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purification and properties of an alpha-(1-3) glucanohydrolase from trichoderma harzianum. 19724501478
antagonistic effects of trichoderma harzianum on pythium aphanidermatum causing the damping-off disease of tobacco in nigeria.culture filtrates of trichoderma harzianum rifai have been found to inhibit zoospore germination, germ tube elongation and mycelial growth of pythium aphanidermatum causing the damping-off disease of tobacco in nigeria. further, the invasion of the hyphae of p. aphanidermatum by hyphae of t. harzianum has been demonstrated in mixed cultures of the two fungi. the results of investigations on the role of t. harzianum as an agent of biological control of the damping-off disease in sterilized and u ...19751239662
formation of protoplasts from ustilago maydis.protoplasts of ustilago maydis were obtained by incubating sporidia of the fungus with a combination of helicase and a commercial "onozuka" r-10 enzyme preparation of trichoderma harzianum in the presence of 0.6 m (nh4)2 so4 as an osmotic stabilizer. in the presence of the organic stabilizers sorbitol and sucrose, however, the release of protoplasts was inhibited. combinations of helicase with other lytic enzymes such as cellulase from aspergillus niger, cellulase and hemicellulase from rhizopus ...19761086637
the influence of trichoderma harzianum on the root-knot fusarium wilt complex in cotton.wilt-susceptible cultivar 'rowden' cotton was inoculated wilh meloidogyne incognita (n), trichoderma harzianum (t), and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (f) alone and in all combinations in various time sequences. plants inoculated with f alone or in combination with t did not develop wilt, simultaneous inoculation of 7-day-old seedlings with all three organisms (ntf) produced earliest wilt. however, plants receiving nematodes at 7 days and fusarium and trichoderma at 2 or 4 weeks later (n- ...197619308202
interactions of phytophthora cinnamomi and trichoderma spp. in relation to propagule production in soil cultures at 26 degrees c1.effects of trichoderma harzianum and t. polysporum on chlamydospore production by two isolates of phytophthora cinamomi were determined over a 21-day period in nonsterile, sterilized, and sterilized amended soil. trichoderma was either coinoculated with p. cinnamomi or added to the cultures on day 3 of the incubation period. in nonsterile soil, conversion of mycelial fragments in the p. cinnamomi inoculum to chlamydospores resulted in an initial slight increase in chlamydospore numbers. in cultu ...1977558040
reduction of the formation of dental plaque and gingivitis in humans by crude mutanase.the effect of a trichoderma harzianum enzyme preparation containing mutanase (alpha-1,3 glucan glucanohydrolase) on plaque accumulation and composition and on occurrence of gingivitis was assessed in 20 persons in a double-blind cross-over investigation. the enzyme preparation was administered in chewing gum. two test periods of 1 week were preceded by scaling and cleansing of the teeth, oral hygiene instruction, and controlled hygiene for at least 3 weeks. oral hygiene measures were discontinue ...1978349673
the preparation and chemical composition of fractions from aspergillus fumigatus wall and protoplasts possessing antigenic activity.a detergent-soluble fraction was prepared from the fragmented wall of aspergillus fumigatus mycelium using the non-ionic detergent triton x-100, and a wall-free extract was prepared from the same source in the form of protoplasts, released by a lytic enzyme system from trichoderma harzianum. these extracts were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their detailed chemical composition was established. they were compared with the water-soluble fraction prepared from total mycelium, wh ...1979225408
the preparation of protoplasts from aspergillus fumigatus mycelium.protoplasts have been prepared from the mycelium of aspergillus funigatus, using a lytic enzyme mixture from trichoderma harzianum. a variety of experimental conditions were investigated in order to achieve optimal conditions for protoplast production. electron micrographs showed the preparations to be free of cell-wall. material obtained by this procedure can be used as a source of cytoplasmic antigens for further analysis.19806988993
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction results of trichorzianine a 1, a peptide with nineteen residues from trichoderma harzianum.trichorzianine a 1 is one of the main components of a mixture of related antibiotic peptides (trichorzianines) produced by the fungus trichoderma harzianum. good crystals were obtained and allowed x-ray diffraction up to 0.8 a resolution. the space group is orthorhombic, c222(1), z = 8, a = 64.8 (1) a, b = 9.33 (3) a, c = 39.9 (1) a. the solvent content is only 12%, preventing a heavy ion diffusion. so, we are trying to obtain the structure by direct methods.19836631970
high field nmr study of antibiotic peptides: 1h assignment of trichorzianine a1 spectra by 2d experiments.a new antibiotic peptide, trichorzianine a1, was isolated from a culture of trichoderma harzianum. it contains 19 residues, the n terminus is blocked by an acetyl group and the c terminus is tryptophanol. as a first part of the structural study of this new peptide, we here present the analysis of the 1h nmr spectrum accomplished by 2 dj resolved and spin echo correlated spectroscopy.19836639649
possible role of lectins in mycoparasitism.lectin activity in a host-mycoparasite relationship was demonstrated with rhizoctonia solani and trichoderma harzianum. attachment of o but not a and b erythrocytes to hyphae occurred on r. solani but not on its mycoparasite. this phenomenon, which was ca2+ and mn2+ dependent, was prevented by galactose, present in t. harzianum cell walls, and by fucose.19836682860
electric currents around growing trichoderma hyphae, before and after photoinduction of conidiation.electric currents were measured around trichoderma harzianum (rifai) hyphae using an extracellular vibrating electrode. a steady current enters growing hyphal tips and along the side of the apical millimeter. in addition, outward currents were detected at about one-ninth of the locations tested, 60 to 150 minutes after illumination but not in dark controls. this sporadic, localized outward current pattern might be an early biophysical response to blue light.198416663532
surface antigens of intact aspergillus fumigatus mycelium: their localization using radiolabelled protein a as marker.isotopically-labelled protein a from staphylococcus aureus was used as a marker to quantify binding of igg molecules to surface antigens of aspergillus fumigatus mycelium. the igg class antibodies were obtained from rabbits inoculated with mycelial fractions and from patients suffering from aspergillosis and aspergillus-related diseases. the highest incorporation of label was obtained with an antiserum from rabbits inoculated with a. fumigatus wall material. antibodies raised to other antigenic ...19846376701
