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trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from trichoderma harzianum f031.a new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol a (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from trichoderma harzianum f031. for the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the trichoderma species. their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minim ...201525817439
selectivity of organic products to trichogramma pretiosum riley (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae).the selectivity of various entomopathogens and one insecticide (chlorpyrifos = positive control) to trichogramma pretiosum riley (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae) was evaluated in the laboratory, using the protocol established by the working group on "pesticides and beneficial organisms" of the iobc. the evaluated parameters were parasitism (%), adult emergence (%), and product repellency to the parasitoid when sprayed on host eggs prior to parasitism (free-choice and no-choice tests). most of th ...201526267248
biocontrol agents-mediated suppression of oxalic acid induced cell death during sclerotinia sclerotiorum-pea interaction.oxalic acid (oa) is an important pathogenic factor during early sclerotinia sclerotiorum-host interaction and might work by reducing hydrogen peroxide production (h2 o2 ). in the present investigation, oxalic acid-induced cell death in pea was studied. pea plants treated with biocontrol agents (bcas) viz., pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, bacillus subtilis bhhu100, and trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 either singly and/or in consortium acted on s. sclerotiorum indirectly by enabling plants to inhibit ...201524920251
comparative proteomic analysis in pea treated with microbial consortia of beneficial microbes reveals changes in the protein network to enhance resistance against sclerotinia sclerotiorum.microbial consortia may provide protection against pathogenic ingress via enhancing plant defense responses. pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27 and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 were used either singly or in consortia in the pea rhizosphere to observe proteome level changes upon sclerotinia sclerotiorum challenge. thirty proteins were found to increase or decrease differentially in 2-de gels of pea leaves, out of which 25 were identified by maldi-tof ms or ms/ms. these prote ...201526067380
the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase gene derived from trichoderma harzianum induces maize resistance to curvularia lunata through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah) derived from trichoderma harzianum was upregulated by the interaction of t. harzianum with maize roots or the foliar pathogen curvularia lunata. paf-ah was associated with chitinase and cellulase expressions, but especially with chitinase, because its activity in the ko40 transformant (paf-ah disruption transformant) was lower, compared with the wild-type strain t28. the result demonstrated that the colonization of maize roots by t. harzianum i ...201526273755
biological management of sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.the beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. the present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely pseudomonas aeruginosa pjhu15, trichoderma harzianum tnhu27, and bacillus subtilis bhhu100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control sclerotinia sclerotiorum. plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant gro ...201525727183
fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) in northern spain.most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. this study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of pinus sylvestris l. twigs in northern spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. in all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 scots pines in fifteen stands. isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified b ...201526399183
production and multiplication of native compost fungal activator by using different substrates and its influence on growth and development of capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia".in vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of pinus kesiya, shorea robusta, and callicarpa arborea on trichoderma harzianum, isolate th-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on capsicum chinensis jacq. "bhut jolokia." early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in s. robusta followed by p. kesiya and c. arborea (3.5 days). the sporulation was observed earlier in s. robusta (100% after 6 days) than p. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and c. arborea (16.7% after ...201525632354
exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of meloidogyne incognita infestation in bacopa monnieri l.despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., bacopa monnieri. in the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., bacillus megaterium, glomus intraradices, trichoderma harzianum thu, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and bacos ...201524841892
biological control of diseases of vegetables grown hydroponically in thailand: challenge and opportunity.in thailand, yield loss due to plant diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically is very high as a result of the growers` lack of knowledge for controlling diseases and their un- willingness to invest in setting-up the proper hydroponic system from the beginning. severe root rot disease caused by pythium spp. is frequent and can be anticipated in the hot climate in thailand.201527076090
antimicrobial and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation of constituents isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes.this study was designed to assess the susceptibility of various microorganisms and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation against diosgenin and santonin, isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes. both diosgenin and santonin showed significant zone of inhibition when studied against various gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella typhi). in antifungal assay ...201525553804
biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untre ...201525860553
