occupational exposure to microorganisms used as biocontrol agents in plant production.exposure to bioaerosols containing fungi and bacteria may cause various deleterious respiratory health effects. fungi and bacteria are commercially produced and applied to the environment as microbiological pest control agents (mpcas). attention has been drawn towards the exposure and health risks due to the use of commercially important mpcas. as part of a risk evaluation this paper intends to review whether the exposure to mpcas (beauveria bassiana, verticillium lecanii, trichoderma harzianum, ...201121196399
changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of trichoderma.patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of trichoderma. confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi amanita muscaria and laccaria laccata with species of trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. tyrosinase release was noted only ...201121286809
functional analysis of the trichoderma harzianum nox1 gene, encoding an nadph oxidase, relates production of reactive oxygen species to specific biocontrol activity against pythium ultimum.the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ros) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and nadph oxidases are involved in the formation of such ros. the nox1 gene of trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. the increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ros production during their direct confrontation with pythiu ...201121421791
herbicidal activity of culture filtrates of trichoderma spp. against two problematic weeds of wheat.the herbicidal potential of culture filtrates of four trichoderma spp., namely trichoderma harzianum rifai, trichoderma pseudokoningii rifai, trichoderma reesei simmons and trichoderma viride pers., was evaluated against two problematic weeds of wheat, phalaris minor l. and rumex dentatus l. in laboratory bioassays, generally, metabolites of all four trichoderma species significantly reduced various root and shoot growth parameters of the two target weed species. the original concentrations of t ...201121462072
occurrence of soil- and tick-borne fungi and related virulence tests for pathogenicity to ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick, vectors borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. 1984, the bacterium that causes lyme disease, the most important vector-borne disease in the united states. efforts to reduce i. scapularis populations are shifting toward the development of biological control methods. currently, only a few entomopathogenic fungal species are considered virulent to ticks. we hypothesized that these species may not represent the most abundant local taxa that would be pathogen ...201121485371
species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.the estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (otus). consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. the main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates ...201121557783
cloning of a novel l-amino acid oxidase from trichoderma harzianum ets 323 and bioactivity analysis of overexpressed l-amino acid oxidase.l-amino acid oxidases (laaos) have been isolated from many organisms, such as snake, and are known to have antibacterial activity. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the cloning of cdna encoding a novel trichoderma harzianum ets 323 l-amino acid oxidase (th-l-aao). the protein was overexpressed in escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. comparisons of its deduced amino acid sequence with the sequence of other l-aaos revealed the similarity to be between 9% and 24%. t ...201121797276
expression of an optimized argopecten purpuratus antimicrobial peptide in e. coli and evaluation of the purified recombinant protein by in vitro challenges against important plant fungi.antimicrobial peptides (amp) have been widely described in several organisms from different kingdoms. we recently designed and evaluated a synthetic version of an amp isolated and characterized from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes. this study describes the generation of a chimaeric gene encoding for ap-s, the use of this construct to transform e. coli strain bl21, and the evaluation of the purified recombinant ap-s (raps) as an antifungal agent. the proposed gene coding for rap-s consists of 93 ...201121787820
identification of antibacterial mechanism of l-amino acid oxidase derived from trichoderma harzianum ets 323.although l-amino oxidase (laao) has been reported to be a potent antibacterial agent, the mechanism behind its antibacterial activity has not been identified. this study attempted to identify the mechanism behind the antibacterial activity of th-laao, an laao recently isolated from the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323, while elucidating the nature of this enzyme. the results indicate that the enzyme activity and structure of th-laao are stable at ph 6 to 8 and less stable ...201121781279
L-amino acid oxidase-induced apoptosis in filamentous Botrytis cinerea.As opposed to single-cell yeast and mammalian cell lines, apoptosis has not been greatly investigated in filamentous fungi because antibodies to the relevant fungal apoptosis-related proteins are not available commercially and because multicellular organisms cannot be studied using flow cytometry. Here we demonstrate how antibodies from a nonfungal source could be used to investigate this pathway. We show that apoptosis in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea is triggered by the mitochondria- ...201221951783
comparative study of trichoderma gene expression in interactions with tomato plants using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays.trichoderma spp. are widely used as biopesticides and biofertilizers to control diseases and to promote positive physiological responses in plants. in vitro and in vivo assays with trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 (t34), trichoderma virens gv29-8 (t87) and trichoderma hamatum imi 224801 (t7) revealed that these strains affected the growth and development of lateral roots in tomato plants in different ways. the early expression profiles of these trichoderma strains were studied after 20 h of incub ...201222075029
The antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujube.Plants are very useful, self-generating machines, producing a variety of useful bioactive products. Keeping in view this idea, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus jujuba were screened for antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities. Low activity was shown by the crude methanolic extract (12%), n-hexane (9%), chloroform (20%) and ethyl acetate (14%) fraction against Penicillium notatum. Low activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction against Aspergill ...201121959810
Microbial community analysis in the termite gut and fungus comb of Odontotermes formosanus: the implication of Bacillus as mutualists.The microbial communities harbored in the gut and fungus comb of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus were analyzed by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to better understand the community structure of their microflora. The microorganisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clonal selection, and culture-dependent methods were hypothesized to contribute to cellulose-hemicellulose hydrolysis, gut fermentation, nutrient production, the break ...201122092951
Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity.ABSTRACT:201122070776
Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening st ...201122210620
Microbial consortium mediated reprogramming of defense network in pea to enhance tolerance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.Aims: To evaluate the potentiality of three rhizosphere microorganisms in suppression of Sclerotinia rot in pea in consortia mode and their impact on host defense responses. Methods and Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 from rhizospheric soils were selected based on compatibility, antagonistic and plant growth promotion activities. The microbes were used as consortia to assess their ability to trigger the phenylpropanoid and anti ...201122181349
enhancement of metabolites productivity of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, by co-culture with trichoderma harzianum the course of discovering new metabolites from co-culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653 and trichoderma harzianum fki-5655, a new compound, designated secopenicillide c, and four known compounds, penicillide, mc-141, pestalasin a and stromemycin were isolated. the production of these compounds, except pestalasin a, was enhanced in co-culture to be two to six times higher than in pure culture of penicillium pinophilum fki-5653, which was the producer of these compounds.201122008698
[Isolation and identification of dominant microorganisms in rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut].We isolated and identified dominant microorganisms from the rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut, to study the relationship between dominant microorganisms and peanut continuous cropping.201121866710
comparative study on the effect of chemicals on alternaria blight in indian mustard--a multi-location study in india.high severity of altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in india. the aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents trichoderma harzianum, pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide ...201122167952
chemical composition and antifungal activity of matricaria recutita flower essential oil against medically important dermatophytes and soil-borne pathogens.fungal infections are potential public health threats all over the world. in the present study, effect of matricaria recutita flower essential oil (eo) was evaluated against medically important dermatophytes and opportunistic saprophytes using microbioassay technique.201223518164
anticancer and antimicrobial activity of mangrove derived fungi hypocrea lixii vb1.mangrove is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. scientific research throughout the world has found evidence to support the fact that its foliar extracts have great potential against human microbial pathogens. this study highlights the isolation of foliar fungi from rhizophora mucronata, avicenna officialis and avicenna marina.201223302537
in vitro and in vivo biocontrol of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi by certain bioagents and their possible mode of action.the study aimed to investigate new wide-spectrum biological control agents against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. screening of 336 fungal strains and 256 bacterial strains was carried out in vitro to select the most promising isolates for controlling destructive pathogens of greenhouse-vegetables. in dual cultures, bacillus subtilis jf419701 and trichoderma harzianum jf419706 (teleomorph: hypocrea lixii) inhibited the growth of alternaria alternata, fusarium oxysporum, exserohilum rostratum, ...201223269217
the copurification of beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, and 1,3-beta-glucanase in two separate enzyme complexes isolated from trichoderma harzianum e58.two enzyme complexes, each with beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec, beta-xylosidase (beta-d-xylan xylohydrolase, ec, and 1,3-beta-glucanase (laminarinase, ec activity, were purified to near homogeneity from the cellulolytic fungus trichoderma harzianum e58. the two complexes had the same isoelectric point of ph 8.3 and identical subunit molecular masses of 75,400 daltons. the two complexes were also similar in that all activities were sensitive to ...20113125847
effect of agricultural amendments on cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and its rhizospheric microbial communities--a comparison between chemical fertilizers and bioinoculants.inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. however, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. the ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic ...201526231030
cotransformation of trichoderma harzianum with beta-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein genes provides a useful tool for monitoring fungal growth and activity in natural soils.trichoderma harzianum was cotransformed with genes encoding green fluorescent protein (gfp), beta-glucuronidase (gus), and hygromycin b (hygb) resistance, using polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation. one cotransformant (thzid1-m3) was mitotically stable for 6 months despite successive subculturing without selection pressure. thzid1-m3 morphology was similar to that of the wild type; however, the mycelial growth rate on agar was reduced. thzid1-m3 was formed into calcium alginate pellets an ...200010653755
