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crystal structures of cytochrome p450nor and its mutants (ser286-->val, thr) in the ferric resting state at cryogenic temperature: a comparative analysis with monooxygenase cytochrome p450s.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is a heme enzyme isolated from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum and catalyzes the no reduction to n2o. crystal structures of the wild type and two ser286 mutants (ser286-->val, ser286-->thr) of p450nor have been determined for the ferric resting forms at a 1.7 a resolution at cryogenic temperature (100 k). we carried out three comparative analyses: (1) between the structures of p450nor at room temperature and cryogenic temperature, (2) between the structure ...200011051564
effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (forc) on cucumber. two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (wds) or vermicomposting (vmc) while the third, obtained from international bio-recovery (ibr), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at v ...200011109490
detection and substrate selectivity of new microbial d-amino acid oxidases.in order to screen for new microbial d-amino acid oxidase activities a selective and sensitive peroxidase/o-dianisidine assay, detecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide was developed. catalase, which coexists with oxidases in the peroxisomes or the microsomes and, which competes with peroxidase for hydrogen peroxide, was completely inhibited by o-dianisidine up to a catalase activity of 500 nkat ml(-)(1). thus, using the peroxidase/o-dianisidine assay and employing crude extracts of microorga ...200011024524
effect of novel water-soluble polymeric forms of sorbic acid against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum.new controlled release water-soluble formulations of sorbic (2,4-hexadienoic) acid were prepared and their inhibitory activity on mycelium growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum was evaluated. the new products are epoxidized polymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) containing covalently bonded sorbic acid (polymeric esters of sorbic acid) and complexes of pvp with hydrogen bonded sorbic acid, characterized by controlled release of sorbic acid. it was shown that the polymeric comple ...200011271842
biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by bacillus brevis.a virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. when tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, bacillus brevis. a formulation of b. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least ...200010721480
a robust cysteine-deficient chitinase-like antifungal protein from inner shoots of the edible chive allium tuberosum.from the inner shoots of the chive allium tuberosum, a single-chained protein with a molecular weight of 36 kda and an n-terminal sequence manifesting resemblance to chitinases but lacking in cysteine residues characteristic of a cysteine-rich domain present in chitinases of other allium species, was purified. the isolation procedure entailed affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose and mono s, and gel filtration on superdex 75. the protein was ...200011112420
combined soil treatments and sequence of application in improving the control of soilborne pathogens.abstract the effects of reduced doses of methyl bromide (mb) or metham sodium, heating, short solarization, and soil microbial activity, alone or in combination, on survival of soilborne fungal pathogens were tested in a controlled-environment system and field plots. sublethal doses of heating or mb delayed germination of sclerotium rolfsii sclerotia. combining mb and heating treatments was more effective than either treatment alone in controlling s. rolfsii and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. basilic ...200018944494
yield loss in chickpeas in relation to development of fusarium wilt epidemics.abstract development of 108 epidemics of fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were studied on cvs. p-2245 and pv-61 in field microplots artificially infested with races 0 and 5 of f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in 1986 to 1989. disease progression data were fitted to the richards model using nonlinear regression. the shape parameter was influenced primarily by date of sowing and, to a lesser extent, by chick-pea cultivars and races of f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. fu ...200018944431
recovery of mutants impaired in pathogenicity after transposition of impala in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.abstract the ability of transposon impala to inactivate genes involved in pathogenicity was tested in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. somatic excision of an impala copy inserted in the nitrate reductase-encoding niad gene was positively selected through a phenotypic assay based on the restoration of nitrate reductase activity. independent excision events were analyzed molecularly and shown to carry reinsertedimpala in more than 70% of the cases. mapping of reinserted impala elements on large ...200018944432
panama disease: cell wall reinforcement in banana roots in response to elicitors from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four.abstract the biochemical basis of tolerance in banana to fusarium wilt, caused by the pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race four, was investigated. tissue culture banana plants from tolerant cv. goldfinger and susceptible cv. williams were maintained in a hydroponic system and inoculated with conidial suspensions to evaluate the degree of tolerance to susceptibility between the two clones and to investigate the effectiveness of this technique as a potential tool for early screening for ...200018944483
gene genealogies and aflp analyses in the fusarium oxysporum complex identify monophyletic and nonmonophyletic formae speciales causing wilt and rot disease.abstract the monophyletic origin of host-specific taxa in the plant-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum complex was tested by constructing nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp)-based phylogenies for 89 strains representing the known genetic and pathogenic diversity in 8 formae speciales associated with wilt diseases and root and bulb rot. we included strains from clonal lineages of f. oxysporum f. spp. asparagi, dianthi, gladioli, lilii, lini, opu ...200018944511
nep1 protein from fusarium oxysporum enhances biological control of opium poppy by pleospora papaveracea.abstract the fungus pleospora papaveracea and nep1, a phytotoxic protein from fusarium oxysporum, were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on opium poppy (papaver somniferum). four treatments consisting of a control, p. papaveracea conidia, nep1 (5 mug/ml), and p. papaveracea conidia plus nep1 (5 mug/ml) were used in detached-leaf and whole-plant studies. conidia of p. papaveracea remained viable for 38 days when stored at 20 or 4 degrees c. nep1 was stable in the presence of conidia for 38 ...200018944501
