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differential expression of oil palm pathology genes during interactions with ganoderma boninense and trichoderma harzianum.the expression profiles of δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (sad1 and sad2) and type 3 metallothionein (mt3-a and mt3-b) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus trichoderma harzianum. expression of sad1 and mt3-a in roots and sad2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in g. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet a ...201121333381
the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or trichoderma harzianum alters the shoot hormonal profile in melon plants.arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and trichoderma harzianum are known to affect plant growth and disease resistance through interaction with phytohormone synthesis or transport in the plant. cross-talk between these microorganisms and their host plants normally occurs in nature and may affect plant resistance. simultaneous quantification in the shoots of melon plants revealed significant changes in the levels of several hormones in response to inoculation with t. harzianum and two different amf ...201121145086
improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic cavendish banana (musa spp. aaa group) cv. grand nain.the most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by mycosphaerella fijiensis. in this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene then-42 from trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (stsy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35s promoter and the inducible pr-10 promoter, respectively. the superoxide dismutase ge ...201120397044
occupational exposure to microorganisms used as biocontrol agents in plant production.exposure to bioaerosols containing fungi and bacteria may cause various deleterious respiratory health effects. fungi and bacteria are commercially produced and applied to the environment as microbiological pest control agents (mpcas). attention has been drawn towards the exposure and health risks due to the use of commercially important mpcas. as part of a risk evaluation this paper intends to review whether the exposure to mpcas (beauveria bassiana, verticillium lecanii, trichoderma harzianum, ...201121196399
changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of trichoderma.patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of trichoderma. confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi amanita muscaria and laccaria laccata with species of trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. tyrosinase release was noted only ...201121286809
functional analysis of the trichoderma harzianum nox1 gene, encoding an nadph oxidase, relates production of reactive oxygen species to specific biocontrol activity against pythium ultimum.the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ros) is one of the first events following pathogenic interactions in eukaryotic cells, and nadph oxidases are involved in the formation of such ros. the nox1 gene of trichoderma harzianum was cloned, and its role in antagonism against phytopathogens was analyzed in nox1-overexpressed transformants. the increased levels of nox1 expression in these transformants were accompanied by an increase in ros production during their direct confrontation with pythiu ...201121421791
occurrence of soil- and tick-borne fungi and related virulence tests for pathogenicity to ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae).ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick, vectors borrelia burgdorferi johnson et al. 1984, the bacterium that causes lyme disease, the most important vector-borne disease in the united states. efforts to reduce i. scapularis populations are shifting toward the development of biological control methods. currently, only a few entomopathogenic fungal species are considered virulent to ticks. we hypothesized that these species may not represent the most abundant local taxa that would be pathogen ...201121485371
species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.the estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (otus). consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. the main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates ...201121557783
expression of an optimized argopecten purpuratus antimicrobial peptide in e. coli and evaluation of the purified recombinant protein by in vitro challenges against important plant fungi.antimicrobial peptides (amp) have been widely described in several organisms from different kingdoms. we recently designed and evaluated a synthetic version of an amp isolated and characterized from argopecten purpuratus hemocytes. this study describes the generation of a chimaeric gene encoding for ap-s, the use of this construct to transform e. coli strain bl21, and the evaluation of the purified recombinant ap-s (raps) as an antifungal agent. the proposed gene coding for rap-s consists of 93 ...201121787820
identification of antibacterial mechanism of l-amino acid oxidase derived from trichoderma harzianum ets 323.although l-amino oxidase (laao) has been reported to be a potent antibacterial agent, the mechanism behind its antibacterial activity has not been identified. this study attempted to identify the mechanism behind the antibacterial activity of th-laao, an laao recently isolated from the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323, while elucidating the nature of this enzyme. the results indicate that the enzyme activity and structure of th-laao are stable at ph 6 to 8 and less stable ...201121781279
The antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities of Zizyphus jujube.Plants are very useful, self-generating machines, producing a variety of useful bioactive products. Keeping in view this idea, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus jujuba were screened for antifungal, cytotoxic, antitermite and insecticidal activities. Low activity was shown by the crude methanolic extract (12%), n-hexane (9%), chloroform (20%) and ethyl acetate (14%) fraction against Penicillium notatum. Low activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction against Aspergill ...201121959810
Microbial community analysis in the termite gut and fungus comb of Odontotermes formosanus: the implication of Bacillus as mutualists.The microbial communities harbored in the gut and fungus comb of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus were analyzed by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to better understand the community structure of their microflora. The microorganisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clonal selection, and culture-dependent methods were hypothesized to contribute to cellulose-hemicellulose hydrolysis, gut fermentation, nutrient production, the break ...201122092951
Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity.ABSTRACT:201122070776
Rice straw-decomposing fungi and their cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes.Filamentous fungi colonizing rice straw were collected from 11 different sites in Korea and were identified based on characterization of their morphology and molecular properties. The fungi were divided into 25 species belonging to 16 genera, including 14 ascomycetes, one zygomycete, and one basidiomycete. Fungal cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were assessed through a two-step process, wherein highly active cellulase- and/or hemicellulaseproducing fungi were selected in a first screening st ...201122210620
