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advanced fusarium keratitis progressing to endophthalmitis.to review the clinical course, treatment, and visual outcomes of keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by the filamentary fungus fusarium.200312792470
phylogeny of hcn synthase-encoding hcnbc genes in biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads and its relationship with host plant species and hcn synthesis ability.hydrogen cyanide (hcn) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound involved in biological control of root diseases by many plant-associated fluorescent pseudomonads. the hcn synthase is encoded by three biosynthetic genes (hcna, hcnb, and hcnc), but little is known about the diversity of these genes in fluorescent pseudomonas spp. and in other bacteria. here, the partial hcnbc sequence was determined for a worldwide collection of biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonas spp. phylogenies based on hcnbc ...200312795378
design and development of a dna array for rapid detection and identification of multiple tomato vascular wilt pathogens.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we descri ...200312799009
fabin, a novel calcyon-like and glucanase-like protein with mitogenic, antifungal and translation-inhibitory activities from broad beans.a protein with an n-terminal sequence displaying similarities to n-terminal sequences of human calcyon and barley endo-1,4-glucanase, and to c-terminal sequences of human translation initiation factor 4 gamma and yeast superkiller viralicidic activity, was isolated from the broad bean vicia faba. the protein, termed fabin, has a molecular mass of 34 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. antifungal activity of the protein was observed against several fungal species including rhizoctonia ...200312817478
regeneration of flax ( linum usitatissimum l.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to fusarium oxysporum.the aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. the results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. all the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than soma ...200312827441
pleiotropic effect of the insertion of the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene in tomato ( lycopersicon esculentum mill.).the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene, coding for an ornithine cyclodeaminase involved in the biosynthesis of proline from ornithine, has been inserted in lycopersicon esculentum cv tondino with the aim of studying its effects on plant morphological characters including pathogen defense response. the analysis of plants transgenic for rold did not show major morphological modifications. first generation transgenic plants however were found to flower earlier, and showed an increased number of inf ...200312830385
a possible role of nadph-dependent cytochrome p450nor isozyme in glycolysis under denitrifying conditions.the denitrifying fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense contains two isozymes of cytochrome p450nor. one isozyme, p450nor1, uses nadh specifically as its electron donor whereas the other isozyme p450nor2 prefers nadph to nadh. here we show that p450nor1 is localized in both cytosol and mitochondria, like p450nor of fusarium oxysporum, while p450nor2 is exclusively in cytosol. we also found that the addition of glucose as a carbon source to the culture media leads to the production of much more p450nor ...200312834289
soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.the accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to cell wall-derived elicitor from the pathogen, fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. cubense, race four, was investigated. the root tissue from the banana cultivar "goldfinger" was found to respond strongly and rapidly towards the elicitor through the increased synthesis of phenolic compounds. following elicitation, the conjugated and non-conjugated phenolic metabolites in the induced root tissue wer ...200312842140
loss of function of the fusarium oxysporum snf1 gene reduces virulence on cabbage and arabidopsis.fusarium oxysporum pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. production of these enzymes in fungi is subject to carbon catabolite repression, a process that in yeast is mostly controlled by the snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1) gene. to elucidate the role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in f. oxysporum pathogenicity, we cloned and disrupted its snf1 homologue ( fosnf1). the fosnf1 mutants had a reduced expression of several genes encoding cell wall-degrading ...200312845476
united states department of agriculture-agricultural research service studies on polyketide toxins of fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.a group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum schlecht f sp vasinfectum (atk) sny & hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. all isolates of f oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. most isolates of race 1 (previously den ...200312846324
gacs sensor domains pertinent to the regulation of exoproduct formation and to the biocontrol potential of pseudomonas fluorescens cha0.in the root-colonizing biocontrol strain cha0 of pseudomonas fluorescens, cell density-dependent synthesis of extracellular, plant-beneficial secondary metabolites and enzymes is positively regulated by the gacs/gaca two-component system. mutational analysis of the gacs sensor kinase using improved single-copy vectors showed that inactivation of each of the three conserved phosphate acceptor sites caused an exoproduct null phenotype (gacs-), whereas deletion of the periplasmic loop domain had no ...200312848429
identification and enumeration of fusarium species in poultry feed mixtures from slovakia.thirty-three samples of poultry mixed feeds collected in the region of nitra (slovakia) from august 2001-april 2002 were assayed for the incidence of fusarium link: fr. species. in tested samples, the total frequency of isolated fusaria was determined to be 48 % (16 samples) and their counts ranged from 0.2 x 10(2) to 2.4 x 10( 4 ) cfu per g of the sample on dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar (dcpa). of the total amount of fusarium isolates (609), the highest part (i.e. 584 isolates) was rep ...200312852734
dendrocin, a distinctive antifungal protein from bamboo shoots.an antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 20 kda and an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in the fungi fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cincerea, and mycosphaerella arachidicola, was isolated from fresh bamboo shoots. the protein, designated dendrocin, was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. dendrocin showed only limited similarity in n-terminal sequence to thaumatin-like proteins, unlike other thaumatin-like proteins which closely resemble eac ...200312893287