disease development following infection of tomato and basil foliage by airborne conidia of the soilborne pathogens fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and f. oxysporum f. sp. basilici.abstract fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the causal agent of fusarium crown and root rot of tomato, and f. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, the causal agent of fusarium wilt in basil, are soilborne pathogens capable of producing conspicuous masses of macroconidia along the stem. the role of the airborne propagules in the epidemics of the disease in tomato plants was studied. in the field, airborne propagules of f. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici were trapped with a selective medium ...200018943372
control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping.abstract a new method for the control of soilborne plant pathogens was tested for its efficacy in two field experiments during two years. plots were amended with fresh broccoli or grass (3.4 to 4.0 kg fresh weight m(-2)) or left nonamended, and covered with an airtight plastic cover (0.135 mm thick) or left noncovered. in plots amended with broccoli or grass and covered with plastic sheeting, anaerobic and strongly reducing soil conditions developed quickly, as indicated by rapid depletion of ox ...200018944617
induced resistance by penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: histological studies of infected and induced tomato stems.abstract tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants of 'lorena' were induced with a conidial suspension (10(7) conidia per ml) of penicillium oxalicum before inoculation with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the wilt pathogen. histological changes occurred in plants under both growth chamber and glasshouse culture conditions and there was a reduction of disease severity. in noninduced plants, the pathogen produced almost a complete loss of cambium (75 to 100% reduction), an increase in the nu ...200018944618
viability of heterodera glycines exposed to fungal filtrates.filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of heterodera glycines. eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in florida were tested on j2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. each fungal species was grown in czapek-dox broth and malt extract broth. no toxic activity was observed for fungi gr ...200019270965
influence of temperature and inoculum density of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on suppression of fusarium wilt of chickpea by rhizosphere bacteria.the effects of temperature and inoculum density of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 on suppression of fusarium wilt in chickpea (cicer arietinum) cv. pv 61 by seed and soil treatments with rhizobacteria isolated from the chickpea rhizosphere were studied in a model system. disease development over a range of temperatures (20, 25, and 30 degrees c) and inoculum densities (25 to 1,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil) was described by the gompertz model. the gompertz relative rate of diseas ...200118944039
evolution of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum races inferred from multigene genealogies.abstract fusarium wilt of cotton is a serious fungal disease responsible for significant yield losses throughout the world. evolution of the causal organism fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, including the eight races described for this specialized form, was studied using multigene genealogies. partial sequences of translation elongation factor (ef-1alpha), nitrate reductase (nir), phosphate permase (pho), and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtssu) rdna were sequenced in 28 isolates of f. o ...200118943339
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of fusarium oxysporum: an efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis and gene transfer.abstract agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has long been used to transfer genes to a wide variety of plants and has also served as an efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis. in this paper, we report the construction of four novel binary vectors for fungal transformation and the optimization of an atmt protocol for insertional mutagenesis, which permits an efficient genetic manipulation of fusarium oxysporum and other phytopathogenic fungi to be achieved. employing the ...200118944391
cytological analysis of defense-related mechanisms induced in pea root tissues in response to colonization by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum fo47.the ability of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum, strain fo47, to trigger plant defense reactions was investigated using ri t-dna-transformed pea roots. cytological investigations of strain fo47-inoculated roots showed that the fungus grew actively at the root surface and colonized a number of epidermal and cortical cells, inducing marked host cell metabolic changes. in roots inoculated with pathogenic f. oxysporum f. sp. pisi, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissues, where ...200118944029
differential colonization of tomato roots by nonpathogenic and pathogenic fusarium oxysporum strains may influence fusarium wilt control.abstract histochemical staining, beta-glucuronidase (gus) activity, or placing roots on agar were methods used to characterize interactions between the pathogenic fungus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and the nonpathogenic biocontrol f. oxysporum strain 70t01 with respect to colonization behaviors, interaction sites, and population densities on tomato roots. mycelia of strain 70t01, a genetic transformant expressing stable gus activity, hygromycin b resistance, and effective disease con ...200118943589
pythium oligandrum in the control of fusarium rot on some bulbous plants.pythium oligandrum was applied as tulip bulbs or gladiolus corms soak prior or after inoculation with formae speciales fusarium oxysporum. the mycoparasite used before inoculation with pathogen suppressed the development of fusarium rot. this effect was not observed, however, when p. oligandrum was used 24 hr after bulb inoculation. soaking of forced tulip bulbs in oospore suspension of p. oligandrum may reduce fusarium rot spread and increase number of flowers, but at conc. 2.5 x 10(3)-10(4)/cm ...200112425035
developing cryopreservation protocols to secure fungal gene function.protocols that involve a freezing process are frequently used for the preservation of fungi, but there have been few studies to assess the physiological and genetic stability of isolates after preservation. in this study, the effects of cryopreservation and lyophilisation on the viability, physiology and genetic stability of isolates of metarhizium anisopliae, fusarium oxysporum and serpula lacrymans were examined. it was found that preservation regime influenced the characters of some of the te ...200111788850
damping-off in conifer seedling nurseries in noshahr and kelardasht.to study the damping-off of conifer seedlings, we have collected samples from the roots of conifer seedlings (pinus nigra, picea excelsa, abieces spp, cupressus arizonica, cupressus sempervirens) from nurseries in the south of iran (noshahr and kelardasht). after disinfecting the samples, we have used standard media like pda, ma and cla. the following fungi were identified: fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium sambucinum, clamydosporium, rhizoctonia solani, cylindrocarpon spp., alternar ...200112425024
