expression of a phytophthora sojae necrosis-inducing protein occurs during transition from biotrophy to necrotrophy.phytophthora sojae is an oomycete that causes stem and root rot on soybean plants. to discover pathogen factors that produce disease symptoms or activate plant defense responses, we identified putative secretory proteins from expressed sequence tags (ests) and tested selected candidates using a heterologous expression assay. from an analysis of 3035 ests originating from mycelium, zoospore, and infected soybean tissues, we identified 176 putative secreted proteins. a total of 16 different cdnas ...200212410814
the tomato r gene products i-2 and mi-1 are functional atp binding proteins with atpase activity.most plant disease resistance (r) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (nbs) and a c-terminal leu-rich repeat (lrr) domain. the nbs contains three atp/gtp binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or p-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. in this article, we show that the nbs of r proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. the n-terminal halves of two tomato r proteins, i-2 conferring resistance to fusarium oxysporum and mi-1 conferring resistance to ...200212417711
damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in noshahr and study the damping-off of conifer seedlings, we have collected samples from the roots of conifer seedlings (pinus nigra, picea excelsa, abieces spp, cupressus arizonica, cupressus sempervirens) from nurseries in the south of iran (noshahr and kelardasht). after disinfecting the samples, we have used standard media like pda, ma and cla. the following fungi were identified: fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium sambucinum, clamydosporium, rhizoctonia solani, cylindrocarpon spp., alternar ...200112425024
pythium oligandrum in the control of fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales fusarium oxysporum. the mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of fusarium rot. this effect was not observed, however, when p. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of p. oligandrum may reduce fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm ...200112425035
isozyme analysis and soluble mycelial protein pattern in irania isolates of fusarium oxysporum. 200112425041
ph modulation of zopfiellin antifungal activity to colletotrichum and botrytis.zopfiellin, a novel cyclooctanoid natural product isolated from zopfiella curvata no. 37-3, was evaluated in a 96-well microtiter assay for fungicidal activity against botrytis cinerea, colletotrichum acutatum, colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and fusarium oxysporum. zopfiellin exhibited ph-dependent activity, with the most mycelial growth inhibition demonstrated at ph 5.0. mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies indicated that zopfiellin un ...200212428951
genetic exchange of avirulence determinants and extensive karyotype rearrangements in parasexual recombinants of fusarium order to genetically map and eventually isolate avirulence genes, parasexual crosses between different races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were performed by means of protoplast fusion. two wild-type strains, race 1 fol004 (a1a2a3) and race 3 fol029 (a1a2a3), were transformed with phleomycin and hygromycin resistance genes, respectively. in total 32 fusion products were selected by screening for the presence of both marker genes. the presence of either avirulence gene a1 or a3 in th ...200212436252
ethylene insensitivity impairs resistance to soilborne pathogens in tobacco and arabidopsis thaliana.transgenic ethylene-insensitive tobacco (tetr) plants spontaneously develop symptoms of wilting and stem necrosis when grown in nonautoclaved soil. fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, thielaviopsis basicola, rhizopus stolonifer, and two pythium spp. were isolated from these diseased tetr plants and demonstrated to be causal agents of the disease symptoms. pathogenicity of the two pythium isolates and four additional pythium spp. was tested on ethylene-insensitive tobacco and arabidopsis seedlings. in ...200212437306
pyrrolizidine alkaloids from senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth.we investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (pas) from senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of fusarium oxysporum, two of f. sambucinum, and two of trichoderma sp). fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations of monocrotaline, retrorsine, or a purified extract of pas from s. jacobaea. the growth rate of six strains was inhibited by pas at the highest test concentration (3.33 mm), with the magnitude of the ...200212449504
pananotin, a potent antifungal protein from roots of the traditional chinese medicinal herb panax notoginseng.the roots of the sanchi ginseng, panax notoginseng, were extracted with an aqueous buffer. the extract was chromatographed on a cm-cellulose column to remove extraneous unadsorbed proteins. the adsorbed fraction was dialyzed and chromatographed on affi-gel blue gel. the adsorbed fraction was again collected, dialyzed and applied on a column of mono s. the second peak was dialyzed and chromatographed on an fplc-gel filtration superdex 75 column. an antifungal protein with an n-terminal sequence s ...200212451495
development of a selective myclobutanil agar (mba) medium for the isolation of fusarium species from asparagus fields.a new selective myclobutanil agar medium for the detection of fusarium, species is proposed. ten media formulations based on various selective agents (pentachloronitrobenzene (pcnb), rose bengal, malachite green, sodium hypochlorite, captan, benomyl, chlorotalonil, myclobutanil, thiram, and cupric sulfate) were compared. first, mycelium growth and colony appearance of alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, cladosporium cladosporioides, epicoccum nigrum, fusarium sp., fuisarium solani, fusariu ...200212455616
