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dissimilatory nitrate reduction metabolisms and their control in fungi.most fungi grow under aerobic conditions by generating atp through oxygen respiration. however, they alternatively express two pathways of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in response to environmental oxygen tension when the oxygen supply is insufficient. the fungus fusarium oxysporum expressed the pathway of respiratory nitrate denitrification that is catalyzed by the sequential reactions of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. these enzymes are coupled with atp generation through the respir ...200216233342
ammonia fermentation, a novel anoxic metabolism of nitrate by fungi.the induction of fungal denitrification by fusarium oxysporum requires a minimal amount of o(2), although excess o(2) completely represses this process (zhou, z., takaya, n., sakairi, m. a. c., and shoun, h. (2001) arch. microbiol. 175, 19-25). here we describe another metabolic mechanism of nitrate in fungal cells, termed ammonia fermentation, that supports growth under conditions more anoxic than those of denitrification. the novel nitrate metabolism of eukaryotes consists of the reduction of ...200211713252
isolation of cicadin, a novel and potent antifungal peptide from dried juvenile cicadas.a single-chained antifungal protein with a molecular weight of 6.5 kda and displaying a novel n-terminal sequence was isolated from dried juvenile cicadas which are used in traditional chinese medicine, by using ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and then gel filtration on a superdex peptide column. the peptide, designated cicadin, exerted potent antifungal activity with ic(50) values at nonomol ...200211814612
antagonistic effects of streptomyces violaceusniger strain g10 on fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4: indirect evidence for the role of antibiosis in the antagonistic process.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal pathogen of wilt disease of banana. a cost-effective measure of control for this disease is still not available. streptomyces violaceusniger strain g10 acts as an antifungal agent antagonistic towards many different phytopathogenic fungi, including different pathogenic races of the fusarium wilt pathogen. in an attempt to understand the mode of action of this antagonist in nature, the interaction between s. violaceusniger strain g10 and f. oxysporum ...200212032802
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-promoted accumulation of two new triterpenoids in cucumber roots.cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) roots were analyzed by hplc and tlc for their levels of secondary metabolites upon inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, glomus caledonium. three compounds in etoac extracts from the mycorrhizal roots showed significant increases six weeks after inoculation. these compounds were isolated by column chromatography and determined to be two novel triterpenes, 2beta-hydroxybryonolic acid (2beta,3beta-dihydroxy-d:c-friedoolean-8-en-29-oic acid) and 3beta-bry ...200212036048
secretion of ligninperoxidase by penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus.secretion of ligninperoxidase [e.c.1.11.1.7] by penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus in liquid culture growth medium has been demonstrated. enzymatic characteristics like km, ph and temperature optima using veratryl alcohol as the organic substrate of ligninperoxidases from above sources have been determined. km values using veratryl alcohol as substrate for enzymes from p. citrinum, f. oxysporum and a. terreus were 69, 64 and 60 microm respectively. km values using h ...200212597550
a genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( citrullus lanatus var. citroides x c. lanatus var. lanatus) x citrullus colocynthis.a genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [plant accession griffin 14113 ( citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x new hampshire midget (nhm; c. lanatus var. lanatus)] x u.s. plant introduction (pi) 386015 ( citrullus colocynthis). the map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) marker that w ...200212582504
resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.genomic and cdna fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (rgh fragments) were cloned from cucumis melo using degenerate-primer pcr. fifteen homologues of the nbs-lrr gene family have been isolated. the nbs-lrr homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial nbs-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a tir-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. genomic organizati ...200212582612
integration of sequence tagged microsatellite sites to the chickpea genetic map.fifty sequence-tagged microsatellite site (stms) markers and a resistant gene-analog (rga) locus were integrated into a chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., 2n = 2 x = 16 chromosomes) genetic map that was previously constructed using 142 f(6)-derived recombinant inbred lines (rils) from a cross of c. arietinum x cicer reticulatum lad. the map covers 1,174.5 cm with an average distance of 7.0 cm between markers in nine linkage groups (lgs). nine markers including the rga showed distorted segregation ( ...200212582909
ph modulation of zopfiellin antifungal activity to colletotrichum and botrytis.zopfiellin, a novel cyclooctanoid natural product isolated from zopfiella curvata no. 37-3, was evaluated in a 96-well microtiter assay for fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and fusarium oxysporum. zopfiellin exhibited ph-dependent activity, with the most mycelial growth inhibition demonstrated at ph 5.0. mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicated that zopfiellin un ...200212428951
genetic exchange of avirulence determinants and extensive karyotype rearrangements in parasexual recombinants of fusarium oxysporum.in order to genetically map and eventually isolate avirulence genes, parasexual crosses between different races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were performed by means of protoplast fusion. two wild-type strains, race 1 fol004 (a1a2a3) and race 3 fol029 (a1a2a3), were transformed with phleomycin and hygromycin resistance genes, respectively. in total 32 fusion products were selected by screening for the presence of both marker genes. the presence of either avirulence gene a1 or a3 in th ...200212436252
ethylene insensitivity impairs resistance to soilborne pathogens in tobacco and arabidopsis thaliana.transgenic ethylene-insensitive tobacco (tetr) plants spontaneously develop symptoms of wilting and stem necrosis when grown in nonautoclaved soil. fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, thielaviopsis basicola, rhizopus stolonifer, and two pythium spp. were isolated from these diseased tetr plants and demonstrated to be causal agents of the disease symptoms. pathogenicity of the two pythium isolates and four additional pythium spp. was tested on ethylene-insensitive tobacco and arabidopsis seedlings. in ...200212437306