purification of chrysancorin, a novel antifungal protein with mitogenic activity from garland chrysanthemum seeds.a novel antifungal protein, designated chrysancorin, was isolated from seeds of chrysanthemum coronarium var. spatiosum with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue resin, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. the n-terminus of chrysancorin displays sequence similarity to the genomic sequence of chromosome 1 from arabidopsis thaliana bac t19e23. chrysancorin exhibits a molecular ma ...200111501760
isozyme analysis and soluble mycelial protein pattern in irania isolates of fusarium oxysporum. 200112425041
fusariosis associated with pathogenic fusarium species colonization of a hospital water system: a new paradigm for the epidemiology of opportunistic mold infections.we sought the reservoir of fusarium species in a hospital with cases of known fusarial infections. cultures of samples from patients and the environment were performed and evaluated for relatedness by use of molecular methods. fusarium species was recovered from 162 (57%) of 283 water system samples. of 92 sink drains tested, 72 (88%) yielded fusarium solani; 12 (16%) of 71 sink faucet aerators and 2 (8%) of 26 shower heads yielded fusarium oxysporum. fusarium solani was isolated from the hospit ...200111692299
fatty acid composition and dynamics of selected fungal-feeding nematodes and fungi.fatty acid profiles of fungal-feeding nematodes, aphelenchus avenae and aphelenchoides composticola, and selected fungi were determined in microcosm cultures of agar, broth, or sand amended with organic matter. fatty acids of a. avenae and a. composticola included 16:0 18:0, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega9, 18:2, 20:0, 20:1, 20:2, 20:3 and 20:4 phospholipid fatty acids (plfas) and neutral lipid fatty acids (nlfas). the nematodes differed in relative amounts of saturated and c(18) fatty acids. similar c(1 ...200111544084
molecular characterization of a novel endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.a gene, xyl5, was identified from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with family 11 xylanases. expression of xyl5 was detected during growth both on xylan and cellulose substrates as carbon sources and on tomato vascular tissue. rt-pcr analysis revealed the presence of two different transcript sizes, resulting from differential splicing of the third intron. the 3'-untranslated region of the xyl5 tra ...200111795847
biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes are influenced by the structural complexity of the nitrogen source in fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans.the structural complexity of the nitrogen sources strongly affects biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in filamentous fungi. fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans were grown in media containing glucose or starch, and supplemented with a nitrogen source varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids), peptides (peptone) and protein (gelatin). in glucose, when the initial ph was adjusted to 5.0, for both microorganisms, higher bi ...200111688213
streptomyces plicatus as a model biocontrol agent.three hundred and seventy two isolates belonging to the genus streptomyces were isolated and screened for chitinase production. streptomyces plicatus was found to be the best producer. the highest chitinase production were incubated for 3 d at 30 degrees c on buffered culture medium (ph 8.0) containing chitin plus sucrose and calcium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources. s. plicatus chitinase had a highly significant inhibitory effect on spore germination, germ tube elongation and radial growt ...200111830942
kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.a kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar novada. the chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2d nmr experiments. it showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. novada to resist to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.200111314958
genome-wide dissection of fusarium resistance in tomato reveals multiple complex loci.resistance to different pathogenic races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (f. o. lycopersici) was explored at two genomic levels in tomato. six independent fusarium resistance loci were identified by comparing the responses of a complete set of 53 lines carrying different introgressed regions of the lycopersicon pennellii genome in a l. esculentum background. the loci confer varying degrees of resistance to different races of the pathogen. corresponding map positions from different tomat ...200111523783
identification of f. o. cucumerinum and f. o. luffae by rapd-generated dna probes.to create a fast, sensitive and specific method for identifying fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and f. o. luffae.200111696104
a bowman-birk-type trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from broad beans.an isolation procedure comprising affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-toyopearl, and fast protein liquid chromatography on mono s was used to purify a peptide from broad beans which manifested antifungal activity toward mycosphaerella arachidicola, fusarium oxysporum, and botrytis cinerea. the peptide demonstrated a molecular mass of 7.5 kda. n-terminal sequence analysis disclosed the identity of the antifungal peptide to be a trypsin-chymotrypsin inhi ...200111708782
isolation of a novel deoxyribonuclease with antifungal activity from asparagus officinalis seeds.a deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kda and requiring a ph of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm dna, was isolated from asparagus officinalis seeds. the isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, and ...200111708787
fusarium oxysporum trypsin at atomic resolution at 100 and 283 k: a study of ligand binding.the x-ray structure of f. oxysporum trypsin has been determined at atomic resolution, revealing electron density in the binding site which was interpreted as a peptide bound in the sites s1, s2 and s3. the structure, which was initially determined at 1.07 a resolution and 283 k, has an arg in the s1 specificity pocket. the study was extended to 0.81 a resolution at 100 k using crystals soaked in arg, lys and gln to study in greater detail the binding at the s1 site. the electron density in the b ...200111134922
sesquiterpenoids in root exudates of solanum aethiopicum.five known sesquiterpenoids, solavetivone, lubimin, lubiminoic acid, aethione and lubiminol were isolated from the root exudates recovered from solanum aethiopicum by a newly proposed method using charcoal. quantitative analysis of the sesquiterpenoids in the root exudates of s. aethiopicum and s. melongena suggested that relatively large amounts of the sesquiterpenoids were exuded from the roots. antifungal activity of the sesquiterpenoids against fusarium oxysporum and verticillium dahliae was ...200111724373