butanediol production from cellulose and hemicellulose by klebsiella pneumoniae grown in sequential coculture with trichoderma harzianum.the bioconversion of cellulose and hemicellulose substrates to 2,3-butanediol by a sequential coculture approach was investigated with the cellulolytic fungus trichoderma harzianum e58 and the fermentative bacterium klebsiella pneumoniae. vogel medium optimal for the production of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of the fungus was found to be inhibitory to butanediol fermentation. this inhibition appeared to be due to a synergistic effect of various ingredients, particularly the salts, p ...19853909967
cellulase production by trichoderma harzianum in static and mixed solid-state fermentation reactors under nonaseptic conditions.cellulase production from lignocellulosic materials was studied in solid-state cultivation by both static and mixed techniques under nonaseptic conditions. the effects of fermentation conditions, such as moisture content, ph, temperature, and aeration, on cellulase production by trichoderma harzianum using a mixture of wheat straw (80%) and bran (20%) were investigated. with a moisture content of 74% and a ph of 5.8., 18 iu filter paper activity and 198 iu endoglucanase activity/g initial substr ...198518553830
modified cryptochrome in vivo absorption in dim photosporulation mutants of trichoderma.mutants of trichoderma harzianum that are defective in blue-light-induced sporulation were induced by nutritional stresses as an alternative to light. these mutants may be modified in the putative photoreceptor pigment "cryptochrome" or in an early transduction component. dim (dimsighted) mutants induced by a short transient stress were mapped into four complementation groups and were chosen for study of pigment deficiencies by in vivo absorption spectroscopy. mutants rib(-)10 and lys(-)44 in th ...198516593557
modified light-induced absorbance changes in dim y photoresponse mutants of trichoderma.a brief pulse of blue light induces the common soil fungus trichoderma harzianum to sporulate. photoresponse mutants with higher light requirements than the wild type are available, including one class, dim y, with modified absorption spectra. we found blue-light-induced absorbance changes in the blue region of the spectrum, in wild-type and dim y mutant strains. the light-minus-dark difference spectra of the wild type and of several other strains indicate photoreduction of flavins and cytochrom ...198616664892
cellulose digestion inmonochamus marmorator kby. (coleoptera: cerambycidae): role of acquired fungal enzymes.larvae of the balsam fir sawyer,monochamus marmorator kby. (coleoptera, cerambycidae), contain midgut digestive enzymes active against hemicellulose and cellulose. cellulases from larvae fed on balsam fir wood infected with the fungus,trichoderma harzianum rifai (deuteromycetes, moniliales, moniliaceae), were found to be identical to those of the cellulase complex produced by this fungus when compared using chromatography, electrophoresis, and isofocusing. when larvae are maintained on a fungus- ...198624307047
[comparative study of the effect of l-lysine-l-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai and trichoderma viride on nucleic acid synthesis in human tumor cells in vitro].l-lysine-alpha-oxidase, a new fungal enzyme catalyzing oxidative deamination of l-lysine, exerts an inhibitory effect on dna, rna and protein synthesis in human cells of carcinoma ovarius (caov) in vitro.19863708146
substrate conditions that influence the assays used for determining the beta-glucosidase activity of cellulolytic microorganisms.culture filtrates from trichoderma harzianum e58, t. reesei cl 847 and penicillium sp. c 462 were assayed for beta-glucosidase activity using a range of substrates and sugar analysis methods. although sugar analyses by the dinitrosalicylic acid (dns) and nelson-somogyi methods gave a similar profile, when increasing concentrations of salicin were assayed, considerably higher values were obtained with the dns assay. the salicin concentration used for the assay greatly influenced the final beta-gl ...198618555279
steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop.material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees c-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, w ...198618555395
recycle of enzymes and substrate following enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated aspenwood.the commercial production of chemicals and fuels from lignocellulosic residues by enzymatic means still requires considerable research on both the technical and economic aspects. two technical problems that have been identified as requiring further research are the recycle of the enzymes used in hydrolysis and the reuse of the re calcitrant cellulose remaining after incomplete hydrolysis. enzyme recycle is required to lower the cost of the enzymes, while the reuse of the spent cellulose will low ...198718581434
ethanol fermentation of enzymatically hydrolysed leached beet cosette using trichoderma harzianum cellulases and saccharomyces cerevisiae. 19873326098
mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in nigeria.the fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are botryodiplodia theobromae, rhizopus stolonifer, trichoderma harzianum, mucor mucedo and fusarium oxysporum. the major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of aspergillus spp and penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. the effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a sta ...19873507682
[cytostatic effect of l-lysine-alpha-oxidase from trichoderma harzianum rifai and trichoderma viride].l-lysine-alpha-oxidase, a new fungal enzyme catalyzing oxidative l-lysine deamination, was shown to have an inhibitory effect on the in vitro synthesis of dna, rna and proteins in human carcinoma ovarian (caov) cells.19873567343
fungi associated with urea-formaldehyde foam insulation in canada.sixty-eight fungal taxa were identified from samples of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation taken from canadian residences. mesophilic taxa were predominant, with penicillium spp., trichoderma harzianum and paecilomyces variotii observed most frequently. extensive or conspicuous growth also was seen for hormoconis resinae, stachybotrys chartarum and trichoderma viride in some samples. the potential for these fungi to have contributed to the adverse health effects reported in some homes containing ...19873627222
inexpensive, rapid procedure for bulk purification of cellulase-free beta-1,4-d-xylanase of high specific activity.a process has been developed for the bulk purification of cellulase-free beta-1,4-d-xylanase from the fungus trichoderma harzianum e58. the process involved the primary step of ultrafiltering the culture filtrate via a 10,000-molecular-weight cut-off membrane to separate the cellulase (retentate) and xylanase (permeate) fractions. the cellulase component was concentrated by 40- to 60-fold, resulting in an enzyme complex that could effectively hydrolyze high concentrations of cellulose and xylan ...198718576588