pyrrolizidine alkaloids from senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth.we investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (pas) from senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of fusarium oxysporum, two of f. sambucinum, and two of trichoderma sp). fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations of monocrotaline, retrorsine, or a purified extract of pas from s. jacobaea. the growth rate of six strains was inhibited by pas at the highest test concentration (3.33 mm), with the magnitude of the ...200212449504
pananotin, a potent antifungal protein from roots of the traditional chinese medicinal herb panax notoginseng.the roots of the sanchi ginseng, panax notoginseng, were extracted with an aqueous buffer. the extract was chromatographed on a cm-cellulose column to remove extraneous unadsorbed proteins. the adsorbed fraction was dialyzed and chromatographed on affi-gel blue gel. the adsorbed fraction was again collected, dialyzed and applied on a column of mono s. the second peak was dialyzed and chromatographed on an fplc-gel filtration superdex 75 column. an antifungal protein with an n-terminal sequence s ...200212451495
development of a selective myclobutanil agar (mba) medium for the isolation of fusarium species from asparagus fields.a new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of fusarium, species is proposed. ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (pcnb), rose bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. first, mycelium growth and colony appearance of alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, cladosporium cladosporioides, epicoccum nigrum, fusarium sp., fuisarium solani, fusariu ...200212455616
infection of tubercles of the parasitic weed orobanche aegyptiaca by mycoherbicidal fusarium species.progression of the infection by host-specific strains of fusarium oxysporum and fusarium arthrosporioides of orobanche aegyptiaca (egyptian broomrape) tubercles attached to tomato roots was tracked using light, confocal and electron microscopy. mycelia transformed with the gene for green fluorescent protein were viewed using a confocal microscope. fungal penetration was preceded by a rapid loss of starch, with approx. 10 % remaining at 9 h and no measurable starch at 24 h. penetration into the o ...200212466097
effect of fusaric acid and phytoanticipins on growth of rhizobacteria and fusarium oxysporum.suppression of soilborne diseases by biocontrol agents involves complex interactions among biocontrol agents and the pathogen and between these microorganisms and the plant. in general, these interactions are not well characterized. in this work, we studied (i) the diversity among strains of fluorescent pseudomonas spp., bacillus spp., and paenibacillus sp. for their sensitivity to fusaric acid (fac) and phytoanticipins from different host plants, (ii) the diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogen ...200212556125
[allelopathic potential of volatile oil from mikania micrantha].mikania micrantha, an exotic plant species, is an important weed in south china. the volatile oil of the weed species had significant biological activities on plants and their pathogens, particularly pyricularia grisea. the results showed that the seeding growth of 6 plant species decreased obviously when exposed to increasing concentration (200, 400, 800, 1600 mg.l-1) of the volatile oil. the fresh weight of all test plants decreased, and the emergence of all test plants delayed for 1-2 days un ...200212557680
rhizobacteria-induced changes in tomato metabolism and their relationship to induced resistance against fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici. 200212701416
growth and sporulation of some pathogenic fungi in the presence of grapefruit extract.development of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis, f. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, botrytis cinerea and b. elliptica in the presence of grapefruit extract (ge) was evaluated. amendment of potato-dextrose agar with 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 inhibited linear growth of tested species at least in 50%. addition of 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 of medium inhibited spore germination of f. oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis about 34% whereas germ tube growth was suppressed in 87%. in case of botrytis species, b. cinerea ...200212701438
fatty acid composition from an epiphytic strain of fusarium oxysporum associated with algal crusts.the fatty acid composition from fusarium oxysporum b1, a fungal epiphyte from algal crusts, was determined. the most prominent fatty acids found in the mycelium were 18:1 omega9c, 16:0 and 18:0. these compounds amounted 47% of total fatty acids, whereas remaining fatty acids identified, including beta-hydroxylated, iso-branched, diunsaturated and odd-numbered derivatives were present in minor amounts.200212708828
cloning of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum identifies a new member of the acyl-coa dehydrogenase superfamily.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (nao) from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the respective aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the sequences of several peptides from the fungal enzyme were used to design oligonucleotides for the isolation of a portion of the nao gene from an f. oxysporum genomic dna preparation. this sequence was used to clone the cdna for nao from an f. oxysporum cdna library. the sequence of the cloned cdna showed that ...200211867731
novel aspects of tomato root colonization and infection by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis using the green fluorescent protein as a marker.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is the causal agent of tomato foot and root rot disease. the green fluorescent protein (gfp) was used to mark this fungus in order to visualize and analyze the colonization and infection processes in vivo. transformation of f oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was very efficient and gfp expression was stable for at least nine subcultures. microscopic analysis of the transformants revealed homogeneity of the fluorescent signal, which was ...200211878320
isotope effects and intermediates in the reduction of no by p450(nor).the mechanism of the heme-thiolate-dependent nadh-no reductase (p450(nor)) from fusarium oxysporum was investigated by kinetic isotope effects including protio, [4s-2h]-, [4r-2h]-, [4,4(2)h(2)]-nadh and stopped-flow measurements. the respective kinetic isotope effects were measured at high no concentrations and were found to be 1.7, 2.3 and 3.8 indicating a rate-limitation at the reduction step and a moderate stereoselectivity in binding of the cofactor nadh. in a different approach the kinetic ...200211897349