potential role of transposable elements in the rapid reorganization of the fusarium oxysporum genome.the activity of several families of transposable elements (tes) in the genome of fusarium oxysporum represents a potential source of karyotypic instability. we investigated transposon-mediated chromosome rearrangements by analyzing the karyotypes of a set of strains in which transposition events had occurred. we uncovered exceptional electrophoretic karyotype (ek) variability, in both number and size of chromosomal bands. we showed that ek differences result from chromosomal translocations, larg ...200111728156
subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum diagnosed by cytology and culture of fine needle aspirates. 200111480739
isolation and identification of n-mercapto-4-formylcarbostyril, an antibiotic produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.pseudomonas fluorescens strain g308 isolated from barley leaves produces a novel antibiotic substance that was purified by preparative tlc and hplc and identified as n-mercapto-4-formylcarbostyril (cbs) by lc/dad, ir, lc-es(+)/ms, lc-es(-)/ms, gc-ei/ms, lc-hres(+)/ms, mass isotope ratios analysis, 1h nmr and 13c nmr analysis. the purified new antibiotic compound is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. the compound inhibited at 25 ppm spore germination and germ tube growth of th ...200111738425
[study of availability of some hydrolytic and redox enzymes in strains of fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) snyd. and hans. isolated from different habitats].the work authors have used 52 strains of f. oxysporum for the collection of cultures of the department of physiology and taxonomy of micromycetes of imv of the nas of ukraine. the strains were isolated from three habitats--grain cultures, cultivated and noncultivated soils of different regions of ukraine. activity of some hydrolytic (cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-glucosidase and amylase) and redox (monophenol-monooxygenase and peroxidase) enzymes of f. oxysporum strains. it has been sh ...200111785419
growth of fungi and mycotoxin production on cheese under modified atmospheres.the use of modified atmospheres to prevent fungal growth and mycotoxin production in cheese was evaluated. eight fungal species: mucor plumbeus, fusarium oxysporum, byssochlamys fulva, b. nivea, penicillium commune, p. roqueforti, aspergillus flatus and eurotium chevalieri were inoculated onto cheese and incubated under conditions of decreasing concentrations of o2 (5% to < 0.5%) and increasing concentrations of co2 (20-40%). fungal growth was measured by colony diameter and ergosterol content. ...200111545212
evolutionary history of the impala transposon in fusarium oxysporum.impala is an active dna transposon family that was first identified in a strain of fusarium oxysporum pathogenic to melon. the 10 copies present in this strain define three subfamilies that differ by about 20% at the nucleotide level. this high level of polymorphism suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism associated with vertical transmission and/or the introduction of some subfamilies by horizontal transfer from another species. to gain insights into the molecular evolution of this ...200111557801
hypsin, a novel thermostable ribosome-inactivating protein with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom hypsizigus marmoreus.a novel ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 20 kda was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom hypsizigus marmoreus. the isolation procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on mono q. the protein designated hypsin demonstrated an inhibitory action against mycelial growth in various fungal species including mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalospora piricola, fusarium oxysp ...200111467862
the tomato rme1 locus is required for mi-1-mediated resistance to root-knot nematodes and the potato aphid.the tomato mi-1 gene confers resistance against root-knot nematodes (meloidogyne spp.) and a biotype of the potato aphid (macrosiphum euphorbiae). four mutagenized mi-1/mi-1 tomato populations were generated and screened for altered root-knot nematode resistance. four independent mutants belonging to two phenotypic classes were isolated. one mutant was chosen for further analyzes; rme1 (for resistance to meloidogyne) exhibited levels of infection comparable with those found on susceptible contro ...200111576426
antifungal activities and cytotoxicity studies of six new azasordarins.gw 471552, gw 471558, gw 479821, gw 515716, gw 570009, and gw 587270 are members of a new family of sordarin derivatives called azasordarins. the in vitro activities of these compounds were evaluated against clinical isolates of yeasts, including candida albicans, candida non-albicans, and cryptococcus neoformans strains. activities against pneumocystis carinii, aspergillus spp., less common molds, and dermatophytes were also investigated. azasordarin derivatives displayed significant activities ...200111600368
lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes of microorganisms: their diversity and applications.microbial lactonohydrolases (lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes) with unique characteristics were found. the fusarium oxysporum enzyme catalyzes the reversible and stereospecific hydrolysis of aldonate lactones and d-pantolactone (d-pl), and is useful for the optical resolution of racemic pl. the agrobacterium tumefaciens enzyme hydrolyzes several aromatic lactones, and catalyzes the stereospecific hydrolysis of pl like the fusarium enzyme, but its selectivity is opposite. the acinetobacter calcoacet ...200111640988
molecular characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from fusarium oxysporum expressed during early stages of infection.the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endopg) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of f. oxysporum. the putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kda and a pi of 8.3 and is more closely related to endopgs from other f ...200111319099
genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum populations isolated from different soils in france.the genetic diversity of soil-borne populations of fusarium oxysporum was assessed using 350 isolates collected from six different french soils. all isolates were characterised by restriction fragment analysis of the pcr-amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer (igs). twenty-six igs types were identified among the 350 isolates analysed. five to nine different igs types were detected in each soil. none of the igs types was common to all of the soils. an analysis of the molecular variance based on ig ...200111377774
binary culture biofilm formation by stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fusarium oxysporum.binary culture biofilm formation by stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fusarium oxysporum was investigated using the recirculating modified robbins device batch culture system. sequential attachment studies were carried out in the robbins device on pvc and glass surfaces, with each species as either the first or the second colonizer. different surfaces had no significant effect on total numbers of s. maltophilia and f. oxysporum in the binary population biofilm. the attachment of the second coloni ...200111420659
