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entomopathogenic fungi from 'el eden' ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico.entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at el eden ecological reserve, quintana roo, mexico. these fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse trialeurodes vaporariorum (homoptera: aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. no pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. in contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural ...200415487323
high-nitrogen compost as a medium for organic container-grown crops.compost was tested as a medium for organic container-grown crops. nitrogen (n) loss during composting of separated cow manure (scm) was minimized using high c/n (wheat straw, ws; grape marc, gm) or a slightly acidic (orange peels, op) additives. n conservation values in the resultant composts were 82%, 95% and 98% for gm-scm, op-scm and ws-scm, respectively. physical characteristics of the composts were compatible with use as growing media. the nutritional contribution of the composts was assess ...200515491822
cloning and enhanced expression of the cytochrome p450nor gene (nica; cyp55a5) encoding nitric oxide reductase from aspergillus oryzae.we cloned and characterized the gene and cdna of aspergillus oryzae cytochrome p450nor (anor). the anor gene (nica; cyp55a5) has a different gene structure from other p450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. there were not only two kinds of mrna but also two sets of tata-box and ccaat-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like cyp55a1 of fusarium oxysporum. a reporter analysis using the uida gene indicated that gene expression of cyp55a5 was induced under anaerobic ...200415502348
expression of the fusarium oxysporum lactonase gene in aspergillus oryzae: molecular properties of the recombinant enzyme and its application.the lactonase gene of fusarium oxysporum was expressed in aspergillus oryzae for optical resolution of dl-pantoyl lactone. when the chromosomal gene encoding the full-length form of the lactonase, which has its own nh2-terminal signal peptide, was introduced in the host cells, the resulting transformant produced an enzyme of 46,600 da, which corresponded to the wild-type enzyme. in contrast, a. oryzae transformed with the cdna coding the mature enzyme produced a protein of 41,300 da. deglycosyla ...200515503009
[germination of phytopathogenic fungi conidia].the autoregulation of conidium germination in phytopathogenic micromycetes of the genera fusarium, botrytis, and bipolaris was studied. it was shown that trichoderma longibrachiatum was less competitive than fusarium oxysporum after their simultaneous inoculation but inhibited the phytopathogen growth in the case of earlier introduction. in the latter case, no autoinhibition of the germination of f. oxysporum conidia occurred; moreover, cooperative effect was observed, i.e., the number of germin ...200415521169
genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the fusarium oxysporum complex inferred from multilocus dna sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses: evidence for the recent dispersion of a geographically widespread clonal lineage and nosocomial origin.fusarium oxysporum is a phylogenetically diverse monophyletic complex of filamentous ascomycetous fungi that are responsible for localized and disseminated life-threatening opportunistic infections in immunocompetent and severely neutropenic patients, respectively. although members of this complex were isolated from patients during a pseudoepidemic in san antonio, tex., and from patients and the water system in a houston, tex., hospital during the 1990s, little is known about their genetic relat ...200415528703
antagonistic interaction between abscisic acid and jasmonate-ethylene signaling pathways modulates defense gene expression and disease resistance in arabidopsis.the plant hormones abscisic acid (aba), jasmonic acid (ja), and ethylene are involved in diverse plant processes, including the regulation of gene expression during adaptive responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. previously, aba has been implicated in enhancing disease susceptibility in various plant species, but currently very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. in this study, we obtained evidence that a complex interplay between aba and ja-ethylene sig ...200415548743
molecular markers linked to papaya ring spot virus resistance and fusarium race 2 resistance in melon.in melon, the fom-1 gene confers monogenic resistance against the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, races 0 and 2, while the closely linked prv gene specifies resistance against the papaya ring spot virus. markers linked to these resistance (r) genes were identified using two recombinant inbred line populations, derived from crosses between cucumis melo vedrantais and c. melo pi 161375, and between c. melo vedrantais and c. melo pi 414723, respectively. using bulked segregant ...200515551034
role of chemotaxis toward fusaric acid in colonization of hyphae of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici by pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365.pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 is an excellent competitive colonizer of tomato root tips after bacterization of seed or seedlings. the strain controls tomato foot and root rot (tfrr) caused by the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. under biocontrol conditions, fungal hyphae were shown to be colonized by wcs365 bacteria. because chemotaxis is required for root colonization by wcs365 cells, we studied whether chemotaxis also is required for hyphae colonization. t ...200415553244
defense responses of fusarium oxysporum to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.a collection of 76 plant-pathogenic and 41 saprophytic fusarium oxysporum strains was screened for sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-dapg), a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by multiple strains of antagonistic pseudomonas fluorescens. approximately 17% of the f. oxysporum strains were relatively tolerant to high 2,4-dapg concentrations. tolerance to 2,4-dapg did not correlate with the geographic origin of the strains, formae speciales, intergenic spacer (igs) group, or fusaric ac ...200415559985
coccinin, an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from large scarlet runner beans.an antifungal peptide, designated coccinin, with a molecular mass of 7kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling those of defensins, was purified from the seeds of large scarlet runner beans (phaseolus coccineus cv. 'major'). the peptide isolated was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. the peptide excerted antifungal activity on a number of fungal species including botrytis cinerea, coprinus comatus, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalos ...200415572193
nitroalkane oxidase, a carbanion-forming flavoprotein homologous to acyl-coa dehydrogenase.while several flavoproteins will oxidize nitroalkanes in addition to their physiological substrates, nitroalkane oxidase (nao) is the only one which does not require the anionic nitroalkane. this, in addition to the induction of nao by nitroethane seen in fusarium oxysporum, suggests that oxidation of a nitroaliphatic species is the physiological role of the enzyme. mechanistic studies of the reaction with nitroethane as substrate have established many of the details of the enzymatic reaction. t ...200515581574