a 2s albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds inhibits the fungal growth and acidification of the medium by fusarium oxysporum.antimicrobial proteins have been isolated from a wide range of plant species. more recently, it has become increasingly clear that these types of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants. in this study, we investigate the presence of defense-related proteins from passion fruit (passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds. initially, seed flour was extracted for 2h (at 4 degrees c) with phosphate buffer, ph 5.5. the precipitate obtained between 0 and 70% relative ammonium sulfate sa ...200312893296
purification and properties of a new s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l.).a new enzyme, s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase (ec 2.1.1.-) (f 4'-omt), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l). the enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kda and a pi of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of s-adenosyl-l-methionine. a high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (km = 1.7 micro m; vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1 ...200312899699
curvularia haloperoxidase: antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant.a presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. the curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (pseudomonas spp., escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, aeromonas salmonicida, s ...200312902249
characterization of the surface hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi.a method for the quantitative analysis of the hydrophobicity of the mycelial mat of filamentous fungi based on contact angle measurements is presented. it was tested for a range of fungi belonging to the classes of basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and deuteromycetes. the measured contact angles of the mycelial mats ranged between hydrophilic (<30 degrees) for the deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum fo47 gus1 and trichoderma harzianum p1[pzega1] and hydrophobic (>60 degrees) for the ascomycete cladospor ...200312558591
isolation of a large thaumatin-like antifungal protein from seeds of the kweilin chestnut castanopsis chinensis.a protein with an n-terminal sequence showing a much lesser extent of homology than french bean and kiwi fruit thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) to other tlps, and possessing a molecular mass of 30 kda which is considerably higher than those of previously reported tlps, has been purified from the seeds of the chestnut castanopsis chinensis hance. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose in 10 mm tris-hcl buffer (ph 7.3), and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel in the same buffer, on cm-cellulose in 1 ...200312565869
natural fungicides from ruta graveolens l. leaves, including a new quinolone alkaloid.bioassay-directed isolation of antifungal compounds from an ethyl acetate extract of ruta graveolens leaves yielded two furanocoumarins, one quinoline alkaloid, and four quinolone alkaloids, including a novel compound, 1-methyl-2-[6'-(3' ',4' '-methylenedioxyphenyl)hexyl]-4-quinolone. the (1)h and (13)c nmr assignments of the new compound are reported. antifungal activities of the isolated compounds, together with 7-hydroxycoumarin, 4-hydroxycoumarin, and 7-methoxycoumarin, which are known to oc ...200312568545
microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
class v chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of n-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse n-acetylglucosamine polymerization. here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class v chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. the chsv gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. chsv has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synth ...200312492869
impala, a transposon from fusarium oxysporum, is active in the genome of penicillium griseoroseum.an autonomous impala transposon trapped in fusarium oxysporum by insertion within the niad gene encoding nitrate reductase was introduced in the genome of the fungus penicillium griseoroseum, a producer of pectinase enzymes. through a phenotypic assay, we demonstrate that this element is able to excise from the niad gene and to reinsert at new genomic positions. as in the original host, impala inserts into a ta site and footprints left by impala excisions are generally 5 bp. the fact that impala ...200312586410
temperature effect on fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis survival during horticultural waste composting.the aim of this work was to study the effect of high temperatures generated during composting process, on the phytopathogen fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. this investigation was achieved by both in vivo (semipilot-scale composting of horticultural wastes) and in vitro (lab-scale thermal treatments) assays.200312588556
pn-amps, the hevein-like proteins from pharbitis nil confers disease resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in tomato, lycopersicum esculentum.the antifungal activity of hevein-like proteins has been associated with their chitin-binding activities. pn-amp1 and pn-amp2, two hevein homologues from pharbitis nil, show in vitro antifungal activities against both chitin and non-chitin containing fungi. purified pn-amps retained antifungal activities only under non-reducing conditions. when pn-amp2 cdna was constitutively expressed in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants under the control of camv35s promoter, the transgenic plants showed ...200312591259
the influence of co-cultivation on expression of the antifungal protein in aspergillus giganteus.the afp gene of aspergillus giganteus encodes a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity, named antifungal protein (afp). the protein is secreted by the mould and inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. in this paper we report that co-cultivation of a. giganteus with various microorganisms alters afp expression. it was found that co-cultivation modulates afp expression on the level of transcription, using a reporter system based on the beta-glucuronidase gene. the prese ...200312596244
fungitoxic phenols from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) effective against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.the phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) namely "gloriana" and "roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. analyses were performed on healthy and f. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyb ...200312597250
isolation of pisumin, a novel antifungal protein from legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var macrocarpon.an antifungal protein with a novel n-terminal sequence gvgaaygcfg and a molecular mass of 31 kda was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. the protein, designated pisumin, exhibited antifungal activity against coprinus comatus and pleurotus ostreatus and much weaker activity against fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani. pisumin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic(50) of 6 microm. pisumin was similar to o ...200312600683