new nystatin polymeric complexes and their in vitro antifungal evaluation in a model study with fusarium oxysporum.six water-soluble nystatin-polyvilnylpyrrolidone complexes with respective mw of 10 kda (nc1), 25 kda (nc2), 30 kda (nc3), 40 kda (nc4), 90 kda (nc5), 360 kda (nc6) were synthesized. the activity of the complexes was compared with that of nystatin against growth and spore germination of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radiciscucumerinum. the ed50 value (effective dose) of free nystatin in aqueous solution on growth inhibition on solid medium was determined at 35.7 ppm. the ed50 of the complexes nc3, nc ...200211913760
evolution of the fot1 transposons in the genus fusarium: discontinuous distribution and epigenetic inactivation.to understand the evolution of fot1, a member of the pogo family widely dispersed in ascomycetes, we have performed a phylogenetic survey across the genus fusarium divided into six sections. the taxonomic distribution of fot1 is not homogeneous but patchy; it is prevalent in the fusarium oxysporum complex, absent in closely related sections, and found in five species from the most distant section martiella. multiple copies of fot1 were sequenced from each strain in which the element occurs. in t ...200211919292
aberrant transposition of a tc1-mariner element, impala, in the fungus fusarium oxysporum.we previously determined that the impalad transposable element of fusarium oxysporum was able to mobilize a non autonomous copy of impala ( niad::imp::hph), inserted in the niad gene encoding nitrate reductase. generally, mobilization results in the recovery of nia(+) revertants at low frequency. in the course of this study, we recovered a transformant that gave rise to nia(+) revertants at a high rate. these revertants displayed atypical phenotypes and showed a niad hybridization pattern differ ...200211919718
nitrate reductase-formate dehydrogenase couple involved in the fungal denitrification by fusarium oxysporum.dissimilatory nitrate reductase (nar) was solubilized and partially purified from the large particle (mitochondrial) fraction of the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum and characterized. many lines of evidence showed that the membrane-bound nar is distinct from the soluble, assimilatory nitrate reductase. further, the spectral and other properties of the fungal nar were similar to those of dissimilatory nars of escherichia coli and denitrifying bacteria, which are comprised of a molybdoprote ...200211926996
role in pathogenesis of two endo-beta-1,4-xylanase genes from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.a gene, xyl4, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with family 11 xylanases, was identified from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. expression of xyl4 is induced on oat spelt xylan as the carbon source, subject to carbon catabolite repression and preferentially expressed at alkaline ambient ph. transcript levels of xyl4 on an inducing carbon source are differentially regulated by the nature and concentration of the nitrogen source. as ...200211929211
purification of angularin, a novel antifungal peptide from adzuki beans.an antifungal peptide was isolated from the adzuki bean with a procedure involving affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose. the protein designated angularin was adsorbed on both types of chromatographic media and possessed a molecular weight of 8 kda. angularin exhibited antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including mycospharella arachidiocola and botrytis cinerea. it inhibited mycelial growth in b. cinerea with an ic50 of ...200211931582
thiourea derivatives and their nickel(ii) and platinum(ii) complexes: antifungal activity.we have synthesized two thiourea derivatives of methyl anthranilate (1, 2) and their complexes with nickel (3) and platinum(ii) (4). we have also prepared the complexes of nickel(ii) with two benzoylthiourea derivatives (5, 6). the obtained compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (ft-ir, uv-vis, nmr), mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. compound 1, c(20)h(23)n(3)o(2)s, crystallizes in monoclinic space group p21/n, with z=4, and unit cell parameters, a=8.8042 ...200211931966
cross reaction between a pan-candida genus probe and fusarium spp. in a fatal case of fusarium oxysporum pneumonia. 200211939400
spectral shift of ultraweak photon emission from sweet potato during a defense response.consecutive spectral analyses of ultraweak photon emission from sweet potato showing a defense response were conducted to observe the process of physiological transition. the spectrum showed a drastic transition from 2 to 10 h after inoculation with fusarium oxysporum, during which the emission intensity increased slowly. the spectrum was stable from 10 to 36 h after inoculation, whereas the emission intensity peaked approximately 20 h after inoculation. a change in the physiological state conne ...200211950100
ocatin. a novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.the most abundant soluble tuber protein from the andean crop oca (oxalis tuberosa mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd and an isoelectric point of 4.8. this protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic ba ...200211950978
metabolizable and non-metabolizable sugars activate different signal transduction pathways in tomato.to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of sugar signaling in plants, the effect of derivatives of the transport sugar sucrose (suc), the suc isomers palatinose and turanose, and the suc analog fluoro-suc were tested. photo-autotrophic suspension culture cells of tomato (lycopersicon peruvianum) were used to study their effect on the regulation of marker genes of source and sink metabolism, photosynthesis, and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks). suc and glucose (g ...200211950996
a tobacco s-like rnase inhibits hyphal elongation of plant pathogens.ribonuclease (rnase) ne gene expression is induced in tobacco leaves in response to phytophthora parasitica. using antibodies directed against rnase ne, we demonstrate that rnase ne is extracellular at the early steps of the interaction, while the fungal tip growth is initiated in the apoplastic compartment. after production in pichia pastoris and biochemical purification, we show that the s-like rnase ne inhibits hyphal growth from p. parasitica zoospores and from fusarium oxysporum conidia in ...200211952127
a new antifungal protein and a chitinase with prominent macrophage-stimulating activity from seeds of phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto.from the seeds of the pinto bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto), a chitinase and a novel antifungal protein, both with the ability of markedly augmenting nitrite production by murine peritoneal macrophages, were isolated. the antifungal proteins, designated phasein a and phasein b, exhibited molecular weights of 28 and 32 kda, respectively. phaseins a and b were adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and were eluted as adjacent peaks from cm-sepharose. phasein a demonstrated potent antif ...200211785974