infection of tubercles of the parasitic weed orobanche aegyptiaca by mycoherbicidal fusarium species.progression of the infection by host-specific strains of fusarium oxysporum and fusarium arthrosporioides of orobanche aegyptiaca (egyptian broomrape) tubercles attached to tomato roots was tracked using light, confocal and electron microscopy. mycelia transformed with the gene for green fluorescent protein were viewed using a confocal microscope. fungal penetration was preceded by a rapid loss of starch, with approx. 10 % remaining at 9 h and no measurable starch at 24 h. penetration into the o ...200212466097
class v chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of n-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse n-acetylglucosamine polymerization. here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class v chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. the chsv gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. chsv has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synth ...200312492869
characterization of the antigenic determinant on fusarium oxysporum recognized by a genus-specific monoclonal antibody.the antigenic determinant of a monoclonal antibody (mab) (api9-2) having specific reactivity with the fungi grouped into the genus fusarium was analyzed. the culture supernatant of the fungi showed antigenicity against mab api9-2, proving that the antigen exists as an exoantigen. the heat-resistant, proteinase k-resistant and periodate oxidation-labile features of the antigenic determinant indicated its carbohydrate nature. also, lectin affinity tests and thin-layer chromatography analysis sugge ...199812501292
the antifungal protein from aspergillus giganteus causes membrane permeabilization.we investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (afp) from aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. for this purpose, the mics of afp were determined and ranged from 0.1 micro g/ml for fusarium oxysporum to 200 micro g/ml for aspergillus nidulans. the antifungal activity of afp was diminished in the presence of cations. we were able to show that incubation of afp-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based ...200312543664
[purification and characterization of antifungal peptide lp-1].an antifungal peptide lp-1 from bacillus subtilis tg26 strain was purified by acid precipitation, acetone precipitation and hi-pore reversed phase column chromatography. the molecular weight of lp-1 is 1057.3 d as determined by maldi-tof mass spectrometry, and its pi is 4.75 by pag-ief. it was also found to be thermostable. its antifungal spectrum showed that lp-1 has strong inhibitory activity against many plant pathogenic fungi, such as pythium aphanidermatum, gibberella zeae, alternaria longi ...199912555526
[preparation of immobilized penicillin v acylase from fusarium oxysporum and its properties].extracellular penicillin v acylase from fusarium oxysporum fp941 was partially purified by means of adsorption on, and elution from gamma-alumina and (hn4)2so4 fractional precipitation. the enzyme was immobilized on acrylic polymer support linkaged with covalent bond. the activity of wet immobilized enzyme was 217 iu/g, the activity yield of immobilized enzyme was 53%. optimum ph and temperature for immobilized enzyme action wer 8.0 and 55 degrees c, respectively. the enzyme was stable below 50 ...199912555562
effect of fusaric acid and phytoanticipins on growth of rhizobacteria and fusarium oxysporum.suppression of soilborne diseases by biocontrol agents involves complex interactions among biocontrol agents and the pathogen and between these microorganisms and the plant. in general, these interactions are not well characterized. in this work, we studied (i) the diversity among strains of fluorescent pseudomonas spp., bacillus spp., and paenibacillus sp. for their sensitivity to fusaric acid (fac) and phytoanticipins from different host plants, (ii) the diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogen ...200212556125
[allelopathic potential of volatile oil from mikania micrantha].mikania micrantha, an exotic plant species, is an important weed in south china. the volatile oil of the weed species had significant biological activities on plants and their pathogens, particularly pyricularia grisea. the results showed that the seeding growth of 6 plant species decreased obviously when exposed to increasing concentration (200, 400, 800, 1600 mg.l-1) of the volatile oil. the fresh weight of all test plants decreased, and the emergence of all test plants delayed for 1-2 days un ...200212557680
characterization of the surface hydrophobicity of filamentous fungi.a method for the quantitative analysis of the hydrophobicity of the mycelial mat of filamentous fungi based on contact angle measurements is presented. it was tested for a range of fungi belonging to the classes of basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and deuteromycetes. the measured contact angles of the mycelial mats ranged between hydrophilic (<30 degrees) for the deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum fo47 gus1 and trichoderma harzianum p1[pzega1] and hydrophobic (>60 degrees) for the ascomycete cladospor ...200312558591
isolation of a large thaumatin-like antifungal protein from seeds of the kweilin chestnut castanopsis chinensis.a protein with an n-terminal sequence showing a much lesser extent of homology than french bean and kiwi fruit thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) to other tlps, and possessing a molecular mass of 30 kda which is considerably higher than those of previously reported tlps, has been purified from the seeds of the chestnut castanopsis chinensis hance. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose in 10 mm tris-hcl buffer (ph 7.3), and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel in the same buffer, on cm-cellulose in 1 ...200312565869