fusarium oxysporum g-protein beta subunit fgb1 regulates hyphal growth, development, and virulence through multiple signalling pathways.the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum causes disease in a wide variety of crops. a signalling cascade controlled by the extracellular-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) fmk1 was previously found to be required for plant infection. to investigate the role of the heterotrimeric g-protein beta subunit fgb1 as a putative upstream component of the fmk1 signalling cascade, we generated f. oxysporum strains carrying either a deltafgb1 loss-of-function allele or an fgb1(w115g) allel ...200515588997
a pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach to assess fusarium diversity in asparagus.in north america, asparagus (asparagus officinalis) production suffers from a crown and root rot disease mainly caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and f. proliferatum. many other fusarium species are also found in asparagus fields, whereas accurate detection and identification of these organisms, especially when processing numerous samples, is usually difficult and time consuming. in this study, a pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) method was developed to assess fusariu ...200515590089
fostua, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein, differentially regulates development of three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores, in the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt of a wide variety of plant species. f. oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. falcate macroconidia are formed generally from terminal phialides on conidiophores and rarely from intercalary phialides on hyphae. ellipsoidal microconidia are formed from intercalary phialides on hyphae. globose chlamydospores with thick walls are developed by the modification of hyphal and conidia ...200415590816
relaxed primer specificity associated with reverse transcriptases encoded by the pfoxc retroplasmids of fusarium oxysporum.the pfoxc mitochondrial retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating linear dnas that have a telomere-like repeat of a 5-bp sequence at their termini. the plasmids are possible evolutionary precursors of the ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase, as they encode an active reverse transcriptase (rt) that is involved in plasmid replication. using an in vitro system to study reverse transcription, we show that the pfoxc rt is capable of copying in vitro-synthesized rnas by use of cdna primers or ...200415590832
novel mode of resistance to fusarium infection by a mild dose pre-exposure of cadmium in wheat.exposure of healthy wheat seeds (triticum aestivum var sonalika) to mild dose of cadmium (cd(2+)) given as 50 microm cdcl(2) for 48 h and then washed off cd(2+) offered resistance to the subsequent infection by fusarium oxysporum inoculum. seven days old seedlings having two primary leaves were aseptically inoculated with fungus, f. oxysporum (1 x 10(6)) spores. the seedlings pre-exposed to low level of cd(2+) survived the fusarium infection, while plantlets without cd(2+) stress wilted and then ...200415596097
disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.the portal of entry of disseminated fusarium spp. infections is still not clearly defined. we report on a disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection occurring during a long period of severe neutropenia in a child with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. a nasogastric feeding tube was the possible source of entry of the fungus.200415597228
nitric oxide reductase (p450nor) from fusarium oxysporum.in the present review we wanted to highlight the characteristic features of cytochtome p450 nadh-no reductase (p450nor) from fusarium oxysporum which belongs to the heme-thiolate protein family. this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of two no molecules to n2o. the discovery, isolation, identification and crystallography are described in detail. special emphasis was focused on the mechanism of no reduction and possible electronic configurations of the 444 nm intermediate were discussed. among heme- ...200515598501
antifungal potential of spilanthes calva after inoculation of piriformospora indica.we investigated the influence of piriformospora indica on the antifungal principle of spilanthes calva, a plant of high commercial value. an antifungal efficacy was shown by aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of s. calva against fusarium oxysporum and trichophyton mentagrophytes. the petroleum ether extract of s. calva was more effective than the aqueous extract in inoculated as well as uninoculated plants. the antifungal activity of the plant was enhanced due to the increase in spilanthol con ...200415601453
involvement of nitric oxide in elicitor-induced defense responses and secondary metabolism of taxus chinensis cells.this work was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (no) in taxus chinensis cells induced by a fungal elicitor extracted from fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the signal role of no in the elicitation of plant defense responses and secondary metabolite accumulation. the fungal elicitor at 10-100 microg/ml (carbohydrate equivalent) induced a rapid and dose-dependent no production in the taxus cell culture, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1 h and th ...200415604042
molecular identification of fusarium species in onychomycoses.fusarium species are isolated from about 3% of onychomycoses in the swiss native population. on the basis of macroscopic characters and microscopic examination of the cultures, identification of fusarium often remains difficult or uncertain because of variations from one isolate to another and overlapping characteristics between species.200515604540
the influence of detergent, the active component of detergent and sodiumtripolyphosphate on the biochemical process of some fungi.detergent "merix" (merima-krusevac) and its components, sodiumtripolyphosphate and ethoxyled oleyl-cetyl alcohol in defined concentrations have influence on the enzymatic activity, bioproduction of amino acids and proteins and total biomass of species aspergillus niger (a. niger) and fusarium oxysporum (f. oxysporum). detergent in concentration of 1% vol., in some cases, significantly stimulated production of the majority of amino acids. detergent and its components (ethoxyled oleyl-cetyl alcoho ...200415612193
anti-fungal sesquiterpenoid from the root exudate of solanum abutiloides.the solanum abutiloides plant is highly resistant to soil-borne pathogens such as fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, verticillium dahliae, and ralstonia solanacearum. this species is utilized as a mating source of resistant cultivars and is also used as a rootstock. the root exudate of solanum abutiloides was extracted from a soil system composed of charcoal and vermiculite. anti-fungal activity was found in the extract, and an active ingredient was isolated. the chemical structure of the act ...200415618642
isolation of alliumin, a novel protein with antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities from multiple-cloved garlic bulbs.a protein designated alliumin, with a molecular mass of 13 kda and an n-terminal sequence similar to a partial sequence of glucanase, and demonstrating antifungal activity against mycosphaerella arachidicola, but not against fusarium oxysporum, was isolated from multiple-cloved garlic (allium sativum) bulbs. the protein, designated as alliumin, was purified using ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, cm-cellulose and mono s, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtrati ...200515629528
