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[screening probiotic endophytic bacteria from medicinal plant flex cornuta and the phytopathogen-inhibiting effect].culturable endophytic bacteria were isolated from medicinal plant ilex cornuta by plate-spreading method, strains with strong inhibitory effect on phytopathogen were screened by confrontation culture and fermentation filtrate culture methods, and the morphological changes of phytopathogen hyphae treated with endophytic bacteria were examined by microscopy and micrograph. their phylogenetic relationships were determined by homology analysis of the 16s rdna sequences of pcr products and the taxono ...201526571677
combining uv-c treatment with biocontrol yeast to control postharvest decay of melon.significant losses in harvested melon can be directly attributable to decay fungi. in the present study, the use of uv-c treatment combined with biocontrol yeast, pichia cecembensis, was evaluated for their ability to control postharvest decay of melon fruits after they were artificially inoculated with fusarium oxysporum and alternaria alternata. natural infection of fruit was also assessed. as a stand-alone treatment, uv-c or p. cecembensis significantly reduced fusarium rot and alternaria rot ...201525976334
in vitro assessment of extracts of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) against different plant pathogenic fungi.five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom ganoderma lucidum (gl-1, gl-2, gl-3, gl-4, gl-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding lahore, pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. after studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a soxhlet extractor. different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the first fungal culture bank of pakistan, university of th ...201525954966
[antifungal effect of phenolic and carotenoids extracts from chiltepin (capsicum annum var. glabriusculum) on alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum].the effect of phenolic and carotenoid extracts from chiltepin fruits on mycelial growth and the inhibition of conidial germination of alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum were investigated in the present work. phenolic extracts inhibited mycelial growth of a.alternata by 38.46%, and significantly reduced conidial germination on the fifth day after treatment to 92% in relation to control. no significant changes were observed in the inhibition of mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum; howev ...201525705046
2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol as the antifungal, antioxidant bioactive purified from a newly isolated lactococcus sp.the volatile organic compound 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4 dtbp) was purified from the cell free supernatant of a newly isolated lactococcus sp. by solvent extraction and chromatographic techniques. molecular characterization of the compound by esi-ms, (1)h nmr and ftir analysis revealed the structure, c14h22o. fungicidal activity was demonstrated against aspergillus niger, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium chrysogenum by disc diffusion assay. among the cell lines tested for cytotoxicity of th ...201526164257
antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of portuguese foeniculum vulgare fruits.the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of portugal. composition of essential oils was established by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (gc-fid) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) analysis. the obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range ...201525973507
chemical composition and antifungal activity of aaronsohnia pubescens essential oil from algeria.in the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of aaronsohnia pubescens (desf.) k.bremer & humphries (asteraceae), a chamomile-like medicinal plant, was studied. using both gc-ms and gc-fid methods, 58 volatile compounds could be identified representing 96.6% of the total essential oil composition. the main compounds in the essential oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as (z)-β-ocimene (53.8%), myrcene (15.2%) and α-pinene (7.7%). moreover, ...201525920238
studies on antimicrobial effects of four ligands and their transition metal complexes with 8-mercaptoquinoline and pyridine terminal groups.four types of ligands (q1-q4) and their complexes (1-36) with transition metal ions have been synthesized, in which two new complexes (15 and 20) have been prepared and tested. in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their complexes were investigated against a representative panel of strains including two gram positive bacteria (sarcina ureae, staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi (aspergillus niger, saccharomyc ...201525791454
minos as a novel tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in aspergillus nidulans.transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. the minos element from drosophila hydei, a tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. in filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala tc1/mariner element from fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. here, we developed a t ...201526021704
in-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of lactobacillus plantarum kcc-24 isolated from italian rye-grass (lolium multiflorum) forage.the aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria lactobacillus plantarum kcc-24 (l. plantarum kcc-24), that was isolated and characterized from italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) forage. the following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low ph, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydropho ...201525576238
possible mechanism of antifungal phenazine-1-carboxamide from pseudomonas sp. against dimorphic fungi benjaminiella poitrasii and human pathogen candida albicans.investigation of antifungal mechanism of phenazine 1-carboxamide (pc) produced by a pseudomonas strain mcc2142.201525348290
skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) caused by fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with aeromonas hydrophila.subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. to date, fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. here, we report the presence of fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus). histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological an ...201526155462