natural fungicides from ruta graveolens l. leaves, including a new quinolone alkaloid.bioassay-directed isolation of antifungal compounds from an ethyl acetate extract of ruta graveolens leaves yielded two furanocoumarins, one quinoline alkaloid, and four quinolone alkaloids, including a novel compound, 1-methyl-2-[6'-(3' ',4' '-methylenedioxyphenyl)hexyl]-4-quinolone. the (1)h and (13)c nmr assignments of the new compound are reported. antifungal activities of the isolated compounds, together with 7-hydroxycoumarin, 4-hydroxycoumarin, and 7-methoxycoumarin, which are known to oc ...200312568545
microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
a genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( citrullus lanatus var. citroides x c. lanatus var. lanatus) x citrullus colocynthis.a genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [plant accession griffin 14113 ( citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x new hampshire midget (nhm; c. lanatus var. lanatus)] x u.s. plant introduction (pi) 386015 ( citrullus colocynthis). the map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (scar) marker that w ...200212582504
resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.genomic and cdna fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (rgh fragments) were cloned from cucumis melo using degenerate-primer pcr. fifteen homologues of the nbs-lrr gene family have been isolated. the nbs-lrr homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial nbs-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a tir-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. genomic organizati ...200212582612
integration of sequence tagged microsatellite sites to the chickpea genetic map.fifty sequence-tagged microsatellite site (stms) markers and a resistant gene-analog (rga) locus were integrated into a chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., 2n = 2 x = 16 chromosomes) genetic map that was previously constructed using 142 f(6)-derived recombinant inbred lines (rils) from a cross of c. arietinum x cicer reticulatum lad. the map covers 1,174.5 cm with an average distance of 7.0 cm between markers in nine linkage groups (lgs). nine markers including the rga showed distorted segregation ( ...200212582909
impala, a transposon from fusarium oxysporum, is active in the genome of penicillium autonomous impala transposon trapped in fusarium oxysporum by insertion within the niad gene encoding nitrate reductase was introduced in the genome of the fungus penicillium griseoroseum, a producer of pectinase enzymes. through a phenotypic assay, we demonstrate that this element is able to excise from the niad gene and to reinsert at new genomic positions. as in the original host, impala inserts into a ta site and footprints left by impala excisions are generally 5 bp. the fact that impala ...200312586410
temperature effect on fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis survival during horticultural waste composting.the aim of this work was to study the effect of high temperatures generated during composting process, on the phytopathogen fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis. this investigation was achieved by both in vivo (semipilot-scale composting of horticultural wastes) and in vitro (lab-scale thermal treatments) assays.200312588556
pn-amps, the hevein-like proteins from pharbitis nil confers disease resistance against phytopathogenic fungi in tomato, lycopersicum esculentum.the antifungal activity of hevein-like proteins has been associated with their chitin-binding activities. pn-amp1 and pn-amp2, two hevein homologues from pharbitis nil, show in vitro antifungal activities against both chitin and non-chitin containing fungi. purified pn-amps retained antifungal activities only under non-reducing conditions. when pn-amp2 cdna was constitutively expressed in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants under the control of camv35s promoter, the transgenic plants showed ...200312591259
the influence of co-cultivation on expression of the antifungal protein in aspergillus giganteus.the afp gene of aspergillus giganteus encodes a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity, named antifungal protein (afp). the protein is secreted by the mould and inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. in this paper we report that co-cultivation of a. giganteus with various microorganisms alters afp expression. it was found that co-cultivation modulates afp expression on the level of transcription, using a reporter system based on the beta-glucuronidase gene. the prese ...200312596244
fungitoxic phenols from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) effective against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.the phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) namely "gloriana" and "roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. analyses were performed on healthy and f. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyb ...200312597250
secretion of ligninperoxidase by penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus.secretion of ligninperoxidase [e.c.] by penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus in liquid culture growth medium has been demonstrated. enzymatic characteristics like km, ph and temperature optima using veratryl alcohol as the organic substrate of ligninperoxidases from above sources have been determined. km values using veratryl alcohol as substrate for enzymes from p. citrinum, f. oxysporum and a. terreus were 69, 64 and 60 microm respectively. km values using h ...200212597550
isolation of pisumin, a novel antifungal protein from legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var antifungal protein with a novel n-terminal sequence gvgaaygcfg and a molecular mass of 31 kda was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. the protein, designated pisumin, exhibited antifungal activity against coprinus comatus and pleurotus ostreatus and much weaker activity against fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani. pisumin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic(50) of 6 microm. pisumin was similar to o ...200312600683