an integrated approach for the reduction of aflatoxin contamination in chilli (capsicum annuum l.).an integrated approach for management of aflatoxin contamination in chilli was undertaken by evaluating the fungicides, bioagents and plant extracts against aspergillus flavus under both in vitro and field condition. maximum inhibition of radial growth (91.1%) was observed with 0.3% mancozeb followed by captan (85.2%). carbendazim (73%) was effective and superior over other systemic fungicides. a complete inhibition (100%) of a. flavus was observed in neem seed kernel extract (nske), nimbicidin ...201124425902
degradation of dyes using crude extract and a thermostable and ph-stable laccase isolated from pleurotus nebrodensis.three laccase isoenzymes (lac1, lac2 and lac3) have been purified to homogeneity from pleurotus nebrodensis in our previous study. lac2 was shown to be the dominant isoform, capable of oxidizing the majority of laccase substrates and manifesting good thermostability and ph stability. hence, lac2 was selected to decolourize structurally different dyes and the colour removal efficiencies of lac2 and the crude extract of p. nebrodensis were compared. by monitoring the λmax of the reaction system du ...201627354563
anthracnose of lucky bamboo dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus colletotrichum dracaenophilum in egypt.dracaena sanderiana, of the family liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into egypt. typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported d. sanderiana samples. the pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on koch's rule and identified as colletotrichum dracaenophilum. the optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °c, maintained for 8 days. kemazed 50% wettable powder (wp) was the most effective fungicide against the pat ...201627222738
detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from malaysian jatropha curcas linn. kernel by trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.the presence of phorbol esters (pes) with toxic properties limits the use of jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. therefore, suitable methods to detoxify pes have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. in the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted pes-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (trichoderma harzianum jq350879.1, t. harzianum jq517493.1, paecilomyces sinensis jq350881.1, cladosporium cladosporioides jq517491.1, fusarium chla ...201424504029
greenhouse evaluation of bacillus subtilis ap-01 and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 in controlling tobacco diseases.two biological control agents, bacillus subtilis ap-01 (larminar(™)) and trichoderma harzianum ap-001 (trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (cercospora nicotiana). tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed ...200824031219
differential expression of maize chitinases in the presence or absence of trichoderma harzianum strain t22 and indications of a novel exo- endo-heterodimeric chitinase activity.the interaction of plants with endophytic symbiotic fungi in the genus trichoderma alters the plant proteome and transcriptome and results in enhanced plant growth and resistance to diseases. in a previous study, we identified the numerous chitinolytic enzyme families and individual enzymes in maize which are implicated in plant disease resistance and other plant responses.201020594307
downy mildew resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum t39 in susceptible grapevines partially mimics transcriptional changes of resistant genotypes.downy mildew, caused by plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. the beneficial microorganism trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. a next generation rna sequencing (rna-seq) approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by t39 in vitis v ...201223173562
proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum t39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew.downy mildew is caused by the oomycete plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. the beneficial microorganism trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. in order to better understand the cellular processes associated with t39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by t39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 ...201223105132
deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum in tomato.root colonization by selected trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (isr)]. among them, jasmonic acid (ja) and ethylene (et) signaling pathways are generally essential for isr. however, trichod ...201323805146
analysis of phaseolus vulgaris response to its association with trichoderma harzianum (all-42) in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani.the present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of trichoderma harzianum (all 42-isolated from brazilian cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi rhizoctonia solani and fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. t. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. the ...201424878929
identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.the use of trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. in this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, alternaria alternata, colletotrichum gloeosporoides and rhizoctonia solani). the production of extracellular cell wall d ...201627917337
functional analysis of a subtilisin-like serine protease gene from biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.the subtilisin-like serine protease gene thss45 has been cloned from trichoderma harzianum accc30371. its coding region is 1302 bp in length, encoding 433 amino acids, with a predicted protein molecular weight of 44.9 kda and pi of 5.91. thss45 was shown by rt-qpcr analysis to be differentially transcribed in response to eight different treatments. the transcription of thss45 was up-regulated when grown in mineral medium, under carbon starvation, and nitrogen starvation, and in the presence of 1 ...201424500477
antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of honey collected from timergara (dir, pakistan).in this study honeys of acacia modesta, prunus persica, zizyphus sativa and isodon rogosus plants were tested against two gram-positive bacterial strains (staphylococcus aureus and bacillus cereus), two gram-negative bacterial strains (klebsilla pneumonia and escherichia coli) and two fungal strains (alternaria alternata and trichoderma harzianum) through agar well diffusion method. the tested honeys showed high antimicrobial activities to the tested bacterial and fungal strains. all the tested ...201424374434