the antifungal protein from aspergillus giganteus causes membrane permeabilization.we investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (afp) from aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. for this purpose, the mics of afp were determined and ranged from 0.1 micro g/ml for fusarium oxysporum to 200 micro g/ml for aspergillus nidulans. the antifungal activity of afp was diminished in the presence of cations. we were able to show that incubation of afp-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based ...200312543664
effect of menadione sodium bisulfite, an inducer of plant defenses, on the dynamic of banana phytoalexin accumulation during pathogenesis.using an authentic sample of 2-hydroxy-9-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-phenalen-1-one, a banana phenalenone-type phytoalexin, we studied its dynamic of accumulation during pathogenesis of banana plants (musa acuminata (aaa), grand nain) inoculated with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc), race 4, the causal agent of panama disease. the results obtained demonstrate that banana plants treated prior inoculation with menadione sodium bisulfite (msb), an inducer of plant defenses, are capable of changing the ...200312926878
effect of nonylphenol surfactants on fungi following the application of sewage sludge on agricultural soils.the effect of nonylphenol on fungi following the application of contaminated sewage sludge on agricultural soil was studied in laboratory experiments. nonylphenol bioavailability and adsorption were determined in the soil alone and soil-sludge mixtures. mixing the soil with sludge made it possible to measure the nonylphenol concentration in the soil solution, which comprised between 6.6 x 10(-6) and 3.8 x 10(-7) m, according to the sludge. we then examined the dose-response relationship between ...200312931882
effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum on meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. as am fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the am fungus glomus c ...200312938032
red fluorescent protein (dsred2) as a novel reporter in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pan-dsred2 vector was constructed for constitutive cytoplasmic expression of the red fluorescent protein (dsred2) under control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter from aspergillus nidulans. dsred2-transformation of two fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains pathogenic against tomato host resulted in bright red cytoplamic fluorescence of the fungus. the transformants were screened based on the hygromycin b resistance, brightness, stability and rate of appearance ...200312951257
colonization of flax roots and early physiological responses of flax cells inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. the objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, a ...200312957934
primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (cytc) gene of the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. the structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of aspergillus nidulans. the second intron of the r. necatrix cytc gene was not present in neurospora crassa or fusarium oxysporum. however, the amino acid sequence of r. necatrix was most similar to that of neurospora crassa. thus, it seemed that the second intron of the r. necatrix cy ...200312619691
isolation of vulgin, a new antifungal polypeptide with mitogenic activity from the pinto bean.an antifungal polypeptide bearing an n-termnial sequence with some homology to chitinases was purified from an extract of pinto beans. the polypeptide, designated vulgin, exerted antifungal activity toward mycosphaerella arachidicola, coprinus cornatus, fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. vulgin inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic50 of 4.3 microm and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an ic50 of 58 microm. vulgin stimulated in vitro incorporation o ...200312630696
isolation and properties of floral defensins from ornamental tobacco and petunia.the flowers of the solanaceous plants ornamental tobacco (nicotiana alata) and petunia (petunia hybrida) produce high levels of defensins during the early stages of development. in contrast to the well-described seed defensins, these floral defensins are produced as precursors with c-terminal prodomains of 27 to 33 amino acids in addition to a typical secretion signal peptide and central defensin domain of 47 or 49 amino acids. defensins isolated from n. alata and petunia flowers lack the c-term ...200312644678
purification and characterization of a feruloyl esterase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzing esterification of phenolic acids in ternary water-organic solvent mixtures.an extracellular feruloyl esterase (fae-ii) from the culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by sp-sepharose, t-butyl-hic and sephacryl s-200 column chromatography. the protein corresponded to molecular mass and pi values of 27 kda and 9.9, respectively. the enzyme was optimally active at ph 7 and 45 degrees c. the purified esterase was fully stable at ph 7.0-9.0 and temperature up to 45 degrees c after 1 h incubation. determination of k(cat)/k(m) revealed that the ...200312668312
a homodimeric sporamin-type trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative, hiv reverse transcriptase-inhibitory and antifungal activities from wampee (clausena lansium) seeds.a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor with a molecular mass of 54 kda was isolated from the seeds of clausena lansium (lour) skeels with a very simple procedure comprising extraction with an aqueous buffer and ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose. it inhibited trypsin with an ic50 of 2.2 nm but was without any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin and proteinase k. the uptake of mtt by human leukemia hl60 and hepatoma hep g2 cells was inhibited with an ic50 of 100 microm. translation in the cell-fr ...200312675522
identification of essential genes in the human fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus by transposon mutagenesis.the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent cause of deadly airborne fungal infections in developed countries. in order to identify novel antifungal-drug targets, we investigated the genome of a. fumigatus for genes that are necessary for efficient fungal growth. an artificial a. fumigatus diploid strain with one copy of an engineered impala160 transposon from fusarium oxysporum integrated into its genome was used to generate a library of diploid strains by random in vi ...200312684374
