. the ph optimum was 4.8 and maximum activity was obtained at 55 degrees c. the enzyme retained 60% of its activity after incubation at 55 degrees c for 60 min. the k (m) and v (max) values for p-nitrophenyl ph ...201020364293
solid-state cultivation of trichoderma harzianum nbri-1055 for modulating natural antioxidants in soybean seed matrix.trichoderma harzianum nbri-1055 was used, as fungal candidate to enhance the antioxidant activities of soybean matrix by modulating polyphenolic substances during solid-state fermentation. trichoderma-fermented soybean (tfs) and unfermented soybean (ufs) products were extracted with water (w) and methanol (m). total phenolic content of tfs-w and tfs-m extracts were significantly higher than that of ufs-w and ufs-m extracts. the effectiveness of extracts for total flavonoid content, antioxidant a ...201020363120
transcriptome and metabolome profiling of field-grown transgenic barley lack induced differences but show cultivar-specific variances.the aim of the present study was to assess possible adverse effects of transgene expression in leaves of field-grown barley relative to the influence of genetic background and the effect of plant interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. we conducted transcript profiling, metabolome profiling, and metabolic fingerprinting of wild-type accessions and barley transgenics with seed-specific expression of (1,3-1, 4)-beta-glucanase (glub) in baronesse (b) as well as of transgenics in golden promi ...201020308540
transgenic expression of the trichoderma harzianum hsp70 gene increases arabidopsis resistance to heat and other abiotic stresses.the ability of some trichoderma strains, a biological control agent, to overcome extreme environmental conditions has previously been reported and related to heat-shock proteins (hsps). these proteins are induced environmentally and are involved in important processes, acting as molecular chaperones in all organisms. in a previous study, we demonstrated, by overexpression, that the trichoderma harzianum hsp70 gene conferred tolerance to heat and other abiotic stresses to this fungus. in this wor ...201020080316
regeneration and molecular characterization of an intergeneric hybrid between graphium putredinis and trichoderma harzianum by protoplasmic fusion.the fungal strains graphium putredinis and trichoderma harzianum were selected as parents for fusant development. protoplasts were isolated using the combination of lysing enzymes novozym 234 and cellulase with 0.6m kcl as osmotic stabilizer. the optimum conditions for release of viable protoplasts from the fungal mycelium viz. age of the mycelium, lytic enzymes, osmotic stabilizers, ph, incubation period and regeneration medium were determined. intergeneric protoplast fusion was carried out usi ...201020064604
electrochemical dna biosensor for the detection of specific gene related to trichoderma harzianum species.a new electrochemical biosensor is described for voltammetric detection of gene sequence related to trichoderma harzianum. the sensor involves immobilization of a 20 base single-stranded probe (ssdna), which is complementary to a specific gene sequence related to t. harzianum on a gold electrode through specific adsorption. the dna probe was used to determine the amount of target gene in solution using methylene blue (mb) as the electrochemical indicator. the covalently immobilized probe could s ...201019945357
quantification of the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum with real-time taqman pcr and its potential extrapolation to the hyphal biomass.the species of the genus trichoderma are used successfully as biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. among them, trichoderma harzianum is especially effective. however, to develop more effective fungal biocontrol strategies in organic substrates and soil, tools for monitoring the control agents are required. real-time pcr is potentially an effective tool for the quantification of fungi in environmental samples. the aim of this study consisted of the development and appl ...201019897358
trichoderma harzianum ioc-4038: a promising strain for the production of a cellulolytic complex with significant β-glucosidase activity from sugarcane bagasse cellulignin.sugarcane bagasse is an agroindustrial residue generated in large amounts in brazil. this biomass can be used for the production of cellulases, aiming at their use in second-generation processes for bioethanol production. therefore, this work reports the ability of a fungal strain, trichoderma harzianum ioc-4038, to produce cellulases on a novel material, xylan free and cellulose rich, generated from sugarcane bagasse, named partially delignified cellulignin. the extract produced by t. harzianum ...201020455032
trichoderma harzianum and glomus intraradices modify the hormone disruption induced by fusarium oxysporum infection in melon plants.the plant hormones salicylic acid (sa), jasmonic acid (ja), ethylene (et), and abscisic acid (aba) are known to play crucial roles in plant disease and pest resistance. changes in the concentrations of these plant hormones in melon plant shoots, as a consequence of the interaction between the plant, the pathogen fusarium oxysporum, the antagonistic microorganism trichoderma harzianum, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices were investigated. attack by f. oxysporum activated a ...201020528186