[formation peculiarities of quercus robur l. acorn mycobiota under conditions of kyiv polissya].the structure of mycobiota (epiphytic and from inner tissues) of q. robur acorns (580 samples) under conditions of kyiv polissya was studied. acorn samples were collected from oak trees during vegetation period. the epiphytes and mycobiota isolated from inner tissues of acorns was represented by 38 and 20 species, respectively. the majority of fungi were isolated in july. cosmopolitan and non-specific species acremonium sp., alternaria alternata, cladosporium cladosporioides, trichoderma harzian ...201324006787
biological control of alternaria fruit rot of chili by trichoderma species under field conditions.trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. the experiment was conducted at the botanical garden, rajshahi university, bangladesh from july 2006 to march 2007. application of trichoderma harzianum imi 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to alternaria tenuis (t2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. the treatment t4 (t. harzianum imi-392432 + a. ...201023956637
production of soluble crude protein using cellulolytic fungi on rice stubble as substrate under waste program management.the investigation was undertaken to enhance the decomposition process by pre-treatment of rice stubble, having higher concentration of lignin. air-dried rice stubble was treated with 1.8 liter of 1% naoh and autoclaved. six cellulolytic fungi, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium citrinum, curvularia lunata, aspergillus flavus and alternaria alternata were grown in basal synthetic medium along with delignified rice-residue as carbon source for production of soluble crude protein. though the loss o ...200524049491
evaluating the effects of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation on antifungal and radical scavenging activities of oliveria decumbens and chaerophyllum macropodum essential this study, radical scavenging and antifungal activities of chaerophyllum macropodum and oliveria decumbens essential oils (eos) extracted with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (mahd) were evaluated in comparison with the same eos extracted by conventional hydrodistillation (hd). the final eo yields that were obtained using hd (after 150 min) and mahd (after 45 min) were 1.72 and 1.67% for c. macropodum and 8.10 and 7.91% for o. decumbens, respectively. there were no significant differenc ...201728371590
characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.this study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. the component enzymes were identified by lcms-ms. glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (aa9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at level ...201626697775
potential of various fungi for biomass production of experiment was conducted to evaluate biomass production of castor (ricinus communis) with inoculation of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf), trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger. in castor, dual treatment of mycorrhiza and t. harzianum was better for shoot length (29.5 cm), root length (40.3 cm), fresh shoot weight (4.90 g), fresh root weight (1.13 g), number of leaves (10) and leaf area (75.5 cm2) than dual treatment of mycorrhiza and a. niger or mycorrhiza alone. these finding ...201324511751
antifungal cyclic lipopeptides from bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain bo5a.a bioassay-guided fractionation of bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain bo5a afforded the isolation of two new cyclic lipopeptides (1 and 2) as the major lipid constituents (>60%) of the chcl3-meoh (2:1) extract. the chemical structures of the isolated metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (ms), secondary ion mass spectrometry (ms1, ms2), and chemical degradation. the compounds are members of the surfactins family and are based ...201324164115
molecular characterization of intergeneric hybrid between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion.protoplast fusion between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum and application of fusant in degradation of shellfish waste.201525444252
effect of seed pelleting with biocontrol agents on growth and colonisation of roots of mungbean by root-infecting fungi.mungbean (vigna radiata (l.) wilczek) is a leguminous pulse crop that is a major source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. root-infecting fungi produce severe plant diseases like root rot, charcoal rot, damping-off and stem rot. the soil-borne pathogens can be controlled by chemicals, but these chemicals have several negative effects. use of microbial antagonist such as fungi and bacteria is a safe, effective and eco-friendly method for the control of many soil-borne pathogens. biological contr ...201626619828
fungal biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its breakdown products on the basis of fungal and bacterial growth.phthalates are esters of phthalic acid that give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride. diverse studies have reported that these compounds might be carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic. radial growth rate, biomass, hyphal thickness of neurospora sitophyla, trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger, grown in two different concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (dbp) (500 and 1,000 mg/l) in agar and in submerged fermentation were studied. the inhibitory concentration (ic50) and the constant of bi ...201425063688
untargeted metabolic profiling of vitis vinifera during fungal degradation.this paper illustrates the application of an untargeted metabolic profiling analysis of winery-derived biomass degraded using four filamentous fungi (trichoderma harzianum, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum and p. citrinum) and a yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). analysis of the metabolome resulted in the identification of 233 significant peak features [p < 0.05; fold change (fc) > 2 and signal-to-noise ratio >50] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by statistical chemom ...201525868913