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction study of a xylanase from trichoderma harzianum.a 20,000 mr xylanase from trichoderma harzianum has been purified and crystallized from 20% (w/v) saturated ammonium sulphate solutions. the unit cell is orthorhombic, space group p2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit cell lengths a = 44.2 a, b = 94.1 a, c = 51.6 a. data from native crystals and several potential heavy-atom derivatives have been collected. an x-ray analysis to at least 2.8 a resolution appears to be feasible.19873656407
isolation and sequence determination of trichorzianines a antifungal peptides from trichoderma harzianum.trichorzianines a, membrane active peptides of the peptaibol class, were isolated from cultures of the mould trichoderma harzianum. trichorzianines a were separated into pure components by hplc on octadecyl bonded and sio2 phases successively. nine trichorzianines a (iia, iiia, iiib, iiic, ivb, vb, via, vib and vii) were isolated from the complex microheterogeneous mixture. their n-terminal amino acid is acetylated, the c-terminal amino alcohol is either tryptophanol or phenylalaninol, 7 to 8 of ...19873570662
acifluorfen enhancement of cryptochrome-modulated sporulation following an inductive light pulse.acifluorfen enhancement of blue-light mediated phototropism suggested that this diphenyl-ether herbicide augments the light reaction (ty leong, wr briggs 1983 plant physiol 70: 875-881). the separation of the possible direct interaction of acifluorfen with light reactions from interactions with dark pathways has been elucidated in this paper with trichoderma harzianum. acifluorfen at 30 micromolar, given for 5 hours in the growth medium, stimulated the conidiation of trichoderma in response to b ...198716665207
influence of growth substrate on production of cellulase enzymes by trichoderma harzianum e58.cellulase production by trichoderma harzianum e58 grown on lactose and various cellulosic substrates such as solka floe, avicel, and steamed aspenwood was investigated. the culture filtrates of t. harzianum e58 obtained after growth on these substrates were assayed for their cellulase activities and overall hydrolytic activities. the severity of the steaming conditions used for the aspenwood had a pronounced effect on the cellulolytic activity of the produced culture filtrates. those substrates ...198818584671
[isolation, analysis of amino acid sequence and crystallization of the extracellular ribonuclease th1 from trichoderma harzianum-01].a procedure of large-scale isolation of homogeneous ribonuclease th1 from cultural filtrates of trichoderma harzianum with a yield over 50% has been developed. three ion-exchange chromatographies on cm- and deae-cellulose gave 7500 fold purification of the protein with a specific activity of ca. 4500 u/mg. the rnase th1 is shown to be a basic protein (pi 9.5) with mr 10,747; it contains 106 amino acid residues (2 asp, 6 asn, 9 thr, 12 ser, 2 glu, 1 gln, 4 pro, 16 gly, 14 ala, 4 cys, 7 val, 5 ile ...19883139001
a convenient procedure for rapid release of protoplasts from ustilago maydis.filtrates from cultures of trichoderma harzianum, grown on a liquid mineral salts medium containing vitamin and trace element supplements, 0.5 g/l glucose and 2 g/l of dried residue of ethanol-extracted commercial mushrooms (agaricus brunnescens), are a good source of enzymes for the release of protoplasts from the sporidia of ustilago maydis. when concentrated 50-fold by (nh4)2so4 precipitation, the enzymes liberated 95% of the protoplasts from the sporidia within 40 min.19883273191
isolation of dna from yeasts.methods are described that allow dna to be prepared from widely different yeasts (candida utilis, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and schizosaccharomyces pombe). the methods are reliably reproducible, and the dna obtained is of appropriate quality for the construction of gene libraries (upper limit of size range consistently 50-150 kbp). in method a, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by treatment with a highly purified mixture of enzymes from trichoderma harzianum, the spheroplasts are lysed ...19892729583
isolation, sequence, and conformation of seven trichorzianines b from trichoderma harzianum.from the antagonistic fungus trichoderma harzianum, a group of acidic new peptides, trichorzianines b (tb), was isolated in addition to neutral trichorzianines a (ta) previously studied. ta and tb exhibit various biological activities related to their membrane properties and a different behaviour of the two groups was noticed. as observed for other peptaibols, tb consist in a microheterogeneous mixture which was resolved into pure peptides by reversed-phase c18 hplc. the sequence of the seven ma ...19892599757
cytochemical localization of beta-(1----4)-d-glucans in plant and fungal cells using an exoglucanase-gold complex.an exoglucanase (exo-1,4-beta-glucanase), purified from a cellulase produced by the fungus trichoderma harzianum, was tagged with colloidal gold particles and applied on plant and fungal tissue sections for localizing beta-(1----4)-linked glucans. the present review reports the conditions required for the preparation of this enzyme-gold complex and for its application in transmission electron microscopy. the exoglucanase-gold complex was found to be a powerful probe for labelling accurately cell ...19892518813
transfer of isolated nuclei into protoplasts of trichoderma harzianum.protoplasts released from young hyphae of trichoderma harzianum contained 0 to 10 nuclei per protoplast, and most (about 80%) contained from 4 to 6 nuclei. most protoplasts were larger than 3 mum in diameter. nuclei were isolated from protoplasts of an auxotrophic mutant of t. harzianum and transferred into protoplasts obtained from another auxotroph of the same strain. this intrastrain nuclear transfer gave rise to numerous progeny which were stable, prototrophic, and heterokaryotic. interstrai ...199016348255
induction of trichoderma sporulation by nanosecond laser pulses: evidence against cryptochrome cycling.an important question in the study of photoreceptor action in morphogenesis is whether the chromophore is unidirectionally photobleached, or whether it is recycled, allowing each receptor molecule to be counted more than once. the common soil fungus trichoderma harzianum grows vegetatively in the dark and sporulates in response to a pulse of blue or uv-a light. colonies were grown at 26 degrees c, transferred to 3 degrees c, illuminated with non-saturating light, and then put back at 26 degrees ...19902304982
[antagonism in vitro among phytopathogenic and saprobic fungi from horticultural soils].two methods were tested in order to determine the existence of in vitro antagonism among saprobic and pathogenic fungi. these microorganisms were the most common isolates from horticultural soils of la plata (buenos aires). trichoderma harzianum; t. koningii and penicillium sp. were antagonistic to all the pathogenic fungi tested, fusarium solani; f. oxysporum; alternaria solani; colletotrichum sp. and sclerotium rolfsii spicaria sp., paecilomyces sp. and chaetomiun sp. were antagonistic only to ...19902287718
