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carbon and nitrogen requirements of fusarium oxysporum causing cotton wilt. 196414121482
effect of buffers on the pectolytic activity of culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum. 196414152850
anaerobic growth of fusarium oxysporum.gunner, h. b. (cornell university, ithaca, n.y.), and m. alexander. anaerobic growth of fusarium oxysporum. j. bacteriol. 87:1309-1316. 1964.-fusarium oxysporum, an alleged obligate aerobe, was found to be capable of growth in the absence of molecular oxygen, provided the medium contained yeast extract, mno(2), nitrate, selenite, or ferric ions. the active substance in yeast extract was not identified. the fungus possessed hydrogenase, and was capable of utilizing h(2). under anaerobic condition ...196414188707
studies on the rhizophere microflora of plants resistant and susceptible to soil borne diseases. ii. effect of amino acids and vitamins on growth of thielaviopsis basicola (berk a. br.) ferr. and fusarium oxysporum f. lini (bolley) snyd et hans. 196414211332
[studies on the nuclear relations in fusarium oxysporum f. callistephi]. 196414310166
localization of enzymes in the mycelium and microconidia of fusarium oxysporum.maruyama, yoshiharu (cornell university, ithaca, n.y.) and martin alexander. localization of enzymes in the mycelium and microconidia of fusarium oxysporum. j. bacteriol. 84:307-312. 1962-extracts prepared from mycelium and microconidia of fusarium oxysporum f. cubense were fractionated into a soluble and four particulate fractions by differential centrifugation, and the distribution of several enzymes in the isolated cell constituents was examined. succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase, an ...196214470662
gymnin, a potent defensin-like antifungal peptide from the yunnan bean (gymnocladus chinensis baill).from the seeds of the yunnan bean, we purified an antifungal peptide using affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, fplc-ion exchange chromatography on mono s, and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. the antifungal peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel at ph 7.8 and mono s at ph 4.5. it exhibited a molecular mass of 6.5 kda in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its n-terminal sequence closely resembled defensin-related peptides. the peptid ...200314499273
isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds.a novel antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 8 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration on superdex 75 and designated cucurmoschin, was isolated from the seeds of the black pumpkin. the peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. cucurmoschin inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella oxysporum. it inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysat ...200314499274
pentamidine is active in vitro against fusarium species.fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (pnt) against 10 clinical isolates of fusarium species (five fusarium solani isolates and five non-f. solani isolates) by using the national committee for clinical laboratory standards microdilution method in three different media (rpmi, rpmi-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye stai ...200314506038
an antifungal chitinase produced by bacillus cereus with shrimp and crab shell powder as a carbon source.the production of inexpensive chitinolytic enzymes is an element in the utilization of shellfish processing wastes. in this study, shrimp and crab shell powder prepared by treating shrimp and crab processing wastes with boiling and crushing was used as a substrate for the isolation of an antifungal chitinase-producing microorganism. bacillus cereus yq 308, a strain isolated from the soil samples, excreted one chitinase when cultured in a medium containing 2% (wt/vol) shrimp and crab shell powder ...200314506855
effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7s storage proteins) and fungal cells.vicilins (7s storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. in the present work vicilins from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and fusarium oxysporum conidia. helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and ulex europaeus lectin were ...200314510235
a structured kinetic model for suspension cultures of taxus chinensis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum.a structured kinetic model was established to describe the process of taxol formation in suspension cultures of taxus chinesis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum. in this model, the role of intracellular starch as a storage carbon source had to be taken into account. substrate uptake, culture growth, cell respiration, and secondary metabolites, predicted by the model, agreed with those obtained experimentally. the effective factors of oligosaccharide elicitation, e ...200314514062
the photolyase gene from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.survival of irradiated spores from fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (uv) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of uv. a genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from f. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the neurospora crassa photolyase gene. the f. oxysporum phr1 cdna was isolated and expressed in a photo ...200314516768
role of salicylic acid in systemic resistance induced by pseudomonas fluorescens against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in chickpea.selected isolates of pseudomonas fluorescens (pf1-94, pf4-92, pf12-94, pf151-94 and pf179-94) and chemical resistance inducers (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, dl-norvaline, indole-3-carbinol and lichenan) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea. a marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in p. fluorescens treated plants. the isolates of p. fluorescens systemically induced resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea ...200314521230
successful outcome of disseminated fusarium infection with skin localization treated with voriconazole and amphotericin b-lipid complex in a patient with acute leukemia.a disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection with skin localization was diagnosed in a woman with a relapse of b-acute leukemia during induction chemotherapy. the infection was refractory to amphotericin b-lipid complex alone but responded successfully when voriconazole was added.200314532255
hydrolysis of xylan and fermentation of xylose to ethanol.the focus in the development of pulping processes has usually been exclusively on cellulose. however, hemicellulose could serve as a valuable source of hexose and pentose sugars. consequently, it should not be destroyed in a process designed for very high cellulose fibre yields. novel procedures developed for production of ethanol by the fermentation of pentoses as well as hexoses provide new possibilities of hemicellulose utilization. many fungi produce extracellular hemicellulases. in the pres ...198414545698