characterization and in vitro expression patterns of an exopolygalacturonase encoding gene from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici.in this work, we report the isolation, characterization and expression pattern in in vitro cultures of an exopg encoding gene (pgx2), a novel exopg encoding gene of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici, responsible for foot crown and root rot disease in tomato plants. the gene was compared with other fungal polygalacturonases (pgs) previously reported.200312694451
the ph signalling transcription factor pacc controls virulence in the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.gene expression in fungi by ambient ph is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor pacc/rim1p. we have identified a pacc orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-gccaag-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to pacc from aspergillus nidulans. pacc transcript levels were elevated in f. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme a ...200312694620
the g protein beta subunit fgb1 regulates development and pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fgb1, the gene encoding a heterotrimeric g protein beta subunit fgb1 in fusarium oxysporum, was performed by standard pcr techniques to evaluate the role of g protein signaling in this fungus. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,077 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (359 amino acid residues) showed high identity with g beta subunits from other organisms. disruption of fgb1 led to decreased intracellular camp levels, reduced pathogenicity, and al ...200312695847
antifungal effects of different organic extracts from melia azedarach l. on phytopathogenic fungi and their isolated active components.extracts from different parts of melia azedarach l. were studied as potential antifungal agents for selected phytopathogenic fungi. in a serial agar dilution method, hexanic and ethanolic extracts from fruit, seed kernels, and senescent leaves exhibited fungistatic activity against aspergillus flavus,diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionales, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, fusarium verticillioides, and sclerotinia sclerotiorum. both hexanic extract from senescent leaves and ethanolic extract ...200312696928
mollisin, an antifungal protein from the chestnut castanea mollissima.the isolation of a protein designated mollisin, with an n-terminal sequence manifesting some similarity to thaumatin-like proteins (tlps), and possessing a molecular mass of 28 kda which is higher than those of tlps, is reported herein from the seeds of the chestnut castanea mollisima. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. mollisin exhibited a molecular mass of 28 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as in ...200314598205
interactions in the tomato rhizosphere of two pseudomonas biocontrol strains with the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes foot and root rot of tomato plants, which can be controlled by the bacteria pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 and p. chlororaphis pcl1391. induced systemic resistance is thought to be involved in biocontrol by p. fluorescens wcs365. the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn), as well as efficient root colonization, are essential in the mechanism of biocontrol by p. chlororaphis pcl1391. to understand the effects of bacteri ...200314601666
overexpression of a cell wall glycoprotein in fusarium oxysporum increases virulence and resistance to a plant pr-5 protein.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae is a causal agent for vascular wilt disease in tobacco. it is sensitive to osmotin, a tobacco pathogenesis-related protein (pr-5) that is implicated in plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. we show that osmotin susceptibility of f. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae was reduced by overexpression of the heterologous cell wall glycoprotein saccharomyces cerevisiae protein containing inverted repeats (pir2), a member of the pir family of fungal cell wall glycopr ...200314617095
selective inhibition of trypsins by insect peptides: role of p6-p10 loop.pmp-d2 and hi, two peptides from locusta migratoria, were shown to belong to the family of tight-binding protease inhibitors. however, they interact weakly with bovine trypsin (k(i) around 100 nm) despite a trypsin-specific arg at the primary specificity site p1. here we demonstrate that they are potent inhibitors of midgut trypsins isolated from the same insect and of a fungal trypsin from fusarium oxysporum (k(i) <or= 0.02 nm). therefore, they display a selectivity not existing for the parent ...200314622007
isolation and characterization of a 29-kda glycoprotein with antifungal activity from bulbs of urginea indica.in this study an antifungal protein from urginea indica bulbs was purified to homogeneity by acid precipitation, diol 300 gel-filtration, and c(18) reverse phase hplc. its molecular mass was estimated to be 29 kda and periodic acid-schiff (pas) staining showed that identified antifungal molecule is a glycoprotein. the neutralization of antifungal activity after periodate oxidation of 29 kda glycoprotein suggests that the glycan part of the molecule appears to be involved in antifungal activity. ...200314623334
antimicrobial activity and constituents of coccoloba acrostichoides.the ethanol extract and fractions from coccoloba acrostichoides aerial parts were assayed for in vitro antimicrobial activity. the extract was active against the assayed bacteria while most of the fractions also inhibited fungal growth, especially the n-hexane and etoac fractions. the isolated beta-sitosterol and betulin were tested, being the last one active against fusarium oxysporum.200314630184
gymnin, a potent defensin-like antifungal peptide from the yunnan bean (gymnocladus chinensis baill).from the seeds of the yunnan bean, we purified an antifungal peptide using affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, fplc-ion exchange chromatography on mono s, and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. the antifungal peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel at ph 7.8 and mono s at ph 4.5. it exhibited a molecular mass of 6.5 kda in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its n-terminal sequence closely resembled defensin-related peptides. the peptid ...200314499273
isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds.a novel antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 8 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration on superdex 75 and designated cucurmoschin, was isolated from the seeds of the black pumpkin. the peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. cucurmoschin inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella oxysporum. it inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysat ...200314499274