isolation of fungi from heterodera glycines and in vitro bioassays for their antagonism to eggs.twenty fungi were assayed in vitro for antagonism to eggs of heterodera glycines. eight of the fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of h. glycines during the current study, one was isolated from panagrellus redivivus, and eleven were obtained from other researchers or collections. the bioassays were conducted on eggs from nematodes that had been grown monoxenically on excised root tips. phoma chrysanthemicola, one strain of verticillium chlamydosporium, and one strain of v. lecanii caused a de ...199019287754
the interaction of xylanases with commercial pulps.when purified xylanases from trichoderma harzianum e58 or from a clone of bacillus circulans were incubated with various low-yield wood pulps, little of the original enzyme activity could be detected in the filtrate at the end of the reaction. partial bleaching of the pulps prior to enzymatic treatment generally resulted in an increased recovery of the xylanase activity. it appears that both nonspecific adsorption and soluble inhibitors may be responsible for the loss of much of the xylanase act ...199118597365
method to enhance growth and sporulation of pelletized biocontrol fungi.the biocontrol fungi trichoderma harzianum, used to control soilborne plant pathogens, and beauveria bassiana, used to control insect pests, were formulated as mycelial biomass in alginate pellets with wheat bran added. after drying for 0, 4, or 16 h, pellets were placed in water or in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (peg) 8000 for 4 to 24 h and then allowed to continue drying. peg-treated pellets containing t. harzianum showed significantly greater proliferation of hyphae in soil than ...199116348562
mycoflora associated with five species of freshwater leeches.twenty-two species belonging to 11 genera of zoosporic fungi were collected from 10 freshwater sites and from five species of leeches on sesame and hemp seeds, maize grains and pinus pollen grains as baits at 22 degrees c. dictyuchus, achlya, pythium, allomyces and saprolegnia were the most common genera. the highest population of zoosporic fungi was estimated from batracobdelloides tricarinata, the lowest from barbronia assiuti. in addition fifty-three species and 1 variety representing 23 terr ...19911818104
differentiation of species and strains among filamentous fungi by dna fingerprinting.we have analyzed 11 strains and clones, representing five species (penicillium janthinellum, p. citrioviridae, p. chrysogenum, aspergillus niger, trichoderma harzianum) and three genera of filamentous fungi, for the presence of hypervariable loci in their genomes by hybridization with simple repeat oligonucleotides and the dna of phage m13. the oligonucleotide probes (ct)8, (gtg)5 and (gaca)4, as well as m13 dna, are informative probes for fingerprinting in all genera and species tested. the pro ...19911907892
effect of ultraviolet-induced mutants of trichoderma harzianum with altered antibiotic production on selected pathogens in vitro.mutants of trichoderma harzianum with altered antibiotic production were isolated using ultraviolet light mutagenesis. these included strains whose activity in a fusarium oxysporum spore germination assay was greater than twice that of the parental strain and one that had no detectable antifungal activity. characterisation of extracellular metabolites of these strains using thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography showed that the strains with high activity produced only elevated l ...19911954580
purification and characterization of beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase from trichoderma harzianum.beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase was produced by trichoderma harzianum cultivated with chitin as the growth substrate. the enzyme was purified 13.2-fold to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and sequential chromatography on sp-toyopearl and sephacryl s-200. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be about 150,000 by gel filtration. the ph and temperature optima were 4.0-5.5 and 50 degrees c, respectively. the enzyme hydrolyzed n-acetylchitooligosaccharides at the non-reducing ends to release ...19911368749
regulation of chitinase synthesis in trichoderma harzianum.the production of chitinase by trichoderma species is of interest in relation to their use in biocontrol and as a source of mycolytic enzymes. fourteen isolates of the genus were screened to identify the most effective producer of chitinase. the best strain for chitinase was trichoderma harzianum 39.1, and this was selected for study of the regulation of enzyme synthesis. washed mycelium of t. harzianum 39.1 was incubated with a range of carbon sources. chitinase synthesis was induced on chitin- ...19911748872
in vitro antagonism of bioluminescent fungi by trichoderma harzianum.two species of bioluminescent fungi, panellus stypticus and omphalotus olearius were placed in contact with three different strains of interfungal pathogenic trichoderma harzianum. subsequent light emission by the luminous fungi and advance of the interfungal pathogens were compared. relative differences among the pathogens were reflected in their rate of mycelial advance, the total area over which they produced spores upon the host fungi, and decreases in host bioluminescence. after ten days di ...19911922266
new structural features of the antigenic extracellular polysaccharides of penicillium and aspergillus species revealed with exo-beta-d-galactofuranosidase.to study the structures of the epitopes of the extracellular polysaccharides from penicillium and aspergillus species, an exo-beta-d-galactofuranosidase was purified from a commercial crude enzyme preparation from trichoderma harzianum. analysis of ring size and linkage position of the galactose residues of the extracellular polysaccharide of penicillium digitatum, before and after enzymatic treatment, was determined by the reductive-cleavage technique. in addition to terminal and beta (1-5)-lin ...19921383191
molecular cloning of the imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase gene of trichoderma harzianum by genetic complementation in saccharomyces cerevisiae using a direct expression vector.the trichoderma harzianum imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase gene (igh) has been isolated by complementation of a saccharomyces cerevisiae his3 mutant using a direct expression vector. this escherichia coli-yeast shuttle vector was developed to allow efficient cloning and expression of cdna libraries. the cdna is 627 nucleotides long and codes for a protein of 209 amino acids with an apparent molecular mass of 22,466 daltons. the predicted protein sequence showed 63.6%, 58.7%, and 38.4% iden ...19921406594
quantitative separation of trichoderma lipid classes on a bonded phase column.bond elut aminopropyl columns were used to purify the different lipid classes of trichoderma harzianum and trichoderma viride. this methodology permitted good separation of the fungal lipid classes in less time than traditional techniques. the incorporation of [1 (14)c]linoleic acid into neutral lipids, free fatty acids and phospholipids was quantified for both strains. the fatty acid profile of the different lipid classes of these fungal strains was determined as a function of culture time.19921487513