genetic variability of fusarium wilt pathogen isolates of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) assessed by molecular markers.genetic variability among 43 isolates of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, the chickpea wilt pathogen, collected from nine states of india including the four well-characterized races of the pathogen were assessed using the molecular markers, rapds and aflp. principal coordinate analysis of the similarity index data generated from the molecular marker studies mostly gave three different clusters: of these two clusters represented race-1 and race-2, and the third cluster consisted of race-3 and rac ...200212617504
primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (cytc) gene of the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. the structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of aspergillus nidulans. the second intron of the r. necatrix cytc gene was not present in neurospora crassa or fusarium oxysporum. however, the amino acid sequence of r. necatrix was most similar to that of neurospora crassa. thus, it seemed that the second intron of the r. necatrix cy ...200312619691
isolation of vulgin, a new antifungal polypeptide with mitogenic activity from the pinto antifungal polypeptide bearing an n-termnial sequence with some homology to chitinases was purified from an extract of pinto beans. the polypeptide, designated vulgin, exerted antifungal activity toward mycosphaerella arachidicola, coprinus cornatus, fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. vulgin inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic50 of 4.3 microm and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an ic50 of 58 microm. vulgin stimulated in vitro incorporation o ...200312630696
isolation and properties of floral defensins from ornamental tobacco and petunia.the flowers of the solanaceous plants ornamental tobacco (nicotiana alata) and petunia (petunia hybrida) produce high levels of defensins during the early stages of development. in contrast to the well-described seed defensins, these floral defensins are produced as precursors with c-terminal prodomains of 27 to 33 amino acids in addition to a typical secretion signal peptide and central defensin domain of 47 or 49 amino acids. defensins isolated from n. alata and petunia flowers lack the c-term ...200312644678
the fungicidal activity of novel nanoemulsion (x8w60pc) against clinically important yeast and filamentous fungi.surfactant nanoemulsions are water in oil preparations that proved to have a broad spectrum biocidal activity against a variety of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spores and enveloped viruses. these preparations are non-toxic to the skin, mucous membrane and gastrointestinal tissues at biocidal concentrations. in this study, 0.1% of the nanoemulsion designated x8w60pc has shown fungicidal activity against yeast including candida albicans and c. tropicalis in 15 ...200212650595
purification and characterization of a feruloyl esterase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzing esterification of phenolic acids in ternary water-organic solvent extracellular feruloyl esterase (fae-ii) from the culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by sp-sepharose, t-butyl-hic and sephacryl s-200 column chromatography. the protein corresponded to molecular mass and pi values of 27 kda and 9.9, respectively. the enzyme was optimally active at ph 7 and 45 degrees c. the purified esterase was fully stable at ph 7.0-9.0 and temperature up to 45 degrees c after 1 h incubation. determination of k(cat)/k(m) revealed that the ...200312668312
a homodimeric sporamin-type trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative, hiv reverse transcriptase-inhibitory and antifungal activities from wampee (clausena lansium) seeds.a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor with a molecular mass of 54 kda was isolated from the seeds of clausena lansium (lour) skeels with a very simple procedure comprising extraction with an aqueous buffer and ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose. it inhibited trypsin with an ic50 of 2.2 nm but was without any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin and proteinase k. the uptake of mtt by human leukemia hl60 and hepatoma hep g2 cells was inhibited with an ic50 of 100 microm. translation in the cell-fr ...200312675522
identification of essential genes in the human fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus by transposon mutagenesis.the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent cause of deadly airborne fungal infections in developed countries. in order to identify novel antifungal-drug targets, we investigated the genome of a. fumigatus for genes that are necessary for efficient fungal growth. an artificial a. fumigatus diploid strain with one copy of an engineered impala160 transposon from fusarium oxysporum integrated into its genome was used to generate a library of diploid strains by random in vi ...200312684374
characterization and in vitro expression patterns of an exopolygalacturonase encoding gene from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis this work, we report the isolation, characterization and expression pattern in in vitro cultures of an exopg encoding gene (pgx2), a novel exopg encoding gene of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici, responsible for foot crown and root rot disease in tomato plants. the gene was compared with other fungal polygalacturonases (pgs) previously reported.200312694451
the ph signalling transcription factor pacc controls virulence in the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.gene expression in fungi by ambient ph is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor pacc/rim1p. we have identified a pacc orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-gccaag-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to pacc from aspergillus nidulans. pacc transcript levels were elevated in f. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme a ...200312694620