identification and characterization of an antifungal protein, afafpr9, produced by marine-derived aspergillus fumigatus r9.a fungal strain, r9, was isolated from the south atlantic sediment sample and identified as aspergillus fumigatus. an antifungal protein, afafpr9, was purified from the culture supernatant of aspergillus fumigatus r9. afafpr9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips), by maldi-tof-tof-ms. afafpr9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fusarium oxysporum, alternaria longipes, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, paecilomyces vario ...201525394604
fungal endophyte diversity and bioactivity in the indian medicinal plant ocimum sanctum linn.endophytic mycopopulation isolated from india's queen of herbs tulsi (ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens botrytis cinerea, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (delhi, hyderabad and mu ...201526529087
diversity of food-borne bacillus volatile compounds and influence on fungal growth.to evaluate the antifungal activity of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) produced by 75 different food-borne bacillus species against aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus clavatus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and moniliophthora perniciosa and to determine the vocs responsible for the inhibition.201525989039
antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522).a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. during 24 h aerobic incubation in modified luria bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. an inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/l) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. ...201526428920
characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.a plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, pm 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the north eastern region of india was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) gene sequencing. further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus tubingensis, candida albicans, colletotrichum gloeospori ...201525832181
antimicrobial and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation of constituents isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes.this study was designed to assess the susceptibility of various microorganisms and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation against diosgenin and santonin, isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes. both diosgenin and santonin showed significant zone of inhibition when studied against various gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella typhi). in antifungal assay ...201525553804
probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains with antifungal activity isolated from animal manure.the aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (lab) from animal manure. among the thirty lab strains, four strains, namely, kcc-25, kcc-26, kcc-27, and kcc-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16s rrna sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards lactobacillus planta ...201526167534
molecular characterization of a penicillium chrysogenum exo-rhamnogalacturonan lyase that is structurally distinct from other polysaccharide lyase family proteins.we previously described an endo-acting rhamnogalacturonan (rg) lyase, termed pcrgl4a, of penicillium chrysogenum 31b. here, we describe a second rg lyase, called pcrglx. we determined the cdna sequence of the pcrglx gene, which encodes pcrglx. based on analyses using a blast search and a conserved domain search, pcrglx was found to be structurally distinct from known rg lyases and might belong to a new polysaccharide lyase family together with uncharacterized fungal proteins of nectria haematoco ...201525921806
isolation and expression of enolase gene in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is a fungus responsible for the tomato disease known as fusariosis. enolase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate, is present during glycolysis. enolase genes have been isolated from bacteria and fungi, among other organisms. in this research, a large portion of the enolase, eno, gene sequence was isolated from f. oxysporum and compared with those of other microorganisms, revealing a similarity of 51-69 ...201525349089
molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.in a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (ffpe) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. detection of feline and fungal dna was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. mo ...201525550386
[suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].to understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. the strain jcl143, identified as aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogeni ...201527112016
[using galleria mellonella as an in vivo model to study the virulence of some bacterial and fungal agents].non-vertebrate hosts, such as galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. this organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. in this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing and non-producing escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aer ...201526313278
subcutaneous mycoses: an aetiological study of 15 cases in a tertiary care hospital at dibrugarh, assam, northeast india.subcutaneous mycoses are a group of fungal infections of dermis and subcutaneous tissue which consist of sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, mycetoma, subcutaneous zygomycosis, rhinosporidiosis, lobomycosis and disseminated penicilliosis. a total of 46 consecutive patients with clinically suspected subcutaneous mycoses attending various departments of assam medical college and hospital were included in this prospective study to know the prevalence of subcut ...201525596859
antagonistic activities of novel peptides from bacillus amyloliquefaciens pt14 against fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum.bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. this paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from bacillus amyloliquefaciens pt14. reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that b. amyloliquefaciens pt14 produces five peptides (pt14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. in particular, pt14-3 and pt14-4a showed broa ...201526496638
purification and identification of two antifungal cyclic peptides produced by bacillus amyloliquefaciens l-h15.bacillus amyloliquefaciens l-h15 with broad spectrum antifungal activity was used as a biocontrol agent to suppress fusarium oxysporum and other soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. two antifungal fractions were isolated by bioactivity-guided reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. the two compounds were identified by tandem q-tof mass spectroscopy as c15 iturin a (1) and a novel cyclic peptide with a molecular weight of 852.4 da (2). both compounds showed good inhibitory activities ...201526123083