isolation and characterization of three chitinases from trichoderma harzianum.three proteins which display chitinase activity were purified from the supernatants of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 grown in minimal medium supplemented with chitin as the sole carbon source. purification was carried out after protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate, adsorption to colloidal chitin and digestion, and, finally, chromatofocusing. by this procedure, two chitinases of 42 kda (chit42) and 37 kda (chit37) were purified to homogeneity, as judged by sds/page and gel filtration, w ...19921606968
changes in selected enzyme activities during growth of pure and mixed cultures of the white-rot decay fungus trametes versicolor and the potential biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.two filamentous fungi, the white-rot fungus trametes versicolor and the soil fungus and potential biocontrol organism trichoderma harzianum, have been grown in pure and mixed cultures on low-n (0.4 mm) and high-n (4 mm) defined synthetic media to determine the activities of selected wood-degrading enzymes such as cellobiase, cellulase, laccase, and peroxidases. growth characteristics and enzyme activities were examined for potential correlations. such correlations would allow the use of simple e ...19921611557
antifungal activity of chitin-binding pr-4 type proteins from barley grain and stressed leaf.antifungal activity in vitro has been associated with barley leaf and grain proteins which are homologous with pathogenesis related proteins of type 4 (pr-4) from tobacco and tomato and with c terminal domains of potato win and hevea hevein precursor proteins. one protein (pi approximately 9.3, m(r) approximately 13.7 kda) from barley grain and two very similar proteins from leaves infected with erysiphe graminis were isolated by chitin affinity chromatography, but none of the proteins showed ch ...19921644196
biomimics of fungal cell-cell recognition by use of lectin-coated nylon fibers.when the mycoparasitic, biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum was allowed to grow on nylon fibers treated with concanavalin a or sclerotium rolfsii lectin, it coiled around the nylon fibers and produced hooks in a pattern similar to that observed with the real host hyphae. the incidence of interaction between t. harzianum and s. rolfsii lectin-treated fibers was significantly higher than that of the controls (untreated or blocked activated fibers). these findings provide direct evidence for th ...19921732197
biolistic transformation of trichoderma harzianum and gliocladium virens using plasmid and genomic dna.biolistic (biological ballistic) and protoplast-mediated procedures were compared as methods for transforming strains of gliocladium virens and trichoderma harzianum. for biolistic transformation, conidia were bombarded using a helium-driven biolistic device to accelerate m5 tungsten particles coated with plasmid or genomic dna. dna from either source contained a bacterial hygromycin b resistance gene (hygb) as a dominant selectable marker. the same sources of dna were also used to transform pro ...19938252645
antifungal metabolites from trichoderma harzianum.a detailed examination of the metabolites produced in liquid cultures by a strain of trichoderma harzianum, isolated from wheat roots, has resulted in the identification of a further five metabolites. two of these, cyclonerodiol [5] and the octaketide keto diol 6, have previously been isolated from a strain of trichoderma koningii. the structures of the three new octaketide-derived compounds 7, 8, and 10 have been deduced from spectroscopic and chemical studies. all newly isolated compounds show ...19938277317
interspecific competitive interactions between pairs of fungal species in natural substrates.the role of interspecific competition in fungal communities in natural substrates is poorly understood because fungi do not form easily definable populations. a new approach to investigating fungal competition, using natural substrates containing a range of known biomass concentrations of each of two species, is described. relative competitive success of each species is assessed over time in terms of propagule production and substrate colonisation by each species. in an agricultural soil mucor h ...199328314028
raffinose-induced mutanase production from trichoderma harzianum.the enzyme alpha(1-->3),3-glucanohydrolase (referred to as mutanase) from the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum omz 779 is capable of degrading the water-insoluble glucan in dental plaque. previously, it was necessary to produce the glucan (referred to as mutan) in vitro for use as the sole carbon source and inducer of mutanase synthesis in fungal cultures. we report here that raffinose also induces the production of mutanase. the metabolism of raffinose differed from that of other sugars ...19938224795
metabolism of linoleic acid or mevalonate and 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone biosynthesis by trichoderma species.the understanding of the biosynthetic pathway of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone in trichoderma species was achieved by using labelled linoleic acid or mevalonate as a tracer. incubation of growing cultures of trichoderma harzianum and t. viride with [u-c]linoleic acid or [5-c]sodium mevalonate revealed that both fungal strains were able to incorporate these labelled compounds (50 and 15%, respectively). most intracellular radioactivity was found in the neutral lipid fraction. at the initial time of incub ...199316349040
primary structure of trichoderma harzianum ribosomal protein l32. 19938341606
production and preliminary characterization of rna-depolymerase from trichoderma harzianum.trichoderma harzianum produced rna-depolymerase with maximum activity after 72 to 120 h of growth. addition of k2hpo4 repressed enzyme production by the fungus. the optimal activity was at ph 7.8 and 40 to 50°c. the enzyme was stable at ph 3.2 to 9.0 and 80% of activity remained after 60 min at 40°c. edta and p-chloromercuribenzoate had no effect on the enzyme activity.199324420030
molecular characterization of the proteinase-encoding gene, prb1, related to mycoparasitism by trichoderma harzianum.the soil fungus trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic fungus known for its use as a biocontrol agent of phytopathogenic fungi. among other factors, trichoderma produces a series of antibiotics and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes. these enzymes are believed to play an important role in mycoparasitism. among the hydrolytic enzymes, we have identified a basic proteinase (prb1) which is induced by either autoclaved mycelia, fungal cell wall preparation or chitin; however, the induction does no ...19938326868