Microbial consortium mediated reprogramming of defense network in pea to enhance tolerance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.Aims: To evaluate the potentiality of three rhizosphere microorganisms in suppression of Sclerotinia rot in pea in consortia mode and their impact on host defense responses. Methods and Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27 and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 from rhizospheric soils were selected based on compatibility, antagonistic and plant growth promotion activities. The microbes were used as consortia to assess their ability to trigger the phenylpropanoid and anti ...201122181349
[Isolation and identification of dominant microorganisms in rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut].We isolated and identified dominant microorganisms from the rhizosphere of continuous cropping with peanut, to study the relationship between dominant microorganisms and peanut continuous cropping.201121866710
trichoderma harzianum sqr-t037 rapidly degrades allelochemicals in rhizospheres of continuously cropped cucumbers.to alleviate the stress of continuous cropping for cucumber continuous cropping (ccc) system, a beneficial fungus trichoderma harzianum sqr-t037 (sqr-t037) was isolated and applied to soil to degrade allelochemicals exuded from cucumber plants in a rhizobox experiment. the following phenolic acids (pas), classified as allelochemicals, were isolated and identified from cucumber rhizospheres: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, and cinnamic aci ...201120972783
purification, and biochemical and biophysical characterization of cellobiohydrolase i from trichoderma harzianum ioc 3844.because of its elevated cellulolytic activity, the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum has a considerable potential in biomass hydrolysis applications. trichoderma harzianum cellobiohydrolase i (thcbhi), an exoglucanase, is an important enzyme in the process of cellulose degradation. here, we report an easy single-step ion-exchange chromatographic method for purification of thcbhi and its initial biophysical and biochemical characterization. the thcbhi produced by induction with microcrysta ...201121876370
sequence analysis and gene expression of putative exo- and endo-glucanases from oil palm (elaeis guineensis) during fungal infection.glucanases are enzymes that hydrolyze a variety β-d-glucosidic linkages. plant β-1,3-glucanases are able to degrade fungal cell walls; and promote the release of cell-wall derived fungal elicitors. in this study, three full-length cdna sequences encoding oil palm (elaeis guineensis) glucanases were analyzed. sequence analyses of the cdna sequences suggested that egglc1-1 is a putative β-d-glucan exohydolase belonging to glycosyl hydrolase (gh) family 3 while egglc5-1 and egglc5-2 are putative gl ...201222854183
differential display of abundantly expressed genes of trichoderma harzianum during colonization of tomato-germinating seeds and roots.the identification of trichoderma genes whose expression is altered during early stages of interaction with developing roots of germinated seeds is an important step toward understanding the rhizosphere competency of trichoderma spp. the potential of 13 trichoderma strains to colonize tomato root and promote plant growth has been evaluated. all used strains successfully propagated in spermosphere and continued their growth in rhizoplane simultaneously root enlargement while the strains t6 and t7 ...201222810958
identification of differentially expressed genes in response to mercury i and ii stress in trichoderma harzianum.filamentous fungi are very promising organisms in both the control and the reduction of the amount of heavy metal released by human and industrial activities. in particular, trichoderma harzianum demonstrated to be tolerant towards different heavy metals, such as mercury and cadmium, even though the mechanism underlying this tolerance is not fully understood. by using a particular strategy of the suppression subtractive hybridization technique, we were able to identify in the strain imi 393899 o ...201222789863
biochemical and metabolic profiles of trichoderma strains isolated from common bean crops in the brazilian cerrado, and potential antagonism against sclerotinia sclerotiorum.some species of trichoderma have successfully been used in the commercial biological control of fungal pathogens, e.g., sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an economically important pathogen of common beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.). the objectives of the present study were (1) to provide molecular characterization of trichoderma strains isolated from the brazilian cerrado; (2) to assess the metabolic profile of each strain by means of biolog ff microplates; and (3) to evaluate the ability of each strain to ...201222749168
a comparison of preservation methods for trichoderma harzianum cultures. 201220624479
chemical composition and antifungal activity of matricaria recutita flower essential oil against medically important dermatophytes and soil-borne pathogens.fungal infections are potential public health threats all over the world. in the present study, effect of matricaria recutita flower essential oil (eo) was evaluated against medically important dermatophytes and opportunistic saprophytes using microbioassay technique.201223518164
anticancer and antimicrobial activity of mangrove derived fungi hypocrea lixii vb1.mangrove is one of the oldest living tree species and its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. scientific research throughout the world has found evidence to support the fact that its foliar extracts have great potential against human microbial pathogens. this study highlights the isolation of foliar fungi from rhizophora mucronata, avicenna officialis and avicenna marina.201223302537
in vitro and in vivo biocontrol of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi by certain bioagents and their possible mode of action.the study aimed to investigate new wide-spectrum biological control agents against soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. screening of 336 fungal strains and 256 bacterial strains was carried out in vitro to select the most promising isolates for controlling destructive pathogens of greenhouse-vegetables. in dual cultures, bacillus subtilis jf419701 and trichoderma harzianum jf419706 (teleomorph: hypocrea lixii) inhibited the growth of alternaria alternata, fusarium oxysporum, exserohilum rostratum, ...201223269217
L-amino acid oxidase-induced apoptosis in filamentous Botrytis cinerea.As opposed to single-cell yeast and mammalian cell lines, apoptosis has not been greatly investigated in filamentous fungi because antibodies to the relevant fungal apoptosis-related proteins are not available commercially and because multicellular organisms cannot be studied using flow cytometry. Here we demonstrate how antibodies from a nonfungal source could be used to investigate this pathway. We show that apoptosis in the filamentous fungus Botrytis cinerea is triggered by the mitochondria- ...201221951783