biochemical evidence for the activation of distinct subsets of mitogen-activated protein kinases by voltage and defense-related stimuli.activation of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases is a common reaction of plant cells in defense-related signal transduction pathways. to gain insight into the mechanisms that determine specificity in response to a particular stimulus, a biochemical approach has been employed. photoautotrophic suspension culture cells of tomato (lycopersicon peruvianum) were used as experimental system to characterize map kinase activation by different stress-related stimuli. an elicitor preparation of the t ...200211788772
cay-i, a fungicidal saponin from capsicum sp. fruit.saponins are steroidal or terpenoid-based glycosides with surface active properties. a steroidal saponin, cay-1, with a molecular weight of 1243.35 da, was isolated and purified to homogeneity from commercially available dry, ground fruit of capsicum frutescens. cay-1 was shown to be a potent fungicide for the germinating conidia of aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. parasiticus and a. niger with species-dependent ld90 values between 3 and 20 microm. activity against some aspergillus species w ...200212058725
gibberellin and auxin-indole production by plant root-fungi and their biosynthesis under salinity-calcium interaction.rhizosphere and rhizoplane of fababean (vicia faba), melochia (corchorus olitorius), sesame (sesamum indicum) and soyabean (glycine max) plants are inhabited with fungi, mostly aspergillus flavus, a. niger, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium corylophilum, p. cyclopium, p. funiculosum and rhizopus stolonifer. all fungal species have the ability to produce gibberellin (ga) but f. oxysporum was found to produce both ga and indole-acetic acid (iaa). the optimum period for ga and iaa production by f. ox ...200212073817
resistance of polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [citrullus lanatus (thunb.) matsum et nakai] to fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the polish climate. this species is frequently at risk of fusarium oxysporum infection. between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. the test was conducted with the use of four isolates of f. oxysporum: three from polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth ...200212080172
cicerin and arietin, novel chickpea peptides with different antifungal potencies.two antifungal peptides with novel n-terminal sequences, designated cicerin and arietin were isolated from seeds of the chickpea (cicer arietinum), respectively. both peptides were adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 8.2 and 5.6 kda, respectively. arietin was more strongly adsorbed on cm-sepharose than cicerin and manifested a higher translation-inhibiting activity in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and a higher antifungal potency ...200212084511
transcriptional control of nitric oxide reductase gene (cyp55) in the fungal denitrifier fusarium oxysporum.fungal denitrification is a dissimilating metabolic mechanism for nitrate and was first described in fusarium oxysporum. here we investigated regulatory systems of expression of cyp55, which encodes cytochrome p450 (p450nor) and is essential for the fungal denitrification. promoter-reporter analysis of f. oxysporum cyp55 using escherichia coli beta-galactosidase showed that the region between nucleotides -526 and -515 was critical for induction by nitrate. it contained a nucleotide sequence simi ...200212092813
immunoglobulin g antibodies against indoor dampness-related microbes and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against microbes related to indoor dampness problems have been used as potential biomarkers of fungal exposure in clinical investigations. there is limited information on their relation to asthma. we conducted a population-based incident case-control study to assess the risk of asthma in relation to specific igg antibodies to eight dampness-related microbes: aspergillus fumigatus, a. versicolor, cladosporium cladosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, sporobolomyces sa ...200212100029
a new antifungal peptide from rice beans.a peptide, possessing a molecular mass of 5 kda and demonstrating remarkable sequence homology to the cowpea 10 kda protein precursor and garden pea disease resistance response protein, was isolated from rice bean seeds. the peptide was adsorbed on cm-sepharose and affi-gel blue gel. it inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, rhizoctonia solani and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it stimulated incorporation of methyl [3h] thymidine into mouse splenocytes, inhibi ...200212102720
the b' helix determines cytochrome p450nor specificity for the electron donors nadh and nadph.nitric oxide reductase (nor) cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is unique because it is catalytically self-sufficient, receiving electrons directly from nadh or nadph. however, little is known about the direct binding of nadh to cytochrome. here, we report that oxidized pyridine nucleotides (nad(+) and nadp(+)) and an analogue induce a spectral perturbation in bound heme when mixed with p450nor. the p450nor isoforms are classified according to electron donor specificity for nadh or nadph. one type (fn ...200212105197
demonstration of antifungal and anti-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase activities of 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone and antibacterial activity of the pineal indole 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid.6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-mboa), a naturally occurring progonadal compound present in grasses with structural resemblance to melatonin, was tested for antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum, rhizoctonia solani and coprinus comatus. a variety of pineal products was also examined for the sake of comparison, including 5-methoxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptophol. the assay for antifungal activity was car ...200212106902
diversity of antifungal actinomycetes in various vegetative soils of korea.diversity of actinomycetes and their antifungal activities against some plant pathogenic fungi were examined in various vegetative soils from 14 different sites in the western part of korea. actinomycete counts ranged from 1.17 x 10(6) to 4.20 x 10(6) cfu x g(-1) dried soil. a total of 1510 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples. streptomyces was predominant in soils with a ph range of 5.1-6.5, 9.1-13.0% moisture, and 9.1-11.0% organic matter. most micromonospora, dactylosporangium, a ...200212109880
isolation and characterization of luffacylin, a ribosome inactivating peptide with anti-fungal activity from sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) seeds.a purification scheme involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose and mono s was employed to isolate a peptide with a molecular weight of 7.8kda from sponge gourd seeds. the peptide, which was designated luffacylin, exhibited an n-terminal sequence with pronounced resemblance to that of the 6.5kda arginine-glutamate rich polypeptide previously isolated from sponge gourd seeds. luffacylin in ...200212126727