recombinant trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase i (cel7b) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. previous studies demonstrated that trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. however, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from t. harzianum are scarce. this work reports biochemical characterization ...201526156238
hydroxylation of 1,8-cineole by mucor ramannianus and aspergillus niger.the monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole is obtained from the leaves of eucalyptus globulus and it has important biological activities. it is a cheap natural substrate because it is a by-product of the eucalyptus cultivation for wood and pulp production. in this study, it was evaluated the potential of three filamentous fungi in the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole. the study was divided in two steps: first, reactions were carried out with 1,8-cineole at 1 g/l for 24 h; afterwards, reactions were carried o ...201526221115
winery biomass waste degradation by sequential sonication and mixed fungal enzyme increase the efficiency of winery-derived biomass biodegradation, grape pomace was ultrasonicated for 20min in the presence of 0.25m, 0.5mand1.0mkoh and 1.0mnaoh. this was followed by treatment with a 1:1 (v/v) mix of crude enzyme preparation derived from phanerochaete chrysosporium and trametes versicolor for 18h and a further 18h treatment with a 60:14:4:2 percent ratio combination of enzymes derived from aspergillus niger: penicillium chrysogenum: trichoderma harzianum: p. citrinum, repsec ...201627599392
design of an enzyme cocktail consisting of different fungal platforms for efficient hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: optimization and synergism studies.lignocellulosic materials represent a very important and promising source of renewable biomass. in order to turn them into fermentable sugars, synergism among the different enzymes that carry out bioconversion of these materials is one of the main factors that should be considered. experimental mixture design was performed to optimize the proportion of enzymes produced by native strains of trichoderma harzianum ioc 3844, penicillium funiculosum atcc 11797, and aspergillus niger atcc 1004, result ...201627254751
phosphate dissolving fungi: mechanism and application in alleviation of salt stress in wheat.the present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (tcp), udaipur rock phosphate (urp), aluminium phosphate (ap) and ferric phosphate (fp) by aspergillus niger (itcc 6719) and trichoderma harzianum (itcc 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (p) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for media ...201627825490
genetic transformation of knufia petricola a95 - a model organism for biofilm-material interactions.we established a protoplast-based system to transfer dna to knufia petricola strain a95, a melanised rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus that is also a component of a model sub-aerial biofilm (sab) system. to test whether the desiccation resistant, highly melanised cell walls would hinder protoplast formation, we treated a melanin-minus mutant of a95 as well as the type-strain with a variety of cell-degrading enzymes. of the different enzymes tested, lysing enzymes from trichoderma harzianum we ...201425401079
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
control of root rot and wilt diseases of roselle under field conditions.roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa l.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. in this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. our results showed that micro ...201425606010
biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untre ...201525860553
antimicrobial and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation of constituents isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes.this study was designed to assess the susceptibility of various microorganisms and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation against diosgenin and santonin, isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes. both diosgenin and santonin showed significant zone of inhibition when studied against various gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella typhi). in antifungal assay ...201525553804
leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents.the increasing use of biological control agents (bcas) against botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of bcas on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three bcas-namely, rhizovital 42 fl. (bacillus amyloliquefaciens fzb42), trianum-p (trichoderma harzianum t22), and naturalis (beauveria ...201324020904
identification and characterization of ethanol utilizing fungal flora of oil refinery contaminated soil.the indigenous fungal flora of three oil refinery contaminated sites (bharuch, valsad and vadodara) of india has been documented in the present investigation. a total seventy-five fungal morphotypes were isolated from these sites and out of them, only fifteen isolates were capable of utilizing ethanol (0-8%; v:v) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. ten percent ethanol was completely lethal for the growth of all the isolated fungus. biochemical characterization of the potent ethanol ...201424068535
thc6 protein, isolated from trichoderma harzianum, can induce maize defense response against curvularia lunata.mutant t66 was isolated from 450 mutants (constructed with agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method) of trichoderma harzianum. maize seeds coated with t66 were more susceptible to curvularia lunata when compared with those coated with wild-type (wt) strain. the disease index of maize treated with t66 and wt were 62.5 and 42.1%, respectively. further research showed t-dna has inserted into the orf of one gene, which resulted in the functional difference between wt and t66. the gen ...201524771614
construction and functional analysis of trichoderma harzianum mutants that modulate maize resistance to the pathogen curvularia lunata.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) was used to generate an insertional mutant library of the mycelial fungus trichoderma harzianum. from a total of 450 mutants, six mutants that showed significant influence on maize resistance to c. lunata were analyzed in detail. maize coated with these mutants was more susceptible to c. lunata compared with those coated with a wild-type (wt) strain. similar to other fungal atmt libraries, all six mutants were single copy integrations, whi ...201424901960