transcriptomic response of arabidopsis thaliana after 24 h incubation with the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum is a fungus used as biocontrol agent using its antagonistic abilities against phytopathogenic fungi, although it has also direct effects on plants, increasing or accelerating their growth and resistance to diseases and the tolerance to abiotic stresses. we analyzed arabidopsis thaliana gene expression changes after 24 h of incubation in the presence of t. harzianum t34 using the affymetrix genechip arabidopsis ath1. because this microarray contains more than 22,500 probe se ...201222317785
preparation, characterisation and viability of encapsulated trichoderma harzianum upm40 in alginate-montmorillonite clay.microencapsulation is a process by which tiny parcels of an active ingredient are packaged within a second material for the purpose of shielding the active ingredient from the surrounding environment. this study aims to determine the ability of the microencapsulation technique to improve the viability of trichoderma harzianum upm40 originally isolated from healthy groundnut roots as effective biological control agents (bcas). alginate was used as the carrier for controlled release, and montmoril ...201222309479
involvement of pachybasin and emodin in self-regulation of trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic coiling.our aim was to determine the effects of two secondary metabolites secreted by trichoderma harzianum, pachybasin and emodin, on the mycoparasitic coiling behavior and camp content of t. harzianum. the number of t. harzianum coils around nylon 66 fiber was increased in the presence of r. solani. the number of t. harzianum coils around r. solani hyphae and nylon 66 fiber were significantly increased in the presence of pachybasin and emodin. the camp level in t. harzianum was significantly increased ...201222292460
arbuscular mycorrhizal protein mrna over-expression in bread wheat seedlings by trichoderma harzianum raifi (krl-ag2) elicitation.association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) and majority of terrestrial plant species provides many benefits to plants that range from stress alleviation and bioremediation in soils polluted with heavy metals to plant growth promotion and yield quantity. some non-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as, trichoderma harzianum, are known to enhance the amf symbiosis with vascular plants. however, information about their role in amf symbiosis is still limited. shoots of (avocet s) wheat see ...201222227493
use of a new trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.the on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. this study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. glycosyl hydrolases (fpase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. the influence of the carbon source was fi ...201222221990
biological control of rice brown spot with native isolates of three trichoderma species.brown spot caused by bipolaris oryzae is an important rice disease in southern coast of caspian sea, the major rice growing region in iran. a total of 45 trichoderma isolates were obtained from rice paddy fields in golestan and mazandaran provinces which belonged to trichoderma harzianum, t. virens and t. atroviride species. initially, they were screened against b. oryzae by antagonism tests including dual culture, volatile and nonvolatile metabolites and hyperparasitism. results showed that tri ...201224031832
effect of ph and temperature on the global compactness, structure, and activity of cellobiohydrolase cel7a from trichoderma harzianum.due to its elevated cellulolytic activity, the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) has considerable potential in biomass hydrolysis application. cellulases from trichoderma reesei have been widely used in studies of cellulose breakdown. however, cellulases from t. harzianum are less-studied enzymes that have not been characterized biophysically and biochemically as yet. here, we examined the effects of ph and temperature on the secondary and tertiary structures, compactness, ...201222048567
the qid74 gene from trichoderma harzianum has a role in root architecture and plant biofertilization.the trichoderma harzianum qid74 gene encodes a cysteine-rich cell wall protein that has an important role in adherence to hydrophobic surfaces and cellular protection; this gene was upregulated in trichoderma high-density oligonucleotide (hdo) microarrays in interaction with tomato roots. using a collection of qid74-overexpressing and disrupted mutants the role of this gene in cucumber and tomato root architecture was analysed in hydroponic and soil systems under greenhouse conditions. no signif ...201221948047
comparative studies on the induction of trichoderma harzianum mutanase by α-(1→3)-glucan-rich fruiting bodies and mycelia of laetiporus sulphureus.mutanase (α-(1→3)-glucanase) is a little-known inductive enzyme that is potentially useful in dentistry. here, it was shown that the cell wall preparation (cwp) obtained from the fruiting body or vegetative mycelium of polypore fungus laetiporus sulphureus is rich in α-(1→3)-glucan and can be successfully used for mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum. the content of this biopolymer in the cwp depended on the age of fruiting bodies and increased along with their maturation. in the case of ...201222949817
mrna expression of egchi1, egchi2, and egchi3 in oil palm leaves (elaeis guineesis jacq.) after treatment with ganoderma boninense pat. and trichoderma harzianum rifai.basal stem rot (bsr) disease caused by the fungus ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. in the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (elaeis guineensis jacq.) chitinases encoding egchi1, egchi2, and egchi3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from ...201222919345
a novel method to prepare concentrated conidial biomass formulation of trichoderma harzianum for seed application.to prepare concentrated formulation of trichoderma harzianum mtcc-3841 (nbri-1055) with high colony forming units (cfu), long shelf life and efficient in root colonization by a simple scrapping method.201222897244
secretome analysis of the fungus trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. due to its potential in biomass conversion, t. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of t. harzianum. the fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2de, maldi-ms and -ms/ms (autof ...201222745025
blue native-page analysis of trichoderma harzianum secretome reveals cellulases and hemicellulases working as multienzymatic complexes.plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by microorganisms possess important biotechnological applications, including biofuel production. some anaerobic bacteria are able to produce multienzymatic complexes called cellulosomes while filamentous fungi normally secrete individual hydrolytic enzymes that act synergistically for polysaccharide degradation. here, we present evidence that the fungus trichoderma harzianum, cultivated in medium containing the agricultural residue sugarcane bagasse, is ...201222744980