ascalin, a new anti-fungal peptide with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase-inhibiting activity from shallot bulbs.an isolation procedure comprising ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and gel filtration on superdex 75 was used to isolate an anti-fungal peptide from the bulbs of the shallot allium ascalonicum. the peptide demonstrated a molecular weight of 9.5kda, and possessed an n-terminal sequence yqcgqgg somewhat similar to chitinases from other allium species which are however much larger in molecular we ...200212126728
isolation of a novel peroxidase from french bean legumes and first demonstration of antifungal activity of a non-milk peroxidase.a novel antifungal protein with its n-terminal sequence bearing similarity to the c-terminal sequences of peroxidases was isolated from french bean legumes. the protein, which possessed a molecular weight of 37 kda, was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. the protein exhibited peroxidase activity with a km of 58 microm and a vmax of 3.36 u/nmol. optimal peroxidase activity was found at 22 degrees c and ph 4. it exerted antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including ...200212137913
ability of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 to induce resistance against pythium ultimum infection in cucumber.the influence exerted by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. cytochemical labeling of cellulos ...200212147506
analysis of phylogenetic relationship of cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme to the fusarium solani species complex and a review of similarities in the spectrum of opportunistic infections caused by these fungi.an emerging pattern of similarity in medical case reports led to a project to compare the phylogenetic affinities of two well-known tropical fungal opportunistic pathogens, cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme, to members of the fusarium solani species complex. c. lichenicola and a. falciforme, despite their deviating conidial morphologies, were shown via sequencing of the ribosomal large subunit to be well instituted within a clade mainly consisting of typical f. solani strains ...200212149344
plant colonization by the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum requires fow1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial protein.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. the pathogenicity mutant b60 of the melon wilt pathogen f. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated dna integration mutagenesis. molecular analysis of b60 identified the affected gene, designated fow1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. alth ...200212172028
enhanced degradation of an endocrine-disrupting chemical, butyl benzyl phthalate, by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.compared to yeast esterase, fungal cutinase degraded butyl benzyl phthalate (bbp) far more efficiently; i.e., almost 60% of the bbp disappeared within 7.5 h. also, the final chemical composition significantly depended on the enzyme used. toxicity monitoring using bioluminescent bacteria showed that butyl methyl phthalate, a major product of degradation by esterase, was an oxidative toxic hazard.200212200333
vibrational, 1h-nmr spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.fourier transform raman (ft raman) and ir (ftir) and (1)h-nmr spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (dsc) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (spic span and white prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. this work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. spectroscopic ana ...200212209451
[allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. the results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of fusarium semitectum, gliocladium roseum and fusarium oxysporum, especially fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. allelopathic promotion of root e ...200212216402
survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 in the soil and phytosphere.pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. the strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, rhizoctonia bataticola, and pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. survival and colonization of nbri2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), cucumber ...200212224558
potential of a novel antibiotic, 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate, as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt of crucifers.screening for newer bioactive compounds from microbial metabolites resulted in the isolation of a novel antibiotic from the culture filtrate, streptomyces sp 201, of a soil. the bioactive compound, with antifungal and antibacterial activity, was identified as 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate. the antifungal activity of live culture, culture broth and the isolated bioactive compound showed marked inhibition against dominant soil-borne phytopathogens such as fusarium oxysporum schlect, f moniliforme s ...200211975177
fusaric acid-producing strains of fusarium oxysporum alter 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic gene expression in pseudomonas fluorescens cha0 in vitro and in the rhizosphere of wheat.the phytotoxic pathogenicity factor fusaric acid (fa) represses the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg), a key factor in the antimicrobial activity of the biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens cha0. fa production by 12 fusarium oxysporum strains varied substantially. we measured the effect of fa production on expression of the phlacbde biosynthetic operon of strain cha0 in culture media and in the wheat rhizosphere by using a translational phla'-'lacz fusion. only fa-producing f. ...200211976092
identification of novel hexapeptides bioactive against phytopathogenic fungi through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library.the purpose of the present study was to improve the antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi of the previously identified hexapeptide paf19. we describe some properties of a set of novel synthetic hexapeptides whose d-amino acid sequences were obtained through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library in a positional scanning format. as a result of the screening, 12 putative bioactive peptides were identified, synthesized, and assayed. the peptides paf26 (ac-rkkwfw ...200211976121
antifungal efficacy of bacteria isolated from marine sedentary organisms.the antibiotic-producing ability of 57 bacteria isolated from 8 marine sedentary organisms, 6 sponges (spirastrella sp., phyllospongia sp., ircinia sp., aaptos sp., azorica sp., axinella sp.), 1 soft coral (lobophytum sp.) and 1 alga (sargassum sp.), was evaluated against 6 phytopathogenic fungi (helminthosporium oryzae, rhizoctonium solani, pyricularia oryzae, fusarium oxysporum, aspergillus oryzae and a. fumigatus). bacteria of the genus bacillus (20%), pseudomonas (33%) and flavobacterium (40 ...200211980270