pentamidine is active in vitro against fusarium species.fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (pnt) against 10 clinical isolates of fusarium species (five fusarium solani isolates and five non-f. solani isolates) by using the national committee for clinical laboratory standards microdilution method in three different media (rpmi, rpmi-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye stai ...200314506038
an antifungal chitinase produced by bacillus cereus with shrimp and crab shell powder as a carbon source.the production of inexpensive chitinolytic enzymes is an element in the utilization of shellfish processing wastes. in this study, shrimp and crab shell powder prepared by treating shrimp and crab processing wastes with boiling and crushing was used as a substrate for the isolation of an antifungal chitinase-producing microorganism. bacillus cereus yq 308, a strain isolated from the soil samples, excreted one chitinase when cultured in a medium containing 2% (wt/vol) shrimp and crab shell powder ...200314506855
effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7s storage proteins) and fungal cells.vicilins (7s storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. in the present work vicilins from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and fusarium oxysporum conidia. helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and ulex europaeus lectin were ...200314510235
a structured kinetic model for suspension cultures of taxus chinensis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum.a structured kinetic model was established to describe the process of taxol formation in suspension cultures of taxus chinesis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum. in this model, the role of intracellular starch as a storage carbon source had to be taken into account. substrate uptake, culture growth, cell respiration, and secondary metabolites, predicted by the model, agreed with those obtained experimentally. the effective factors of oligosaccharide elicitation, e ...200314514062
the photolyase gene from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.survival of irradiated spores from fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (uv) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of uv. a genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from f. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the neurospora crassa photolyase gene. the f. oxysporum phr1 cdna was isolated and expressed in a photo ...200314516768
role of salicylic acid in systemic resistance induced by pseudomonas fluorescens against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in chickpea.selected isolates of pseudomonas fluorescens (pf1-94, pf4-92, pf12-94, pf151-94 and pf179-94) and chemical resistance inducers (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, dl-norvaline, indole-3-carbinol and lichenan) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea. a marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in p. fluorescens treated plants. the isolates of p. fluorescens systemically induced resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea ...200314521230
successful outcome of disseminated fusarium infection with skin localization treated with voriconazole and amphotericin b-lipid complex in a patient with acute leukemia.a disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection with skin localization was diagnosed in a woman with a relapse of b-acute leukemia during induction chemotherapy. the infection was refractory to amphotericin b-lipid complex alone but responded successfully when voriconazole was added.200314532255
geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. in this paper, we report on the use of geranium (pelargonium graveolens) leaf extract in the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. on treating aqueous silver nitrate solution with geranium leaf extract, rapid reduction of the silver ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable, crystalline silver nanoparticles in solution. ...200314656132
induction, purification, and characterization of two extracellular alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases from fusarium oxysporum.in the presence of l-arabinose as sole carbon source, fusarium oxysporum produces two alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases (abfs) named abf1 and abf2, with molecular masses of 200 and 180 kda, respectively. the two f. oxysporum proteins have been purified to homogeneity. the purified enzymes are composed of three equal subunits and are neutral proteins with pis of 6.0 and 7.3 for abf1 and abf2, respectively. with p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-arabinofuranoside (pnpa) as the substrate, abf1 and abf2 exhibited km ...200314663498
purification of glysojanin, an antifungal protein, from the black soybean glycine soja.a monomeric protein, with a molecular mass of 25 kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling a segment of chitin synthase, was isolated from the seeds of the black soybean glycine soja. the protein, designated glysojanin, demonstrated potent antifungal activity against the fungi fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it inhibited hiv-1 reverse transcriptase with an ic50 of 47 micromol/l, [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporation by mouse spleen cells with an ic50 of 175 micromol/l, and trans ...200314663505
antifungal clerodane diterpenes from macaranga monandra (l) muell. et arg. (euphorbiaceae).hexane and ethyl acetate phases of the methanol extract of macaranga monandra showed fungal growth inhibition of colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae and c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, phomopsis obscurans, and p. viticola. bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two active clerodane-type diterpenes that were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1d-, 2d-nmr, and ms) as kolavenic acid and 2-oxo-kolavenic acid. a 96-well microbioassay revealed that kolaveni ...200314664515
ph response transcription factor pacc controls salt stress tolerance and expression of the p-type na+ -atpase ena1 in fusarium oxysporum.fungi possess efficient mechanisms of ph and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. in this study, we addressed the role of the ph response transcription factor pacc in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. loss-of-function pacc(+/-) mutants showed increased sensitivity to li(+) and na(+) and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. in contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacc(c) allele ...200314665459
isolation and characterization of a lectin from annona muricata seeds.a lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from annona muricata seeds (annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on sephacryl s-200, ion exchange chromatography on a deae sp-5 pw column, and molecular exclusion on a protein pak glass 300 sw column. sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kda and 22 kda. however, only one band was seen in native page. the mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance li ...200314714732