new insights into the target site and mode of action of the antifungal protein of aspergillus giganteus.the antifungal protein (afp) secreted by aspergillus giganteus exerts growth inhibitory effects on various filamentous fungi. in order to obtain more information on the mode of action of afp, we used transmission electron microscopy in this study to compare the cellular ultrastructure of the afp-sensitive aspergillus niger and of the afp-resistant penicillium chrysogenum upon afp treatment. furthermore, afp was localized by immunogold staining in both fungi. severe membrane alterations in a. nig ...200515636747
comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic feruloyl esterases: characterization of their substrate specificity for methyl phenylalkanoates.the active sites of feruloyl esterases from mesophilic and thermophilic sources were probed using methyl esters of phenylalkanoic acids. only 13 out of 26 substrates tested were significant substrates for all the enzymes. lengthening or shortening the aliphatic side chain while maintaining the same aromatic substitutions completely abolished activity for both enzymes, which demonstrates the importance of the correct distance between the aromatic group and the ester bond. maintaining the phenylpr ...200415639097
intracellular metabolite profiling of fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) of cellulose. however, the conversion rate is low and significant amounts of acetic acid are produced as a by-product. in this study, the growth characteristics of f. oxysporum were evaluated in a minimal medium using glucose as the sole carbon source in aerobic, anaerobic and oxygen-limited batch cultivations. under aerobic conditions the maximum specific ...200415639104
aviglycine and propargylglycine inhibit conidial germination and mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporumf. sp. luffae.two inhibitors, aviglycine and propargylglycine, were tested for their ability to suppress methionine synthesis thus inhibit conidial germination and mycelial growth of czapek-dox liquid medium grown fusarium oxysporum f. sp. luffaemum. the linear inhibition range for mycelial growth was about 7.6-762.9 microm. although aviglycine did not completely inhibit both conidial germination and mycelial growth, it showed significant inhibitory effect at 1.5 microm. the inhibition range for propargylglyc ...200415645176
first report of a novel plant lysozyme with both antifungal and antibacterial activities.a novel lysozyme exhibiting antifungal activity and with a molecular mass of 14.4kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds using a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography on poros hs-20. its n-terminal sequence was very different from that of hen egg white lysozyme. its pi was estimated to be above 9.7. the specific act ...200515649419
a genetic linkage map of lens sp. based on microsatellite and aflp markers and the localization of fusarium vascular wilt resistance.microsatellites have currently become the markers of choice for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection for key traits such as disease resistance in many crop species. we report here on the mapping of microsatellites which had been identified from a genomic library of lentil (lens culinaris medik.). the majority of microsatellite-bearing clones contained imperfect di-nucleotide repeats. a total of 41 microsatellite and 45 amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) markers were mapped ...200515650814
evaluation of streptomyces sp. strain g10 for suppression of fusarium wilt and rhizosphere colonization in pot-grown banana plantlets.streptomyces sp. strain g10 exhibited strong antagonism towards fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc) races 1, 2 and 4 in plate assays by producing extracellular antifungal metabolites. treating the planting hole and roots of 4-week-old tissue-culture-derived 'novaria' banana plantlets with strain g10 suspension (10(8) cfu/ml), significantly (p < 0.05) reduced wilt severity when the plantlets were inoculated with 10(4) spores/ml foc race 4. the final disease severity index for leaf symptom (lsi ...200515650871
signaling via the g protein alpha subunit fga2 is necessary for pathogenesis in fusarium oxysporum.cloning and disruption of fga1, the gene encoding the g protein alpha subunit fga1 in phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum, has been reported previously, and the fga1 disruptants showed altered colony morphology, increased heat resistance, reduced conidiation and pathogenicity. to further evaluate the role of g protein signaling in this fungus, cloning of fga2, which encodes the second galpha protein fga2, was performed by pcr methods. the deduced primary structure of fga2 (355 amino acid r ...200515668015
fusarium oxysporum evades i-3-mediated resistance without altering the matching avirulence gene.i-3-mediated resistance of tomato against fusarium wilt disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici depends on six1, a protein that is secreted by the fungus during colonization of the xylem. among natural isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are several that are virulent on a tomato line carrying only the i-3 resistance gene. however, evasion of i-3-mediated resistance by these isolates is not correlated with mutation of the six1 gene. moreover, the six1 gene of an i-3-virule ...200515672814
novel protein from labramia bojeri a. dc. seeds homologue to kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor with lectin-like properties.this study starts by isolating and characterizing the first protein from labramia bojeri seeds, which belong to the sapotaceae family. the purified lectin analyzed by sds-page with and without beta-mercaptoethanol shows two protein bands (m(r) = 19 and 20 kda), which cannot be resolved. protein bands have shown similar characteristics as molecular masses, determined by gel filtration and native gel; n-terminal sequences presented a difference in their isoelectric points. we have suggested that t ...200415675802
concordant evolution of trichothecene 3-o-acetyltransferase and an rdna species phylogeny of trichothecene-producing and non-producing fusaria and other ascomycetous fungi.the cereal pathogen fusarium graminearum species complex (e.g. fusarium asiaticum, previously referred to as f. graminearum lineage 6) produces the mycotoxin trichothecene in infected grains. the fungus has a gene for self-defence, tri101, which is responsible for 3-o-acetylation of the trichothecene skeleton in the biosynthetic pathway. recently, trichothecene non-producers fusarium oxysporum and fusarium fujikuroi (teleomorph gibberella fujikuroi) were shown to have both functional (tri201) an ...200515699200
transformation of fusarium oxysporum by particle bombardment and characterisation of the resulting transformants expressing a gfp transgene.fusarium is the causative agent of a variety of economically significant vascular wilt diseases of vegetables, flowers and field crops. the completion of the first fusarium genome and the availability of an est database now provides a platform for both forward and reverse genetic approaches to ascribe gene function in this phytopathogen. to underpin these strategies effective gene transfer procedures will be required. here we describe an efficient and robust procedure for fusarium oxysporum tran ...200415702267