construction of a hindiii bacterial artificial chromosome library and its use in identification of clones associated with disease resistance in chickpea.a chickpea ( cicer arietinum l.) bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library from germplasm line, flip 84-92c, was constructed to facilitate positional cloning of disease resistance genes and physical mapping of the genome. the bac library has 23,780 colonies and was calculated to comprise approximately 3.8 haploid-genome equivalents. studies on 120 randomly chosen clones revealed an average insert size of 100 kb and no empty clones. colony hybridization using the rubp carboxylase large subuni ...200414564396
mollisin, an antifungal protein from the chestnut castanea mollissima.the isolation of a protein designated mollisin, with an n-terminal sequence manifesting some similarity to thaumatin-like proteins (tlps), and possessing a molecular mass of 28 kda which is higher than those of tlps, is reported herein from the seeds of the chestnut castanea mollisima. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. mollisin exhibited a molecular mass of 28 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as in ...200314598205
interactions in the tomato rhizosphere of two pseudomonas biocontrol strains with the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes foot and root rot of tomato plants, which can be controlled by the bacteria pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 and p. chlororaphis pcl1391. induced systemic resistance is thought to be involved in biocontrol by p. fluorescens wcs365. the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn), as well as efficient root colonization, are essential in the mechanism of biocontrol by p. chlororaphis pcl1391. to understand the effects of bacteri ...200314601666
overexpression of a cell wall glycoprotein in fusarium oxysporum increases virulence and resistance to a plant pr-5 protein.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae is a causal agent for vascular wilt disease in tobacco. it is sensitive to osmotin, a tobacco pathogenesis-related protein (pr-5) that is implicated in plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. we show that osmotin susceptibility of f. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae was reduced by overexpression of the heterologous cell wall glycoprotein saccharomyces cerevisiae protein containing inverted repeats (pir2), a member of the pir family of fungal cell wall glycopr ...200314617095
selective inhibition of trypsins by insect peptides: role of p6-p10 loop.pmp-d2 and hi, two peptides from locusta migratoria, were shown to belong to the family of tight-binding protease inhibitors. however, they interact weakly with bovine trypsin (k(i) around 100 nm) despite a trypsin-specific arg at the primary specificity site p1. here we demonstrate that they are potent inhibitors of midgut trypsins isolated from the same insect and of a fungal trypsin from fusarium oxysporum (k(i) <or= 0.02 nm). therefore, they display a selectivity not existing for the parent ...200314622007
isolation and characterization of a 29-kda glycoprotein with antifungal activity from bulbs of urginea indica.in this study an antifungal protein from urginea indica bulbs was purified to homogeneity by acid precipitation, diol 300 gel-filtration, and c(18) reverse phase hplc. its molecular mass was estimated to be 29 kda and periodic acid-schiff (pas) staining showed that identified antifungal molecule is a glycoprotein. the neutralization of antifungal activity after periodate oxidation of 29 kda glycoprotein suggests that the glycan part of the molecule appears to be involved in antifungal activity. ...200314623334
antimicrobial activity and constituents of coccoloba acrostichoides.the ethanol extract and fractions from coccoloba acrostichoides aerial parts were assayed for in vitro antimicrobial activity. the extract was active against the assayed bacteria while most of the fractions also inhibited fungal growth, especially the n-hexane and etoac fractions. the isolated beta-sitosterol and betulin were tested, being the last one active against fusarium oxysporum.200314630184
combination therapy of disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection with terbinafine and amphotericin b.a case of disseminated infection with fusarium oxysporum following chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukemia is reported. antifungal treatment was successful with a 13-day course of oral terbinafine 250 mg t.i.d. in combination with amphotericin b deoxycholate 1.0-1.5 mg/kg qd and subsequently intravenous liposomal amphotericin b 5 mg/kg qd. preceding monotherapy with amphotericin b deoxycholate 1.0-1.5 mg/kg qd had not stopped the progression of infection. the combination therapy described her ...200414648020
geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. in this paper, we report on the use of geranium (pelargonium graveolens) leaf extract in the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. on treating aqueous silver nitrate solution with geranium leaf extract, rapid reduction of the silver ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable, crystalline silver nanoparticles in solution. ...200314656132
induction, purification, and characterization of two extracellular alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases from fusarium oxysporum.in the presence of l-arabinose as sole carbon source, fusarium oxysporum produces two alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases (abfs) named abf1 and abf2, with molecular masses of 200 and 180 kda, respectively. the two f. oxysporum proteins have been purified to homogeneity. the purified enzymes are composed of three equal subunits and are neutral proteins with pis of 6.0 and 7.3 for abf1 and abf2, respectively. with p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-arabinofuranoside (pnpa) as the substrate, abf1 and abf2 exhibited km ...200314663498
purification of glysojanin, an antifungal protein, from the black soybean glycine soja.a monomeric protein, with a molecular mass of 25 kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling a segment of chitin synthase, was isolated from the seeds of the black soybean glycine soja. the protein, designated glysojanin, demonstrated potent antifungal activity against the fungi fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it inhibited hiv-1 reverse transcriptase with an ic50 of 47 micromol/l, [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporation by mouse spleen cells with an ic50 of 175 micromol/l, and trans ...200314663505