hydroxylation of 1,8-cineole by mucor ramannianus and aspergillus niger.the monoterpenoid 1,8-cineole is obtained from the leaves of eucalyptus globulus and it has important biological activities. it is a cheap natural substrate because it is a by-product of the eucalyptus cultivation for wood and pulp production. in this study, it was evaluated the potential of three filamentous fungi in the biotransformation of 1,8-cineole. the study was divided in two steps: first, reactions were carried out with 1,8-cineole at 1 g/l for 24 h; afterwards, reactions were carried o ...201526221115
untargeted metabolic profiling of vitis vinifera during fungal degradation.this paper illustrates the application of an untargeted metabolic profiling analysis of winery-derived biomass degraded using four filamentous fungi (trichoderma harzianum, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum and p. citrinum) and a yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae). analysis of the metabolome resulted in the identification of 233 significant peak features [p < 0.05; fold change (fc) > 2 and signal-to-noise ratio >50] using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by statistical chemom ...201525868913
influence of rhizoctonia solani and trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.many trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. we study how the interaction of bean plants with r. solani and/or trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize r. solani. bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. the effect of trichoderma treatment and/or r. solani infection on t ...201526442006
molecular characterization of intergeneric hybrid between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion.protoplast fusion between aspergillus oryzae and trichoderma harzianum and application of fusant in degradation of shellfish waste.201525444252
recombinant trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase i (cel7b) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. previous studies demonstrated that trichoderma harzianum ioc-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. however, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from t. harzianum are scarce. this work reports biochemical characterization ...201526156238
effect of agricultural amendments on cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and its rhizospheric microbial communities--a comparison between chemical fertilizers and bioinoculants.inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. however, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. the ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic ...201526231030
degradation of dyes using crude extract and a thermostable and ph-stable laccase isolated from pleurotus nebrodensis.three laccase isoenzymes (lac1, lac2 and lac3) have been purified to homogeneity from pleurotus nebrodensis in our previous study. lac2 was shown to be the dominant isoform, capable of oxidizing the majority of laccase substrates and manifesting good thermostability and ph stability. hence, lac2 was selected to decolourize structurally different dyes and the colour removal efficiencies of lac2 and the crude extract of p. nebrodensis were compared. by monitoring the λmax of the reaction system du ...201627354563
anthracnose of lucky bamboo dracaena sanderiana caused by the fungus colletotrichum dracaenophilum in egypt.dracaena sanderiana, of the family liliaceae, is among the ornamental plants most frequently imported into egypt. typical anthracnose symptoms were observed on the stems of imported d. sanderiana samples. the pathogen was isolated, demonstrated to be pathogenic based on koch's rule and identified as colletotrichum dracaenophilum. the optimum temperature for its growth ranges from 25 to 30 °c, maintained for 8 days. kemazed 50% wettable powder (wp) was the most effective fungicide against the pat ...201627222738
identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.the use of trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. in this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, alternaria alternata, colletotrichum gloeosporoides and rhizoctonia solani). the production of extracellular cell wall d ...201627917337
de novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.).basal stem rot (bsr) is a fungal disease in oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the ganoderma genus. molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate bsr. in order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and g. boninense and its biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreate ...201626781612
design of an enzyme cocktail consisting of different fungal platforms for efficient hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: optimization and synergism studies.lignocellulosic materials represent a very important and promising source of renewable biomass. in order to turn them into fermentable sugars, synergism among the different enzymes that carry out bioconversion of these materials is one of the main factors that should be considered. experimental mixture design was performed to optimize the proportion of enzymes produced by native strains of trichoderma harzianum ioc 3844, penicillium funiculosum atcc 11797, and aspergillus niger atcc 1004, result ...201627254751
characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrothermally treated β-1,3-1,6-glucan from aureobasidium pullulans.the chemical structure of hydrothermally treated β-1,3-1,6-glucan from aureobasidium pullulans was characterized using techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr). the chemical shifts of anomeric carbons observed in the (13)c-nmr spectra suggested the presence of single flexible chains of polysaccharide in the sample. β-1,3-1,6-glucan from a. pullulans became water-soluble, with an average molecular weight of 128,000 da after hydrothermal ...201627804105
effect of seed pelleting with biocontrol agents on growth and colonisation of roots of mungbean by root-infecting fungi.mungbean (vigna radiata (l.) wilczek) is a leguminous pulse crop that is a major source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. root-infecting fungi produce severe plant diseases like root rot, charcoal rot, damping-off and stem rot. the soil-borne pathogens can be controlled by chemicals, but these chemicals have several negative effects. use of microbial antagonist such as fungi and bacteria is a safe, effective and eco-friendly method for the control of many soil-borne pathogens. biological contr ...201626619828