isolation of a small chitinase-like antifungal protein from panax notoginseng (sanchi ginseng) roots.an antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 15 kda and an n-terminal sequence analogous to those of chitinases, was first isolated from the chinese medicinal material panax notoginseng, using cation exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. the protein was adsorbed on cm-cellulose, affi-gel blue gel and mono s. it exerted antifungal activity against coprinus comatus, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola but not against rhizoctonia solani. the protein was devoid of ...200111311860
introduction of the phzh gene of pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 extends the range of biocontrol ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid-producing pseudomonas spp. strains.pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 controls tomato foot and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. its biocontrol activity is mediated by the production of phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn). in contrast, the take-all biocontrol strains p. fluorescens 2-79 and p. aureofaciens 30-84, which produce phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (pca), do not control this disease. to determine the role of the amide group in biocontrol, the pcn biosynthetic genes of strain pcl1391 were identified a ...200111497461
phenazine-1-carboxamide production in the biocontrol strain pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 is regulated by multiple factors secreted into the growth medium.pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 controls tomato foot and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. the production of phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn) is crucial for this biocontrol activity. in vitro production of pcn is observed only at high-population densities, suggesting that production is under the regulation of quorum sensing. the main autoinducer molecule produced by pcl1391 was identified structurally as n-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). the two other autoin ...200111497469
chronic infection due to fusarium oxysporum mimicking lupus vulgaris: case report and review of cutaneous involvement in fusariosis.a 67-year-old female presented with a 20-year-old lesion involving the right ear and preauricular area mimicking tuberculous lupus. fusarium oxysporum infection was confirmed by biopsy studies and cultures. the biopsy specimen showed an unusually extensive dermal invasion with fungal hyphae. this is an uncommon clinical presentation for fusarium infection in a healthy patient. when referred to us, the patient had received antifungal therapy with itraconazole without any benefit. improvement was ...200111411917
fem1, a fusarium oxysporum glycoprotein that is covalently linked to the cell wall matrix and is conserved in filamentous fungi.as part of an investigation of the cell wall structure of plant pathogenic, filamentous fungi, we set out to characterize covalently bound cell wall glycoproteins (cwps) of the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum. n-terminal sequencing of an abundant 60-kda cwp led to the cloning of the corresponding gene, which we have designated fem1 (fusarium extracellular matrix protein). the gene contains an orf encoding a primary translation product of 212 amino acids, including an n-terminal 17-amino acid ...200111370861
antifungal activity of a novel endochitinase gene (chit36) from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm.a novel 36-kda endochitinase named chit36 has been isolated and characterized from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm. partial amino acid sequences from the purified protein were used to clone the fungal cdna, based on polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. the complete open reading frame encodes a 344-amino acid protein which shows 84% similarity to a putative chitinase from streptomyces coelicolor. chit36 was overexpressed under the pki1 constitutive promoter from trichoderma reesei vi ...200111425470
peptides from pinto bean and red bean with sequence homology to cowpea 10-kda protein precursor exhibit antifungal, mitogenic, and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase-inhibitory activities.peptides with a molecular weight of 5 kda have been isolated from seeds of the pinto bean and red bean, respectively. the peptides manifest an n-terminal sequence with remarkable resemblance to those of cowpea 10-kda protein precursor and garden pea disease resistance response protein. the bean peptides possess potent antifungal activity toward a variety of fungal species including botrytis cinerea, mycosphaerella arachidicola, and fusarium oxysporum. the proteins also demonstrate mitogenic acti ...200111444860
pantothenate synthetase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by alpha-tomatine.the steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine which is present in tomato (lycopersicum sculentum) is assumed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. we have isolated a gene from the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that is induced by this glycoalkaloid. this gene, designated panc, encodes a predicted protein with a molecular mass of 41 kda that shows a high degree of sequence similarity to pantothenate synthetases from yeast, plants and bacteria. recombinant panc pr ...200111523810
oxygen requirement for denitrification by the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the effects of dioxygen (o2) on the denitrification activity of the fungus fusarium oxysporum mt-811 in fed-batch culture in a stirred jar fermentor were examined. the results revealed that fungal denitrifying activity requires a minimal amount of o2 for induction, which is repressed by excess o2. the optimal o2 supply differed between the denitrification substrates : 690 micromol o2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrate (no3-) and about 250 micromol o2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrit ...200111271416
comparison of in vitro activities of amphotericin, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, and nystatin against fusarium oxysporum.the inhibitory activity of amphotericin b, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole and nystatin was compared against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum. the most efficient antifungal agent against the growth of fusarium oxysporum was econazole, followed by clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin and nystatin. the ed50 and ed90 values were 0.053 and 1.002 ppm for econazole, 0.088 and 1.100 ppm for clotrimazole, 0.173 and 3.210 ppm for miconazole, 0.713 and greater than 48 ppm for amphoterici ...200111411855
evaluation of propargyl bromide for control of barnyardgrass and fusarium oxysporum in three soils.with the scheduled phasing out of methyl bromide, there is an urgent need for alternatives. we evaluated the efficacy of propargyl bromide as a potential replacement for methyl bromide for the control of barnyardgrass (echinochloa crus-galli) and fusarium oxysporum in an arlington sandy loam, a carsitas loamy sand and a florida muck soil. soil was mixed with barnyardgrass seeds or f oxysporum colonized on millet seeds, and treated with propargyl bromide at a range of concentrations. the mortalit ...200111561402