exposure to bioaerosols during the growth season of tomatoes in an organic greenhouse using supresivit (trichoderma harzianum) and mycostop (streptomyces griseoviridis).in working environments, especially in confined spaces like greenhouses, elevated concentrations of airborne microorganisms may become a problem for workers' health. additionally, the use of microbial pest control agents (mpcas) may increase exposure to microorganisms. the aim of this study was to investigate tomato growers' exposure to naturally occurring bioaerosol components [dust, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, (1-->3)-beta-d-glucans, and endotoxin] and mpcas applied by drip irrigation. air ...201020622135
species diversity, distribution, and genetic structure of endophytic and epiphytic trichoderma associated with banana roots.selective isolation, molecular identification and aflp were used to investigate the distribution of the various species of endophytic and epiphytic trichoderma associated with banana roots and to compare and contrast their genetic structure. three specific groups of trichoderma were observed in the roots of banana. group one, which made up the largest population, comprised t. asperellum, t. virens, and hypocrea lixii, which were isolated from both inside and on the surface of the banana roots, w ...201021063870
scanning electron microscopy observations of the interaction between trichoderma harzianum and perithecia of gibberella zeae.chronological events associated with the interaction between a strain of trichoderma harzianum, t472, with known biological control activity against perithecial production of g. zeae, were studied with scanning electron microscopy to investigate the mechanisms of control. large clusters of perithecia consisting of 5-15 perithecia formed on the autoclaved, mulched wheat straw inoculated with g. zeae alone (control) with an average of 157 perithecia per plate. small clusters consisting of 3-6 and ...201020943563
solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil.agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with trichoderma harzianum sqr-t037 (sqr-t037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing sqr-t037 and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6pap) to control fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the sqr-t037 biomass and the yield of 6pap, based on fractional ...201021190841
differential expression of maize chitinases in the presence or absence of trichoderma harzianum strain t22 and indications of a novel exo- endo-heterodimeric chitinase activity.the interaction of plants with endophytic symbiotic fungi in the genus trichoderma alters the plant proteome and transcriptome and results in enhanced plant growth and resistance to diseases. in a previous study, we identified the numerous chitinolytic enzyme families and individual enzymes in maize which are implicated in plant disease resistance and other plant responses.201020594307
agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of chiv gene to trichoderma harzianum.as a soil-borne filamentous fungus, trichoderma harzianum exhibits biological control properties because it parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. in this study, the vectors pbi121 and pcambia1301 and cloning vector puc18 were used to successfully construct expression vector pca-gchiv for filamentous fungi transformation mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens.the chiv gene was successfully transferred into the biocontrol fungus t. harzianum with an efficiency of 90-110 transformant ...201020936373
the trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages.the mitosporic fungus trichoderma harzianum (hypocrea, ascomycota, hypocreales, hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. although t. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as hypocrea lixii. since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogene ...201020359347
covalent selection of the thiol proteome on activated thiol sepharose: a robust tool for redox proteomics.protein thiols contribute significantly to antioxidant defence and selective oxidation of cysteines is important in signal transduction even in sub-stress scenarios. however, cysteine is the second rarest residue in proteins and it can be difficult to target low-abundance thiol (-sh)-containing proteins in proteomic separations. activated thiol sepharose (ats) allows covalent selection of -sh-containing proteins which can then be recovered by reduction with mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol. thi ...201020082816
the rhizosphere-competent entomopathogen metarhizium anisopliae expresses a specific subset of genes in plant root exudate.metarhizium anisopliae and beauveria bassiana are ubiquitous insect pathogens and possible plant symbionts, as some strains are endophytic or colonize the rhizosphere. we evaluated 11 strains of m. anisopliae and b. bassiana, and two soil saprophytes (the non-rhizospheric aspergillus niger and the rhizosphere-competent trichoderma harzianum) for their ability to germinate in bean root exudates (res). our results showed that some generalist strains of m. anisopliae were as good at germinating in ...201020947574