[bioprotection mechanisms of the lentil plant by rhizobium leguminosarum against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis].living and heat-killed bacterial cells of rhizobium leguminosarum protected totally lentil plants against infection by the pathogen fusarium oxysporum mr 84. culture filtrate of this rhizobacterium was also able to protect the plants to a high degree. however, when they were inoculated separately of the pathogen, living bacterial cells did not protect the plants whereas culture filtrate and killed bacterial cells protected them. these results suggest that rhizobium cannot protect lentil plants w ...200314746271
biological control of fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of onion wilt by antagonistic bacteria.fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum sch. is one of the most important diseases of onion in iran. application of chemicals especially as soil drench, increased cost of onion production and may be dangerous for environment. one of the effective techniques to suppress soil-born diseases in biological control with antagonistic rhizobacteria. experiment were carried out with 120 bacterial isolates that were collected from onion rhizosphere. six highly effective isolates were selected from thes ...200315151288
rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens using a dna array.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or v. dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we describe t ...200315151292
field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by puccinia asparagi d.c.; 2) fusarium crown and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (cohen & heald) and fusarium proliferatum (matstush.) nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by rhizoctonia violacea tul. the object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus ...200315151301
[effect of water activity and temperature on competing abilities of penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum].the in vitro effect of water activity (0.995, 0.98, 0.95, 0.90 and 0.85) and temperature (25 and 15 degrees c) on competing abilities of the biocontrol agent penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum fsp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, and fusarium oxysporum fsp. gladioli, a gladiolus pathogen, was evaluated. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of p. oxalicum to be applied as a biocontrol agent against these phytopathogenic fungi. plates were inoculated in two points with ...200315456354
synthetic and spectroscopic characterization of organotin(iv) complexes of biologically active schiff bases derived from sulpha drugs.a number of diorganotin(iv) complexes with schiffbase have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, infrared, electronic and multinuclear magnetic resonance ((1)h, (13)c and (119)sn nmr) spectral data. the molar conductivity data shows non-electrolytic nature of complexes. the bidentate nature of the ligands is inferred from ir and nmr spectral studies. the antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their tin complexes ...200318365062
local and systemic effects of nacl on root composition, rhizobacteria, and fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus.abstract the role of nacl in suppression of fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus was investigated in split root culture so the direct effects of nacl on the root and rhizosphere could be separated from effects that were translocated to the nontreated root side. one side of the root system was exposed to 100 ml of 0, 0.5, or 1.0% nacl, while the other side received deionized water. both sides of the root system were inoculated with conidial suspensions of the pathogens fusarium oxysporum and ...200318943133
development of a specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the identification of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and its pathogenic races 0, 1a, 5, and 6.abstract specific primers and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays that identify fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and each of the f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris pathogenic races 0, 1a, 5, and 6 were developed. f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris- and race-specific random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers identified in a previous study were cloned and sequenced, and sequence characterized amplified region (scar) primers for specific pcr were developed. each cloned rapd marker was characterized by ...200318943135
use of a nitrate-nonutilizing mutant and selective media to examine population dynamics of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil.abstract determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of f. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. colony forming ...200318944103
a near-isogenic fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain with a novel combination of avirulence characteristics.abstract a novel fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain (f1-27) was obtained from protoplast fusions between race 1 fol004 (putative avirulence genotype a1a2a3) and race 2 fol007 (a1a2a3). bioassays using different tomato cultivars revealed new virulence characteristics for f1-27 that were mitotically stable. the corresponding avirulence genotype for f1-27 was assigned a1a2a3. despite their distinction in avirulence genotype, molecular analysis revealed that parent fol007 and f1-27 were ne ...200318944063
interactions between meloidogyne artiellia, the cereal and legume root-knot nematode, and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 in chickpea.abstract in the mediterranean basin, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and the root-knot nematode meloidogyne artiellia coinfect chickpea. the influence of root infection (after inoculation with 20 nematode eggs and second-stage juveniles per gram of soil) by two m. artiellia populations, from italy and syria, on the reaction of chickpea lines and cultivars with partial resistance to fusarium wilt (ca 252.10.1.om, ca 255.2.5.0, cps 1, and pv 61) and with complete resistance to f. oxysporum f. sp ...200318943615
molecular differentiation and detection of ginseng-adapted isolates of the root rot fungus cylindrocarpon destructans.abstract the soilborne fungus cylindrocarpon destructans (teleomorph: neonectria radicicola) causes root rot in a wide range of plant hosts; the disease is of particular concern in ginseng production, and in conifer and fruit tree nurseries. beta-tubulin gene and rrna gene internal transcribed spacer (its) sequence data and pathogenicity assays were used to characterize isolates of c. destructans from ginseng and other hosts. the results of these studies demonstrated a high amount of sequence di ...200318943617