purification and characterization of aavp, a protein inhibitor of tmv infection, from the edible fungus, agrocybe aegerita.a protein with activity of inhibiting tmv infection on nicotiana glutinosa, named aavp, was isolated and purified from the fruiting bodies of edible fungus agrocybe aegerita by precipitation of 40%--80% saturation of (nh(4))(2)so(4) followed by deae-fast flow and s-200 column chromatography. the protein was proved to be homogeneous by sds-page and ief. analysis of the composition of amino acids showed that this protein contained no cysteine, poor in methionine and phenylalanine and rich in acidi ...200112050799
atomic resolution structure of endoglucanase cel5a in complex with methyl 4,4ii,4iii,4iv-tetrathio-alpha-cellopentoside highlights the alternative binding modes targeted by substrate mimics.many three-dimensional structures of retaining beta-d-glycoside hydrolases have been determined, yet oligosaccharide complexes in which the ligand spans the catalytic centre are rare. those that have been reported so far have revealed two modes of binding: those in which the substrate adopts a distorted skew-boat or envelope conformation in the -1 subsite, reflecting the distortion observed during the catalytic cycle, and those which bypass the true catalytic centre and thus lie in a non-product ...200111679762
novel antifungal peptides from ceylon spinach seeds.two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the ceylon spinach basella rubra. the purification procedure involved saline extraction, (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose and fplc-gel filtration on superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kda, respe ...200111688973
isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.a homodimeric lectin adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kda was isolated from red kidney beans. the hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. the lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. the n-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from phaseolus vulgaris but sho ...200111732688
a map kinase of the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. we have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) of f. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (yerk1) subfamily. targeted mutants of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants bu ...200111251832
phytotoxicity of pathogenic fungi and their mycotoxins to cereal seedling viability.aspergillus flavus, alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum were found to be the pathogenic fungi mostly reducing cereal (barley, sorghum and wheat) seedlings. the pathogens have the ability to produce aflatoxin b1 and g1, diacetoxyscirpenol, kojic acid and tenuazonic acid that reduced seedling viability. the inhibition dose for 50% reduction (ld50) was recorded by aflatoxins at 0.83 mg l-1 for barley, 1.74 mg l-1 for wheat and 2.75 mg l-1 for sorghum. diacetoxyscirpenol produced its inhibit ...200111233698
transposon impala, a novel tool for gene tagging in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.impala, a tc1-mariner transposable element from fusarium oxysporum, was introduced into the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea to develop transposon-based insertional mutagenesis. a construct (pnil160) containing an autonomous impala copy inserted in the promoter of niad encoding aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase was introduced by transformation into a m. grisea nitrate reductase-deficient mutant. impala excision was monitored by restoration of prototrophy for nitrate. southern analysis o ...200111277428
study of the role of antimicrobial glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates in resistance of arabidopsis to microbial pathogens.crude aqueous extracts from arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus neurospora crassa as a test organism. two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus alternaria brassicicola. one of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and iden ...200111299350
mutation of an arginine biosynthesis gene causes reduced pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for pathogenicity of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. of the 1,129 remi transformants tested, 13 showed reduced pathogenicity on susceptible melon cultivars. one of the mutants, fmmp95-1, was an arginine auxotroph. structural analysis of the tagged site in fmmp95-1 identified a gene, designated arg1, which possibly encodes argininosuccinate lyase, catalyzing the last step for arginine biosynthesis. comple ...200111310747
[spatial peculiarities of rhizoplane colonization by microscopic fungi].spatial peculiarities in the colonization of the tomato, cucumber, and barley rhizoplanes by microscopic fungi were studied. the apical zone of roots was colonized with a limited number of r strategists (the order mucorales, fusarium sp., aspergillus niger, and mycelia sterilia). the fungal population of the root hairs and the basal zone of roots was 2- to 3-fold more dense due to the prevalence of k strategists. fusaria, fusarium oxysporum in particular, colonized roots in earlier terms than th ...200111386053
cloning and sequence analysis of the endopolygalacturonase gene from the pitch canker fungus, fusarium circinatum.the fungus fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease on mature pine trees and root rot and damping-off of pine seedlings. endopolygalacturonases (endopgs) play a major role during penetration of plants by fungi. digestion of the pectic polysaccharides in the plant primary cell walls is one of the earliest functions of endopgs during infection. the research objective was to clone and characterize the gene encoding endopolygalacturonase in f. circinatum. a 970-bp dna fragment was cloned by u ...200111400056
hypogin, a novel antifungal peptide from peanuts with sequence similarity to peanut allergen.a protein designated hypogin, with a prominent suppressive action on the growth of the fungi mycosphaerella arachidicola, fusarium oxysporum and coprinus comatus, was isolated from seeds of the peanut arachis hypogaea. the protein inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) reverse transcriptase and enzymes associated with hiv infection including alpha-glucosidase and beta-glucosidase. the proliferative response of mouse splenocytes was attenuated in the presence of the protein. the protein exh ...200111328490
molecular characterization of a subtilase from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.the gene prt1 was isolated from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with subtilisin-like fungal proteinases. prt1 is a single-copy gene, and its structure is highly conserved among different formae speciales of f. oxysporum. prt1 is expressed constitutively at low levels during growth on different carbon and nitrogen sources and strongly induced in medium containing collagen and glucose. as shown by ...200111332729