comparative assessment of genotyping methods for study genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum isolates.in this study, we evaluated three pcr-based methods for the molecular typing of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum isolates: random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd), polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp). the analyses were performed using 64 isolates of f. oxysporum collected from cotton-producing areas in egypt. a number of polymorphic rapd, pcr-rflp and aflp bands were scored in all isolates and the genetic ...200415702916
effect of two systemic fungicides on cellulose decomposing fungi of tomato plants and on some enzymatic activities.kocide 101 (77% cupric hydroxide) and ridomil plus (15% metalaxyl and 35% copper oxychloride) were used in the treatment of tomato plants. the two fungicides exerted a depressive effect on the total counts and on the individual cellulose decomposing fungal species associated with the roots and shoots of tomato. when these fungicides were incorporated in the liquid culture medium specified for growth and extracellular enzyme production by some selected fungal species, there was a significant redu ...200415704330
[isolation and purification of ribosome-inactivating proteins from bitter melon seeds by ion exchange chromatographic columns in series].an anion exchange chromatographic column (deae-650c) and a cation exchange chromatographic column (cm-650c) were connected in series on a perfusion chromatography workstation. the crude extract of bitter melon seeds flowed through the two columns and the unadsorbed fraction on the deae-650c column was then directly readsorbed on the cm-650c column. two protein components with antifungal activity were eluted from the cation exchange chromatographic column by linear salt gradient. both of them wer ...200415706947
cloning and characterization of a plant defensin vad1 from azuki bean.a recombinant mungbean defensin vrd1 was previously shown to exhibit antifungal and bruchid-resistant activity. to study the function and regulation of vrd1, genomic dnas of plant defensins were isolated from vigna radiata vc6089a and azuki bean vigna angularis kao hsiung no. 6. the azuki bean defensin genomic dna vad1 was sequenced and converted to vad1 cdna. vad1 defensin was purified from vigna angularis kao hsiung no. 6 to apparent homogeneity. the complete amino acid sequence of the purifie ...200515713009
biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.the biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed.200515752330
isolation of trichogin, an antifungal protein from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom tricholoma giganteum.an antifungal protein was isolated from the mushroom tricholoma giganteum var. golden blessings. the protocol included ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the antifungal protein, designated trichogin, was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. it exhibited antifungal activity ag ...200515752570
biological control of chickpea fusarium wilt by antagonistic bacteria under greenhouse condition.in this survey, fusarium oxysporum was isolated from roots infected plants and was shown to be pathogenic. experiment were carried out with seven antagonistic bacteria. based on biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates b-120, b-32, b-28 and b-22 were identified as bacillus subtilis and isolates pf-100, pf-10 and chao as pseudomonas fluorescens. in greenhouse studies, only isolate b-120 (less than benomyl) reduced fusarium wilt of chickpea in both seed and soil treatments. the ...200415756852
antagonistic effects of several bacteria on fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of root and crown rot of onion under field conditions.onion (allium cepa) is one of the most important vegetable crop which is commonly used as a food supplement. this plant is found to be vulnerable to various pathogenic infections during its growth development. among different onion diseases, root and crown rot,caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepa, s considered an importantfungal disease. in this study, the inhibitory effect of bacillus cereus (isolates 22 and 52), b. subtilis (isolate 126), pseudomonas fluorescens (isolates 48 and chao), beno ...200415756854
effects of endophytic fusarium oxysporum towards radopholus similis activity in absence of banana.four endophytic fungi (fusarium spp.) isolated from the cortical tissue of surface-sterilised banana as well as from tomato roots were tested for their capacity of biological control towards the burrowing nematode radopholus similis on banana. the pathogenic and parasitic capacities of endophytic fungi towards r. similis were tested in in vitro experiments. no parasitism of fungi on r. similis was observed. however, nematode activity decreased significantly in the presence of all endophytic fung ...200415759438
interactions between root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica and fusarium wilt disease, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in different varieties of melon.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and root-knot nematode (meloidogyne javanica) are destructive pathogens on cucurbits in varamin area of iran. the interaction between two pathogens was studied on local melon cultivars, garmsar and sooski. inoculum of meloidogyne javanica was prepared on susceptible cultivar, rutgers using single egg mass method in greenhouse. inoculum of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (race 1) was prepared using richard solution. a concentration of 2 x 10(5) micro conidia of f ...200415759439
role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in pathogenicity of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum invades its host plants through the roots and colonizes the vascular system. it produces a great variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes (cwde), such as cellulases, xylanases, pectinases and proteases. our group has purified and characterized an endopolygalacturonase (pg1), two exopolygalacturonases (pg2 and pg3), an endoxylanase (xyl1) and an endo pectatelyase (pl1). we have isolated the following cwde-encoding genes: pg1, pgx4, pg5, xyl2, xyl3, prt1 and pl1. gene expression i ...200015762782
a chitinase with antifungal activity from the mung bean.a chitinase with antifungal activity was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros hs-20, and gel filtration on sephadex g-75. the protein exhibited a molecular mass of 30.8 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its pi was 6.3 as determined by isoelectric focusing. the specific activity of the chitinase was estimat ...200515766863
general characterization of noncommercial microbial lipases in hydrolytic and synthetic reactions.fourteen noncommercial preparations of microbial lipases were investigated with respect to their catalytic activity for hydrolysis and synthesis of ester bonds. six of the lipases were derived from microorganisms that have not previously been described as lipase producers, and another four were characterized for the first time. the synthetic reactions were carried out in two solvents of different polarities (n-heptane and acetone) using a series of fatty acids and primary and secondary alcohols ...200515767695
organophosphorus derivatives containing piperazine dithiosemicarbazones as chemotherapeutants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane.five novel organophosphorus derivatives have been synthesized by the reactions of o,o-diethylchlorophosphate with piperazine dithiosemicarbazones. the derivatives have been characterized on the basis of analyses and spectral (ir, 1h nmr) data. fungicidal activities of these derivatives against colletotrichum falcatum, fusarium oxysporum, and curvularia pallescence have been evaluated. the screening results have been correlated with the structural features of the tested compounds. organophosphoru ...200515769154