isolation and functional analysis of thmfs1, the first major facilitator superfamily transporter from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.a novel major facilitator superfamily (mfs) transporter gene, thmfs1, was isolated from trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum). a thmfs1 over-expressing mutant displayed enhanced antifungal activity and fungicide tolerance, while the thmfs1 disruption mutant showed the opposite trend. trichodermin production in thmfs1 disruption group (185 mg l(-1)) was decreased by less than 17 % compared to the parental strain, suggesting that thmfs1 is not mainly responsible for trichodermin secretion. real-tim ...201222661043
a cellulolytic hypocrea strain isolated from south american brave straw produces a modular xylanase.cellulase-producing fungi from the andean regions in bolivia, an ecosystem characterized as an extreme arid highland, were studied. thirty-two isolates were screened for presence of cellulase activity using carboxymethyl cellulose (cmc) as carbon source, and activity was confirmed using a filter paper assay. one isolate, denoted as blt1c was selected from this screening, and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) classified the strain as hypocrea lixii. the secretome of blt1c ...201222609439
antagonistic potentiality of trichoderma harzianum towards seed-borne fungal pathogens of winter wheat cv. protiva in vitro and in vivo.the antagonistic effect of trichoderma harzianum on a range of seed-borne fungal pathogens of wheat (viz. fusarium graminearum, bipolaris sorokiniana, aspergillus spp., and penicillium spp.) was assessed. the potential of t. harzianum as a biocontrol agent was tested in vitro and under field conditions. coculture of the pathogens and trichoderma under laboratory conditions clearly showed dominance of t. harzianum. under natural conditions, biocontrol effects were also obtained against the test f ...201222561850
application of trichoderma harzianum sqr-t037 bio-organic fertiliser significantly controls fusarium wilt and affects the microbial communities of continuously cropped soil of cucumber.the reduction in diversity of the soil microbial community causes the disorder of continuous cropping. the aim of this study was to determine the effects of applying trichoderma harzianum sqr-t037 bio-organic fertiliser (bio) on the microbial community in continuously cropped cucumber soil. four treatments were set: (1) control, where neither seedling nursery soil (n) nor transplanted soil (t) was amended with bio; (2) n treatment, where nursery soil was amended with bio (1% w/w) but transplante ...201222513876
trichoderma harzianum enhances antioxidant defense of tomato seedlings and resistance to water deficit.some plant-symbiotic strains of the genus trichoderma colonize roots and induce profound changes in plant gene expression that lead to enhanced growth, especially under biotic and abiotic stresses. in this study, we tested the hypothesis that one of the protective mechanisms enhanced by t. harzianum t22 colonization is the antioxidant defense mechanism. having established that strain t22 modulates the expression of the genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, the status of antioxidant defense of toma ...201222512380
qpcr quantification of sphaerodes mycoparasitica biotrophic mycoparasite interaction with fusarium graminearum: in vitro and in planta assays.sphaerodes mycoparasitica, a biotrophic mycoparasite of fusarium species, improved wheat seed germination and seedling growth in vitro compared to trichoderma harzianum, a necrotrophic mycoparasite. however, under phytotron conditions, both s. mycoparasitica and t. harzianum had positive impact on wheat seedlings growth in the presence of f. graminearum. once exposed to the mycoparasites, the dna quantity of f. graminearum in wheat root decreased. observed shifts in dna quantity using qpcr, a se ...201222476566
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of endoglucanase iii from trichoderma harzianum.endoglucanases are enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and are important components of the cellulolytic complex. in contrast to other members of the complex, they cleave internal β-1,4-glycosidic bonds in the cellulose polymer, allowing cellulose to be used as an energy source. since biomass is an important renewable source of energy, the structural and functional characterization of these enzymes is of interest. in this study, endoglucanase iii from trichoderma harzianum was produced in pichia pas ...201222442229
separation and identification of volatile compounds from liquid cultures of trichoderma harzianum by gc-ms using three different capillary columns.a simple, fast, repeatable and less laborious sample preparation protocol was developed and applied for the analysis of biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum strain fa1132 by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the match factors for sample spectra with respect to the mass spectra library of fungal volatile compounds were determined and used to study the complex hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds, which were separated by using different capillary columns with nonpolar, medium pol ...201222407347
monomeric l-amino acid oxidase-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rhizoctonia solani reveals a novel antagonistic mechanism of trichoderma harzianum ets 323.the monomeric l-amino acid oxidase (mth-laao) of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 has been suggested to antagonize rhizoctonia solani by an unknown mechanism. here, the mth-laao-treated r. solani exhibited hyphal lysis and apoptotic characteristics such as dna fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ros) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. this hyphal lysis was suppressed by the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis inhibitor oligomycin while accompanie ...201222352318
structural diversity of streptococcal mutans synthesized under different culture and environmental conditions and its effect on mutanase synthesis.streptococcal mutans synthesized under different conditions by growing cultures or by their glucosyltransferases were shown to exhibit a great structural and property diversity. culturing and environmental factors causing structural differences in mutans were specified. all of the obtained biopolymers (76 samples) were water-insoluble and most of them (72) had a structure with a predominance of α-(1→3)-linked glucose (i.e., the content of α-(1→3)-linkages in the glucan was always higher than 50% ...201223047481
trichoderma harzianum ets 323-mediated resistance in brassica oleracea var. capitata to rhizoctonia solani involves the novel expression of a glutathione s-transferase and a deoxycytidine deaminase.plant interactions with microbial biocontrol agents are used as experimental models to understand resistance-related molecular adaptations of plants. in a hydroponic three-way interaction study, a novel trichoderma harzianum ets 323 mediated mechanism was found to induce resistance to rhizoctonia solani infection in brassica oleracea var. capitata plantlets. the r. solani challenge on leaves initiate an increase in lipoxygenase activity and associated hypersensitive tissue damage with characteri ...201223046447