production and multiplication of native compost fungal activator by using different substrates and its influence on growth and development of capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia".in vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of pinus kesiya, shorea robusta, and callicarpa arborea on trichoderma harzianum, isolate th-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia." early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in s. robusta followed by p. kesiya and c. arborea (3.5 days). the sporulation was observed earlier in s. robusta (100% after 6 days) than p. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and c. arborea (16.7% after ...201525632354
suppression of the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum by mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus intraradices in root-free soiltrichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent against several fungal soilborne plant pathogens. however, possible adverse effects of this fungus on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might be a drawback in its use in plant protection. the objective of the present work was to examine the interaction between glomus intraradices and t. harzianum in soil. the use of a compartmented growth system with root-free soil compartments enabled us to study fungal interactions without the interfering effec ...199910103232
de novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.).basal stem rot (bsr) is a fungal disease in oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the ganoderma genus. molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate bsr. in order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and g. boninense and its biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreate ...201626781612
influence of rhizoctonia solani and trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.many trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. we study how the interaction of bean plants with r. solani and/or trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize r. solani. bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. the effect of trichoderma treatment and/or r. solani infection on t ...201526442006
antagonism of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 on botrytis cinerea mycelium in culture conditions.abstract previous studies have shown that the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 grown in the presence of deactivated botrytis cinerea in culture include a putative l-amino acid oxidase and have suggested the involvement of this enzyme in the antagonistic mechanism. here, we hypothesized that the mycoparasitic process of trichoderma spp. against b. cinerea involves two steps; that is, an initial hyphal coiling stage and a subsequent hyphal coiling stage, with different coili ...201222734558
systemic resistance to powdery mildew in brassica napus (aacc) and raphanus alboglabra (rrcc) by trichoderma harzianum th12.trichoderma harzianum th12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. the mechanism of systemic resistance induced by th12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (cf) in brassica napus (aacc) and raphanus alboglabra (rrcc) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. in this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of b. napus and r. alboglabra infected with e. cruciferarum. the histological stu ...201526540161
induction of resistance in tomato plants against tomato mosaic tobamovirus using beneficial microbial isolates.the possibility of making use of the phenome non of systemic acquired resistance (sar) to control viruses achieved by the soaking treatment of tomato seeds cv. castl rock with three growth forms to bacillus circulans, pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and trichoderma harzianum against tomato mosaic tobamovirus (tomv) infection. all the application forms of beneficial biotic inducers were reduced the mean number of tomv local lesions on datura metel. p. fluorescens 2 was found to be the best treatment in ...201324494520
in vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in trichoderma harzianum.the antagonistic fungus trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. t. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. in vitro screening of 5 isolates of t. harzinum, one isolate of chaetomium globosum and one isolate of conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium solani and rhizoctonia solani on pda medium, significantly. the inhibition percentage ranged f ...201023961072
characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally treated β-1,3-1,6-glucan from aureobasidium pullulans.the chemical structure of hydrothermally treated β-1,3-1,6-glucan from aureobasidium pullulans was characterized using techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr). the chemical shifts of anomeric carbons observed in the (13)c-nmr spectra suggested the presence of single flexible chains of polysaccharide in the sample. β-1,3-1,6-glucan from a. pullulans became water-soluble, with an average molecular weight of 128,000 da after hydrothermal ...201627804105
integrated use of biocontrol agents with fungicides to control wilt incidence in pigeon-pea.when trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger, as biocontrol agents, were included with two fungicides, foltaf 80w (captafol 80%) and blue copper-50, for the treatment of pigeon-pea wilt, the disease was more effectively controlled than when the fungicides were used alone. accordingly, decreased amounts of the fungicides could be used to control the disease without adversely affecting the growth of pigeon-pea.199524414914
antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of breonadia salicina.breonadia salicina is used traditionally to treat wounds, ulcers, fevers, headaches, and fungal infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the plant extract and compounds isolated there from.201323727185
spirostane, furostane and cholestane saponins from persian leek with antifungal activity.a phytochemical investigation of the seeds of persian leek afforded the isolation of two new spirostane glycosides, persicosides a (1) and b (2), four new furostane glycosides, isolated as a couple of inseparable mixture, persicosides c1/c2 (3a/3b) and d1/d2 (4a/4b), one cholestane glycoside, persicoside e (5), together with the furostane glycosides ceposides a1/a2 and c1/c2 (6a/6b and 7a/7b), tropeosides a1/a2 and b1/b2 (8a/8b and 9a/9b), and ascalonicoside a1/a2 (10a/10b), already described in ...201323790946