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas.a series of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonylureas (2) have been synthesized in a six-step, three-pot reaction sequence from readily available cyclododecanone, cycloheptanone, and cyclohexanone. their structures were confirmed by ir, 1h nmr, and elemental analysis. the bioassay indicated that some of them possess certain fungicidal activity against gibberella zeae petch. in general, compounds containing a 12-membered ring (2a) are more active than those containing a 6- or 7-membered ring (2b, 2c). in the ...200515769157
fungal populations and mycotoxins in silage in assiut and sohag governorates in egypt, with a special reference to characteristic aspergilli toxins.forty silage samples were collected from assiut and sohag governorates in egypt to measure the presence of fungal population in silage. forty-three species and 2 species varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated using glucose czapek's and sabouraud's dextrose agar media at 28 degrees c. the most prevalent genera were aspergillus (57.5 and 100 of the samples), penicillium (100 and 55%) on the two mentioned media, respectively. also, fusarium oxysporum and gibberella fujikurori were recovered ...200515770455
molecular cloning and characterization of cdna of penaeidin-like antimicrobial peptide from tiger shrimp (penaeus monodon).we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a penaeidin-like antimicrobial peptide (amp) complementary dna from the hemocytes of tiger shrimp (penaeus monodoni). a tiger shrimp amp cdna containing the entire coding region of the peptide, determined by rapid amplification of cdna 5' and 3' ends and polymerase chain reaction of the messenger rna isolated from hemocytes of the shrimp, is 683 bp in length with an open reading frame of 222 bp. the deduced amino acid sequence of this antim ...200515776314
[effect of aeration on composting of date palm residues contaminated with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis].composting of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) residues contaminated with fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis, causal agent of the vascular wilt (bayoud) of the date palm, has been achieved. the effect of the aeration of the piles by manual turning has been studied. the maintenance of an adequate humidity of 60%-70%, necessary to the good progress of the composting process, required the contribution of 11.4 l of water/kg of the dried residues. the evolution of the temperatures in the three piles ...200515782236
the pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 sigma regulator psra represses the production of the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide.the rhizobacterium pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 produces the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn), which is a crucial trait in its competition with the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in the rhizosphere. the expression of the pcn biosynthetic gene cluster in pcl1391 is population density-dependent and is regulated by the quorum-sensing genes phzi and phzr via synthesis of the autoinducer n-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). here, we de ...200515782638
morning glory systemically accumulates scopoletin and scopolin after interaction with fusarium oxysporum.an isolate of non-pathogenic fusarium, fusarium oxysporum 101-2 (npf), induces resistance in the cuttings of morning glory against fusarium wilt caused by f. oxysporum f. sp. batatas o-17 (pf). the effect of npf on phenylpropanoid metabolism in morning glory cuttings was studied. it was found that morning glory tissues responded to treatment with npf bud-cell suspension (108 bud-cells/ml) with the activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal). pal activity was induced faster and greater in the ...200515787250
isolation, identification and antifungal susceptibility of lemon pathogenic and non pathogenic fungi.numerous species of filamentous fungi were isolated from lemon on different plantations in the province of tucuman, argentina. the techniques suggested by the subcommittee of antifungal susceptibility of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards, (usa) were adapted. the effect of three different concentrations of the fungicides imazalil, guazatine, sopp and thiabendazole on the fungi fusarium oxysporum, fusarium moniliforme, aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus clava ...200515813686
novel quorum-sensing-controlled genes in erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: identification of a fungal elicitor homologue in a soft-rotting bacterium.seven new genes controlled by the quorum-sensing signal molecule n-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (ohhl) have been identified in erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. using tnphoa as a mutagen, we enriched for mutants defective in proteins that could play a role in the interaction between e. carotovora subsp. carotovora and its plant hosts, and identified nipecc and its counterpart in e. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. these are members of a growing family of proteins related to nep1 from f ...200515828686
efficiency of blood culture bottles for the fungal sterility testing of corneal organ culture media.the consequences of fungal contamination of an organ cultured cornea, though exceptional, are often disastrous for the recipient. consequently, eye banks often quarantine corneas for 10 days or more before passing them for grafting. this period, though detrimental to the endothelial cell density of the delivered cornea, is necessary to detect contamination using conventional microbiological methods. the authors previously validated the use of a pair of aerobic and anaerobic blood bottles for sen ...200515834090
strain-specific and recessive qtls involved in the control of partial resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1.2 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (fom) causes serious economic losses in melon (cucumis melo l.). two dominant resistance genes have been identified, fom-1 and fom-2, which provide resistance to races 0 and 2 and races 0 and 1, respectively, however fom race 1.2 overcomes these resistance genes. a partial resistance to fom race 1.2 that has been found in some far east accessions is under polygenic control. a genetic map of melon was constructed to tag fom race 1.2 resistance with dna markers on ...200515834544
purification and characterization of a chitinase-like antifungal protein from black turtle bean with stimulatory effect on nitric oxide production by macrophages.an antifungal protein was isolated from black turtle bean, phaseolus vulgaris cv. "black turtle". the purified protein displayed an n-terminal amino acid sequence with 60-80% homology to chitinases. the isolated protein specifically inhibited two species of fungi, namely fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola , among several phytopathogenic fungi tested. its antifungal activity was retained after incubation at 60 degrees c for 15 minutes, diminished after exposure to 80 degrees c, an ...200515843143