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
phosphate dissolving fungi: mechanism and application in alleviation of salt stress in wheat.the present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (tcp), udaipur rock phosphate (urp), aluminium phosphate (ap) and ferric phosphate (fp) by aspergillus niger (itcc 6719) and trichoderma harzianum (itcc 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (p) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for media ...201627825490
winery biomass waste degradation by sequential sonication and mixed fungal enzyme treatments.to increase the efficiency of winery-derived biomass biodegradation, grape pomace was ultrasonicated for 20min in the presence of 0.25m, 0.5mand1.0mkoh and 1.0mnaoh. this was followed by treatment with a 1:1 (v/v) mix of crude enzyme preparation derived from phanerochaete chrysosporium and trametes versicolor for 18h and a further 18h treatment with a 60:14:4:2 percent ratio combination of enzymes derived from aspergillus niger: penicillium chrysogenum: trichoderma harzianum: p. citrinum, repsec ...201627599392
characterization of the cellulolytic secretome of trichoderma harzianum during growth on sugarcane bagasse and analysis of the activity boosting effects of swollenin.this study demonstrates the production of an active enzyme cocktail produced by growing trichoderma harzianum on sugarcane bagasse. the component enzymes were identified by lcms-ms. glycosyl hydrolases were the most abundant class of proteins, representing 67% of total secreted protein. other carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction included lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (aa9), carbohydrate-binding modules, carbohydrate esterases and swollenin, all present at level ...201626697775
microbe-based technology ameliorates glandular trichomes, secondary metabolites and antioxidants in pelargonium graveolens l'hér.despite the vast exploration of microbes for plant health, there is a lack of knowledge about the synergistic effects of specific microorganisms in sustainable agriculture, especially in medicinal plants such as pelargonium graveolens l'hér. the aim of this study was to evaluate how synergistic microbes trichoderma harzianum thu, glomus intraradices and bacillus subtilis cim affected crop productivity, secondary metabolites and glandular trichome number in p. graveolens.201626762896
genetic variation and biological control of fusarium graminearum isolated from wheat in assiut-egypt.fusarium graminearum schwabe causes fusarium head blight (fhb), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. twelve isolates of f. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from assiut egypt. these isolates were compared using srap. the results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within f. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their path ...201627147934
cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in artemisia annua l. under organic field conditions.artemisia annua l. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. in this experiment, bioinoculants viz., streptomyces sp. mtn14, bacillus megaterium mtn2rp and trichoderma harzianum thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. further, multi-use of the bioinoculant ...201627565777
parasitic weed management by using strigolactone-degrading fungi.seed germination is a key phase of the parasitic plant life cycle that is stimulated by the secondary metabolites, mainly strigolactones (sls), secreted by the host roots. interventions during this stage would be particularly suitable for parasitic weed management practices, as blocking these chemical signals would prevent seed germination and thus parasite attack. four fungal strains with different ecological functions were considered for their possible ability to metabolise sls: fusarium oxysp ...201626757233
native isolate of trichoderma: a biocontrol agent with unique stress tolerance properties.species of trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate trichoderma harzianum ksnm (t103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mm); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mm); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100- ...201627339311
effects of different inoculum densities of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride against meloidogyne javanica on tomato.a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different inoculum densities of two saudi isolates of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride against meloidogyne javanica on tomato. four densities (10(4), 10(6), 10(8) and 10(10) spores/g of soil) of each fungus were used. the results indicate that all four inoculum densities of the two trichoderma species suppressed the nematode reproduction and root galling; and increased the growth of tomato plants, compared to controls. ...201626981012
secretome analysis of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum all 42 cultivated in different media supplemented with fusarium solani cell wall or glucose.trichoderma harzianum is a fungus well known for its potential as a biocontrol agent against many fungal phytopathogens. the aim of this study was to characterize the proteins secreted by t. harzianum all42 when its spores were inoculated and incubated for 48 h in culture media supplemented with glucose (glu) or with cell walls from fusarium solani (fscw), a phytopathogen that causes severe losses in common bean and soy crops in brazil, as well as other crop diseases around the world. trichoderm ...201626631988
molecular cloning and characterization of ech46 endochitinase from trichoderma harzianum.in the present study, endochitinase of t. harzianum isolate-thhp3 induced against mycelium of f. oxysporum was cloned, sequenced and characterized. the complete nucleotide sequence contained an orf of 1293bp corresponding to 430 amino acids with 46kda molecular weight and theoretical pi 5.59. the precursor protein contained 22 amino acids long signal peptide at n terminus. the domain architecture of endochitinase showed low complexity regions, presence of 1w9p domain specific to cyclopentapeptid ...201627456116