a combined chemical and enzymatic method to determine quantitatively the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of yeasts.a reliable method to determine cell wall polysaccharides composition in yeast is presented, which combines acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. sulphuric acid treatment is used to determine mannans, whereas specific hydrolytic enzymes are employed in a two sequential steps to quantify chitin and the proportion of β-(1,3) and β-(1,6)-glucan in the total β-glucan of the cell wall. in the first step, chitin and β-(1,3)-glucan were hydrolysed into their corresponding monomers n-acetylglucosamine and gluco ...201425041403
effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (pgpr's) on medicinal plant solanum viarum seedlings.a green house nursery study was conducted to assess the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungus, glomus aggregatum and some plant growth promoting rhizomicrooganisms (pgpr's), bacillus coagulans and trichoderma harzianum, in soil and their consequent effect on growth, nutrition and content of secondary metabolities of solanum viarum seedlings. triple inoculation of g. aggregatum+b. coagulans+t. harzainum with solanum viarum in a green house nursery study resulted in maximum plant ...201122319872
cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in artemisia annua l. under organic field conditions.artemisia annua l. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. in this experiment, bioinoculants viz., streptomyces sp. mtn14, bacillus megaterium mtn2rp and trichoderma harzianum thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. further, multi-use of the bioinoculant ...201627565777
trichoderma harzianum t-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by cucumber mosaic virus.understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. the ability of trichoderma harzianum, strain t-22 (t22) to control cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with t22/cmv were examined. plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reac ...201627777581
exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of meloidogyne incognita infestation in bacopa monnieri l.despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., bacopa monnieri. in the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., bacillus megaterium, glomus intraradices, trichoderma harzianum thu, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and bacos ...201524841892
genetic variation and biological control of fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat in assiut-egypt.fusarium graminearum schwabe causes fusarium head blight (fhb), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. twelve isolates of f. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from assiut egypt. these isolates were compared using srap. the results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within f. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their path ...201627147934
biological control of diseases of vegetables grown hydroponically in thailand: challenge and thailand, yield loss due to plant diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically is very high as a result of the growers` lack of knowledge for controlling diseases and their un- willingness to invest in setting-up the proper hydroponic system from the beginning. severe root rot disease caused by pythium spp. is frequent and can be anticipated in the hot climate in thailand.201527076090
microbe-based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary metabolites and antioxidants in pelargonium graveolens l'hér.despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as pelargonium graveolens l'hér. the aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes trichoderma harzianum thu, glomus intraradices and bacillus subtilis cim affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in p. graveolens.201626762896
comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against sclerotinia sclerotiorum.microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-de gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by maldi-tof ms or ms/ms. these prote ...201526067380
biological management of sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.the beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. the present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27, and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control sclerotinia sclerotiorum. plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant gro ...201525727183
biocontrol agents-mediated suppression of oxalic acid induced cell death during sclerotinia sclerotiorum-pea interaction.oxalic acid (oa) is an important pathogenic factor during early sclerotinia sclerotiorum-host interaction and might work by reducing hydrogen peroxide production (h2 o2 ). in the present investigation, oxalic acid-induced cell death in pea was studied. pea plants treated with biocontrol agents (bcas) viz., pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, bacillus subtilis bhhu100, and trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 either singly and/or in consortium acted on s. sclerotiorum indirectly by enabling plants to inhibit ...201524920251
selectivity of organic products to trichogramma pretiosum riley (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae).the selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to trichogramma pretiosum riley (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the working group on "pesticides and beneficial organisms" of the iobc. the evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). most of th ...201526267248
insights into the structure and function of fungal β-mannosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 2 based on multiple crystal structures of the trichoderma harzianum enzyme.hemicellulose is an important part of the plant cell wall biomass, and is relevant to cellulosic ethanol technologies. β-mannosidases are enzymes capable of cleaving nonreducing residues of β-d-mannose from β-d-mannosides and hemicellulose mannose-containing polysaccharides, such as mannans and galactomannans. β-mannosidases are distributed between glycoside hydrolase (gh) families 1, 2, and 5, and only a handful of the enzymes have been structurally characterized to date. the only published x-r ...201424975648