methods for electrophoretic karyotyping of filamentous fungi in the genus trichoderma.methods for electrophoretic karyotyping of filamentous fungi in the genus trichoderma were developed. these techniques permitted the separation and visualization of intact chromosomes from viable protoplasts. three strains were analyzed: trichoderma harzianum strains t12 his-2 and t95 lys-1, and a prototrophic strain (1295-22) produced by protoplast fusion of t12 his-2 with t95 lys-1. four chromosome bands ranging in size from 2.2 mb (megabase pairs) to 5.4 mb were visualized with strain t95 lys ...19938465953
protein enrichment of sunflower lignocellulosic fraction by trichoderma harzianum s/g2431 in low moisture content media. 199327314790
detection and quantification of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, chitobiosidase, and endochitinase in solutions and on gels.procedures are described for the direct assay of n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (ec 3.2.1.30), chitobiosidase, and endochitinase (ec 3.2.1.14) after separation on starch or polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels. the enzymes were visualized as fluorescent bands by using an agarose overlay containing 4-methylumbelliferyl derivatives of n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide, beta-d-n,n'-di-acetylchitobioside, or beta-d-n,n',n"-triacetylchitotriose for n-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, chitobiosidase, or endochit ...19938434798
sequence of the pyr4 gene encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum.the pyr4 gene, encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (omp decarboxylase) from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma harzianum, has been isolated by hybridization, using a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-derived fragment as a probe. the pcr primers corresponded to conserved regions of omp decarboxylase-encoding genes from other filamentous fungi. a 2490-bp genomic fragment, which complemented a pyr4-auxotrophic t. reesei mutant, was sequenced. the gene showed high homology to pyr4 genes from ...19948088543
acid-base properties of a soil fungus, trichoderma harzianum. 199422165935
production of an isonitrile antibiotic by an uv-induced mutant of trichoderma harzianum.production of the antibiotic, homothallin ii, by a uv-induced mutant strain of trichoderma harzianum is reported, the wild-type parent of which was not an isonitrile antibiotic-producer. the compound has broad antibiotic activity against oomycete, ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi, and both gram-positive and -negative bacteria. the significance of the induction of homothallin ii is discussed.19947765365
intraspecific molecular variation among trichoderma harzianum isolates colonizing mushroom compost in the british isles.the genetic diversity in trichoderma harzianum isolates from mushroom compost was assessed using various molecular techniques. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) analysis of ribosomal dna (rdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) divided the 81 isolates into three major groups, 1, 2 and 3. there was no variation within a group in rdna, while a low degree of polymorphism was detected in mtdna. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis of 30 randomly chosen isolates, with six primer ...19947912144
cloning and characterization of a chitinase (chit42) cdna from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.a cdna of trichoderma harzianum (chit42), coding for an endochitinase of 42 kda, has been cloned using synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to amino-acid sequences of the purified chitinase. the cdna codes for a protein of 423 amino acids. analysis of the n-terminal amino-acid sequence of the chitinase, and comparison with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed post-translational processing of a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and a second peptide of 12 amino acids. th ...19947750151
parallel formation and synergism of hydrolytic enzymes and peptaibol antibiotics, molecular mechanisms involved in the antagonistic action of trichoderma harzianum against phytopathogenic fungi.chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, and protease activities were formed when trichoderma harzianum mycelia, grown on glucose as the sole carbon source, were transferred to fresh medium containing cell walls of botrytis cinerea. chitobiohydrolase, endochitinase, and beta-1,3-glucanase activities were immunologically detected in culture supernatants by western blotting (immunoblotting), and the first two were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. under the same conditions, exogenously added ...19947811076
production and regeneration of protoplasts from the y-phase of the human pathogenic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis.protoplasts of y-cells and partially converted m-cells from several human isolates of paracoccidioides brasiliensis were obtained with a combined enzyme system containing novozym 234 and a chitinase. a laboratory made extract from trichoderma harzianum cbs-345-33 supplemented with chitinase induced the release of protoplasts from partially converted m-cells but not from established y-cells. a similar yield of protoplasts (1-2 x 10(5) ml-1 after 16 h) was produced by using either enzymatic system ...19947844703
potential of genes and gene products from trichoderma sp. and gliocladium sp. for the development of biological pesticides.fungal cell wall degrading enzymes produced by the biocontrol fungi trichoderma harzianum and gliocladium virens are strong inhibitors of spore germination and hyphal elongation of a number of phytopathogenic fungi. the purified enzymes include chitinolytic enzymes with different modes of action or different substrate specificity and glucanolytic enzymes with exo-activity. a variety of synergistic interactions were found when different enzymes were combined or associated with biotic or abiotic a ...19947866877
fingerprinting reveals gamma-ray induced mutations in fungal dna: implications for identification of patent strains of trichoderma harzianum.we have analyzed different patent strains and gamma-ray induced mutants of trichoderma harzianum by dna fingerprinting and pcr fingerprinting (rapd). applying wild-type phage m13 dna, with the oligonucleotides (ct)8 and (gtg)5 as probes for hybridization, as well as the oligonucleotides ggcatcggcc, (gtg)5, (cac)5 and the m13 sequence gagggtggcggttct as primers in pcr, we were able to obtain different and discriminative fingerprint patterns for all strains and mutants investigated. irradiation of ...19947954899
characterization of ech-42, a trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene expressed during mycoparasitism.a gene (ech-42; previously named then-42) coding for one of the endochitinases produced by the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum imi206040 was cloned and characterized. expression of the cdna clone in escherichia coli resulted in bacteria with chitinase activity. this chitinase has been shown to have lytic activity on botrytis cinerea cell walls in vitro. the ech-42 gene was assigned to a double chromosomal band (chromosome v or vi) upon electrophoretic separation and southern analysis of t ...19947971981