crystal structure and biochemical characterization of the recombinant thbgl, a gh1 β-glucosidase overexpressed in trichoderma harzianum under biomass degradation conditions.the conversion of biomass-derived sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis for biofuel production is a challenge. therefore, the search for microorganisms and key enzymes that increase the efficiency of the saccharification of cellulosic substrates remains an important and high-priority area of study. trichoderma harzianum is an important fungus known for producing high levels of cellulolytic enzymes that can be used for cellulosic ethanol production. in this context, β-glucosidases, which act synergisti ...201627006690
differential response of extracellular proteases of trichoderma harzianum against fungal phytopathogens.in the present study, production of extracellular proteases by trichoderma harzianum was evaluated based on the relative gene expression and spectrophotometric assay. the fungal isolates were grown in czapek dox broth medium supplemented with deactivated mycelium of plant fungal pathogens such as fusarium oxysporum, colletotrichum capsici, gloeocercospora sorghi, and colletotrichum truncatum. the maximum protease activity was detected after 48 h of incubation against colletotrichum spp. similarl ...201627278806
trichoderma harzianum t-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by cucumber mosaic virus.understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. the ability of trichoderma harzianum, strain t-22 (t22) to control cucumber mosaic virus (cmv) in solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with t22/cmv were examined. plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reac ...201627777581
trichoderma l-lysine-α-oxidase producer strain culture fluid inhibits impatiens necrotic spot virus.a method for pcr diagnosis of impatiens necrotic spot virus is developed. concentrated culture fluid with active l-lysine-α-oxidase (0.54 u/ml) from trichoderma harzianum rifai fungus producer strain f-180 inhibits vitally hazardous impatiens necrotic spot phytovirus.201626742733
marine fungi isolated from chilean fjord sediments can degrade oxytetracycline.salmon farming is the main economic activity in the fjords area of southern chile. this activity requires the use of antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, for the control and prevention of diseases, which have a negative impact on the environment. we analyzed the abilities of endemic marine fungi to biodegrade oxytetracycline, an antibiotic used extensively in fish farming. we isolated marine fungi strains from sediment samples obtained from an area of fish farming activity. the five isolated st ...201627418075
trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in central europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.the aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the gorce mountains (location a), karkonosze mountains (location b) and tatra mountains (location c) in central europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. the present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: trichoderma atro ...201626586561
bio-protective microbial agents from rhizosphere eco-systems trigger plant defense responses provide protection against sheath blight disease in rice (oryza sativa l.).sheath blight of rice (oryza sativa l.) caused by rhizoctonia solani is a major disease and attempts are being made to develop microbe based technologies for biocontrol of this pathogen. however, the mechanisms of biocontrol are not fully understood and still require indepth study in the backdrop of emerging concepts in biological systems. the present investigation was aimed at deciphering the mechanisms of biocontrol of sheath blight of rice employing pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma har ...201627664749
purification and biochemical characterization of a neutral serine protease from trichoderma harzianum. use in antibacterial peptide production from a fish by-product hydrolysate.this study reports the purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular neutral protease from the fungus trichoderma harzianum. the protease (th-protease) was purified from the culture supernatant to homogeneity by a three-step procedure with 14.2% recovery and 9.06-fold increase in specific activity. the purified enzyme appeared as a single protein band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) with a molecular mass of about 20 kda. the optimum ...201627987188
cellulase from trichoderma harzianum interacts with roots and triggers induced systemic resistance to foliar disease in maize.trichoderma harzianum is well known to exhibit induced systemic resistance (isr) to curvularia leaf spot. we previously reported that a c6 zinc finger protein (thc6) is responsible for a major contribution to the isr to the leaf disease, but the types of effectors and the signals mediated by thc6 from trichoderma are unclear. in this work, we demonstrated that two hydrolases, thph1 and thph2, from t. harzianum were regulated by thc6. furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (emsa) st ...201627830829
fusant trichoderma hf9 with enhanced extracellular chitinase and protein content.strain improvement was carried out to obtain higher chitinase and protein by inter-specific protoplast fusion between trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride. fusant hf9 and parental strains of trichoderma were compared for chitinase and protein production. 1% of glucose, sucrose and fungal cell wall (rhizoctonia solani), were used as carbon source for cultivation of trichoderma and fungal cell wall was the best to induce chitinase and protein. usage of 0.5% colloidal chitin for the fungal ...201623035579
structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. the beneficial activities of the fungus trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. the initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from fusarium sporotrichioides. trichodiene synthase (ts) encoded by tri5 gene in t ...201626207800
trichoderma harzianum produces a new thermally stable acid phosphatase, with potential for biotechnological application.acid phosphatases (acpases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. these enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. in this study, a new acpase from trichoderma harzianum, named acpase ii, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. acpase ii presents ...201626938873