antifungal clerodane diterpenes from macaranga monandra (l) muell. et arg. (euphorbiaceae).hexane and ethyl acetate phases of the methanol extract of macaranga monandra showed fungal growth inhibition of colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae and c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, phomopsis obscurans, and p. viticola. bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two active clerodane-type diterpenes that were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1d-, 2d-nmr, and ms) as kolavenic acid and 2-oxo-kolavenic acid. a 96-well microbioassay revealed that kolaveni ...200314664515
ph response transcription factor pacc controls salt stress tolerance and expression of the p-type na+ -atpase ena1 in fusarium oxysporum.fungi possess efficient mechanisms of ph and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. in this study, we addressed the role of the ph response transcription factor pacc in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. loss-of-function pacc(+/-) mutants showed increased sensitivity to li(+) and na(+) and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. in contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacc(c) allele ...200314665459
molecular mapping of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea.sequence-tagged microsatellite site (stms) and sequence-tagged site (sts) markers linked closely to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea were identified, and linkage between three wilt resistance genes was elucidated. the resistance to race 3 in chickpea germplasm accession wr-315 was inherited as a single gene, designated foc-3, in 100 f(7) recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of wr-315 (resistant) x c-104 (susceptible). the foc-3 gene was mapped 0.6 c ...200414689189
isolation and characterization of a lectin from annona muricata seeds.a lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from annona muricata seeds (annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on sephacryl s-200, ion exchange chromatography on a deae sp-5 pw column, and molecular exclusion on a protein pak glass 300 sw column. sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kda and 22 kda. however, only one band was seen in native page. the mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance li ...200314714732
fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. role of acetyl coa synthetase in anaerobic atp synthesis.fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. the fungus fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp (zhou, z., takaya, n., nakamura, a., yamaguchi, m., takeo, k., and shoun, h. (2002) j. biol. chem. 277, 1892-1896). we identified the aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. the results showed that assimilatory ...200414722082
a one-step method to convert vectors into binary vectors suited for agrobacterium-mediated transformation.bacterial artificial chromosomes (bacs) are widely used for the construction of physical maps, positional-cloning and whole-genome sequencing strategies. unfortunately, their use for functional genomics is limited, as currently there is no efficient method to use bacs directly for complementation. we describe a novel strategy for one-step conversion of any bac into a binary bac (bibac). using agrobacterium tumefaciens, these bibacs can be efficiently transformed to virtually all organisms, inclu ...200414745506
[bioprotection mechanisms of the lentil plant by rhizobium leguminosarum against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis].living and heat-killed bacterial cells of rhizobium leguminosarum protected totally lentil plants against infection by the pathogen fusarium oxysporum mr 84. culture filtrate of this rhizobacterium was also able to protect the plants to a high degree. however, when they were inoculated separately of the pathogen, living bacterial cells did not protect the plants whereas culture filtrate and killed bacterial cells protected them. these results suggest that rhizobium cannot protect lentil plants w ...200314746271
specific detection of the toxigenic species fusarium proliferatum and f. oxysporum from asparagus plants using primers based on calmodulin gene sequences.fusarium proliferatum and fusarium oxysporum are the causal agents of a destructive disease of asparagus called fusarium crown and root rot. f. proliferatum from asparagus produces fumonisin b1 and b2, which have been detected as natural contaminants in infected asparagus plants. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were developed for the rapid identification of f. proliferatum and f. oxysporum in asparagus plants. the primer pairs are based on calmodulin gene sequences. the pcr products from ...200414757245
experimental evidence of the pathogenicity of fusarium oxysporum schl. f. to the oil palm (elaeis guineensis j.). 195114826797
effect of auxins on the mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporum var. cubense. 195214941055
fusarium oxysporum as a multihost model for the genetic dissection of fungal virulence in plants and mammals.fungal pathogens cause disease in plant and animal hosts. the extent to which infection mechanisms are conserved between both classes of hosts is unknown. we present a dual plant-animal infection system based on a single strain of fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of vascular wilt disease in plants and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. injection of microconidia of a well-characterized tomato pathogenic isolate (isolate 4287) into the lateral tail vein of immunodepressed mice resulted ...200414977985
nitrous oxide-forming codenitrification catalyzed by cytochrome p450nor.intact cells of the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum were previously shown to catalyze codenitrification to form a hybrid nitrous oxide (n2o) species from nitrite and other nitrogen compounds such as azide and ammonia. here we show that cytochrome p450nor can catalyze the codenitrification reaction to form n2o from nitric oxide (no) but not nitrite, and azide or ammonia. the results show that the direct substrate of the codenitrification by intact cells should not be nitrite but no, which ...200414981321
eryngin, a novel antifungal peptide from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom pleurotus eryngii.an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 10k da was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom pleurotus eryngii. the peptide, designated as eryngin, inhibited mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and s-sepharose. its n-terminal sequence demonstrated some similarity to the antifungal protein from the mushroom lyophyllum shimeiji and little resemblance to thaumatin and thaumatin-like p ...200415003349