qrt-pcr quantification of the biological control agent trichoderma harzianum in peat and compost-based growing media.to ensure proper use of trichoderma harzianum in agriculture, accurate data must be obtained in population monitoring. the effectiveness of qrt-pcr to quantify t. harzianum in different growing media was compared to the commonly used techniques of colony counting and qpcr. results showed that plate counting and qpcr offered similar t. harzianum quantification patterns of an initial rapid increase in fungal population that decreased over time. however, data from qrt-pcr showed a population curve ...201021030250
an innovative brilliant blue fcf method for fluorescent staining of fungi and bacteria.abstract most natural and synthetic dyes currently used for microbial fluorescent staining are toxic or carcinogenic and are harmful to animals, humans and the environment. a food dye for microbial staining, brilliant blue fcf, was used as an alternative to lactofuchsin and lactophenol blue. brilliant blue fcf shows pronounced microbial cell fluorescence staining of an array of pathogenic/toxigenic (fusarium granunearum 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol chemotypes, and escherichia coli o157:h7) and ...201020560873
chitosan increases conidiation in fungal pathogens of invertebrates.antifungal activity of chitosan on plant pathogenic fungi has been widely studied, but little is known about the effect of chitosan on fungal biocontrol agents. in this work, we characterize the increase of conidiation induced by chitosan in fungal pathogens of invertebrates (fpi). chitosan increased conidiation of fpi, including beauveria bassiana, widely used as mycoinsecticide, and did not affect conidia viability or pathogenicity. increased conidiation induced by chitosan is shown to be conc ...201020532757
the effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency.the carbon-use-efficiency (cue) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (c) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial cue. to elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial cue, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (aspergillus nidulans and trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (pectobacterium carotovorum and verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique c, nitrogen (n) and ph ...201020550579
antifungal effects of the bioactive compounds enniatins a, a(1), b, b(1).to produce enniatin (ens), fusarium tricinctum cect 20150 was grown in a liquid medium of potato (pdb), being mycotoxin purified by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with a reverse phase semipreparative column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile/water using gradient condition. the purity of the ens fractions was verified by analytical hplc and lc/ms-ms. the pure fractions of ens were utilized to study the biological activity on several mycotoxigenic moulds as fusarium verticilloides ...201020417654
further evidence from the effect of fungi on breaking opuntia seed dormancy.recently, we found that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of opuntia streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. however, the effect of fungi on seed germination from other opuntia spp has not been evaluated. thus, we evaluated the effect of four fungal species (penicillium chrysogenum, phoma sp., trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma koningii) on the germination of opuntia leucotricha, an abundant species in the chihuahuan desert, mexico. we found that seed ...201020861689
pyrene degradation and copper and zinc uptake by fusarium solani and hypocrea lixii isolated from petrol station soil.this study aimed to isolate and identify potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-degrading and/or metal-tolerant fungi from pah-contaminated and metal-contaminated soils.201019922595
new insights in trichoderma harzianum antagonism of fungal plant pathogens by secreted protein analysis.trichoderma harzianum all42 were capable of overgrowing and degrading rhizoctonia solani and macrophomina phaseolina mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with formation of apressoria and hook-like structures. hyphae of t. harzianum all42 did not show any coiling around fusarium sp. hyphae suggesting that mycoparasitism may be different among the plant pathogens. in this study, a secretome analysis was used to identify some extracellular proteins secreted by t. harzianum all42 after growth on cell ...201020213103
biological control of alternaria fruit rot of chili by trichoderma species under field conditions.trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. the experiment was conducted at the botanical garden, rajshahi university, bangladesh from july 2006 to march 2007. application of trichoderma harzianum imi 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to alternaria tenuis (t2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. the treatment t4 (t. harzianum imi-392432 + a. ...201023956637
in vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in trichoderma harzianum.the antagonistic fungus trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. t. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. in vitro screening of 5 isolates of t. harzinum, one isolate of chaetomium globosum and one isolate of conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium solani and rhizoctonia solani on pda medium, significantly. the inhibition percentage ranged f ...201023961072
isozyme analysis and relationships among three species in malaysian trichoderma isolates.isozyme and protein electrophoresis data from mycelial extracts of 27 isolates of trichoderma harzianum, 10 isolates of t. aureoviride and 10 isolates of t. longibrachiatum from southern peninsular malaysia were investigated. the eight enzyme and a single protein pattern systems were analyzed. three isozyme and total protein patterns were shown to be useful for the detection of three trichoderma species. the isozyme and protein data were analyzed using the nei and li dice similarity coefficient ...201020890090
purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the catalytic domain of the extracellular cellulase cbhi from trichoderma harzianum.the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum has a considerable cellulolytic activity that is mediated by a complex of enzymes which are essential for the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. these enzymes were produced by the induction of t. harzianum with microcrystalline cellulose (avicel) under submerged fermentation in a bioreactor. the catalytic core domain (ccd) of cellobiohydrolase i (cbhi) was purified from the extracellular extracts and submitted to robotic crystallization. diffra ...201020823521
purification and characterization of novel glucanases from trichoderma harzianum ets 323.trichoderma harzianum ets 323 secretes two glucanases, a 23.5 kda endoglucanase (eg th1) and a 61 kda exoglucanase (exg th1). they were identified by their hydrolysis products and were purified to homogeneity. the optimal temperature and ph for both eg th1 (7.3-fold purification, 5.0% yield) and exg th1 (33.7-fold purification, 0.15% yield) were 50 °c and ph 4.5, respectively. the kinetic parameters of eg th1 (k(m) = 23 mg ml(-1), v(max) = 294 μm min(-1), specific activity = 7.4 u mg(-1)) and ex ...201020815353
seed treatment with trichoderma harzianum alleviates biotic, abiotic, and physiological stresses in germinating seeds and seedlings.trichoderma spp. are endophytic plant symbionts that are widely used as seed treatments to control diseases and to enhance plant growth and yield. although some recent work has been published on their abilities to alleviate abiotic stresses, specific knowledge of mechanisms, abilities to control multiple plant stress factors, their effects on seed and seedlings is lacking. we examined the effects of seed treatment with t. harzianum strain t22 on germination of seed exposed to biotic stress (seed ...201020649416
purification, and biochemical and biophysical characterization of cellobiohydrolase i from trichoderma harzianum ioc 3844.because of its elevated cellulolytic activity, the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum has a considerable potential in biomass hydrolysis applications. trichoderma harzianum cellobiohydrolase i (thcbhi), an exoglucanase, is an important enzyme in the process of cellulose degradation. here, we report an easy single-step ion-exchange chromatographic method for purification of thcbhi and its initial biophysical and biochemical characterization. the thcbhi produced by induction with microcrysta ...201121876370
hydroxylation modification and free radical scavenging activity of puerarin-7-o-fructoside.puerarin-7-o-fructoside was transformed by trichoderma harzianum cgmcc 1523 into 3'-hydroxypuerarin-7-o-fructoside; this was identified by ms and nmr. however, puerarin-7-o-glucoside was not directly hydroxylated but hydrolyzed back into puerarin, which was transformed into 3'-hydroxypuerarin by the same fungi. comparative analysis of free radical scavenging activity of dpph showed that the free radical scavenging activity of puerarin-7-o-glucoside was reduced to approximately 1/2 of that of pue ...201121818614
biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus trichoderma harzianum spp. to plants.alternative and ecological strategies are necessary and demanded for disease management in order to reduce the use of pesticides in agriculture. thus, the use of biological control agents such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) or several strains of the beneficial fungus trichoderma spp. to combat plant diseases is the basis of biocontrol of plant pathogens and is a good approach to reach this healthy and environmentally adequate objective.201121772122
trichoderma harzianum might impact phosphorus transport by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.trichoderma sp. is a biocontrol agent active against plant pathogens via mechanisms such as mycoparasitism. recently, it was demonstrated that trichoderma harzianum was able to parasitize the mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus, thus affecting its viability. here, we question whether this mycoparasitism may reduce the capacity of glomus sp. to transport phosphorus ((33)p) to its host plant in an in vitro culture system. (33)p was measured in the plant and in the fungal mycelium in ...201121609342