structure and properties of native and unfolded lysing enzyme from t. harzianum: chemical and ph denaturation.the effect of chemical denaturants and ph on the change of the conformation of the protein lysing enzyme from trichoderma harzianum has been investigated by dynamic light scattering (dls) and turbidimetry. chemical denaturants are frequently used to describe the mechanisms of folding and transition states. we have analyzed the ph effect on the properties and particle size of the protein. the compaction factor ci has shown that the protein is weakly disordered. the molecular dynamics simulations ...201627496603
enhanced cellulase production by trichoderma harzianum by cultivation on glycerol followed by induction on cellulosic substrates.the use of glycerol obtained as an intermediate of the biodiesel manufacturing process as carbon source for microbial growth is a potential alternative strategy for the production of enzymes and other high-value bioproducts. this work evaluates the production of cellulase enzymes using glycerol for high cell density growth of trichoderma harzianum followed by induction with a cellulosic material. firstly, the influence of the carbon source used in the pre-culture step was investigated in terms o ...201626883662
selection and characterization of argentine isolates of trichoderma harzianum for effective biocontrol of septoria leaf blotch of wheat.species of the genus trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. the applicability of trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. the present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of trichoderma spp. from the argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. a t ...201626873560
elicitors' influenced differential ginsenoside production and exudation into medium with concurrent rg3/rh2 panaxadiol induction in panax quinquefolius cell suspensions.cobalt nitrate, nickel sulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitroprusside, and culture filtrates of pseudomonas monteili, bacillus circularans, trichoderma atroviridae, and trichoderma harzianum were tested to elicit ginsenoside production in a cell suspension line of panax quinquefolius. abiotic elicitors preferentially increased panaxadiols whereas biotic elicitors upregulated the panaxatriol synthesis. cobalt nitrate (50 μm) increased total ginsenosides content by twofold (54.3 mg/l) within 5  ...201626795963
biodiversity of trichoderma community in the tidal flats and wetland of southeastern china.to investigate the biodiversity of trichoderma (hypocreaceae) and their relation to sediment physical and chemical properties, we collected a total of 491 sediment samples from coastal wetlands (tidal flat and wetland) in southeast china. further, we applied two types of molecular approaches such as culture dependent and independent methods for identification of trichoderma spp. a total of 254 isolates were obtained and identified to 13 species such as t. aureoviride, t. asperellum, t. harzianum ...201628002436
microbial secondary metabolites ameliorate growth, in planta contents and lignification in withania somnifera (l.) dunal.in the present investigation, metabolites of streptomyces sp. mtn14 and trichoderma harzianum thu significantly enhanced biomass yield (3.58 and 3.48 fold respectively) in comparison to the control plants. the secondary metabolites treatments also showed significant augmentation (0.75-2.25 fold) in withanolide a, a plant secondary metabolite. lignin deposition, total phenolic and flavonoid content in w. somnifera were maximally induced in treatment having t. harzianum metabolites. also, trichode ...201627436916
the psychrotolerant antarctic fungus lecanicillium muscarium ccfee 5003: a powerful producer of cold-tolerant chitinolytic enzymes.lecanicillium muscarium ccfee 5003, isolated in continental antarctica, is a powerful producer of extracellular cold-tolerant enzymes. chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes seems to be the principal extracellular catalytic activities of this psychrotolerant fungus. the production of chitinolytic activities is induced by chitin and other polysaccharides and is submitted to catabolite repression. the chitinolytic system of l. muscarium consists of a number of different proteins having various molecular weigh ...201627058517
development of a multiplex q-pcr to detect trichoderma harzianum rifai strain t22 in plant roots.the fungal species trichoderma harzianum is widely used as a biological agent in crop protection. to verify the continued presence of this fungus on plant roots manually inoculated with t. harzianum strain t22, a q-pcr was designed using specific probes for this particular strain. to develop these molecular diagnostic tools, genome mining was first carried out to retrieve putative new regions by which different strains of t. harzianum could be distinguished. subsequently, sanger sequencing of th ...201626747625
purification and characterization of endo β-1,4-d-glucanase from trichoderma harzianum strain hzn11 and its application in production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum bagasse.an acidophilic-solvent-thermostable endo β-1,4-d-glucanase produced from a potential trichoderma harzianum strain hzn11 was purified to homogeneity by deae-sepharose and sephadex g-100 chromatography with 33.12 fold purification with specific activity of 66.25 u/mg and molecular mass of ~55 kda. the optimum temperature and ph were 60 °c and 5.5 retaining 76 and 85 % of activity after 3 h, respectively. it showed stability between ph 4.5-6.0 and temperature between 50-70 °c indicating thermostabi ...201628330171
potential of trichoderma harzianum for control of banana leaf fungal pathogens when applied with a food source and an organic adjuvant.trichoderma isolates were obtained from diseased leaves and fruit collected from plantations in the main banana production area in northern queensland. phylogenetic analyses identified the trichoderma isolates as t. harzianum and t. virens. the trichoderma spp. were found to be antagonistic against the banana leaf pathogens mycosphaerella musicola, cordana musae, and deightoniella torulosa in vitro. several products used by the banana industry to increase production, including molasses, fishoil ...201628330078
biocontrol potential of trichoderma harzianum isolate t-aloe against sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.sclerotinia stem rot, caused by sclerotinia sclerotiorum (lib.) de bary is a major disease of soybean (glycine max (l.) merr.). at present, we revealed the three-way interaction between trichoderma harzianum t-aloe, pathogen s. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of t-aloe against s. sclerotiorum in soybean. in our experiments, t-aloe inhibited the growth of s. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture test ...201626774866