a ribonuclease with antimicrobial, antimitogenic and antiproliferative activities from the edible mushroom pleurotus sajor-caju.a 12 kda ribonuclease preferential for poly u and with much lower activity toward poly a, poly g and poly c was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom pleurotus sajor-caju. a purification procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, affinity chromatography on red-sepharose and heparin-sepharose, and fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on superdex 75 was used. the ribonuclease was adsorbed on all of the first three types of chromatographic media. it ...200415003351
potential role of pathogen signaling in multitrophic plant-microbe interactions involved in disease protection.multitrophic interactions mediate the ability of fungal pathogens to cause plant disease and the ability of bacterial antagonists to suppress disease. antibiotic production by antagonists, which contributes to disease suppression, is known to be modulated by abiotic and host plant environmental conditions. here, we demonstrate that a pathogen metabolite functions as a negative signal for bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis, which can determine the relative importance of biological control mechanis ...200415006813
the evolutionary biology of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is an anamorphic species that includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. plant pathogenic forms cause a wilt disease and are grouped into formae speciales based on their host range; some are further subdivided into pathogenic races. many formae speciales are comprised of multiple clonal lineages and, in some cases, a pathogenic race is associated with more than one clonal lineage, suggesting independent origins. although some evidence suggests one pathogenic race may ...199715012517
ren1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. f. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by ...200415020411
fusarium species and fusarium wilt pathogens associated with native gossypium populations in australia.fusarium isolates were extracted from stems and rhizosphere soils of 79 populations of four gossypium species native to two regions of inland australia in 2001. six fusarium species were isolated from 31 (3%) of the 919 stem samples. f. semitectum was predominant, occurring mostly in g. bickii populations and accounting for 81% of the isolates recovered. twenty fusarium species were isolated from 68 (87%) of the 78 composite soil samples, with f. solani (71%), f. compactum (8%), f. oxysporum (5% ...200415035503
fine mapping of the tomato i-3 gene for fusarium wilt resistance and elimination of a co-segregating resistance gene analogue as a candidate for i-3.the i-3 gene from the wild tomato species lycopersicon pennellii confers resistance to race 3 of the devastating vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. as an initial step in a positional cloning strategy for the isolation of i-3, we converted restriction fragment length polymorphism and conserved orthologue set markers, known genes and a resistance gene analogue (rga) mapping to the i-3 region into pcr-based sequence characterised amplified region (scar) and cleaved amplif ...200415045176
improved technique for rapid and non-destructive in vitro differentiation between resistant and susceptible banana clones of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense were applied to field-grown banana leaves of susceptible and resistant clones. the difference in leaf lesions, measured after 48 h, varied from 13 to 51 mm2 depending on the composition of the growth medium.200415049365
extracellular matrix protein gene, emp1, is required for appressorium formation and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.magnaporthe grisea, the causal fungus of rice blast, forms a specialized infection structure called an appressorium that is crucial for host plant penetration. a cdna clone of m. grisea, showing strong sequence homology to fem1 of fusarium oxysporum and encoding an extracellular matrix protein, was isolated during an expressed sequence tag (est) analysis of an appressorium cdna library and named extracellular matrix protein 1 (emp1). sequence analysis of the corresponding genomic clone revealed ...200415055545
cloning and functional expression of a mungbean defensin vrd1 in pichia pastoris.it was shown previously that a bacterially expressed mungbean defensin vrcrp exhibited both antifungal and insecticidal activities. to isolate this protein in a large quantity for its characterization, the defensin cdna was expressed in pichia pastoris and the recombinant defensin (rvrd1) was purified. the recombinant vrd1 was shown to inhibit the growth of fungi such as fusarium oxysporum, pyricularia oryza, rhizoctonia solani, and trichophyton rubrum and development of bruchid larva. the prote ...200415080630
a new class (penaeidin class 4) of antimicrobial peptides from the atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus) exhibits target specificity and an independent proline-rich-domain function.a highly pure, chemically defined representative of a new class of antimicrobial peptide from the atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus), penaeidin class 4 [pen4-1 (penaeidin class 4 isoform 1)], was produced synthetically. chemical synthesis was achieved by native ligation from two separate domains yielding a bioactive peptide that reflected the characteristics of native penaeidin. synthetic pen4-1 proved to be an effective antimicrobial peptide, particularly against the broad-spectrum p ...200415084144
growth and disease response of soybeans from early maturity groups to ozone and fusarium oxysporum.the single and combined effects of ozone (o(3)) and fusarium oxysporum on growth and disease expression of soybean genotypes differing in foliar sensitivity to o(3) were studied in the greenhouse. o(3) had no effect on root and hypocotyl rot severity of pi 153.283 (o(3)-sensitive, s) or pi 189.907 (o(3)-tolerant, t) maturity group i soybean lines. plants of both genotypes infected with f. oxysporum and exposed to o(3) had greater reductions in relative growth rate (rgr), net assimilation rate (n ...198715092691
physical and biochemical interactions of soil fungi with asbestos fibers.iron, a structural component of most asbestos, is thought to play a crucial role in asbestos toxicity. surface iron favors fiber uptake by mammalian cells and promotes the generation of free radicals with consequent dna and lipid damage. in some cases, chemical removal of iron from asbestos fibers has reduced several cellular responses to asbestos. since iron represents an essential element for soil microorganisms, many of them have developed mechanisms to scavenge this element from poorly solub ...200415095889