effects of endophyte colonization of vicia faba (fabaceae) plants on the life-history of leafminer parasitoids phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae).effects of the fungal endophytes beauveria bassiana (isolates icipe 279, g1lu3, s4su1) and hypocrea lixii (isolate f3st1) on the life-history of phaedrotoma scabriventris and diglyphus isaea, parasitoids of the pea leafminer liriomyza huidobrensis, were studied in the laboratory. parasitoids were allowed to parasitize 2(nd) and 3(rd) instar l. huidobrensis larvae reared on endophytically-inoculated faba bean, vicia faba. in the control, parasitoids were reared on non-inoculated host plants. para ...201425338084
fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) in northern spain.most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. this study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of pinus sylvestris l. twigs in northern spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. in all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 scots pines in fifteen stands. isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified b ...201526399183
parasitic weed management by using strigolactone-degrading fungi.seed germination is a key phase of the parasitic plant life cycle that is stimulated by the secondary metabolites, mainly strigolactones (sls), secreted by the host roots. interventions during this stage would be particularly suitable for parasitic weed management practices, as blocking these chemical signals would prevent seed germination and thus parasite attack. four fungal strains with different ecological functions were considered for their possible ability to metabolise sls: fusarium oxysp ...201626757233
production of trichodiene by trichoderma harzianum alters the perception of this biocontrol strain by plants and antagonized fungi.trichothecenes are phytotoxic sesquiterpenic mycotoxins that can act as virulence factors in plant diseases. harzianum a (ha) is a non-phytotoxic trichothecene produced by trichoderma arundinaceum. the first step in ha biosynthesis is the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to trichodiene (td), a volatile organic compound (voc), catalysed by a sesquiterpene synthase encoded by the tri5 gene. expression of tri5 in the biocontrol strain trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 resulted in production of td i ...201524813508
systemic resistance to gray mold induced in tomato by benzothiadiazole and trichoderma harzianum t39.gray mold (botrytis cinerea) is an important disease of tomato (solanum lycopersicum). this study examined defense-related gene expression involved in the resistance to b. cinerea that is induced in tomato plants by benzothiadiazole and trichoderma harzianum t39 soil drench. in whole plants, transcriptional changes related to salicylic acid and ethylene were induced by the application of a 0.01% benzothiadiazole solution, whereas changes related to jasmonic acid were induced by the application o ...201424047252
construction of a streptomyces lydicus a01 transformant with a chit42 gene from trichoderma harzianum p1 and evaluation of its biocontrol activity against botrytis cinerea.streptomyces lydicus a01 and trichoderma harzianum p1 are potential biocontrol agents of fungal diseases in plants. s. lydicus a01 produces natamycin to bind the ergosterol of the fungal cell membrane and inhibits the growth of botrytis cinerea. t. harzianum p1, on the other hand, features high chitinase activity and decomposes the chitin in the cell wall of b. cinerea. to obtain the synergistic biocontrol effects of chitinase and natamycin on botrytis cinerea, this study transformed the chit42 ...201323625216
antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l. var. voghiera.a bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l., var. voghiera, typical of voghiera, ferrara (italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside a1/a2 and voghieroside b1/b2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside c1/c2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside d1/d2 and e1/e2, based on gitogenin aglycone. in addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-o-trisaccharide and gitogeni ...201222513009
improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, chaetomium globosum, aspergillus niveoglaucus, paecilomyces lilacinus, and trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon di ...201424677097
native fungi as metal remediators: silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (libiola mine, italy).metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. in this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. in our work, we tested silver (ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (aspergillus alliaceus thom & church, trichoderma harzianum rifai, ...201728121268
colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of thrips tabaci.endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. thrips tabaci (lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, allium cepa l., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. however, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. we tested the colonization of onion plants by selected f ...201425254657
microfungi in highly copper-contaminated soils from an abandoned fe-cu sulphide mine: growth responses, tolerance and bioaccumulation.copper is one of the most dangerous soil contaminants. soils affected by high copper concentrations show low biodiversity and, above all, inadequate environmental quality. microorganisms such as fungi can play a key role in metal-polluted ecosystems via colonization and decontamination. the study is devoted to characterize the microfungal community in highly cu-contaminated bare soil from derelict fe-cu sulphide mines and to isolate microfungal strains able to tolerate and accumulate cu. 11 diff ...201425240213
expression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from trichoderma harzianum in strawberry increases tolerance to crown rot diseases but interferes with plant growth.the expression of antifungal genes from trichoderma harzianum, mainly chitinases, has been used to confer plant resistance to fungal diseases. however, the biotechnological potential of glucanase genes from trichoderma has been scarcely assessed. in this research, transgenic strawberry plants expressing the β-1,3-glucanase gene bgn13.1 from t. harzianum, under the control of the camv35s promoter, have been generated. after acclimatization, five out of 12 independent lines analysed showed a stunt ...201526178245
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