synthesis and characterization of novel 6-fluoro-4-piperidinyl-1,2-benzisoxazole amides and 6-fluoro-chroman-2-carboxamides: antimicrobial studies.novel derivatives of 6-fluoro-4-piperidinyl-1,2-benzisoxazole amides 4(i-vi) were obtained by the condensation of different acid chlorides with 6-fluoro-3-piperidin-4yl-benzo[d]isoxazole. also, 6-fluoro-chroman-2-carboxamides 6(i-iii) were synthesized by using nebulic acid chloride with different amines in presence of triethylamine as acid scavenger and dichloroethane as solvent. the synthesized compounds were characterized by ir, 1h nmr, and chn analysis. these molecules were evaluated for thei ...200515846867
pleiotropic effect of phenolic compounds content increases in transgenic flax plant.the principal goal of this paper was to generate flax (linum usitatissimum l.) plants with increased antioxidant properties. to accomplish this a vector containing a multigene construct was prepared, and transgenic plants overexpressing essential flavonoid biosynthesis pathway enzymes were generated and analyzed. the simultaneous expression of genes encoding chalcone synthase (chs), chalcone isomerase (chi), and dihydroflavonol reductase (dfr) resulted in a significant increase of flax antioxida ...200515853420
antifungal properties of surangin b, a coumarin from mammea longifolia.the natural product electron transport inhibitor surangin b was examined for its ability to inhibit in vitro mycelial growth and spore germination in several species of fungi. as an inhibitor of mycelial growth, surangin b showed strongest activity against rhizoctonia solani (ic50 = 3.8 microm) and botrytis cinerea (ic50 = 11.2 microm). inhibitory effects were less pronounced in alternaria dauci, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium sp. (ic50 values > 30 microm) and absent in trichoderma harzianum ...200515856416
phaseococcin, an antifungal protein with antiproliferative and anti-hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activities from small scarlet runner beans.from the seeds of small scarlet runner beans (phaseolus coccineus 'minor'), an antifungal protein with an n-terminal sequence homologous to those of defensins was isolated. the antifungal protein bound to affi-gel blue gel and mono s but it did not bind to deae-cellulose. it was further purified by gel filtration on a superdex peptide column. it exhibited a molecular mass of 5422 da as determined by mass spectrometry. the protein, designated as phaseococcin, suppressed mycelial growth in a numbe ...200515864329
drifter, a novel, low copy hat-like transposon in fusarium oxysporum is activated during starvation.the facultative pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum is known to harbour many different transposable and/or repetitive elements. we have identified drifter, a novel dna transposon of the hat family in f. oxysporum. it was found adjoining six1-h, a truncated homolog of the six1 avirulence gene in f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. absence of a target site duplication as well as the 5' part of six1-h suggests that transposition of drifter into the ancestor of six1-h was followed by loss of a chromos ...200515869889
secondary metabolites from endophytic streptomyces aureofaciens cmuac130 and their antifungal activity.streptomyces aureofaciens cmuac130 was isolated from the root tissue of zingiber officinale rosc. (zingiberaceae). it was an antagonist of colletotrichum musae and fusarium oxysporum, the causative agents of anthracnose of banana and wilt of wheat, respectively. evidence for the in vitro antibiosis of s. aureofaciens cmuac130 was demonstrated by the zone of fungal-growth inhibition. microscopic observations showed thickness and bulbous structures at the edges of the inhibited fungal hyphae. the ...200515870476
a dual selection based, targeted gene replacement tool for magnaporthe grisea and fusarium oxysporum.rapid progress in fungal genome sequencing presents many new opportunities for functional genomic analysis of fungal biology through the systematic mutagenesis of the genes identified through sequencing. however, the lack of efficient tools for targeted gene replacement is a limiting factor for fungal functional genomics, as it often necessitates the screening of a large number of transformants to identify the desired mutant. we developed an efficient method of gene replacement and evaluated fac ...200515893252
vulgarinin, a broad-spectrum antifungal peptide from haricot beans (phaseolus vulgaris).from the seeds of haricot beans (phaseolus vulgaris), an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kda was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on superdex 75. this peptide named vulgarinin manifested an antifungal activity toward fungal species such as fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalospora piricola and botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on mycobacterium phlei, bacillus megater ...200515896669
the strawberry gene cyf1 encodes a phytocystatin with antifungal properties.an est, encoding a strawberry phytocystatin (phycys) obtained from a developing fruit of fragariaxananassa cv. elsanta has been characterized. the corresponding gene (cyf1) had three introns interrupting its orf that codes for a protein (facpi-1) of 235 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 29 residues and an estimated molecular mass for the mature protein of 23.1 kda. this protein contains, besides a c-terminal extension, several motifs conserved in all members of the phycys sup ...200515897228
fungal endophytes in five medicinal plant species from kudremukh range, western ghats of india.eighteen species of endophytic fungi were isolated from bark, stem and leaf segments of five medicinal plant species growing within the kudremukh range in the western ghats of india. the dominant endophytic fungal species isolated from these plant species were curvularia clavata, c. lunata, c. pallescens and fusarium oxysporum. the highest species richness as well as frequency of colonization of endophytic fungi was found in the leaf segments, rather than the stem and bark segments, of the host ...200515900544
purification and characterization of a novel peptide with antifungal activity from bothrops jararaca venom.different peptides have been isolated from a wide range of animal species. it is has become increasingly clear that due to the development of antibiotic-resistant microbes, antibacterial and antifungal peptides have attracted the attention in recent years, in order to find new therapeutic agents. in this work, a novel peptide with high inhibitory activity against fungi growth have been isolated from the venom of the brazilian snake bothrops jararaca. a sephacryl s-100 gel filtration column was e ...200515904677
sucrose-induced lupine defense against fusarium oxysporum. sucrose-stimulated accumulation of isoflavonoids as a defense response of lupine to fusarium oxysporum.defense responses to inoculation with fusarium oxysporum schlecht f. sp. lupini were studied in embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. polo cultured on a medium with sucrose (60 mm) or without it. exogenous sucrose caused a marked endogenous increase in concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose in embryo axes. in axes cultured with sucrose, high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) revealed generally higher levels of isoflavone glycosides (particularly until 48 h of culture) and free agl ...200515907688
suppression of meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in china were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in belgium. they were identified as brevibacillus brevis or bacillus subtilis by biolog test and partial 16s rdna sequence comparison. they not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi rhizoctonia solani sx-6, pythium aphanidermatum zjp-1 and fusarium oxyspor ...200515909333