antimicrobial effects of quercus ilex l. extract.the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of quercus ilex l. (pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. a total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. the results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro l/ml. the results showed that ...200415103667
fungus-elicited metabolites from plants as an enriched source for new leishmanicidal agents: antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins from the banana plant (musa acuminata) target mitochondria of leishmania donovani promastigotes.two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on leishmania donovani promastigotes and l. infantum amastigotes. drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 micro g/ml. their lethal mec ...200415105102
isolation of allicepin, a novel antifungal peptide from onion (allium cepa) bulbs.from the bulbs of the onion allium cepa, a novel antifungal peptide distinct from the antimicrobial peptide previously reported from onion seeds was isolated. the antifungal peptide, designated allicepin, was purified with a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. allicepin was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. the molecular weight ...200415113089
effect of static magnetic field on growth and sporulation of some plant pathogenic fungi.growth and sporulation of phytopathogenic microscopic fungi were studied under a static magnetic field. the applied flux densities were 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mt. the magnetic field decreased the growth of colonies by 10% using this flux density region. at 0.1 mt flux density, the deviations are significant, p =.001, while in other cases the deviations generally are not significant. at the same time, the number of the developed conidia of alternaria alternata and curvularia inaequalis increased by 68-1 ...200415114642
an analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of the pea pathogenicity genes of nectria haematococca mpvi supports the hypothesis of their origin by horizontal transfer and uncovers a potentially new pathogen of garden pea: neocosmospora boniensis.the filamentous fungus nectria haematococca mating population vi (mpvi) contains a cluster of genes required to cause disease on pea. this cluster of pea pathogenicity genes (the pep cluster) is located on a supernumerary chromosome that is dispensable for normal growth in culture. the genes in the pep cluster have a different g+c content and codon usage compared with the genes located on the other chromosomes and a non-homogeneous distribution within the species. these features suggest that the ...200415118835
immobilization of biogenic gold nanoparticles in thermally evaporated fatty acid and amine thin films.we have recently demonstrated the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions by the fungus fusarium oxysporum and with extract of geranium (pelargonium graveolens) leaf. in this paper, we demonstrate the immobilization of biogenic gold nanoparticles in lipid thin films deposited by thermal evaporation. the charge on the gold nanoparticles synthesized by both the fungus and the geranium plant extract is used to facilitate their immobilization in both ...200415120279
the role of the jasmonate response in plant susceptibility to diverse pathogens with a range of lifestyles.plants defend themselves against attack from insects and pathogens with various resistance strategies. the jasmonate and salicylate signaling pathways are two induced responses that protect plants against these attackers. knowledge of the range of organisms that are affected by each response is important for understanding how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attackers and the generality of effect of different resistance mechanisms. the jasmonate response is known to protect plan ...200415133157
fusion proteins comprising a fusarium-specific antibody linked to antifungal peptides protect plants against a fungal pathogen.in planta expression of recombinant antibodies recognizing pathogen-specific antigens has been proposed as a strategy for crop protection. we report the expression of fusion proteins comprising a fusarium-specific recombinant antibody linked to one of three antifungal peptides (afps) as a method for protecting plants against fungal diseases. a chicken-derived single-chain antibody specific to antigens displayed on the fusarium cell surface was isolated from a pooled immunocompetent phage display ...200415146196
biological control of fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of onion wilt by antagonistic bacteria.fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum sch. is one of the most important diseases of onion in iran. application of chemicals especially as soil drench, increased cost of onion production and may be dangerous for environment. one of the effective techniques to suppress soil-born diseases in biological control with antagonistic rhizobacteria. experiment were carried out with 120 bacterial isolates that were collected from onion rhizosphere. six highly effective isolates were selected from thes ...200315151288
rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens using a dna array.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or v. dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we describe t ...200315151292
field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by puccinia asparagi d.c.; 2) fusarium crown and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (cohen & heald) and fusarium proliferatum (matstush.) nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by rhizoctonia violacea tul. the object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus ...200315151301
alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom polyporus alveolaris.an antifungal polypeptide, with a molecular mass of 28 kda as judged by gel filtration and appearing as a single band with a molecular mass of 14 kda in sodium dodecyl suflate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom polyporus alveolaris. the antifungal polypeptide, designated as alveolarin, demonstrated an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and physalospora piricola. alveola ...200415165727
synthesis, absolute stereochemistry and molecular design of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201.the absolute stereochemistry of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201 has been established by achieving the total synthesis of the product. a series of analogues have also been synthesized by changing the side chain and their bioactivity assessed against different microbial strains. among them, 1e (r = c8h17) was found to be the most potent with mic of 8 microg/ml against mycobacterium tuberculosis, 12 microg/ml against escherichia coli and 16 microg/ml ...200415177476
onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum in são paulo, brazil.fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. we report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani (4) and fusarium oxysporum (4) in são paulo, brazil. these species were isolated from toenails in all cases. the infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. the clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkerat ...200415180157
frequency and diversity of fungi colonizing tissues of upland cotton.a study of the mycoflora of upland cotton in alabama was conducted throughout the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. plants were sampled at seedling, first bloom, full bloom, and maturity stages of development. thirty-seven genera representing 58 species of fungi were isolated, including 9 species of fusarium. fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and f. equiseti were the most common members of this genus occurring at all four sampling stages in both years. eight species accounted for 67% of the total fung ...200415180159
evaluation of nostoc strain atcc 53789 as a potential source of natural pesticides.the cyanobacterium nostoc strain atcc 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. the antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. among the target organisms, nine fungi (armillaria sp., fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, penicillium expansum, phytophthora cambivora, p. cinnamomi, rhizoctonia solani, rosellinia, sp., sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an ...200415184126
in vitro fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. extracts.to evaluate the fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. extract and one of its components against yeasts and fungi. this activity was compared with the action of ketoconazole, a known synthetic antimycotic.200415189281
gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues in response to infection with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.microarray analysis of large-scale temporal and tissue-specific plant gene expression changes occurring during a susceptible plant-pathogen interaction revealed different gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues. in hypocotyl tissues infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, increased expression of defense-related genes was observed, whereas few changes in the expression levels of defense-related genes were found in infected root tissues. in infected roots, ...200415195948
antifungal compounds from the root and root exudate of zea mays.a maize plant (zea mays) planted in a test tube was found to inhibit the growth of the soil-borne plant pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae. the antifungal compounds, 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone and 6,7-dimethoxybenzoxazolinone, were isolated from an ethanol extract of zea mays roots, and (6r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionone and (6r,9r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionol were isolated from the root exudate.200415215605
light- and singlet oxygen-mediated antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins.the light-induced singlet oxygen production and antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins isolated from infected banana plants (musa acuminata) are reported. upon absorption of light energy all studied phenylphenalenones sensitise the production of singlet oxygen in polar and non-polar media. antifungal activity of these compounds towards fusarium oxysporum is enhanced in the presence of light. these results, together with the correlation of ic50 values under illumination with the qu ...200415239009
ethylene response factor 1 mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum.ethylene response factor 1 (erf1) is a transcriptional factor from arabidopsis thaliana that regulates plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungi botrytis cinerea and plectosphaerella cucumerina and whose overexpression enhances resistance to these fungi. here, we show that erf1 also mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungi fusarium oxysporum sp. conglutinans and f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, because its constitutive expression in arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to these ...200415242170
actinchinin, a novel antifungal protein from the gold kiwi fruit.an antifungal protein designated actinchinin, with an n-terminal sequence different from that of the thaumatin-like antifungal protein from green kiwi fruit, was isolated from the gold kiwi fruit. the antifungal protein, unlike its counterpart from green kiwi fruit, did not exert antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, but was active against fusarium oxysporum which was unresponsive to thaumatin-like protein from green kiwi fruit. actinchinin was isolated using a protocol that comprised io ...200415245867
antifungal peptides, a heat shock protein-like peptide, and a serine-threonine kinase-like protein from ceylon spinach seeds.two antifungal peptides (designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins) with molecular masses of 4-5 kda and distinct n-terminal sequences, and a peptide and a protein with n-terminal sequences resembling heat shock protein (hsp) and serine-threonine kinase, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the ceylon spinach basella rubra. the purification procedure entailed saline extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ...200415245882
response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to fusarium oxysporum.defence responses of embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with fusarium oxysporum schlecht f.sp. lupini. the infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. the concentration of h2o2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. this was probably ...200415246062
the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris/cicer arietinum pathosystem: a case study of the evolution of plant-pathogenic fungi into races and pathotypes.the use of resistant cultivars is one of the most practical and cost-efficient strategies for managing plant diseases. however, the efficiency of resistant cultivars in disease management is limited by pathogenic variability in pathogen populations. knowledge of the evolutionary history and potential of the pathogen population may help to optimize the management of disease-resistance genes, irrespective of the breeding strategy used for their development. in this review, we examine the diversity ...200415248157
the fusarium wilt resistance locus fom-2 of melon contains a single resistance gene with complex features.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causes significant losses in the cultivated melon, a key member of the economically important family, the cucurbitaceae. here, we report the map-based cloning and characterization of the resistance gene fom-2 that confers resistance to race 0 and 1 of this plant pathogen. two recombination events, 75 kb apart, were found to bracket fom-2 after screening approximately 1324 gametes with pcr-based markers. sequence analysis of the fom-2 interva ...200415255859
crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms.nitroalkane oxidase (nao), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of h2o2 and nitrite. in this paper, the crystallization and preliminary x-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. the first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either p3(1)21 or p3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 a) and ...200415272176
biological synthesis of strontium carbonate crystals using the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the total biological synthesis of srco3 crystals of needlelike morphology arranged into higher order quasi-linear superstructures by challenging microorganisms such as fungi with aqueous sr2+ ions is described. we term this procedure "total biological synthesis" since the source of carbonate ions that react with aqueous sr2+ ions is the fungus itself. we believe that secretion of proteins during growth of the fungus fusarium oxysporum is responsible for modulating the morphology of strontianite ...200415274591
tomatidine and lycotetraose, hydrolysis products of alpha-tomatine by fusarium oxysporum tomatinase, suppress induced defense responses in tomato cells.many fungal pathogens of tomato produce extracellular enzymes, collectively known as tomatinases, that detoxify the preformed antifungal steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine. tomatinase from the vascular wilt pathogen of tomato fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici cleaves alpha-tomatine into the aglycon tomatidine (td) and the tetrasaccharide lycotetraose (lt). although modes of action of alpha-tomatine have been extensively studied, those of td and lt are poorly understood. here, we show tha ...200415280013
antifungal constituents of clytostoma ramentaceum and mansoa hirsuta.ethanol extracts of clytostoma ramentaceum bur. & k. schum and mansoa hirsuta dc. (bignoniaceae) inhibited the growth of standardized cultures of aspergillus niger and fusarium oxysporum, at concentrations of 400 microg and 500 microg, in bioautographic assays. the activity-guided fractionation of c. ramentaceum extract afforded ursolic acid and 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol, both active against the test fungi (100 microg). these compounds are reported for the first time in c. ramentaceum an ...200415287070
structure of inhibited trypsin from fusarium oxysporum at 1.55 a.the structure of trypsin from the fungus fusarium oxysporum has been refined at 1.55 a resolution by restrained least-squares minimization to an r-factor of 14.4%. the data were recorded from a single-crystal on the x31 beamline at embl, hamburg, using a locally developed image-plate scanner. the final model consists of 1557 protein atoms, 400 water molecules, one molecule of isopropanol and one monoisopropyl phosphoryl inhibitor group covalently bound to the catalytic ser195. comparison of the ...199515299338
siderophore production by a marine pseudomonas aeruginosa and its antagonistic action against phytopathogenic fungi.a marine isolate of fluorescent pseudomonas sp. having the ability to produce the pyoverdine type of siderophores under low iron stress (up to 10 microm iron in the succinate medium) was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biolog breathprint and siderotyping. pyoverdine production was optimum at 0.2% (w/v) succinate, ph 6.0, in an iron-deficient medium. studies carried out in vitro revealed that purified siderophores and pseudomonas culture have good antifungal activity against the pla ...200415304753
cytochemical labeling for fungal and host components in plant tissues inoculated with fungal wilt pathogens.antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. in carnation infected with an isolate of fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. labeling of the fungus in culture ...200415327706
1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, synthesis and evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum.a novel antifungal pyrazole derivative was synthesized. designated 1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, the compound exerted an antifungal effect toward botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum. in fact, our results clearly show that mycelial growth and conidial germination of both fungi were blocked by the compound. indeed, a 96-well microbioassay procedure was used for fast and easy evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic). the mic values for ...200415337431
enzymatic liberation of lycotetraose from the solanum glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine.the branched tetrasaccharide, o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-o-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-galactose (lycotetraose) is a key constituent of many biologically interesting natural products. described herein is a convenient enzymatic preparation of lycotetraose from the readily available solanum glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine. the preparation makes use of the recombinant endo-glycosidase, tomatinase, from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.200415337463
a non-specific lipid transfer protein with antifungal and antibacterial activities from the mung bean.a non-specific lipid transfer peptide (nsltp) with antimicrobial activity was isolated from the mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros-hs-20. the peptide exhibited a molecular mass of 9.03 kda in mass spectrometry. it exerted antifungal action toward fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, pythium aphanidermatum and sclerotium rolfsii, and antibacterial action ...200415350690
[variation of microflora and enzyme activity in continuous cropping cucumber soil in solar greenhouse].variation of microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse soil continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 years was studied, in addition to the relationship between soil properities and microflora and enzyme activity. the results showed that number of bacteria, actinomyce as well as total microflora showed a trend with a saddle-shaped curve, while the number of fungi appeared an liner increase. continuous cropping soil microflora shifted from bacteria type to fungi type significantly, of which ...200415362624