the g protein beta subunit fgb1 regulates development and pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fgb1, the gene encoding a heterotrimeric g protein beta subunit fgb1 in fusarium oxysporum, was performed by standard pcr techniques to evaluate the role of g protein signaling in this fungus. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,077 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (359 amino acid residues) showed high identity with g beta subunits from other organisms. disruption of fgb1 led to decreased intracellular camp levels, reduced pathogenicity, and al ...200312695847
antifungal effects of different organic extracts from melia azedarach l. on phytopathogenic fungi and their isolated active components.extracts from different parts of melia azedarach l. were studied as potential antifungal agents for selected phytopathogenic fungi. in a serial agar dilution method, hexanic and ethanolic extracts from fruit, seed kernels, and senescent leaves exhibited fungistatic activity against aspergillus flavus,diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionales, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, fusarium verticillioides, and sclerotinia sclerotiorum. both hexanic extract from senescent leaves and ethanolic extract ...200312696928
rhizobacteria-induced changes in tomato metabolism and their relationship to induced resistance against fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici. 200212701416
growth and sporulation of some pathogenic fungi in the presence of grapefruit extract.development of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis, f. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, botrytis cinerea and b. elliptica in the presence of grapefruit extract (ge) was evaluated. amendment of potato-dextrose agar with 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 inhibited linear growth of tested species at least in 50%. addition of 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 of medium inhibited spore germination of f. oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis about 34% whereas germ tube growth was suppressed in 87%. in case of botrytis species, b. cinerea ...200212701438
fatty acid composition from an epiphytic strain of fusarium oxysporum associated with algal crusts.the fatty acid composition from fusarium oxysporum b1, a fungal epiphyte from algal crusts, was determined. the most prominent fatty acids found in the mycelium were 18:1 omega9c, 16:0 and 18:0. these compounds amounted 47% of total fatty acids, whereas remaining fatty acids identified, including beta-hydroxylated, iso-branched, diunsaturated and odd-numbered derivatives were present in minor amounts.200212708828
molecular markers closely linked to fusarium resistance genes in chickpea show significant alignments to pathogenesis-related genes located on arabidopsis chromosomes 1 and 5.a population of 131 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross between chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., resistant parent) and cicer reticulatum (susceptible parent) segregating for the closely linked resistances against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri races 4 and 5 was used to develop dna amplification fingerprinting markers linked to both resistance loci. bulked segregant analysis revealed 19 new markers on linkage group 2 of the genetic map on which the resistance genes are located. closest link ...200312709786
effect of genotype and root colonization in biological control of fusarium wilts in pigeonpea and chickpea by pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1.pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1, an isolate from chickpea rhizosphere in india, protected pigeonpea and chickpea plants from fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and fusarium udum. inoculation with strain pna1 significantly reduced the incidence of fusarium wilt in pigeonpea and chickpea on both susceptible and moderately tolerant genotypes. however, strain pna1 protected the plants from fusarium wilt until maturity only in moderately tolerant genotypes of pigeo ...200312718396
in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaf essential oils of chukrasia tabularis adr juss and melia dubia cav (meliaceae).the essential oils of chukrasia tabularis and melia dubia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against ten different pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human pathologies using standard antimicrobial assays. chukrasia tabularis leaf oil exhibited strong antibiotic activities against proteus vulgaris and fusarium oxysporum and did not show any activity against the tested bacteria. melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against pseudomonas ...200312722153
characterization of a new pseudomonas aeruginosa strain nj-15 as a potential biocontrol agent.phylogenetic characterization of soil isolate nj-15, based on sequence homology of a partial 746-bp fragment of 16srdna amplicon, with the ribosomal database sequences (, validated the strain as pseudomonas aeruginosa. the strain nj-15 produced a substantial amount of indole acetic acid (iaa) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. besides, the strain also exhibited significant production of both the siderophore and hydrogen cyanide (hcn) on chrome azurol s and ...200312732958
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
volatile metabolites from salvia fruticosa as antifungal agents in soilborne pathogens.the volatile metabolites of salvia fruticosa plants, growing wild in 15 localities scattered across greece, were analyzed by means of gc and gc-ms. the essential oil content ranged from 0.69 to 4.68%, and the results of the analyses showed a noticeable variation in the amounts of the five main components [1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, and (e)-caryophyllene]. the antifungal activities of the essential oils from two localities, belonging in two different groups of cluster and ...200312744657
degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical, dehp [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate], by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.the efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (dehp) was investigated. the dehp-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e. almost 70% of the initial dehp (500 mg/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded dehp disappeared within the initial 15 min. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more than 85% of the dehp remained even after 3 days of treatment. during th ...200312750855
isolation and characterization of phorate degrading soil bacteria of environmental and agronomic significance.phorate [o,o-diethyl-s-(ethylthio)methyl phosphoradiothioate] degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil and characterized based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. the selected isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 were presumptively identified as rhizobium, pseudomonas and proteous species, respectively. the hplc analysis of phorate in bioaugmented soil revealed its complete disappearance within 40 days. the degradation isotherms of the isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 sugg ...200312753240
construction of a mitotic linkage map of fusarium oxysporum based on of the first mitotic linkage map of the asexual fungus fusarium oxysporum, based on a population of 32 parasexual fusion products, is reported. molecular markers were developed using a modified aflp technique which combines a foxy-specific primer with standard adapter primers. the retroposon foxy is abundantly present and highly variable in location in f. oxysporum isolates: 43% of the foxy-aflp markers tested appeared to be polymorphic between the strains fol004 and fol029. of the ...200312756533
hybrid respiration in the denitrifying mitochondria of fusarium oxysporum.induction of the mitochondrial nitrate-respiration (denitrification) system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum requires the supply of low levels of oxygen (o(2)). here we show that o(2) and nitrate (no(3)(-)) respiration function simultaneously in the mitochondria of fungal cells incubated under hypoxic, denitrifying conditions in which both o(2) and no(3)(-) act as the terminal electron acceptors. the no(3)(-) and nitrite (no(2)(-)) reductases involved in fungal denitrification share the mitochon ...200312761293
hop, an active mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a new type of active dna transposon has been identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niad target gene. two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. these elements, called hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) of 99 bp. the sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. the seq ...200312777515
formate-forming fungal catabolic pathway to supply electrons to nitrate respiration.pyruvate was catabolized anaerobically by resting cells of fusarium oxysporum to form formate and acetate. addition of nitrate decreased the accumulation of formate in the medium with concomitant formation of nitrite and n2o. the results suggested a unique metabolic pathway that occurs in fungi mediated by pyruvate-formate lyase to supply electrons via formate to fungal denitrification.200312784647
plant-based heterologous expression of mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein.mal d 2 is a thaumatin-like protein and important allergen of apple fruits that is associated with ige-mediated symptoms in apple allergic individuals. we obtained a full-length cdna clone of mal d 2 from rna isolated from ripe apple (malus domestica cv. golden delicious). the cdna's open reading frame encodes a protein of 246 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 24 residues and two putative glycosylation sites. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature mal d 2 protein results i ...200312787673
advanced fusarium keratitis progressing to review the clinical course, treatment, and visual outcomes of keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by the filamentary fungus fusarium.200312792470
phylogeny of hcn synthase-encoding hcnbc genes in biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads and its relationship with host plant species and hcn synthesis ability.hydrogen cyanide (hcn) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound involved in biological control of root diseases by many plant-associated fluorescent pseudomonads. the hcn synthase is encoded by three biosynthetic genes (hcna, hcnb, and hcnc), but little is known about the diversity of these genes in fluorescent pseudomonas spp. and in other bacteria. here, the partial hcnbc sequence was determined for a worldwide collection of biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonas spp. phylogenies based on hcnbc ...200312795378
design and development of a dna array for rapid detection and identification of multiple tomato vascular wilt pathogens.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we descri ...200312799009
fabin, a novel calcyon-like and glucanase-like protein with mitogenic, antifungal and translation-inhibitory activities from broad beans.a protein with an n-terminal sequence displaying similarities to n-terminal sequences of human calcyon and barley endo-1,4-glucanase, and to c-terminal sequences of human translation initiation factor 4 gamma and yeast superkiller viralicidic activity, was isolated from the broad bean vicia faba. the protein, termed fabin, has a molecular mass of 34 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. antifungal activity of the protein was observed against several fungal species including rhizoctonia ...200312817478