the potential efficiency of irrigation management and propargyl bromide in controlling three soil pests: tylenchulus semipenetrans, fusarium oxysporum and echinochloa crus-galli.propargyl bromide (3-bromopropyne, 3bp) is a potential alternative for methyl bromide. little information is available about its efficiency in controlling pests. the purpose of this paper is to estimate the 3bp dose required for killing three pests and to compare the efficiency of water management approaches to that of fumigation. the pests, fusarium oxysporum schlecht (fungus), echinochloa crus-galli (l) beauv (grass) and tylenchulus semipenetrans cobb (nematode) were exposed to different 3bp c ...200515912563
disease suppression on greenhouse tomatoes using plant waste compost.this study investigated the disease suppression abilities of a compost amendment that was added to the conventional growing medium, yellow cedar sawdust, used in most british columbia vegetable greenhouses. the compost amendment was produced in a controlled, in-vessel process primarily from greenhouse crop waste materials. the pathogen and cultivar under study were fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl) on dombito (forl-susceptible) beefsteak greenhouse tomatoes. significant reduct ...200515913017
extracellular xylanases from two pathogenic races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris: enzyme production in culture and purification and characterization of a major isoform as an alkaline endo-beta-(1,4)-xylanase of low molecular weight.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, the causal agent of fusarium wilt of chickpea, comprises eight pathogenic races and two pathotypes. races 0 and 5, representative of the least virulent yellowing pathotype and the most virulent wilt pathotype, respectively, produced extracellular xylanases when grown on minimal medium supplemented with either 1% commercial birchwood xylan or 0.3% chickpea cell walls. the pattern of extracellular proteins analysed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ...200515928976
practical resolution system for dl-pantoyl lactone using the lactonase from fusarium oxysporum.we developed an enzymatic resolution system for dl-pantoyl lactone that uses immobilized mycelia of fusarium oxysporum, which produce a lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme (lactonase). the lactonase catalyzes the stereospecific hydrolysis of d-pantoyl lactone. one hundred eighty repeated batch reactions (total reaction time, 3780 h) were made with mycelia entrapped in calcium alginate gels as the catalyst, in the presence of 90 mm cacl2. with a 300 gl(-1)dl-pantoyl lactone solution as the substrate, the ...200515935504
isolation and characterization of endophytic streptomycete antagonists of fusarium wilt pathogen from surface-sterilized banana roots.a total of 131 endophytic actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from surface-sterilized banana roots. these isolates belonged to streptomyces (n=99), streptoverticillium (n=28), and streptosporangium (n=2) spp. the remaining 2 isolates were not identified. about 18.3% of the isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense on banana tissue extract medium. the most frequently isolated streptomyces sp. strain s96 was similar to streptomyces griseorubiginosus. ...200515935565
effects of interleukin-15 on antifungal responses of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes against fusarium spp. and scedosporium spp.fusarium spp. and scedosporium spp. have emerged as important fungal pathogens that are frequently resistant to antifungal compounds. we investigated the effects of human interleukin-15 (il-15) on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (pmnl) activity against fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum as well as scedosporium prolificans and scedosporium apiospermum. il-15 (100 ng/ml) significantly enhanced pmnl-induced hyphal damage of both fusarium spp. and s. prolificans after incubation for 22 h (p < ...200515935692
the rim101/pacc homologue from the basidiomycete ustilago maydis is functional in multiple ph-sensitive phenomena.a homologue of the gene encoding the transcription factor rim101 (pacc), involved in ph signal transduction in fungi, was identified in the pathogenic basidiomycete ustilago maydis. the gene (rim101) encodes a protein of 827 amino acid residues, which shows highest similarity to pacc proteins from fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus niger. the gene had the capacity to restore protease activity to rim101 mutants from yarrowia lipolytica, confirming its homologous function, and was expressed at bot ...200515947192
sesquin, a potent defensin-like antimicrobial peptide from ground beans with inhibitory activities toward tumor cells and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase.an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kda and an n-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensin was isolated from ground beans (vigna sesquipedalis cv. 'ground bean'). the peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and on mono s. it exerted an antifungal action on botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola; and an antibacterial action on escherichia coli b, proteus vulgaris, mycobacterium phlei and bacillus megaterium. the antimicrobial activity was inh ...200515949629
the use of natural bio-agents for the control of cotton phytopathogens.the use of natural antagonists as means of pre-sowing seed treatment showed high biological efficacy by improving seed germination, growth and productivity of cotton plants, and by decreasing infection by major cotton pathogens: xanthomonas malvacearum, rhizoctonia solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, verticillium dahliae. studies of anti-microbial properties of antagonists revealed significant inhibitory activity of bacillus subtilis strains and their metabolites against cotton pathog ...200115954583
effect of herbizid and touchdown herbicides on soil fungi and on production of some extracellular enzymes.glucophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi were significantly reduced in soil samples treated with 0.019-0.152 mg a.i./kg soil of the herbicides herbizid and touchdown. the decrease was regularly correlated with the doses of the two herbicides and persisted till the end of the experiment (12 weeks). the isolated fungi were found to be able to produce hydrolytic extracellular enzymes in solid media but with variable capabilities. the ability to produce enzymes was adversily affected by the incor ...200515957238
biological control agent of common scab disease by antagonistic strain bacillus sp. sunhua.to identify an antagonistic strain against streptomyces scabiei and to characterize the antibiotic agent. the efficacy of the isolated strain in controlling common scab disease was also evaluated.200515960681
rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild daucus carota.phytochemical and biological investigation of the roots of the wild daucus carota ssp. carota afforded three new and four known compounds, including four sesquiterpenes daucane esters (1-3 [new], and 4), one polyacetylene (5), one sesquiterpene coumarin (6), and sitosterol glucoside. the structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive nmr studies, including dept, cosy, noesy, hmqc and hmbc analyses. based on an agar diffusion assay, 1, 2 and 4-6 were screened and found to contai ...200515964039