evidence for an essential arginine in the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase from the fungus fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidative denitrification of primary or secondary nitroalkanes to yield the respective aldehydes or ketones, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. the enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent fashion upon treatment with the arginine-directed reagents phenylglyoxal, 2,3-butanedione, and cyclohexanedione. the inactivation shows first order kinetics with all reagents. valerate, a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, ful ...200111342284
[ocular parasitoses and mycoses: cases diagnosed in the central university hospital of sfax between 1996 and 1999].parasitical and fungal ophthalmic infections are polymorphic and variably severe. they are rarely reported in publications. the aim of our study has been to specify the parasitic and fungal agents isolated from the ocular samples in our district (sfax-tunisia). we surveyed retrospectively the different ocular parasitosis and mycosis diagnosed in our laboratory (sfax hospital) over a 4 year-period (1996-1999). fungal ophthalmic infections were dominated by corneal localisations: 20 cases of kerat ...200111346972
novel microbial lipases: catalytic activity in reactions in organic media.2,000 microbial strains were isolated from soil samples and tested to determine their lipolytic activity by employing screening techniques on solid and in liquid media. culture broths were initially tested with 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-resorufinyl ester, a chromogenic substrate specific for lipases. fourteen lipase-producing microorganisms were selected and their taxonomic identification was carried out. hydrolysis of tributyrin or olive oil and the esterification of oleic acid ...200111166805
transposition of autonomous and engineered impala transposons in fusarium oxysporum and a related species.the impala transposon of fusarium oxysporum is an active element. we demonstrated that the imp160 copy, transposed into the gene encoding nitrate reductase, is an autonomous element, since it excises from this gene and reinserts at a new genomic position in backgrounds free of active elements. an element in which the transposase gene was replaced by a hygromycin b resistance gene was used (1) to demonstrate the absence of endogenous transposase in several f. oxysporum strains and (2) to check th ...200111212928
heterologous transposition in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans is one of the model ascomycete fungi. transposition events have never been described in this organism. we have determined that this organism has at least 13 copies of a fot1-related element. these copies are transcribed, non-methylated and polymorphic in various wild isolates. in spite of this, we have failed to isolate transposon insertions when the resident niad gene is used as a transposon trap. this contrasts with the situation described previously in fusarium oxysporum. ...200111251848
evolution of a recombinant (gucoamylase-producing) strain of fusarium venenatum a3/5 in chemostat culture.fusarium venenatum jers 325 is a transformant of strain a3/5 which produces aspergillus niger glucoamylase (gam) under the control of a fusarium oxysporum trypsin-like protease promoter. the evolution of jers 325 was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown on nano3 or (nh4)2so4 as the nitrogen source. thirteen mutants which were more highly branched and four mutants which were more sparsely branched than the parental strain were isolated from the nano3 chemostat. the highly branched ...200111255162
structural characterization of n-butyl-isocyanide complexes of cytochromes p450nor and p450cam.alkyl-isocyanides are able to bind to both ferric and ferrous iron of the heme in cytochrome p450, and the resulting complexes exhibit characteristic optical absorption spectra. while the ferric complex gives a single soret band at 430 nm, the ferrous complex shows double soret bands at 430 and 450 nm. the ratio of intensities of the double soret bands in the ferrous isocyanide complex of p450 varies, as a function of ph, ionic strength, and the origin of the enzyme. to understand the structural ...200111258878
the use of natural bio-agents for the control of cotton phytopathogens.the use of natural antagonists as means of pre-sowing seed treatment showed high biological efficacy by improving seed germination, growth and productivity of cotton plants, and by decreasing infection by major cotton pathogens: xanthomonas malvacearum, rhizoctonia solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, verticillium dahliae. studies of anti-microbial properties of antagonists revealed significant inhibitory activity of bacillus subtilis strains and their metabolites against cotton pathog ...200115954583
keratomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum--a case report.a 30 year old muslim housewife presented with foreign body sensation to start with and later noticed white patch in the left eye with blurred vision since 3 days. koh preparation of corneal scrapings revealed fungal elements. culture isolate is identified as fusarium oxysporum by standard methods. fusarium oxysporum causing keratomycosis is reported for its rarity.200112024926
panaxagin, a new protein from chinese ginseng possesses anti-fungal, anti-viral, translation-inhibiting and ribonuclease activities.from the roots of the chinese ginseng panax ginseng a protein designated panaxagin with ribonuclease activity, but possessing a sequence distinct from ribonucleases previously reported from ginseng calluses, was isolated. the purification protocol employed comprised extraction with cold saline, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose, and gel filtration on superdex 75 by fast ...200111205866
the b' helix determines cytochrome p450nor specificity for the electron donors nadh and nadph.nitric oxide reductase (nor) cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is unique because it is catalytically self-sufficient, receiving electrons directly from nadh or nadph. however, little is known about the direct binding of nadh to cytochrome. here, we report that oxidized pyridine nucleotides (nad(+) and nadp(+)) and an analogue induce a spectral perturbation in bound heme when mixed with p450nor. the p450nor isoforms are classified according to electron donor specificity for nadh or nadph. one type (fn ...200212105197
isolation of a novel peroxidase from french bean legumes and first demonstration of antifungal activity of a non-milk peroxidase.a novel antifungal protein with its n-terminal sequence bearing similarity to the c-terminal sequences of peroxidases was isolated from french bean legumes. the protein, which possessed a molecular weight of 37 kda, was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. the protein exhibited peroxidase activity with a km of 58 microm and a vmax of 3.36 u/nmol. optimal peroxidase activity was found at 22 degrees c and ph 4. it exerted antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including ...200212137913