[isolation, identification and enzymological characterization of a new fungal with high laccase production from agricultural waste composting].a new fungal strain with high laccase production was isolated from the agricultural waste composting. it was identified as hypocrea lixii based on morphological analysis and its sequence. the partial laccase gene of the new strain was successfully amplified using the primer pair cu1af and cu2r. after purification and cloning of the pcr product, a 148 bp fragment of laccase gene was obtained. the laccase activity of the strain reached a peak value of 67.5 u x ml(-1) in liquid medium. the molecula ...201223243884
expression of genes of trichoderma harzianum in response to the presence of cadmium in the substrate.trichoderma harzianum is a very important fungus for the reduction of the amount of heavy metals resulting from agricultural and industrial activities. this filamentous fungus has been shown to be tolerant towards several heavy metals (e.g. cd, pb, zn, ni and mn), but the mechanism underlying this tolerance is not entirely understood. in this study, we confirmed the ability of t. harzianum to grow in the presence of cadmium and observed a significant stimulation of its growth in the presence of ...201222400914
biochemical and physiological responses of rice (oryza sativa l.) as influenced by trichoderma harzianum under drought stress.rice is one of the most important food crops drastically affected by drought in lowland rice ecosystems. in the present study, the impact of drought tolerant isolates of endophytic fungus trichoderma harzianum on rice response to drought was investigated. out of 43 trichoderma isolates studied, only five isolates viz., th 56, th 69, th 75, th 82 and th 89 were selected to be drought tolerant as these were able to colonize well on cow dung at low moisture content of 10-20 percent, though two isol ...201222391125
comparative study of trichoderma gene expression in interactions with tomato plants using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays.trichoderma spp. are widely used as biopesticides and biofertilizers to control diseases and to promote positive physiological responses in plants. in vitro and in vivo assays with trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 (t34), trichoderma virens gv29-8 (t87) and trichoderma hamatum imi 224801 (t7) revealed that these strains affected the growth and development of lateral roots in tomato plants in different ways. the early expression profiles of these trichoderma strains were studied after 20 h of incub ...201222075029
antagonism of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 on botrytis cinerea mycelium in culture conditions.abstract previous studies have shown that the extracellular proteins of trichoderma harzianum ets 323 grown in the presence of deactivated botrytis cinerea in culture include a putative l-amino acid oxidase and have suggested the involvement of this enzyme in the antagonistic mechanism. here, we hypothesized that the mycoparasitic process of trichoderma spp. against b. cinerea involves two steps; that is, an initial hyphal coiling stage and a subsequent hyphal coiling stage, with different coili ...201222734558
antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l. var. voghiera.a bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, allium sativum l., var. voghiera, typical of voghiera, ferrara (italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside a1/a2 and voghieroside b1/b2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside c1/c2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside d1/d2 and e1/e2, based on gitogenin aglycone. in addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-o-trisaccharide and gitogeni ...201222513009
downy mildew resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum t39 in susceptible grapevines partially mimics transcriptional changes of resistant genotypes.downy mildew, caused by plasmopara viticola, is one of the most severe diseases of grapevine and is commonly controlled by fungicide treatments. the beneficial microorganism trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) can induce resistance to downy mildew, although the molecular events associated with this process have not yet been elucidated in grapevine. a next generation rna sequencing (rna-seq) approach was used to study global transcriptional changes associated with resistance induced by t39 in vitis v ...201223173562
proteomic analysis of grapevine resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum t39 reveals specific defence pathways activated against downy mildew.downy mildew is caused by the oomycete plasmopara viticola and is one of the most serious diseases of grapevine. the beneficial microorganism trichoderma harzianum t39 (t39) has previously been shown to induce plant-mediated resistance and to reduce the severity of downy mildew in susceptible grapevines. in order to better understand the cellular processes associated with t39-induced resistance, the proteomic and histochemical changes activated by t39 in grapevine were investigated before and 1 ...201223105132
integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.the efficacy of cowdung, bangladesh institute of nuclear agriculture (bina)-biofertilizer, and bangladesh agricultural university (bau)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. the results exhibited that bina-biofertilizer and baubiofungicide (peat soil-based rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum and sclerotium ...201222580305
wetting properties of fungi mycelium alter soil infiltration and soil water repellency in a γ-sterilized wettable and repellent soil.soil water repellency (swr) has a drastic impact on soil quality resulting in reduced infiltration, increased runoff, increased leaching, reduced plant growth, and increased soil erosion. one of the causes of swr is hydrophobic fungal structures and exudates that change the soil-water relationship. the objective of this study was to determine whether swr and infiltration could be manipulated through inoculation with fungi. the effect of fungi on swr was investigated through inoculation of three ...201223245615
technology for efficient and successful delivery of vermicompost colonized bioinoculants in pogostemon cablin (patchouli) benth.the usefulness of vermicompost as a supporting media for growth of bioinoculants was evaluated for successful transfer of sufficient propagules of bioinoculants into the organic fields. the rooted plants after 50 days were pot and field tested for their growth and yield performances when transplanted along with rooting medium into pots/organic fields. the rooting medium, 50 days of inoculation, contained sufficient population of bioinoculants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi. treatment with ...201222806808
recombinant expression and characterization of an endoglucanase iii (cel12a) from trichoderma harzianum (hypocreaceae) in the yeast pichia pastoris.filamentous fungi from the genus trichoderma have been widely investigated due to their considerable production of important biotechnological enzymes. previous studies have demonstrated that the t. harzianum strain ioc-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity. after excluding the native signal peptide, the open reading frame of the t. harzianum endoglucanase iii enzyme was cloned in the expression vector ppiczαa, enabling protein secretion to the culture medium. the recombinant plasmid wa ...201222653604