resistance to fusarium oxysporum 1, a dominant arabidopsis disease-resistance gene, is not race specific.arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes differ in their susceptibility to fusarium wilt diseases. ecotype taynuilt-0 (ty-0) is susceptible to fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (f.) matthioli whereas columbia-0 (col-0) is resistant. segregation analysis of a cross between ty-0 and col-0 revealed six dominant resistance to fusarium oxysporum (rfo) loci that significantly contribute to f. matthioli resistance in col-0 relative to ty-0. we refer to the locus with the strongest effect as rfo1. ty-0 plants in ...200515965251
[properties of nitrate reductase from fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 fungi grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions].production of nitrate reductase was studied in 15 species of microscopic fungi grown on a nitrate-containing medium. experiments were performed with fusarium oxysporum 11dn1, a fungus capable of producing nitrous oxide as the end product of denitrification. moreover, a shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions of growth was accompanied by a sharp increase in the activity of nitrate reductase. studies of nitrate reductase from the mycelium of fusarium oxysporum 11dn1, grown under aerobic and ana ...200515977789
developmental expression of stress response genes in theobroma cacao leaves and their response to nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by phytophthora megakarya.developmental expression of stress response genes in theobroma cacao leaves and their response to nep1 and a compatible infection by phytophthora megakarya were studied. ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (tccaf-1, tcglu1,3, tcchib, tccou-1, and tcper-1), gene regulation (tcwrky-1 and tcorfx-1), cell wall development (tccou-1, tcper-1, and tcglu-1), or energy production (tclhca-1 and tcrbcs). leaf development was separated into unexpanded (ue), young red (yr), immatur ...200515979314
the influence of different cultivation conditions on the metabolome of fusarium oxysporum.the two most widespread pentose sugars found in the biosphere are d-xylose and l-arabinose. they are both potential substrates for ethanol production. the purpose of this study was to better understand the redox constraints imposed to fusarium oxysporum during utilization of pentoses. in order to increase ethanol yield and decrease by-product formation, nitrate was used as nitrogen source. the use of nadh, the cofactor in denitrification process when using nitrate as a nitrogen source, improved ...200515996783
heat shock protein 90 and its co-chaperone protein phosphatase 5 interact with distinct regions of the tomato i-2 disease resistance protein.recent data suggest that plant disease resistance (r) proteins are present in multi-protein complexes. tomato r protein i-2 confers resistance against the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum. to identify components of the i-2 complex, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the i-2 leucine-rich repeat (lrr) domain as bait, and identified protein phosphatase 5 (pp5) as an i-2 interactor. subsequent screens revealed two members of the cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) family as interactor ...200515998314
mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several fusarium oxysporum strains.extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus fusarium oxysporum was carried out. it was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. the silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm in dimensions. the reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. the potentialities of this na ...200516014167
molecular detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and mycosphaerella melonis in infected plant tissues and soil.we developed two species-specific pcr assays for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and mycosphaerella melonis in diseased plant tissues and soil. based on differences in internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of fusarium spp. and mycosphaerella spp., two pairs of species-specific primers, fn-1/fn-2 and mn-1/mn-2, were synthesized. after screening 24 isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, 22 isolates of m. melonis, and 72 isolates from the ...200516019161
inorganic materials and living organisms: surface modifications and fungal responses to various asbestos forms.in a previous study several strains of soil fungi were reported to remove iron in vitro from crocidolite asbestos, a process that was envisaged as a possible bioremediation route for asbestos-polluted soils. here, we get some new insight into the chemical basis of the fiber/fungi interaction by comparing the action of the most active fungal strain fusarium oxysporum on three kind of asbestos fibers--chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite--and on a surface-modified crocidolite. none of the fibers e ...200516021644
an antifungal protein from flageolet beans.a protein with antifungal and hemagglutinating activities was isolated from dried flageolet beans (phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'flageolet bean'). the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. the protein demonstrated antifungal activity against mycophaerella arachidicola with an ic50 of 9.8 microm, but was inactive toward fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by a variety of the sugars tested. t ...200516026901
microfungi in cultivated fields in eski┼čehir provience (turkey).the soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of eski┼čehir (turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of karacahöyük, bahçecik, ogu i, and ogu ii. a total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including absidia, acremonium, alternaria, aspergillus, beauveria, botryoderma, chaetomium, chrysosporium, cladosporium, eupenicillium, eurotium, fusarium, geotrichum, gliocladium, gonytrichum, metarrhizium, mucor, myrothecium, paecilomy ...200516028200
ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom ganoderma lucidum.a 15-kda antifungal protein, designated ganodermin, was isolated from the medical mushroom ganoderma lucidum. the isolation procedure utilized chromatography on deae-cellulose, affi-gel blue gel, cm-sepharose and superdex 75. ganodermin was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. ganodermin inhibited the mycelial growth of botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and physalospora piricola with an ic50 value of 15.2 microm, 12.4 microm and 18.1 microm, respect ...200616039755
extraction of functional motion in trypsin crystal structures.the analysis of anisotropic atomic displacement parameters for the direct extraction of functionally relevant motion from x-ray crystal structures of fusarium oxysporum trypsin is presented. several atomic resolution structures complexed with inhibitors or substrates and determined at different ph values and temperatures were investigated. the analysis revealed a breathing-like molecular motion conserved across trypsin structures from two organisms and three different crystal forms. directional ...200516041079
visualization of interactions between a pathogenic and a beneficial fusarium strain during biocontrol of tomato foot and root rot.the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes tomato foot and root rot (tfrr), which can be controlled by the addition of the nonpathogenic fungus f. oxysporum fo47 to the soil. to improve our understanding of the interactions between the two fusarium strains on tomato roots during biocontrol, the fungi were labeled using different autofluorescent proteins as markers and subsequently visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. the results were as follows. i) ...200516042017
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