comparison of real-time pcr and microscopy to evaluate sclerotial colonisation by a biocontrol fungus.the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum colonises sclerotia of the plant pathogenic fungus sclerotinia sclerotiorum. plating of sclerotia typically has been used to determine the incidence of mycoparasitism, but does not quantify the extent to which individual sclerotia are colonised. we developed a specific pcr primer/probe set for the green fluorescent protein (gfp)-transformant t. harzianum thzid1-m3, which exhibited high precision and reproducibility. quantitative real-time pcr was evalua ...201121530913
co-entrapment of trichoderma harzianum and glomus sp. within alginate beads: impact on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi life cycle.this study was performed to explore the compatibility and applicability of plant beneficial micro-organisms (i.e. trichoderma harzianum mucl 29707 and glomus sp. mucl 41833) co-entrapped in alginate beads.201121518156
trichoderma harzianum strain sqr-t37 and its bio-organic fertilizer could control rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber seedlings mainly by the mycoparasitism.damping-off disease is caused by rhizoctonia solani and leads to serious loss in many crops. biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. optical micrographs, scanning electron micrographs, and the determination of hydrolytic enzymes were used to investigate the antagonism of trichoderma harzianum sqr-t37 (sqr-t37) against r. solani. experiments were performed in pots to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of sqr-t37 and bio-organi ...201121484203
the overexpression in arabidopsis thaliana of a trichoderma harzianum gene that modulates glucosidase activity, and enhances tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses.using the trichoest database, generated in a previous functional genomics project from the beneficial filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum, a gene named thkel1, which codes for a putative kelch-repeat protein, was isolated and characterized. silencing of this gene in t. harzianum leads to a reduction of glucosidase activity and mycelial growth under abiotic stress conditions. expression of this gene in arabidopsis enhances plant tolerance to salt and osmotic stresses, accompanied by an incre ...201121466906
a novel l-amino acid oxidase from trichoderma harzianum ets 323 associated with antagonism of rhizoctonia solani.trichoderma spp. are used as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens such as rhizoctonia solani, but their biocontrol mechanisms are poorly understood. a novel l-amino oxidase (th-laao) was identified from the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323. here, we show a fad-binding glycoprotein with the best substrate specificity constant for l-phenylalanine. although the amino acid sequence of th-laao revealed limited homology (16-24%) to other laao members, a highly conserved fad- ...201121456553
role of the morphology and polyphosphate in trichoderma harzianum related to cadmium removal.this study concerns the metabolism of polyphosphate in trichoderma harzianum, a biocontrol agent with innate resistance against most chemicals used in agriculture, including metals, when grown in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium. the biomass production was affected by the concentration of metal used. control cultures were able to accumulate polyphosphate under the conditions used. moreover, the presence of cadmium induced a reduction in polyphosphate content related to the con ...201121407149
strain-specific scar markers for the detection of trichoderma harzianum as12-2, a biological control agent against rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight.in order to identify a specific marker for t. harzianum as12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by rhizoctonia solani, up-pcr was performed using five universal primers (up) both separately and in pairwise combinations. the application of two up primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic dna of t. harzianum as12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other trichoderma strains. the unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any ...201121388921
differential expression of oil palm pathology genes during interactions with ganoderma boninense and trichoderma harzianum.the expression profiles of δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (sad1 and sad2) and type 3 metallothionein (mt3-a and mt3-b) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus trichoderma harzianum. expression of sad1 and mt3-a in roots and sad2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in g. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet a ...201121333381
expression and characterization of two new alkane-inducible cytochrome p450s from trichoderma harzianum.n-dodecane and fatty acids were good inducers of cytochrome p450 (cyp) and the ω-hydroxylase of lauric acid, which is a marker for ω-hydroxylation of n-alkanes, in trichoderma harzianum. a cdna, containing an orf of 1520 bp, encoding a cyp52 of 520 amino acids, was isolated by race. another n-alkane-inducible cyp was identified by llc-ms/ms analysis of a microsomal protein band induced by n-dodecane in a library of t. harzianum. this suggests that t. harzianum has a cyp-dependent conversion of a ...201121327702