expression, immobilization and enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylase fused to a cellulose-binding domain.escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (gad), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamic acid to gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba), was fused to the cellulose-binding domain (cbd) and a linker of trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase ii. to prevent proteolysis of the fusion protein, the native linker was replaced with a s(3)n(10) peptide known to be completely resistant to e. coli endopeptidase. the cbd-gad expressed in e. coli was successfully immobilized on avicel, a crystalline ...201222312257
changes induced by trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling fusarium wilt.the addition of species of trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. the biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. this study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16s rrna) and c ...201325149244
anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of marine-associated fungi from the south brazilian coast.trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. infection with this protozoan may have serious consequences, especially for women. currently, 5-nitroimidazole drugs are the treatment of choice for trichomonosis, but the emergence of resistance has limited the effectiveness of this therapy. in this context, this study aimed to evaluate the anti-t. vaginalis activity of marine-associated fungi found in the south brazilian coast ...201323201217
construction of a streptomyces lydicus a01 transformant with a chit42 gene from trichoderma harzianum p1 and evaluation of its biocontrol activity against botrytis cinerea.streptomyces lydicus a01 and trichoderma harzianum p1 are potential biocontrol agents of fungal diseases in plants. s. lydicus a01 produces natamycin to bind the ergosterol of the fungal cell membrane and inhibits the growth of botrytis cinerea. t. harzianum p1, on the other hand, features high chitinase activity and decomposes the chitin in the cell wall of b. cinerea. to obtain the synergistic biocontrol effects of chitinase and natamycin on botrytis cinerea, this study transformed the chit42 ...201323625216
[formation peculiarities of quercus robur l. acorn mycobiota under conditions of kyiv polissya].the structure of mycobiota (epiphytic and from inner tissues) of q. robur acorns (580 samples) under conditions of kyiv polissya was studied. acorn samples were collected from oak trees during vegetation period. the epiphytes and mycobiota isolated from inner tissues of acorns was represented by 38 and 20 species, respectively. the majority of fungi were isolated in july. cosmopolitan and non-specific species acremonium sp., alternaria alternata, cladosporium cladosporioides, trichoderma harzian ...201324006787
mycoparasitism studies of trichoderma species against three phytopathogenic fungi: evaluation of antagonism and hydrolytic enzyme production.trichoderma spp. are used for biocontrol of several plant pathogens. however, their efficient interaction with the host needs to be accompanied by production of secondary metabolites and cell wall-degrading enzymes. three parameters were evaluated after interaction between four trichoderma species and plant-pathogenic fungi: fusarium solani, rhizoctonia solani and sclerotinia sclerotiorum. trichoderma harzianum and t. asperellum were the most effective antagonists against the pathogens. most of ...201323690037
identification of differentially expressed genes from trichoderma harzianum during growth on cell wall of fusarium solani as a tool for biotechnological application.the species of t. harzianum are well known for their biocontrol activity against many plant pathogens. however, there is a lack of studies concerning its use as a biological control agent against f. solani, a pathogen involved in several crop diseases. in this study, we have used subtractive library hybridization (ssh) and quantitative real-time pcr (rt-qpcr) techniques in order to explore changes in t. harzianum genes expression during growth on cell wall of f. solani (fscw) or glucose. rt-qpcr ...201323497274
induction of resistance in tomato plants against tomato mosaic tobamovirus using beneficial microbial isolates.the possibility of making use of the phenome non of systemic acquired resistance (sar) to control viruses achieved by the soaking treatment of tomato seeds cv. castl rock with three growth forms to bacillus circulans, pseudomonas fluorescens 2 and trichoderma harzianum against tomato mosaic tobamovirus (tomv) infection. all the application forms of beneficial biotic inducers were reduced the mean number of tomv local lesions on datura metel. p. fluorescens 2 was found to be the best treatment in ...201324494520
cloning and heterologous expression of serine protease sl41 related to biocontrol in trichoderma harzianum.serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. these proteases are involved in fungal growth and have been related to biocontrol processes. to assess the functional role of serine proteases from trichoderma harzianum t88, an effective biocontrol agent, on inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, a gene (sl41) encoding a serine protease was isolated by 5' and 3' race (rapid amplification of cdna ends). northern blot analysis ...201324060651
solid state production of polygalacturonase and xylanase by trichoderma species using cantaloupe and watermelon rinds.different solid state fermentation (ssf) sources were tested such as cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, orange and banana peels, for the production of polygalacturonase (pg) and xylanase (xyl) by trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma virens. the maximum production of both pg and xyl were obtained by t. harzianum and t. virnes grown on cantaloupe and watermelon rinds, respectively. time course, moisture content, temperature, ph, supplementation with carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to ach ...201324037654
combined inoculation of pseudomonas fluorescens and trichoderma harzianum for enhancing plant growth of vanilla (vanilla planifolia).this study was conducted to evaluate the plant growth promoting efficiency of combined inoculation of rhizobacteria on vanilla plants. based on the in vitro performance of indigenous trichoderma spp. and pseudomonas spp., four effective antagonists were selected and screened under greenhouse experiment for their growth enhancement potential. the maximum percentage of growth enhancement were observed in the combination of trichoderma harzianum with pseudomonas fluorescens treatment followed by ps ...201324494528
effect of fungi and light on seed germination of three opuntia species from semiarid lands of central mexico.fungal attack under light reduces mechanical resistance of the testa of opuntia seeds, making it easier for the embryo to emerge. however, the effect of fungi on opuntia seed germination in darkness is unknown. we evaluated the combined effects of light and inoculation with phoma medicaginis, trichoderma harzianum, trichoderma koningii, and penicillium chrysogenum on germination of o. streptacantha, o. leucotricha, and o. robusta seeds, from central mexico. we also evaluated the combined effects ...201323526153