ability of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 to induce resistance against pythium ultimum infection in cucumber.the influence exerted by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. cytochemical labeling of cellulos ...200212147506
analysis of phylogenetic relationship of cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme to the fusarium solani species complex and a review of similarities in the spectrum of opportunistic infections caused by these fungi.an emerging pattern of similarity in medical case reports led to a project to compare the phylogenetic affinities of two well-known tropical fungal opportunistic pathogens, cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme, to members of the fusarium solani species complex. c. lichenicola and a. falciforme, despite their deviating conidial morphologies, were shown via sequencing of the ribosomal large subunit to be well instituted within a clade mainly consisting of typical f. solani strains ...200212149344
[allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. the results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of fusarium semitectum, gliocladium roseum and fusarium oxysporum, especially fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. allelopathic promotion of root e ...200212216402
[allelopathic potential of volatile oil from mikania micrantha].mikania micrantha, an exotic plant species, is an important weed in south china. the volatile oil of the weed species had significant biological activities on plants and their pathogens, particularly pyricularia grisea. the results showed that the seeding growth of 6 plant species decreased obviously when exposed to increasing concentration (200, 400, 800, 1600 mg.l-1) of the volatile oil. the fresh weight of all test plants decreased, and the emergence of all test plants delayed for 1-2 days un ...200212557680
novel aspects of tomato root colonization and infection by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis using the green fluorescent protein as a marker.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is the causal agent of tomato foot and root rot disease. the green fluorescent protein (gfp) was used to mark this fungus in order to visualize and analyze the colonization and infection processes in vivo. transformation of f oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was very efficient and gfp expression was stable for at least nine subcultures. microscopic analysis of the transformants revealed homogeneity of the fluorescent signal, which was ...200211878320
targeted disruption of a g protein alpha subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a g protein alpha subunit, was performed by standard pcr techniques and by screening a fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the pcr product as a probe. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of g protein alpha(i) family proteins from other filamentous fungi. disruption of fga1 had no effect on vegetative growth, but reduced the ...200212228810
resistance gene homologues in melon are linked to genetic loci conferring disease and pest resistance.genomic and cdna fragments with homology to known disease resistance genes (rgh fragments) were cloned from cucumis melo using degenerate-primer pcr. fifteen homologues of the nbs-lrr gene family have been isolated. the nbs-lrr homologues show high divergence and, based on the partial nbs-fragment sequences, appear to include members of the two major subfamilies that have been described in dicot plants, one that possesses a tir-protein element and one that lacks such a domain. genomic organizati ...200212582612
decolourisation of textile and dye amended soils by fungi.four fungi viz. aspergillus niger, curvularia lunata, fusarium oxysporum, mucor mucedo isolated from textile and dye contaminated soils were tried for their efficiency in colour removal. the physical, chemical and biological characteristics were analysed and related to the process of decolourisation. the role of extracellular enzymes, alpha-amylase, protease, catalase and glucose oxidase was studied during 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation period. a. niger and m. mucedo were resistant in the soil ...200212968727
integration of sequence tagged microsatellite sites to the chickpea genetic map.fifty sequence-tagged microsatellite site (stms) markers and a resistant gene-analog (rga) locus were integrated into a chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., 2n = 2 x = 16 chromosomes) genetic map that was previously constructed using 142 f(6)-derived recombinant inbred lines (rils) from a cross of c. arietinum x cicer reticulatum lad. the map covers 1,174.5 cm with an average distance of 7.0 cm between markers in nine linkage groups (lgs). nine markers including the rga showed distorted segregation ( ...200212582909
growth and sporulation of some pathogenic fungi in the presence of grapefruit extract.development of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis, f. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, botrytis cinerea and b. elliptica in the presence of grapefruit extract (ge) was evaluated. amendment of potato-dextrose agar with 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 inhibited linear growth of tested species at least in 50%. addition of 40 micrograms of ge/cm3 of medium inhibited spore germination of f. oxysporum f.sp. cyclaminis about 34% whereas germ tube growth was suppressed in 87%. in case of botrytis species, b. cinerea ...200212701438
hplc analysis of fusaric acid, 9,10-dehydrofusaric acid and their methyl esters, toxic metabolites from weed pathogenic fusarium species.a simple and rapid hplc method, using a high-density c18 column, has been developed for the quantitative analysis of fusaric and dehydrofusaric acids and their methyl esters in the methanol extract of lyophilised culture filtrates of species of fusarium. the method has been used to determine the content of these metabolites in two strains of fusarium oxysporum and in strains of f. nygamai and f. udum. fusaric acid has been isolated and identified from a strain of f. udum for the first time.200212918873
fatty acid composition from an epiphytic strain of fusarium oxysporum associated with algal crusts.the fatty acid composition from fusarium oxysporum b1, a fungal epiphyte from algal crusts, was determined. the most prominent fatty acids found in the mycelium were 18:1 omega9c, 16:0 and 18:0. these compounds amounted 47% of total fatty acids, whereas remaining fatty acids identified, including beta-hydroxylated, iso-branched, diunsaturated and odd-numbered derivatives were present in minor amounts.200212708828
immunoglobulin g antibodies against indoor dampness-related microbes and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against microbes related to indoor dampness problems have been used as potential biomarkers of fungal exposure in clinical investigations. there is limited information on their relation to asthma. we conducted a population-based incident case-control study to assess the risk of asthma in relation to specific igg antibodies to eight dampness-related microbes: aspergillus fumigatus, a. versicolor, cladosporium cladosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, sporobolomyces sa ...200212100029
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