complete dna sequence and analysis of a mitochondrial plasmid in the mycoparasitic trichoderma harzianum strain t95.a circular plasmid called pthr1, with a monomer size of 2.6 kb, was identified in the mitochondria of a trichoderma harzianum isolate. hybridization studies using cloned plasmids revealed no dna sequence similarity between the plasmid and the mitochondrial genome of the isolate. the complete sequence of the plasmid was determined, and the sequence analysis revealed that it contained a single long open reading frame of 1818 bp. sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequence o ...200211982336
kinetic analysis of hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids by recombinant p450foxy produced by an escherichia coli expression system.cytochrome p450foxy (p450foxy, cyp505) is a fused protein of cytochrome p450 (p450) and its reductase isolated from the fungus fusarium oxysporum, which catalyzes the subterminal (omega-1 approximately omega-3) hydroxylation of fatty acids. here, we produced, purified and characterized a fused recombinant protein (rp450foxy) using the escherichia coli expression system. purified rp450foxy was catalytically and spectrally indistinguishable from the native protein, but most of the rp450foxy was re ...200211985584
occurrence of keratinophilic fungi and dermatophytes on domestic birds in nigeria.feathers, nails and beaks of one hundred and twenty common birds in nigeria, chicken [50], ducks [20], turkeys [15] and pigeons [35], were examined using the soil plate technique for their mycoflora. 15 species of fungi were recovered and they belong to the genera chrysosporium, trichophyton, microsporum, aspergillus, fusarium, mucor rhizopus, penicillium and trichoderma. microsporum gypseum was the species most frequently isolated (35% of the samples). the most common genus was chrysosporium an ...200212000131
extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus fusarium oxysporum. 200212007181
antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.petroleum ether (pe) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. the efficacy of pe extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. wild marjoram (origanum syriacum) pe extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. it resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germinatio ...200212009988
abscisic acid- and cold-induced thaumatin-like protein in winter wheat has an antifungal activity against snow mould, microdochium nivale.cold acclimation of winter wheat (triticum aestivum l.) seedlings induces accumulation in the apoplast of tatlps that are similar to thaumatin-like proteins (tlps), which are pathogenesis-related proteins. we characterized a cdna of was-3a encoding the major isoform of tatlps from winter wheat cells and showed that was-3a transcripts were markedly increased by treatment with aba and by treatment with elicitors (chitosan, beta-glucan and cell wall fractions of fusarium oxysporum and microdochium ...200212010473
effects of root-dip treatment with certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato.root-dip application of bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas fluorescens, aspergillus awamori, aspergillus niger and penicillium digitatum resulted in significant decline in the rhizosphere population of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. a significant decrease in the severity of wilt occurred with a. awamori (37.1%) and p. digitatum (21.3%) compared to the control. root-dip treatment with the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms tested resulted in significant increase in the yield of tomato, bei ...200212227549
targeted disruption of a g protein alpha subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a g protein alpha subunit, was performed by standard pcr techniques and by screening a fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the pcr product as a probe. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of g protein alpha(i) family proteins from other filamentous fungi. disruption of fga1 had no effect on vegetative growth, but reduced the ...200212228810
[new antifungal antibiotics, bacillopeptins and fusaricidins].we isolated four strains of bacteria producing antifungal antibiotics from the rhizosphere of garlic with basal rot caused by the plant pathogenic fungal strain fusarium oxysporum. among them, bacillus subtilis fr-2 was found to produce new antifungal antibiotics, named bacillopeptins a, b, and c. their structures have been determined by 1d and 2d nmr and ms experiments, and amino acid analysis coupled with chiral hplc, to be cyclic lipopeptides each containing a long-chain beta-amino acid. anot ...200212235857
microwave induced diastereoselective synthesis of spiro[indole-oxiranes] and their conversion to spiro[indole-pyrazoles].the microwave induced diastereoselective synthesis of spiro[3h-indole-3,2'-oxiranes]-3'-benzoyl-2 (1h)-one is reported. epoxidation of 3-aroylmethylene indole-2-one 1 with alkaline h2o2 under microwave irradiation in an open vessel under controlled conditions yields a diastereomeric pair of spiro[3h-indole-3,2'-oxiranes]-3'-benzoyl-2 (1h) ones 2 and 3 in 65-85% yield. the stereoselectivity depends upon the reaction time and power output. the spiro[indole-pyrazoles] 4 have been synthesised by the ...200212369445
enzyme mediated extracellular synthesis of cds nanoparticles by the fungus, fusarium oxysporum.the biosynthesis of q-state cds nanoparticles by reaction of aqueous cdso4 solution with the fungus, fusarium oxysporum, is demonstrated. nanoparticle formation proceeds by release of sulfate reductase enzymes by the fungus, conversion of sulfate ions to sulfide ions that subsequently react with aqueous cd2+ ions to yield highly stable cds nanoparticles. elucidation of an enzymatic pathway using fungi opens up the exciting possibility of developing a rational, biosynthesis strategy for nanomater ...200212371846
mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of pr proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato.the protein content of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum. peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during compatible or incompatible interactions. a new member of the pr-5 family was identified that accumulated early in both types of interaction. other pathogenesis-related proteins appeared in compatible interact ...200212376655
pathogenesis of streptoverticillium albireticuli on caenorhabditis elegans and its antagonism to soil-borne fungal pathogens.to examine the biological activity of streptoverticillium albireticuli.200212390481
genomic location of the fw gene for resistance to fusarium wilt race 1 in peas.resistance to fusarium wilt in peas (pisumsativum l.) caused by fusarium oxysporum schlect. f. sp. pisi race 1 (van hall) snyd. & hans. is conferred by a single dominant gene, fw. the gene was located in the pea genome by analyzing progenies from crosses involving genetic markers across all pea linkage groups. phenotyping of the progenies for reaction to race 1 of the fusarium wilt pathogen was determined by field screening in a "wilt-sick" plot in pullman, washington. fw was shown to be located ...200212407219