[investigation of antitumor substance from trichoderma].the effect of l-lysine-alpha-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai on the functional activity of t-lymphocytes was investigated. it was shown that in a dose of 35 units/kg administered parentally the enzyme had no suppressive effect on the t-lymphocyte functional activity. an inhibitory effect of l-lysine-a-oxidase on some indices of the macrophages functional activity was observed. l-lyzine-alpha-oxidase had a selective lymphotropic action and showed no mytostatic activity, which is in favou ...201122586896
the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or trichoderma harzianum alters the shoot hormonal profile in melon plants.arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and trichoderma harzianum are known to affect plant growth and disease resistance through interaction with phytohormone synthesis or transport in the plant. cross-talk between these microorganisms and their host plants normally occurs in nature and may affect plant resistance. simultaneous quantification in the shoots of melon plants revealed significant changes in the levels of several hormones in response to inoculation with t. harzianum and two different amf ...201121145086
effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (pgpr's) on medicinal plant solanum viarum seedlings.a green house nursery study was conducted to assess the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus, glomus aggregatum and some plant growth promoting rhizomicrooganisms (pgpr's), bacillus coagulans and trichoderma harzianum, in soil and their consequent effect on growth, nutrition and content of secondary metabolities of solanum viarum seedlings. triple inoculation of g. aggregatum+b. coagulans+t. harzainum with solanum viarum in a green house nursery study resulted in maximum plant ...201122319872
expression of an optimized argopecten purpuratus antimicrobial peptide in e. coli and evaluation of the purified recombinant protein by in vitro challenges against important plant fungi.antimicrobial peptides (amp) have been widely described in several organisms from different kingdoms. we recently designed and evaluated a synthetic version of an amp isolated and characterized from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes. this study describes the generation of a chimaeric gene encoding for ap-s, the use of this construct to transform e. coli strain bl21, and the evaluation of the purified recombinant ap-s (raps) as an antifungal agent. the proposed gene coding for rap-s consists of 93 ...201121787820
identification of antibacterial mechanism of l-amino acid oxidase derived from trichoderma harzianum ets 323.although l-amino oxidase (laao) has been reported to be a potent antibacterial agent, the mechanism behind its antibacterial activity has not been identified. this study attempted to identify the mechanism behind the antibacterial activity of th-laao, an laao recently isolated from the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323, while elucidating the nature of this enzyme. the results indicate that the enzyme activity and structure of th-laao are stable at ph 6 to 8 and less stable ...201121781279
The antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujube.Plants are very useful, self-generating machines, producing a variety of useful bioactive products. Keeping in view this idea, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus jujuba were screened for antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities. Low activity was shown by the crude methanolic extract (12%), n-hexane (9%), chloroform (20%) and ethyl acetate (14%) fraction against Penicillium notatum. Low activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction against Aspergill ...201121959810
Microbial community analysis in the termite gut and fungus comb of Odontotermes formosanus: the implication of Bacillus as mutualists.The microbial communities harbored in the gut and fungus comb of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus were analyzed by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to better understand the community structure of their microflora. The microorganisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clonal selection, and culture-dependent methods were hypothesized to contribute to cellulose-hemicellulose hydrolysis, gut fermentation, nutrient production, the break ...201122092951
Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening st ...201122210620
enhancement of metabolites productivity of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, by co-culture with trichoderma harzianum fki-5655.in the course of discovering new metabolites from co-culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653 and trichoderma harzianum fki-5655, a new compound, designated secopenicillide c, and four known compounds, penicillide, mc-141, pestalasin a and stromemycin were isolated. the production of these compounds, except pestalasin a, was enhanced in co-culture to be two to six times higher than in pure culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, which was the producer of these compounds.201122008698
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