identification of fungal rdna associated with soil suppressiveness against heterodera schachtii using oligonucleotide fingerprinting.abstract to understand the nature of a soil with suppressiveness against heterodera schachtii, an rdna analysis was used to identify fungi associated with h. schachtii cysts obtained from soils possessing various levels of suppressiveness. because h. schachtii cysts isolated from these suppressive soils can transfer this beneficial property to nonsuppressive soils, analysis of the microorganisms associated with the cysts should lead to the identification of the causal organisms. five soil treatm ...200318943867
origin of race 3 of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at a single site in california.abstract thirty-nine isolates of fusarium oxysporum were collected from tomato plants displaying wilt symptoms in a field in california 2 years after f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 was first observed at that location. these and other isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were characterized by pathogenicity, race, and vegetative compatibility group (vcg). of the 39 california isolates, 22 were in vcg 0030, 11 in vcg 0031, and six in the newly described vcg 0035. among the isolates i ...200318943868
stepwise evolution of races in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris inferred from fingerprinting with repetitive dna sequences.abstract plant pathogens often exhibit variation in virulence, the ability to cause disease on host plants with specific resistance, evident from the diversity of races observed within pathogen species. the evolution of races in asexual fungal pathogens has been hypothesized to occur in a stepwise fashion, in which mutations to virulence accumulate sequentially in clonal lineages, resulting in races capable of overcoming multiple host plant resistance genes or multiple resistant cultivars. in th ...200418943970
polygenic inheritance of partial resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in melon.abstract fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is responsible for fusarium wilt of melon. race 1.2 strains overcome two dominant resistance genes (fom-1 and fom-2) and are further divided into two types depending on the symptoms they cause, yellowing or wilting. partial resistance to f. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 was studied by using a recombinant inbred line (ril) population that was developed by single seed descent from an f(1) hybrid between 'isabelle', a partially resistant line, and a su ...200418943703
cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.abstract in the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. here we describe that cerebroside c is produced in diverse strains of fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. in addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside a, b, or c was detected in other soilborne phytop ...200418943100
quantification of root and stem colonization of watermelon by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and its use in evaluating resistance.abstract colonization of watermelon root and stem tissues by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 1 and its relationship to the apparent resistance to fusarium wilt was investigated. in each of 2 years, 17 differentially susceptible watermelon cultivars and one accession were tested in the greenhouse, and 7 cultivars also were tested in the field. colonization by a chlorate-resistant marked isolate of the fungus was assayed by plating homogenized tissue samples on a selective medium. six days a ...200418943103
genetic diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic populations of fusarium oxysporum isolated from carnation fields in argentina.abstract in order to elucidate the origin of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in argentina, the genetic diversity among pathogenic isolates together with co-occurring nonpathogenic isolates on carnation was investigated. in all, 151 isolates of f. oxysporum were obtained from soils and carnation plants from several horticultural farms in argentina. the isolates were characterized using vegetative compatibility group (vcg), intergenic spacer (igs) typing, and pathogenicity tests on carnation. se ...200418943491
effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of soilborne pathogens under structural solarization.abstract structural solarization of greenhouses for sanitation by closing them involves dry heating to 60 degrees c and higher with a consequent low relative humidity (rh) ( approximately 15%), thus requiring an extended period for thermal inactivation of pathogens. in an attempt to enhance pathogen control by increasing moisture during the hot hours of the day, various regimes of inoculum moistening were studied. however, wetting inoculum of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and f. oxysporum f. ...200418943535
integrated management of fusarium wilt of chickpea with sowing date, host resistance, and biological control.abstract a 3-year experiment was conducted in field microplots infested with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 at córdoba, spain, in order to assess efficacy of an integrated management strategy for fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the choice of sowing date, use of partially resistant chickpea genotypes, and seed and soil treatments with biocontrol agents bacillus megaterium rgaf 51, b. subtilis gb03, nonpathogenic f. oxysporum fo 90105, and pseudomonas fluorescens rg 26. advancing ...200418943071
role of chitin synthase genes in fusarium oxysporum.three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a soilborne pathogen causing vascular wilt disease in tomato plants. based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (css) of class i, class ii and class iii, respectively. a gene (chs7) encoding a chaperone-like protein was identified by comparison of the deduced protein with chs7p from saccharomyc ...200415470098
the cell wall stress response in aspergillus niger involves increased expression of the glutamine : fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-encoding gene (gfaa) and increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall.perturbation of cell wall synthesis in saccharomyces cerevisiae, either by mutations in cell wall synthesis-related genes or by adding compounds that interfere with normal cell wall assembly, triggers a compensatory response to ensure cell wall integrity. this response includes an increase in chitin levels in the cell wall. here it is shown that aspergillus niger also responds to cell wall stress by increasing chitin levels. the increased chitin level in the cell wall was accompanied by increase ...200415470111
[transcriptional differences between a heterokaryon and its segregants of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum].in order to elucidate the mechanism of fungal heterokayosis, a wild type strain of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was isolated from the cotton field in anyang, henan province. through single hyphal-tip isolation, a heterokaryon, ag149, was obtained, and its two different phenotypic segregants, ag149-i and ag149-iii, were separated from the mutated sectors on colony of the heterokaryon. they have remarkable differences on color of colony, morphology of hypha and pathogenicity. after analyz ...200415473307