potential of various fungi for biomass production of castor.an experiment was conducted to evaluate biomass production of castor (ricinus communis) with inoculation of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf), trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger. in castor, dual treatment of mycorrhiza and t. harzianum was better for shoot length (29.5 cm), root length (40.3 cm), fresh shoot weight (4.90 g), fresh root weight (1.13 g), number of leaves (10) and leaf area (75.5 cm2) than dual treatment of mycorrhiza and a. niger or mycorrhiza alone. these finding ...201324511751
antifungal cyclic lipopeptides from bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain bo5a.a bioassay-guided fractionation of bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain bo5a afforded the isolation of two new cyclic lipopeptides (1 and 2) as the major lipid constituents (>60%) of the chcl3-meoh (2:1) extract. the chemical structures of the isolated metabolites were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (ms), secondary ion mass spectrometry (ms1, ms2), and chemical degradation. the compounds are members of the surfactins family and are based ...201324164115
spirostane, furostane and cholestane saponins from persian leek with antifungal activity.a phytochemical investigation of the seeds of persian leek afforded the isolation of two new spirostane glycosides, persicosides a (1) and b (2), four new furostane glycosides, isolated as a couple of inseparable mixture, persicosides c1/c2 (3a/3b) and d1/d2 (4a/4b), one cholestane glycoside, persicoside e (5), together with the furostane glycosides ceposides a1/a2 and c1/c2 (6a/6b and 7a/7b), tropeosides a1/a2 and b1/b2 (8a/8b and 9a/9b), and ascalonicoside a1/a2 (10a/10b), already described in ...201323790946
antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of isolated compounds from leaves of breonadia salicina.breonadia salicina is used traditionally to treat wounds, ulcers, fevers, headaches, and fungal infections. the aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of the plant extract and compounds isolated there from.201323727185
deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by trichoderma harzianum in tomato.root colonization by selected trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (isr)]. among them, jasmonic acid (ja) and ethylene (et) signaling pathways are generally essential for isr. however, trichod ...201323805146
leaf microbiota of strawberries as affected by biological control agents.the increasing use of biological control agents (bcas) against botrytis cinerea in strawberry raises the question of whether there are any undesirable impacts of foliar applications of bcas on nontarget microorganisms in the phyllosphere. therefore, our objective was to investigate this issue within a field study. strawberry plants were repeatedly sprayed with three bcas-namely, rhizovital 42 fl. (bacillus amyloliquefaciens fzb42), trianum-p (trichoderma harzianum t22), and naturalis (beauveria ...201324020904
expression profiles of putative defence-related proteins in oil palm (elaeis guineensis) colonized by ganoderma boninense.basal stem rot (bsr) is a major disease of oil palm caused by a pathogenic fungus, ganoderma boninense. however, the interaction between the host plant and its pathogen is not well characterized. to better understand the response of oil palm to g. boninense, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related genes from oil palm were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription (qrt)-pcr in the roots of oil palms treated with g. boninense from 3 to 12 weeks post infection (wpi). these trans ...201323769496
the effect of iron and copper as an essential nutrient on mitochondrial electron transport system and lipid peroxidation in trichoderma harzianum.iron and copper are essential nutrients for all living organisms as cofactors of many enzymes and play important roles in electron transport system (ets) enzymes which have heme and iron-sulfur centers. in the present study, ets enzymes, namely, succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) and cytochrome c oxidase (cox), activities as well as adenine nucleotides and lipid peroxidation (lpo) levels of eukaryotic model trichoderma harzianum grown in varied concentrations of iron (0-20 mg/l) and copper (0-25 mg/l ...201323716140
joint x-ray crystallographic and molecular dynamics study of cellobiohydrolase i from trichoderma harzianum: deciphering the structural features of cellobiohydrolase catalytic activity.aiming to contribute toward the characterization of new, biotechnologically relevant cellulolytic enzymes, we report here the first crystal structure of the catalytic core domain of cel7a (cellobiohydrolase i) from the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum ioc 3844. our structural studies and molecular dynamics simulations show that the flexibility of tyr260, in comparison with tyr247 from the homologous trichoderma reesei cel7a, is enhanced as a result of the short side-chains of adjacent va ...201323114223
sequence analysis and gene expression of putative oil palm chitinase and chitinase-like proteins in response to colonization of ganoderma boninense and trichoderma harzianum.chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages between n-acetylglucosamine residues in chitin which is a major component of fungal cell wall. plant chitinases hydrolyze fungal chitin to chitin oligosaccharides that serve as elicitors of plant defense system against fungal pathogens. however, plants synthesize many chitinase isozymes and some of them are not pathogenesis-related. in this study, three full-length cdna sequences encoding a putative chitinase (egchit3-1 ...201323065213
isotope-assisted screening for iron-containing metabolites reveals a high degree of diversity among known and unknown siderophores produced by trichoderma spp.due to low iron availability under environmental conditions, many microorganisms excrete iron-chelating agents (siderophores) to cover their iron demands. a novel screening approach for the detection of siderophores using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was developed to study the production of extracellular siderophores of 10 wild-type trichoderma strains. for annotation of siderophores, an in-house library comprising 422 known microbial siderophores was ...201323064341
x-ray structure and molecular dynamics simulations of endoglucanase 3 from trichoderma harzianum: structural organization and substrate recognition by endoglucanases that lack cellulose binding module.plant biomass holds a promise for the production of second-generation ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis, but its utilization as a biofuel resource is currently limited to a large extent by the cost and low efficiency of the cellulolytic enzymes. considerable efforts have been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms of the enzymatic process. it is well known that most cellulases possess a catalytic core domain and a carbohydrate binding module (cbm), without which the enzymatic activity can be drast ...201323516599
hypocrea lixii, novel endophytic fungi producing anticancer agent cajanol, isolated from pigeon pea (cajanus cajan [l.] millsp.).the aim was to isolate, identify and characterize endophytes from pigeon pea (cajanus cajan [l.] millsp.), as novel producer of cajanol and its in vitro cytotoxicity assay.201323495919