statistical culture-based strategies to enhance chlamydospore production by trichoderma harzianum sh2303 in liquid fermentation.trichoderma-based formulations are applied as commercial biocontrol agents for soil-borne plant pathogens. chlamydospores are active propagules in trichoderma spp., but their production is currently limited due to a lack of optimal liquid fermentation technology. in this study, we explored response surface methodologies for optimizing fermentation technology in trichoderma sh2303. our initial studies, using the plackett-burman design, identified cornmeal, glycerol, and initial ph levels as the m ...201627487807
biodegradation of carbamazepine and clarithromycin by trichoderma harzianum and pleurotus ostreatus investigated by liquid chromatography - high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (fticr ms-irmpd).in this study, the capability of pharmaceutical biodegradation of fungus trichoderma harzianum was evaluated through the comparison with the well-known biodegradation capability of white-rot fungus pleurotus ostreatus. the study was performed in aqueous phase under aerobic conditions, using two of the most frequently detected drugs in water bodies: carbamazepine and clarithromycin, with concentrations commonly found in treated wastewater (4μg/l and 0.03μg/l respectively). for the first time, we ...201627039063
phosphoproteomic analysis of induced resistance reveals activation of signal transduction processes by beneficial and pathogenic interaction in grapevine.protein phosphorylation regulates several key processes of the plant immune system. protein kinases and phosphatases are pivotal regulators of defense mechanisms elicited by resistance inducers. however, the phosphorylation cascades that trigger the induced resistance mechanisms in plants have not yet been deeply investigated. the beneficial fungus trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) induces resistance against grapevine downy mildew (plasmopara viticola), but its efficacy could be further improved b ...201627010348
isolation and identification of trichoderma harzianum from groundwater: an effective biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater.the ability of non-viable form of trichoderma harzianum, isolated from fluoride rich groundwater, was investigated as biosorbent for defluoridation of groundwater. biosorption experiments were carried out at laboratory scale for removal of fluoride from groundwater. significant effect of operational parameters on fluoride biosorption using trichoderma harzianum as biosorbent was evaluated by varying operational parameters such as: initial fluoride concentration (2-8 mgl(-1)), biosorbent dose (0. ...201626930871
dose-dependent response of trichoderma harzianum in improving drought tolerance in rice genotypes.this study demonstrates a dose-dependent response of trichoderma harzianum th-56 in improving drought tolerance in rice by modulating proline, sod, lipid peroxidation product and dhn / aqu transcript level, and the growth attributes. in the present study, the effect of colonization of different doses of t. harzianum th-56 strain in rice genotypes were evaluated under drought stress. the rice genotypes treated with increasing dose of t. harzianum strain th-56 showed better drought tolerance as co ...201626898554
systematics of the trichoderma harzianum species complex and the re-identification of commercial biocontrol strains.trichoderma harzianum is known as a cosmopolitan, ubiquitous species associated with a wide variety of substrates. it is possibly the most commonly used name in agricultural applications involving trichoderma, including biological control of plant diseases. while various studies have suggested that t. harzianum is a species complex, only a few cryptic species are named. in the present study the taxonomy of the t. harzianum species complex is revised to include at least 14 species. previously nam ...201725661720
structural basis of transport function in major facilitator superfamily protein from trichoderma harzianum.trichothecenes are the sesquiterpenes secreted by trichoderma spp. residing in the rhizosphere. these compounds have been reported to act as plant growth promoters and bio-control agents. the structural knowledge for the transporter proteins of their efflux remained limited. in this study, three-dimensional structure of thmfs1 protein, a trichothecene transporter from trichoderma harzianum, was homology modelled and further molecular dynamics (md) simulations were used to decipher its mechanism. ...201727816530
functions of thga1 gene in trichoderma harzianum based on transcriptome analysis.trichoderma spp. are important biocontrol filamentous fungi, which are widely used for their adaptability, broad antimicrobial spectrum, and various antagonistic mechanisms. in our previous studies, we cloned thga1 gene encoding gαi protein from trichoderma harzianum th-33. its knockout mutant showed that the growth rate, conidial yield, camp level, antagonistic action, and hydrophobicity decreased. therefore, illumina rna-seq technology (rna-seq) was used to determine transcriptomic differences ...201727672660
antibiosis of trichoderma spp strains native to northeastern mexico against the pathogenic fungus macrophomina phaseolina.sampling of agricultural soils from the mexican northeastern region was performed to detect trichoderma spp., genetically characterize it, and assess its potential use as a biologic control agent against macrophomina phaseolina. m. phaseolina is a phytopathogen that attacks over 500 species of cultivated plants and causes heavy losses in the regional sorghum crop. sampling was performed immediately after sorghum or corn harvest in an area that was approximately 170 km from the mexico-usa border. ...201726691467
determination of lytic enzyme activities of indigenous trichoderma isolates from pakistan.this study investigated lytic enzyme activities in three indigenous trichoderma strains namely, trichoderma asperellum, trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma sp. native trichoderma strains and a virulent strain of rhizoctonia solani isolated from infected bean plants were also included in the study. enzyme activities were determined by measuring sugar reduction by dinitrosalicylic acid (dns) method using suitable substrates. the antagonists were cultured in minimal salt medium with the following ...201726691463