synergistic interaction between fungal cell wall degrading enzymes and different antifungal compounds enhances inhibition of spore germination.different classes of cell wall degrading enzymes produced by the biocontrol fungi trichoderma harzianum and gliocladium virens inhibited spore germination of botrytis cinerea in a bioassay in vitro. the addition of any chitinolytic or glucanolytic enzyme to the reaction mixture synergistically enhanced the antifungal properties of five different fungitoxic compounds against b. cinerea. the chemicals tested were gliotoxin, flusilazole, miconazole, captan and benomyl. dose response curves were det ...19948012584
a newly isolated lectin from the plant pathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii: purification, characterization and role in mycoparasitism.a novel lectin was isolated and purified from the culture filtrate of the soilborne plant pathogenic fungus sclerotium rolfsii by anion-exchange chromatography using a deae-sepharose column. the lectin came through the column with the flow-through, whereas all the non-agglutinating proteins present in the crude preparation remained bound to the column until elution in a nacl gradient. sds-page analysis of the agglutinating fraction revealed a single band corresponding to a protein with a molecul ...19948012587
sequence analysis and expression studies of a gene encoding a novel serine + alanine-rich protein in trichoderma harzianum.the promoters of constitutive genes have proven themselves to be useful parts of expression vectors for genetic engineering in different organisms. based on a differential screening of an induced cdna library, we have used a new approach to isolate constitutively expressed genes which can be used for this purpose. following this strategy, we have isolated constitutively expressed cdna clones of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum. one of these cdna clones corresponds to a gene (cob4) ...19948026744
fungal metabolites. xvi. structures of new peptaibols, trichokindins i-vii, from the fungus trichoderma harzianum.new peptaibols, trichokindins i-vii, have been isolated from the fungus trichoderma harzianum. their structures were characterized by spectrometric methods. trichokindins, which are 18-residue peptides containing one to three isovaline residues, were found to induce ca(2+)-dependent catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells.19948069958
a putative catabolite-repressed cell wall protein from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.a cdna clone encoding a putative cell wall protein (qid3) was isolated from a library prepared from chitin-induced mrna in cultures of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum. the predicted 14 kda protein shows a potential signal peptide, several hydrophobic domains and certain motifs that are structurally similar to proline-rich and glycine-rich plant cell wall proteins. expression of the qid3 gene is derepressed in the absence of glucose. when introduced in yeast, qid3 expression causes ...19948121402
isolation and sequence of an endochitinase-encoding gene from a cdna library of trichoderma harzianum.there are no reports of gene sequences coding for extracellular chitinolytic enzymes from filamentous fungi, even though these enzymes are considered critical to the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. the purpose of this paper was to report the isolation of a gene (then-42) encoding endochitinase (ech) from trichoderma harzianum strain p1, describe its sequence, and to determine whether it was related to genes coding for enzymes with similar functions from prokaryotic or other eukaryo ...19948125293
cloning and chromosomal organization of a gene encoding a putative amino-acid permease from saccharomyces cerevisiae.a new member of the yeast amino acid (aa) permease gene family has been cloned, mapped and sequenced. the sequence of the pap1 (putative aa permease 1) gene contains an open reading frame of 566 aa corresponding to a polypeptide with a calculated m(r) of 62,704. its hydropathy profile suggests the presence of 13 membrane-spanning regions and a charged n-terminal domain. it does not resemble hydrophobic signal sequences found in secreted proteins. hence, pap1 encodes a protein with characteristic ...19948200527
isolation and structure of harzianum a: a new trichothecene from trichoderma harzianum.a new trichothecene, harzianum a [1], was isolated from the soil-borne fungus trichoderma harzianum. the structure of 1 was determined by extensive spectral analyses including the nmr techniques of ps-cosy, hmqc, hmbc, and noesy. harzianum a [1] contains a (z,e,e)-2,4,6-octatriendioic acid esterified on the 4 beta hydroxyl group of trichodermol and is structurally related to the trichoverroids. harzianum a [1] showed no cytotoxicity against baby hamster kidney cells, no activity against gram-neg ...19948201317
purification and characterization of an endo-beta-1,6-glucanase from trichoderma harzianum that is related to its mycoparasitism.the enzymes from trichoderma species that degrade fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal plant pathogens. the mycoparasite trichoderma harzianum produces at least two extracellular beta-1,6-glucanases, among other hydrolases, when it is grown on chitin as the sole carbon source. one of these extracellular enzymes was purified to homogeneity after adsorption to its substrate, pustulan, chromatofocusing, and, finally, gel filtration. ...19957896713
vital fluorochromes as tracers for fungal growth studies.eight fluorescent dyes were tested for staining the spores or mycelia of six fungi and for their translocation into new growth when the preloaded spores or mycelia were incubated on agar coated coverslips. the dyes studied were cellufluor, nile red, fluorescein diacetate (fda), carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cfda), chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (cmfda), aminochloromethyl coumarin (cmac), and the carbocyamines diic18(3) and dioc18(3). the fungi on which the dyes were tested included botrytis c ...19957578589
a novel endo-beta-1,3-glucanase, bgn13.1, involved in the mycoparasitism of trichoderma harzianum.the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 produces at least three extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases. the most basic of these extracellular enzymes, named bgn13.1, was expressed when either fungal cell wall polymers or autoclaved mycelia from different fungi were used as the carbon source. bgn13.1 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and was biochemically characterized. the enzyme was specific for beta-1,3 linkages and has an endolytic mode of action. a synthetic oligonucleo ...19957592488