development of selective media for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from soil and plant debris.a new semi-selective medium, acidified weak potato-dextrose agar (awpda) with mertect (active ingredient: thiabendazole), was developed for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from samples of soil and plant debris. the medium was selected based on growth inhibition tests against alternaria and several other commonly encountered saprobic fungi utilizing three antifungal agents, botran (active ingredient: dichloran), bayleton (active ingredient: triadimefon), and mertect, and two b ...200415381969
colonization and persistence of a plant growth-promoting bacterium pseudomonas fluorescens strain cs85, on roots of cotton seedlings.pseudomonas fluorescens cs85, which was previously isolated from the rhizosphere of cotton seedlings, acts as both a plant growth-promoting bacterium and a biocontrol agent against cotton pathogens, including rhizoctonia solani, colletotrichum gossypii, fusarium oxysporum f sp. vasinfectum, and verticillium dahliae. strain cs85 was labeled separately with luxab and gusa. the labeled strains were stably maintained and had high levels of expression of the marker genes, luxab and gusa, after succes ...200415381971
indigenous bacteria with antagonistic and plant-growth-promoting activities improve slow-filtration efficiency in soilless cultivation.in tomato soilless culture, slow filtration allows one to control the development of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. during the disinfecting process, microbial elimination is ensured by mechanical and biological factors. in this study, system efficacy was enhanced further to a biological activation of filter by inoculating the pozzolana grains contained in the filtering unit with 5 selected bacteria. three strains identified as pseudomonas putida and 2 as bacillus cereus came from ...200415381975
a small, cysteine-rich protein secreted by fusarium oxysporum during colonization of xylem vessels is required for i-3-mediated resistance in tomato.a 12 kda cysteine-rich protein is secreted by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici during colonization of tomato xylem vessels. peptide sequences obtained with mass spectrometry allowed identification of the coding sequence. the gene encodes a 32 kda protein, designated six1 for secreted in xylem 1. the central part of six1 corresponds to the 12 kda protein found in xylem sap of infected plants. a mutant that had gained virulence on a tomato line with the i-3 resistance gene was found to have l ...200415387816
a rapid molecular method for differentiating two special forms (lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici) of fusarium oxysporum.two pathogenic special forms (f. sp.) of the fusarium oxysporum species complex f. sp. lycopersici (fol) and f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl) are morphologically indistinguishable. although they are pathogenic to the same host genus lycopersicon (tomato), and infect the same tomato cultivar, they form distinct diseases; fol causes wilt and forl causes crown rot and root rot. these two special forms apparently exist as genetically isolated populations, based on vegetative compatibility and molec ...200415446712
novel oligosaccharides isolated from fusarium oxysporum l. rapidly induce pal activity in rubus cells.activation of the phenolic pathway is known to be part of a defense response against cell wall-derived elicitors from pathogens. many examples of a defense response by increasing the synthesis of phenolic compound against the elicitor were demonstrated in the past, but the elicitor structure has so far been poorly characterized. our results indicate that a disaccharide fraction containing the following structure: alpha-d-mannopyranosyl (1-->2)alpha/beta-d-glucopyranosyl and alpha-d-mannopyranosy ...200415448725
[effect of water activity and temperature on competing abilities of penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum].the in vitro effect of water activity (0.995, 0.98, 0.95, 0.90 and 0.85) and temperature (25 and 15 degrees c) on competing abilities of the biocontrol agent penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum fsp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, and fusarium oxysporum fsp. gladioli, a gladiolus pathogen, was evaluated. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of p. oxalicum to be applied as a biocontrol agent against these phytopathogenic fungi. plates were inoculated in two points with ...200315456354
role of chitin synthase genes in fusarium oxysporum.three structural chitin synthase genes, chs1, chs2 and chs3, were identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a soilborne pathogen causing vascular wilt disease in tomato plants. based on amino acid identities with related fungal species, chs1, chs2 and chs3 encode structural chitin synthases (css) of class i, class ii and class iii, respectively. a gene (chs7) encoding a chaperone-like protein was identified by comparison of the deduced protein with chs7p from saccharomyc ...200415470098
the cell wall stress response in aspergillus niger involves increased expression of the glutamine : fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-encoding gene (gfaa) and increased deposition of chitin in the cell wall.perturbation of cell wall synthesis in saccharomyces cerevisiae, either by mutations in cell wall synthesis-related genes or by adding compounds that interfere with normal cell wall assembly, triggers a compensatory response to ensure cell wall integrity. this response includes an increase in chitin levels in the cell wall. here it is shown that aspergillus niger also responds to cell wall stress by increasing chitin levels. the increased chitin level in the cell wall was accompanied by increase ...200415470111
[transcriptional differences between a heterokaryon and its segregants of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum].in order to elucidate the mechanism of fungal heterokayosis, a wild type strain of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was isolated from the cotton field in anyang, henan province. through single hyphal-tip isolation, a heterokaryon, ag149, was obtained, and its two different phenotypic segregants, ag149-i and ag149-iii, were separated from the mutated sectors on colony of the heterokaryon. they have remarkable differences on color of colony, morphology of hypha and pathogenicity. after analyz ...200415473307
induced resistance in tomato plants by iaa against fusarium oxysporum lycopersici.the phytohormone iaa (indol-3-acetic acid) was tested in vitro on growth of tomato wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum lycopersici. the hormone reduced spore germination, mycelial dry weight and protein content. such reduction was matched with the elevation in the hormone concentration. the in vivo application of iaa to soil of the uninoculated plants (controls) improved growth and yielded longer shoot and root, particularly at low concentrations. moreover, the hormone could prevent completely any ...200415478356
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