expression of a phytophthora sojae necrosis-inducing protein occurs during transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.phytophthora sojae is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean plants. to discover pathogen factors that produce disease symptoms or activate plant defense responses, we identified putative secretory proteins from expressed sequence tags (ests) and tested selected candidates using a heterologous expression assay. from an analysis of 3035 ests originating from mycelium, zoospore, and infected soybean tissues, we identified 176 putative secreted proteins. a total of 16 different cdnas ...200212410814
the tomato r gene products i-2 and mi-1 are functional atp binding proteins with atpase activity.most plant disease resistance (r) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (nbs) and a c-terminal leu-rich repeat (lrr) domain. the nbs contains three atp/gtp binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or p-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. in this article, we show that the nbs of r proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. the n-terminal halves of two tomato r proteins, i-2 conferring resistance to fusarium oxysporum and mi-1 conferring resistance to ...200212417711
effects of varying environmental conditions on biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by nonpathogenic fusarium spp.abstract the influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum (cs-20 and cs-24) and f. solani (cs-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the se ...200218944240
transgenically enhanced expression of indole-3-acetic acid confers hypervirulence to plant pathogens.abstract fusarium oxysporum and f. arthrosporioides, pathogenic on orobanche aegyptiaca, were transformed with two genes of the indole-3-acetamide (iam) pathway leading to indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) to attempt to enhance virulence. transgenic f. oxysporum lines containing both the tryptophan-2-monooxyngenase (iaam) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaah) genes produced significantly more iaa than the wild type. iam accumulated in culture extracts of f. oxysporum containing iaam alone. f. arthros ...200218944254
species of root-knot nematodes and fungal egg parasites recovered from vegetables in almería and barcelona, spain.intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of almería (35 sites) and barcelona (22 sites), spain, to determine the incidence and identity of meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. two species of meloidogyne were found in almería-m. javanica (63% of the samples) and m. incognita (31%). three species were found in barcelona, including m. incognita (50%), m. javanica (36%), and m. arenaria (14%). solanaceous crops supported larger (p < 0.05) nematode num ...200219265964
population structure and pathogenicity of members of the fusarium oxysporum complex isolated from soil and root necrosis of pea (pisum sativum l.).forty-nine strains of the fusarium oxysporum complex were isolated from five different sample locations within two neighboring pea fields. of these, 39 strains were isolated from soil and 10 from pea plants showing symptoms of root rot. twenty-eight of the isolates were tested for pathogenicity towards pea. based on percentage discoloration of the roots and stem base, the isolates were divided into three groups: seven strains were pathogenic, 14 strains were weakly pathogenic, and seven strains ...200219709296
degradation of pathogen quorum-sensing molecules by soil bacteria: a preventive and curative biological control mechanism.abstract the plasmid pme6863, carrying the aiia gene from the soil bacterium bacillus sp. a24 that encodes a lactonase enzyme able to degrade n-acyl-homoserine lactones (ahls), was introduced into the rhizosphere isolate pseudomonas fluorescens p3. this strain is not an effective biological control agent against plant pathogens. the transformant p. fluorescens p3/pme6863 acquired the ability to degrade ahls. in planta, p. fluorescens p3/pme6863 significantly reduced potato soft rot caused by erw ...200319719608
fusarium oxysporum: exploring the molecular arsenal of a vascular wilt fungus.summary taxonomy: vascular wilt fungus; ascomycete although sexual stage is yet to be found. the most closely related teleomorphic group, gibberella, is classified within the pyrenomycetes. host range: very broad at the species level. more than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families. disease symptoms: initial symptoms of vascular wilt include vein clearing and leaf epinasty, followed by stunting, yellow ...200320569392
fungal parasitism of heterodera glycines eggs as influenced by egg age and pre-colonization of cysts by other fungi.the objective of this study was to determine the effect of egg age and pre-colonization of cysts by a saprophytic or parasitic fungus on parasitism of heterodera glycines eggs by other parasitic fungi. in agar and in soil tests, fungi generally parasitized more eggs in early developmental stages than eggs containing a juvenile. the effect of pre-colonization of cysts by a fungus on parasitism of eggs by other fungi depended on the fungi involved. in most cases, pre-colonization of cysts by an un ...200319262761
modeling the survival of two soilborne pathogens under dry structural solarization.abstract structural (space) solarization of a closed, empty greenhouse for sanitation involves dry heating to 60 degrees c and higher and low relative humidity (rh), under a fluctuating temperature and rh regime. survival of inocula of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and sclerotium rolfsii during structural solarization was studied for 4 years (total of 12 experiments) in an attempt to develop a dynamic model for expressing the thermal inactivation of the pathogens. after 20 days o ...200318944324
biological control of pathogens causing root rot complex in field pea using clonostachys rosea strain acm941.abstract pea root rot complex (prrc), caused by alternaria alternata, aphanomyces euteiches, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, f. solani f. sp. pisi, mycosphaerella pinodes, pythium spp., rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a major yield-limiting factor for field pea production in canada. a strain of clonostachys rosea (syn. gliocladium roseum), acm941 (atcc 74447), was identified as a mycoparasite against these pathogens. when grown near the pathogen, acm941 often was stimulated ...200318944343