understanding the cellulolytic system of trichoderma harzianum p49p11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-l-arabinofuranosidase.supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. this study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. specific activities of t. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of penicillium echinulatum and trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. comp ...201323391738
genetic diversity and species pattern of trichoderma and hypocrea in manipur using in silico analysis.we investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of trichoderma and hypocrea in manipur which lies in the indo-burma biodiversity hot spot region. 65 trichoderma isolates were identified at species level by morphological as well as sequence based analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 and 4. altogether 22 different species of trichoderma and hypocrea were found, of which trichoderma harzianum represent the dominant species. phylogenetic analysis reveals a clear cut distinction ...201323390355
the anti-fasciolasis properties of silver nanoparticles produced by trichoderma harzianum and their improvement of the anti-fasciolasis drug triclabendazole.recently, new strains of fasciola demonstrated drug resistance, which increased the need for new drugs or improvement of the present drugs. nanotechnology is expected to open some new opportunities to fight and prevent diseases using an atomic scale tailoring of materials. the ability to uncover the structure and function of biosystems at the nanoscale, stimulates research leading to improvement in biology, biotechnology, medicine and healthcare. the size of nanomaterials is similar to that of m ...201324196355
the stereochemical course of tricho-acorenol biosynthesis.the biosynthesis of tricho-acorenol in trichoderma harzianum was investigated by feeding stereospecifically deuterated mevalonolactone isotopomers, followed by a detailed gc/ms analysis of the incorporation of labelling. the results establish a highly stereospecific hydride migration and antarafacial attack of water in the terminal step towards tricho-acorenol.201324084795
harzianolide, a novel plant growth regulator and systemic resistance elicitor from trichoderma harzianum.a detailed understanding of the effect of natural products on plant growth and protection will underpin new product development for plant production. the isolation and characterization of a known secondary metabolite named harzianolide from trichoderma harzianum strain sqr-t037 were described, and the bioactivity of the purified compound as well as the crude metabolite extract in plant growth promotion and systemic resistance induction was investigated in this study. the results showed that harz ...201324080397
media optimization for laccase production by trichoderma harzianum zf-2 using response surface methodology.trichoderma harzianum zf-2 producing laccase was isolated from decaying samples from shandong, china, and showed dye decolorization activities. the objective of this study was to optimize its culture conditions using a statistical analysis of its laccase production. the interactions between different fermentation parameters for laccase production were characterized using a plackett-burman design and the response surface methodology. the different media components were initially optimized using t ...201324043124
abiotic stresses affect trichoderma harzianum t39-induced resistance to downy mildew in grapevine.enhancement of plant defense through the application of resistance inducers seems a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for controlling crop diseases but the efficacy can be affected by abiotic factors in the field. plants respond to abiotic stresses with hormonal signals that may interfere with the mechanisms of induced systemic resistance (isr) to pathogens. in this study, we exposed grapevines to heat, drought, or both to investigate the effects of abiotic stresses on grapevine resis ...201323841621
experimental mixture design as a tool to enhance glycosyl hydrolases production by a new trichoderma harzianum p49p11 strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation.this work investigates the glycosyl hydrolase (gh) profile of a new trichoderma harzianum strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation. the influence of different medium components (delignified steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse, sucrose, and soybean flour) on gh biosynthesis was assessed using experimental mixture design (emd). additionally, the effect of increased component concentrations in culture media selected from the emd was studied. it was found that that a mixed c ...201323265822
purification and properties of an α-(1 → 3)-glucanase (ec 3.2.1.84) from trichoderma harzianum and its use for reduction of artificial dental plaque accumulation.extracellular α-(1 → 3)-glucanase (mutanase, ec 3.2.1.84) produced by trichoderma harzianum ccm f-340 was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration followed by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and final chromatofocusing. the enzyme was recovered with an 18.4-fold increase in specific activity and a yield of 4.3%. some properties of the α-(1 → 3)-glucanase were investigated. the molecular mass of the enzyme is 67 kda, as estimated by sds/page, its isoelectric point 7.1, a ...201323520578
cloning, annotation and expression analysis of mycoparasitism-related genes in trichoderma harzianum 88.trichoderma harzianum 88, a filamentous soil fungus, is an effective biocontrol agent against several plant pathogens. high-throughput sequencing was used here to study the mycoparasitism mechanisms of t. harzianum 88. plate confrontation tests of t. harzianum 88 against plant pathogens were conducted, and a cdna library was constructed from t. harzianum 88 mycelia in the presence of plant pathogen cell walls. randomly selected transcripts from the cdna library were compared with eukaryotic plan ...201323625217
influence of the fungus trichoderma harzianum on the enzyme and polysaccharide composition of silene vulgaris callus.activities of polygalacturonase and 1,3-β-glucanase increased in campion (silene vulgaris) callus cells during co-cultivation with the fungus trichoderma harzianum. this was associated with a decrease in galacturonic acid residues in the pectic polysaccharide of campion silenan and also in the production of pectin by the callus. co-cultivation of the callus and the fungus resulted in an increase in contents of arabinose residues in the intracellular arabinogalactan and in contents of galactose r ...201323586723
water-soluble (1→3),(1→4)-α-d-glucan from mango as a novel inducer of cariogenic biofilm-degrading enzyme.a water-soluble polysaccharide (wsp) extracted from mango (mangifera indica l.) fruits has been suggested as a new alternative to mutan for mutanase induction in trichoderma harzianum. structural analyses revealed that the purified wsp was a (1→3),(1→4)-α-d-glucan with the molecular mass of ca. 760 kda in which the (1→4)-linked and (1→3)-linked α-glcp residues were in a ratio of 1:2.4. when the strain t harzianum ccm f-340 was grown in the presence of wsp, the maximal enzyme productivity obtaine ...201323583288
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