evaluation of dye compounds' decolorization capacity of selected h. haematococca and t. harzianum strains by principal component analysis (pca).the selected strains of microscopic fungi, haematonectria haematococca (bwiii43, k37) and trichoderma harzianum (bsiii33), decolorized the following monoathraquinone dyes with different efficiency: 0.03 % alizarin blue black b, 0.01 % carminic acid, 0.01 % poly r-478, and 0.2 % post-industrial lignin. the most effective was the removal of 0.03 % alizarin blue black b (50-60 %) and 0.01 % carminic acid (55-85 %). the principal component analysis (pca) method was applied to determine the main enzy ...201726160991
the combination of trichoderma harzianum and chemical fertilization leads to the deregulation of phytohormone networking, preventing the adaptive responses of tomato plants to salt stress.plants have evolved effective mechanisms to avoid or reduce the potential damage caused by abiotic stresses. in addition to biocontrol abilities, trichoderma genus fungi promote growth and alleviate the adverse effects caused by saline stress in plants. morphological, physiological, and molecular changes were analyzed in salt-stressed tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions in order to investigate the effects of chemical and biological fertilizations. the application of trichoderma harzi ...201728303151
addition of surfactants and non-hydrolytic proteins and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.poly(ethylene glycol) (peg 4000) and bovine serum albumin (bsa) were investigated with the purpose of evaluating their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. effects of these supplements were assayed for different enzymatic cocktails (trichoderma harzianum and penicillium funiculosum) that acted on lignocellulosic material submitted to different pretreatment methods with varying solid (25 and 100 g/l) and protein (7.5 and 20 mg/g cellulose) loadings. the highest levels of glucos ...201727631122
biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity.white mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. there are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus trichoderma harzianum and characterized. cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were ini ...201728300141
fungi-based treatment of brewery wastewater-biomass production and nutrient reduction.the beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. in the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and trametes versicolor, pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma harzi ...201728213731
isolation and expression of two polyketide synthase genes from trichoderma harzianum 88 during mycoparasitism.metabolites of mycoparasitic fungal species such as trichoderma harzianum 88 have important biological roles. in this study, two new ketoacyl synthase (ks) fragments were isolated from cultured trichoderma harzianum 88 mycelia using degenerate primers and analysed using a phylogenetic tree. the gene fragments were determined to be present as single copies in trichoderma harzianum 88 through southern blot analysis using digoxigenin-labelled ks gene fragments as probes. the complete sequence analy ...201726991299
assessment of ni accumulation capability by fungi for a possible approach to remove metals from soils and waters.abandoned industrial sites and mines may constitute possible hazards for surrounding environment due to the presence of toxic compounds that may contaminate soils and waters. the possibility to remove metal contaminants, specifically nickel (ni), by means of fungi was presented exploiting a set of fungal strains isolated from a ligurian dismissed mine. the achieved results demonstrate the high ni(ii) tolerance, up to 500 mg ni l(-1), and removal capability of a trichoderma harzianum strain. this ...201728121266
the relation between xyr1 overexpression in trichoderma harzianum and sugarcane bagasse saccharification performance.this work investigates the influence of the positive regulator xyr1 of trichoderma harzianum on the production of cellulolytic enzymes, using sugarcane bagasse as carbon source. constitutive expression of xyr1 was achieved under the control of the strong trichoderma reesei pki1 promoter. five clones with xyr1 overexpression achieved higher xyr1 expression and greater enzymatic productivity when cultivated under submerged fermentation, hence validating the genetic construction for t. harzianum. c ...201728192217
detecting the hormonal pathways in oilseed rape behind induced systemic resistance by trichoderma harzianum th12 to sclerotinia sclerotiorum.plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. in oilseed rape plant brassica napus aacc and in the artificially synthesized raphanus alboglabra rrcc, the root-colonizing trichoderma harzianum th12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (isr), and its culture filtrate (cf) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (sar) response against infection by the sclerotinia sclerotiorum. salicylic acid (sa) and jasmonic acid/ethylene ( ...201728045929
applying taguchi design and large-scale strategy for mycosynthesis of nano-silver from endophytic trichoderma harzianum sya.f4 and its application against phytopathogens.development of reliable and low-cost requirement for large-scale eco-friendly biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step for industrial applications of bionanotechnology. in the present study, the mycosynthesis of spherical nano-ag (12.7 ± 0.8 nm) from extracellular filtrate of local endophytic t. harzianum sya.f4 strain which have interested mixed bioactive metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, nitrate reductase (320 nmol/hr/ml), carbohydrate (25 μg/μl) an ...201728349997
microplate-based evaluation of the sugar yield from giant reed, giant miscanthus and switchgrass after mild chemical pre-treatments and hydrolysis with tailored trichoderma enzymatic blends.giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. the bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substra ...201728386674
integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining cu-based wood preservatives and trichoderma spp.the production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. the objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a trichoderma spp. with a highly ant ...201728379978