molecular characterization and heterologous expression of an endo-beta-1,6-glucanase gene from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.hydrolytic enzymes from the filamentous fungus trichoderma harzianum have been described as critical elements of the mycoparasitic action of trichoderma against fungal plant pathogens. in this report we describe the first genomic and cdna clones encoding a beta-1,6-endoglucanase gene. the deduced protein sequence has limited homology with other beta-glucanases. northern experiments show a marked repression of mrna accumulation by glucose. the protein has been successfully produced in saccharomyc ...19957603444
molecular cloning and expression in s. cerevisiae of two exochitinases from trichoderma harzianum.the synthetic exochitinase substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl n-acetylglucosamine was used to identify seven full-length exochitinase-encoding cdnas from a trichoderma harzianum cdna library by expression in yeast. the cdna clones represented transcripts of two exochitinase genes, designated as exc1 and exc2, which cross-hybridized under moderate stringency conditions in genomic southern blots. the exc1 cdna encodes a 578 amino acid polypeptide showing 72% similarity to the exc2-encoded 602-residue ...19958528140
the role of recognition in the induction of specific chitinases during mycoparasitism by trichoderma harzianum.the induction of chitinolytic enzymes in the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum during parasitism on sclerotium rolfsii and the role of fungal-fungal recognition in this process were studied. a change in the chitinolytic enzyme profile was detected during the interaction between the fungi, grown in dual culture on synthetic medium. before coming into contact with each other, both fungi contained a protein with constitutive 1,4-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase activity. as early as 12 h after con ...19958535510
trichorzins ha and ma, antibiotic peptides from trichoderma harzianum. i. fermentation, isolation and biological properties.trichorzins ha and ma, original 18-residue peptides, were isolated from two strains of the widespread soil fungus trichoderma harzianum which have been shown to exhibit antibiotic activity against phytopathogenic fungi. these linear peptides belonging to the peptaibol class are biosynthesized as a complex of closely related analogues. nine major pure peptides, six trichorzins ha and three trichorzins ma, were isolated by reversed-phase hplc. the isolated peptides exhibited antibacterial activity ...19958557564
isolation and characterization of two chitinase-encoding genes (cts1, cts2) from the fungus coccidioides immitis.two chitinase (cts)-encoding genes (cts) from coccidioides immitis (ci), a respiratory fungal pathogen of humans, were cloned and sequenced. both the genomic and cdna sequences are presented. the transcription start points and poly(a)-addition sites were confirmed. the cts1 gene contains five introns and a 1281-bp orf which translates a 427-amino-acid (aa) protein of 47.4 kda. the cts2 gene contains two introns and a 2580-bp orf which translates a 860-aa protein of 91.4 kda. the deduced cts1 pro ...19958566773
primary structure and expression pattern of the 33-kda chitinase gene from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum.a gene (chit33) from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum, coding for a chitinase of 33 kda, has been isolated and characterized. partial amino-acid sequences from the purified 33-kda chitinase were obtained. the amino-terminal peptide sequence was employed to design an oligonucleotide probe and was used as a primer to isolate a 1.2-kb cdna. the cdna codes for a protein of 321 amino acids, which includes a putative signal peptide of 19 amino acids. all microsequenced peptides found in ...19958575023
integrated use of biocontrol agents with fungicides to control wilt incidence in pigeon-pea.when trichoderma harzianum and aspergillus niger, as biocontrol agents, were included with two fungicides, foltaf 80w (captafol 80%) and blue copper-50, for the treatment of pigeon-pea wilt, the disease was more effectively controlled than when the fungicides were used alone. accordingly, decreased amounts of the fungicides could be used to control the disease without adversely affecting the growth of pigeon-pea.199524414914
trichorzins ha and ma, antibiotic peptides from trichoderma harzianum. ii. sequence determination.a series of 18-residue antibiotic-antifungal peptides, trichorzins ha and ma, were isolated from trichoderma harzianum strains exhibiting antagonistic properties against phytopathogenic fungi. the sequences of the nine major pure peptides isolated by hplc were determined by positive ion fab-ms data and two-dimensional nmr measurements, including cosy, hohaha, roesy and 1h-13c lrcosy experiments.19958557565
mr304a, a new melanin synthesis inhibitor produced by trichoderma harzianum. 19957490227
trichoderma harzianum genes induced during growth on rhizoctonia solani cell walls.trichoderma harzianum is a biocontrol agent that attacks a range of economically important phytopathogenic fungi. in an attempt to identify genes specifically expressed by t. harzianum during growth on cell walls of rhizoctonia solani, we carried out differential screening of an induced cdna library. in this paper we report the analysis of the sequence and expression of two cdna clones that encode putative mycoparasitism-related proteins of t. harzianum. one of these clones corresponds to a gene ...19957773384
fungal metabolites. xviii. new membrane-modifying peptides, trichorozins i-iv, from the fungus trichoderma harzianum.new membrane-modifying peptides, trichorozins i-iv, have been isolated from conidia of the fungus trichoderma harzianum. their amino acid sequences were clearly determined by spectrometric methods and, furthermore, they were synthesized by the solution-phase method. trichorozins are a family of the class of peptaibols and are composed of 11 residues including an amino alcohol. trichorozins exhibited voltage-dependent ion channel-like activity in lipid bilayers.19957539721
metal loading and enzymatic degradation of fungal cell walls and chitin.the capacity of chitin (from crab shells) and of fungal cell walls from trichoderma harzianum to accumulate zinc, cadmium and mercury was studied as well as the effects of adsorbed metals on the enzymatic hydrolysis by novozym 234 of the two substrates. the total adsorbing capacity with respect to these metals was estimated to be at least 10 mmol kg-1 chitin (dry weight) and 50 mmol kg-1 fungal cell walls (dry weight), respectively, at ph 6.1. enzymatic digestion of fungal cell walls preloaded w ...19957865989
enhanced expression of endochitinase in trichoderma harzianum with the cbh1 promoter of trichoderma reesei.production of extracellular endochitinase could be increased 5-fold in the mycoparasite fungus trichoderma harzianum by using the cellulase promoter cbh1 of trichoderma reesei, whereas the total endochitinase activity increased 10-fold. the cbh1 promoter was not expressed on glucose and sucrose in t. harzianum and was induced by sophorose and on cellulase-inducing medium. the endogenous endochitinase gene was expressed at a low basal level on glucose and sucrose. no specific induction by crab sh ...199616535342
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