regeneration of flax ( linum usitatissimum l.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to fusarium oxysporum.the aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. the results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. all the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than soma ...200312827441
pleiotropic effect of the insertion of the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene in tomato ( lycopersicon esculentum mill.).the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene, coding for an ornithine cyclodeaminase involved in the biosynthesis of proline from ornithine, has been inserted in lycopersicon esculentum cv tondino with the aim of studying its effects on plant morphological characters including pathogen defense response. the analysis of plants transgenic for rold did not show major morphological modifications. first generation transgenic plants however were found to flower earlier, and showed an increased number of inf ...200312830385
a possible role of nadph-dependent cytochrome p450nor isozyme in glycolysis under denitrifying conditions.the denitrifying fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense contains two isozymes of cytochrome p450nor. one isozyme, p450nor1, uses nadh specifically as its electron donor whereas the other isozyme p450nor2 prefers nadph to nadh. here we show that p450nor1 is localized in both cytosol and mitochondria, like p450nor of fusarium oxysporum, while p450nor2 is exclusively in cytosol. we also found that the addition of glucose as a carbon source to the culture media leads to the production of much more p450nor ...200312834289
soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.the accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to cell wall-derived elicitor from the pathogen, fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. cubense, race four, was investigated. the root tissue from the banana cultivar "goldfinger" was found to respond strongly and rapidly towards the elicitor through the increased synthesis of phenolic compounds. following elicitation, the conjugated and non-conjugated phenolic metabolites in the induced root tissue wer ...200312842140
loss of function of the fusarium oxysporum snf1 gene reduces virulence on cabbage and arabidopsis.fusarium oxysporum pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. production of these enzymes in fungi is subject to carbon catabolite repression, a process that in yeast is mostly controlled by the snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1) gene. to elucidate the role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in f. oxysporum pathogenicity, we cloned and disrupted its snf1 homologue ( fosnf1). the fosnf1 mutants had a reduced expression of several genes encoding cell wall-degrading ...200312845476
united states department of agriculture-agricultural research service studies on polyketide toxins of fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.a group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum schlecht f sp vasinfectum (atk) sny & hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. all isolates of f oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. most isolates of race 1 (previously den ...200312846324
gacs sensor domains pertinent to the regulation of exoproduct formation and to the biocontrol potential of pseudomonas fluorescens the root-colonizing biocontrol strain cha0 of pseudomonas fluorescens, cell density-dependent synthesis of extracellular, plant-beneficial secondary metabolites and enzymes is positively regulated by the gacs/gaca two-component system. mutational analysis of the gacs sensor kinase using improved single-copy vectors showed that inactivation of each of the three conserved phosphate acceptor sites caused an exoproduct null phenotype (gacs-), whereas deletion of the periplasmic loop domain had no ...200312848429
identification and enumeration of fusarium species in poultry feed mixtures from slovakia.thirty-three samples of poultry mixed feeds collected in the region of nitra (slovakia) from august 2001-april 2002 were assayed for the incidence of fusarium link: fr. species. in tested samples, the total frequency of isolated fusaria was determined to be 48 % (16 samples) and their counts ranged from 0.2 x 10(2) to 2.4 x 10( 4 ) cfu per g of the sample on dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar (dcpa). of the total amount of fusarium isolates (609), the highest part (i.e. 584 isolates) was rep ...200312852734
dendrocin, a distinctive antifungal protein from bamboo antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 20 kda and an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in the fungi fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cincerea, and mycosphaerella arachidicola, was isolated from fresh bamboo shoots. the protein, designated dendrocin, was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. dendrocin showed only limited similarity in n-terminal sequence to thaumatin-like proteins, unlike other thaumatin-like proteins which closely resemble eac ...200312893287
a 2s albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds inhibits the fungal growth and acidification of the medium by fusarium oxysporum.antimicrobial proteins have been isolated from a wide range of plant species. more recently, it has become increasingly clear that these types of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants. in this study, we investigate the presence of defense-related proteins from passion fruit (passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds. initially, seed flour was extracted for 2h (at 4 degrees c) with phosphate buffer, ph 5.5. the precipitate obtained between 0 and 70% relative ammonium sulfate sa ...200312893296
purification and properties of a new s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l.).a new enzyme, s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase (ec 2.1.1.-) (f 4'-omt), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l). the enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kda and a pi of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of s-adenosyl-l-methionine. a high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (km = 1.7 micro m; vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1 ...200312899699