fungal biomass protein production from trichoderma harzianum using rice polishing.industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. high levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. the aim of this study was to access the potential of trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°c at ph 4. carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 g ...201728367444
draft genome sequence of the root-colonizing fungus trichoderma harzianum b97.trichoderma harzianum is one of the most beneficial microorganisms applied on diverse crops against biotic and abiotic stresses and acts also as a plant growth-promoting fungus. here, we report the genome of t. harzianum b97, originating from a french agricultural soil and used as a biofertilizer that can tolerate abiotic stresses.201728360171
the improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.the antagonistic potential of trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. to enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. two mutants, th-m1 and t. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. ...201726887221
relationship of microbial communities and suppressiveness of trichoderma fortified composts for pepper seedlings infected by phytophthora nicotianae.the understanding of the dynamic of soil-borne diseases is related to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere which is the key to progress in the field of biological control. trichoderma spp. is commonly used as a biological control agent. the use of next generation sequencing approaches and quantitative pcr are two successful approaches to assess the effect of using compost as substrate fortified with two trichoderma strains (trichoderma harzianum or trichoderma asperellum) on bacterial an ...201728346470
enhanced production of curdlan by coupled fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 and trichoderma harzianum gim 3.442.a coupled fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 and trichoderma harzianum gim 3.442 (at-cfs) with wheat bran as the optimal nitrogen source was established for producing low-molecular-weight curdlan with high production, which can potentially reduce the cost of low-molecular-weight curdlan biosynthesis. the initial inoculate ratio, ph and the fermentation time were optimized. compared with the curdlan from the single fermentation system of agrobacterium sp. atcc 31749 (a-sfs), the ...201727987884
identification of an acidic endo-polygalacturonase from penicillium oxalicum cz1028 and its broad use in major tropical and subtropical fruit juices production.endo-polygalacturonases play an important role on depectinization in fruit juices industry. a putative endo-polygalacturonase gene poxaenpg28a was cloned from penicillium oxalicum cz1028. poxaenpg28a consisted of a putative signal peptide and a catalytic domain belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 28, and it shared 72% identity with that of a functionally characterized endo-polygalacturonase from trichoderma harzianum. gene poxaenpg28a was successfully expressed in pichia pastoris with a high ...201728254341
effect of paecilomyces lilacinus, trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of ancylostoma eggs.ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. the use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by ancylostoma eggs and larvae. nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms.201727810261
native fungi as metal remediators: silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (libiola mine, italy).metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. in this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. in our work, we tested silver (ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (aspergillus alliaceus thom & church, trichoderma harzianum rifai, ...201728121268
elucidation of biocontrol mechanisms of trichoderma harzianum against different plant fungal pathogens: universal yet host specific response.in the present study, different transcripts of trichoderma harzianum thhp-3 were evaluated for their response against four fungal pathogens fusarium oxysporum, colletotrichum capsici, colletotrichum truncatum and gloesercospora sorghi using rt-qpcr. the time course study of t. harzianum transcripts related to signal transduction, lytic enzymes, secondary metabolites and various transporters revealed variation in expression against four fungal pathogens. in a broader term, the transcripts were up ...201727856319
induction of sa-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis in trichoderma harzianum-treated tomato plants after infection of the root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita.salicylic acid-signaling pathway and ethylene biosynthesis were induced in tomato treated with trichoderma harzianum when infected by root-knot nematodes and limited the infection by activation of sar and ethylene production. soil pre-treatment with trichoderma harzianum (th) strains item 908 (t908) and t908-5 decreased susceptibility of tomato to meloidogyne incognita, as assessed by restriction in nematode reproduction and development. the effect of t. harzianum treatments on plant defense was ...201728239746
trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by fusarium oxysporum in soybean.an isolate, named trichoderma harzianum t-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with t-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. furthermore, we found that t-soybean inhibited the growth of f. oxysporum by parasitic function. in addition, plate test ...201728135657
evaluating the effects of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation on antifungal and radical scavenging activities of oliveria decumbens and chaerophyllum macropodum essential oils.in this study, radical scavenging and antifungal activities of chaerophyllum macropodum and oliveria decumbens essential oils (eos) extracted with microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (mahd) were evaluated in comparison with the same eos extracted by conventional hydrodistillation (hd). the final eo yields that were obtained using hd (after 150 min) and mahd (after 45 min) were 1.72 and 1.67% for c. macropodum and 8.10 and 7.91% for o. decumbens, respectively. there were no significant differenc ...201728371590
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