induced resistance in tomato plants by iaa against fusarium oxysporum lycopersici.the phytohormone iaa (indol-3-acetic acid) was tested in vitro on growth of tomato wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum lycopersici. the hormone reduced spore germination, mycelial dry weight and protein content. such reduction was matched with the elevation in the hormone concentration. the in vivo application of iaa to soil of the uninoculated plants (controls) improved growth and yielded longer shoot and root, particularly at low concentrations. moreover, the hormone could prevent completely any ...200415478356
entomopathogenic fungi from 'el eden' ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico.entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at el eden ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico. these fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. no pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. in contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural ...200415487323
fusarium oxysporum as a multihost model for the genetic dissection of fungal virulence in plants and mammals.fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. the extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. we present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted ...200414977985
nitrous oxide-forming codenitrification catalyzed by cytochrome p450nor.intact cells of the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum were previously shown to catalyze codenitrification to form a hybrid nitrous oxide (n2o) species from nitrite and other nitrogen compounds such as azide and ammonia. here we show that cytochrome p450nor can catalyze the codenitrification reaction to form n2o from nitric oxide (no) but not nitrite, and azide or ammonia. the results show that the direct substrate of the codenitrification by intact cells should not be nitrite but no, which ...200414981321
eryngin, a novel antifungal peptide from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom pleurotus eryngii.an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 10k da was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom pleurotus eryngii. the peptide, designated as eryngin, inhibited mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and s-sepharose. its n-terminal sequence demonstrated some similarity to the antifungal protein from the mushroom lyophyllum shimeiji and little resemblance to thaumatin and thaumatin-like p ...200415003349
a ribonuclease with antimicrobial, antimitogenic and antiproliferative activities from the edible mushroom pleurotus sajor-caju.a 12 kda ribonuclease preferential for poly u and with much lower activity toward poly a, poly g and poly c was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom pleurotus sajor-caju. a purification procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, affinity chromatography on red-sepharose and heparin-sepharose, and fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on superdex 75 was used. the ribonuclease was adsorbed on all of the first three types of chromatographic media. it ...200415003351
potential role of pathogen signaling in multitrophic plant-microbe interactions involved in disease protection.multitrophic interactions mediate the ability of fungal pathogens to cause plant disease and the ability of bacterial antagonists to suppress disease. antibiotic production by antagonists, which contributes to disease suppression, is known to be modulated by abiotic and host plant environmental conditions. here, we demonstrate that a pathogen metabolite functions as a negative signal for bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis, which can determine the relative importance of biological control mechanis ...200415006813
[germination of phytopathogenic fungi conidia].the autoregulation of conidium germination in phytopathogenic micromycetes of the genera fusarium, botrytis, and bipolaris was studied. it was shown that trichoderma longibrachiatum was less competitive than fusarium oxysporum after their simultaneous inoculation but inhibited the phytopathogen growth in the case of earlier introduction. in the latter case, no autoinhibition of the germination of f. oxysporum conidia occurred; moreover, cooperative effect was observed, i.e., the number of germin ...200415521169
genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the fusarium oxysporum complex inferred from multilocus dna sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses: evidence for the recent dispersion of a geographically widespread clonal lineage and nosocomial origin.fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in san antonio, tex., and from patients and the water system in a houston, tex., hospital during the 1990s, little is known about their genetic relat ...200415528703
antagonistic interaction between abscisic acid and jasmonate-ethylene signaling pathways modulates defense gene expression and disease resistance in arabidopsis.the plant hormones abscisic acid (aba), jasmonic acid (ja), and ethylene are involved in diverse plant processes, including the regulation of gene expression during adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. previously, aba has been implicated in enhancing disease susceptibility in various plant species, but currently very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. in this study, we obtained evidence that a complex interplay between aba and ja-ethylene sig ...200415548743
role of chemotaxis toward fusaric acid in colonization of hyphae of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici by pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365.pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 is an excellent competitive colonizer of tomato root tips after bacterization of seed or seedlings. the strain controls tomato foot and root rot (tfrr) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. under biocontrol conditions, fungal hyphae were shown to be colonized by wcs365 bacteria. because chemotaxis is required for root colonization by wcs365 cells, we studied whether chemotaxis also is required for hyphae colonization. t ...200415553244
defense responses of fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.a collection of 76 plant-pathogenic and 41 saprophytic fusarium oxysporum strains was screened for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-dapg), a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by multiple strains of antagonistic pseudomonas fluorescens. approximately 17% of the f. oxysporum strains were relatively tolerant to high 2,4-dapg concentrations. tolerance to 2,4-dapg did not correlate with the geographic origin of the strains, formae speciales, intergenic spacer (igs) group, or fusaric ac ...200415559985
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