molecular markers closely linked to fusarium resistance genes in chickpea show significant alignments to pathogenesis-related genes located on arabidopsis chromosomes 1 and 5.a population of 131 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross between chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., resistant parent) and cicer reticulatum (susceptible parent) segregating for the closely linked resistances against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri races 4 and 5 was used to develop dna amplification fingerprinting markers linked to both resistance loci. bulked segregant analysis revealed 19 new markers on linkage group 2 of the genetic map on which the resistance genes are located. closest link ...200312709786
effect of genotype and root colonization in biological control of fusarium wilts in pigeonpea and chickpea by pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1.pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1, an isolate from chickpea rhizosphere in india, protected pigeonpea and chickpea plants from fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and fusarium udum. inoculation with strain pna1 significantly reduced the incidence of fusarium wilt in pigeonpea and chickpea on both susceptible and moderately tolerant genotypes. however, strain pna1 protected the plants from fusarium wilt until maturity only in moderately tolerant genotypes of pigeo ...200312718396
in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaf essential oils of chukrasia tabularis adr juss and melia dubia cav (meliaceae).the essential oils of chukrasia tabularis and melia dubia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against ten different pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human pathologies using standard antimicrobial assays. chukrasia tabularis leaf oil exhibited strong antibiotic activities against proteus vulgaris and fusarium oxysporum and did not show any activity against the tested bacteria. melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against pseudomonas ...200312722153
characterization of a new pseudomonas aeruginosa strain nj-15 as a potential biocontrol agent.phylogenetic characterization of soil isolate nj-15, based on sequence homology of a partial 746-bp fragment of 16srdna amplicon, with the ribosomal database sequences (http://www.msu.edu/rdp/cgis/phylip.cgi), validated the strain as pseudomonas aeruginosa. the strain nj-15 produced a substantial amount of indole acetic acid (iaa) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. besides, the strain also exhibited significant production of both the siderophore and hydrogen cyanide (hcn) on chrome azurol s and ...200312732958
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
volatile metabolites from salvia fruticosa as antifungal agents in soilborne pathogens.the volatile metabolites of salvia fruticosa plants, growing wild in 15 localities scattered across greece, were analyzed by means of gc and gc-ms. the essential oil content ranged from 0.69 to 4.68%, and the results of the analyses showed a noticeable variation in the amounts of the five main components [1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, and (e)-caryophyllene]. the antifungal activities of the essential oils from two localities, belonging in two different groups of cluster and ...200312744657
degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical, dehp [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate], by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.the efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (dehp) was investigated. the dehp-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e. almost 70% of the initial dehp (500 mg/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded dehp disappeared within the initial 15 min. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more than 85% of the dehp remained even after 3 days of treatment. during th ...200312750855
isolation and characterization of phorate degrading soil bacteria of environmental and agronomic significance.phorate [o,o-diethyl-s-(ethylthio)methyl phosphoradiothioate] degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil and characterized based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. the selected isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 were presumptively identified as rhizobium, pseudomonas and proteous species, respectively. the hplc analysis of phorate in bioaugmented soil revealed its complete disappearance within 40 days. the degradation isotherms of the isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 sugg ...200312753240
construction of a mitotic linkage map of fusarium oxysporum based on foxy-aflps.construction of the first mitotic linkage map of the asexual fungus fusarium oxysporum, based on a population of 32 parasexual fusion products, is reported. molecular markers were developed using a modified aflp technique which combines a foxy-specific primer with standard adapter primers. the retroposon foxy is abundantly present and highly variable in location in f. oxysporum isolates: 43% of the foxy-aflp markers tested appeared to be polymorphic between the strains fol004 and fol029. of the ...200312756533
hybrid respiration in the denitrifying mitochondria of fusarium oxysporum.induction of the mitochondrial nitrate-respiration (denitrification) system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum requires the supply of low levels of oxygen (o(2)). here we show that o(2) and nitrate (no(3)(-)) respiration function simultaneously in the mitochondria of fungal cells incubated under hypoxic, denitrifying conditions in which both o(2) and no(3)(-) act as the terminal electron acceptors. the no(3)(-) and nitrite (no(2)(-)) reductases involved in fungal denitrification share the mitochon ...200312761293
hop, an active mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a new type of active dna transposon has been identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niad target gene. two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. these elements, called hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) of 99 bp. the sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. the seq ...200312777515
formate-forming fungal catabolic pathway to supply electrons to nitrate respiration.pyruvate was catabolized anaerobically by resting cells of fusarium oxysporum to form formate and acetate. addition of nitrate decreased the accumulation of formate in the medium with concomitant formation of nitrite and n2o. the results suggested a unique metabolic pathway that occurs in fungi mediated by pyruvate-formate lyase to supply electrons via formate to fungal denitrification.200312784647
plant-based heterologous expression of mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein.mal d 2 is a thaumatin-like protein and important allergen of apple fruits that is associated with ige-mediated symptoms in apple allergic individuals. we obtained a full-length cdna clone of mal d 2 from rna isolated from ripe apple (malus domestica cv. golden delicious). the cdna's open reading frame encodes a protein of 246 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 24 residues and two putative glycosylation sites. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature mal d 2 protein results i ...200312787673
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