curvularia haloperoxidase: antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant.a presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. the curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (pseudomonas spp., escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, aeromonas salmonicida, s ...200312902249
hplc analysis of fusaric acid, 9,10-dehydrofusaric acid and their methyl esters, toxic metabolites from weed pathogenic fusarium species.a simple and rapid hplc method, using a high-density c18 column, has been developed for the quantitative analysis of fusaric and dehydrofusaric acids and their methyl esters in the methanol extract of lyophilised culture filtrates of species of fusarium. the method has been used to determine the content of these metabolites in two strains of fusarium oxysporum and in strains of f. nygamai and f. udum. fusaric acid has been isolated and identified from a strain of f. udum for the first time.200212918873
effect of menadione sodium bisulfite, an inducer of plant defenses, on the dynamic of banana phytoalexin accumulation during pathogenesis.using an authentic sample of 2-hydroxy-9-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-phenalen-1-one, a banana phenalenone-type phytoalexin, we studied its dynamic of accumulation during pathogenesis of banana plants (musa acuminata (aaa), grand nain) inoculated with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc), race 4, the causal agent of panama disease. the results obtained demonstrate that banana plants treated prior inoculation with menadione sodium bisulfite (msb), an inducer of plant defenses, are capable of changing the ...200312926878
effect of nonylphenol surfactants on fungi following the application of sewage sludge on agricultural soils.the effect of nonylphenol on fungi following the application of contaminated sewage sludge on agricultural soil was studied in laboratory experiments. nonylphenol bioavailability and adsorption were determined in the soil alone and soil-sludge mixtures. mixing the soil with sludge made it possible to measure the nonylphenol concentration in the soil solution, which comprised between 6.6 x 10(-6) and 3.8 x 10(-7) m, according to the sludge. we then examined the dose-response relationship between ...200312931882
effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum on meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. as am fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the am fungus glomus c ...200312938032
red fluorescent protein (dsred2) as a novel reporter in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pan-dsred2 vector was constructed for constitutive cytoplasmic expression of the red fluorescent protein (dsred2) under control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter from aspergillus nidulans. dsred2-transformation of two fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains pathogenic against tomato host resulted in bright red cytoplamic fluorescence of the fungus. the transformants were screened based on the hygromycin b resistance, brightness, stability and rate of appearance ...200312951257
colonization of flax roots and early physiological responses of flax cells inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. the objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, a ...200312957934
decolourisation of textile and dye amended soils by fungi.four fungi viz. aspergillus niger, curvularia lunata, fusarium oxysporum, mucor mucedo isolated from textile and dye contaminated soils were tried for their efficiency in colour removal. the physical, chemical and biological characteristics were analysed and related to the process of decolourisation. the role of extracellular enzymes, alpha-amylase, protease, catalase and glucose oxidase was studied during 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation period. a. niger and m. mucedo were resistant in the soil ...200212968727
heterocaryosis and variability in fusarium oxysporum f. gladioli (snyder & hansen). 195413130828
pathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum fr. distinguished by their differential tolerance to inhibition by various actinomycetes. 195513252216
a study of the factors influencing non-genetic variation in a strain of fusarium oxysporum. 195613346025
heterokaryosis and parasexual recombination in pathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum. 195613357720
growth responses of fusarium oxysporum to metabolites of some rhizospheric microflora of egyptian cotton verieties. 195813517230
keratomycosis caused by fusarium oxysporum. 195813520660
absence of pectolytic enzymes in a pathogenic strain of fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici. 195813590213
fusarium oxysporum infection of the nail; report of cases. 195913648973
the metabolic detoxication of 2,4-dinitrophenol by fusarium oxysporum. 196113765066
[parasitic analysis of cultivated soil. detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis]. 196113769792
genetics of phytopathogenic fungi. iv. experimentally induced alterations in nuclear ratios of heterocaryons of fusarium oxysporum f. pisi. 196113778821
effect of pea root exudate on the antagonism of some rhizosphere micro-organisms towards fusarium oxysporum f. pisi. 196013806566
production of a perfect stage in a nutritionally deficient mutant of pathogenic fusarium oxysporum after ultra-violet irradiation. 195913806567
is nectria haematococca berk, and br. the perfect stage of fusarium oxysporum schl. forma pisi (lindf.) s. and h.? 196013851241
a soil suspension-plating method of estimating populations of fusarium oxysporum f. melonis in muskmelon wilt soils. 196214006148
[role of carbon dioxide in the ecology of sclerotinia minor jagger and fusarium oxysporum f. melonis (leack et crw.) sn. et h]. 196314048717
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