detection and characterization of broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of novel rhizobacterial isolates and suppression of fusarium crown and root rot disease of tomato.to detect and characterize broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of indigenous bacterial isolates obtained from potato soil and soya bean leaves for their potential to be developed as biofungicides to control soilborne diseases such as fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (fcrr) caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl).201525512025
[effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].a field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. the fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (cf), cow manure compost (cm), pig manure compost (pm) and bio-organic fertilizer (bio). the banana soil microflo ...201526094464
heterologous coexpression of vitreoscilla hemoglobin and bacillus megaterium glucanase in streptomyces lydicus a02 enhanced its production of antifungal metabolites.streptomyces lydicus a02 is a novel producer of commercially important polyene macrocyclic antibiotic natamycin and a potential biocontrol agent to several plant fungal diseases, including wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. spp. to improve the natamycin production and the antifungal activity of s. lydicus a02, we coexpressed gene vgb encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vhb) and bglc encoding bacillus megaterium l103 glucanase, both under the control of the strong constitutive erme* promoter, in ...201526453475
diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from cephalotaxus hainanensis li, a well-known medicinal plant in china.about 1051 endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, branches, barks and stems of cephalotaxus hainanensis li from four sites in hainan, china. the fungi were identified as 21 genera by morphology and its sequences. one dominant species was phomopsis quercella in hainan tropical botanical garden and bawangling nature reserve, with relative frequency of 42·06 and 34·88% respectively. another dominant species was colletotrichum boninense in wuzhishan and jianfengling nature reserves, with relati ...201526280451
rhizosphere inhibition of cucumber fusarium wilt by different surfactin- excreting strains of bacillus subtilis.bacillus subtilis b006 strain effectively suppresses the cucumber fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc). the population dynamics of foc, strain b006 and its surfactin over-producing mutant b841 and surfactin-deficient mutant b1020, in the rhizosphere were determined under greenhouse conditions to elucidate the importance of the lipopeptides excreted by these strains in suppressing foc. results showed that b. subtilis strain b006 effectively suppressed the disease in ...201526060433
plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium bacillus subtilis.bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. cultivation of b. subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. to test whether plants emit signals that affect b. subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. bacillus subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to p ...201525181478
the shewanella algae strain ym8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins.aflatoxigenic aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. controlling these microbes is a challenge. in this study, the shewanella algae strain ym8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against aspergillus pathogens. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (vocs) emitted from ym8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. we obtained authent ...201526500631
purification and characterization of a lectin from green split peas (pisum sativum).lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as hiv reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. a mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of pisum sativum) and characterized. the purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a deae-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an sp-sepharose column, and ...201526304129
synergistic action of a metalloprotease and a serine protease from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici cleaves chitin-binding tomato chitinases, reduces their antifungal activity, and enhances fungal virulence.as part of their defense strategy against fungal pathogens, plants secrete chitinases that degrade chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls. some fungi are not sensitive to plant chitinases because they secrete chitin-binding effector proteins that protect their cell wall against these enzymes. however, it is not known how fungal pathogens that lack chitin-binding effectors overcome this plant defense barrier. here, we investigated the ability of fungal tomato pathogens to cle ...201525915453
naturally produced citral can significantly inhibit normal physiology and induce cytotoxicity on magnaporthe grisea.given the importance of finding alternatives to synthetic fungicides, the antifungal effects of natural product citral on six plant pathogenic fungi (magnaporthe grisea, gibberella zeae, fusarium oxysporum, valsa mali, botrytis cinerea, and rhizoctonia solani) were determined. mycelial growth rate results showed that citral possessed high antifungal activities on those test fungi with ec50 values ranging from 39.52 to 193.00 µg/ml, which had the highest inhibition rates against m. grisea. furthe ...201525752425
phylogenic analysis revealed an expanded c₂h₂-homeobox subfamily and expression profiles of c₂h₂ zinc finger gene family in verticillium dahliae.c2h2 zinc finger (czf) proteins are a major class of transcription factors that play crucial roles in fungal growth, development, various stress responses, and virulence. little genome-wide data is available regarding the roles of czf proteins in verticillium dahliae, a destructive pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in more than 200 plant species. we identified a total of 79 typical czf genes in v. dahliae. comparative analysis revealed that four plant pathogenic fungi, v. dahliae, fusar ...201525725127
pcr-based specific techniques used for detecting the most important pathogens on strawberry: a systematic review.strawberry diseases are a major limiting factor that severely impact plant agronomic performance. regarding limitations of traditional techniques for detection of pathogens, researchers have developed specific dna-based tests as sensitive and specific techniques. the aim of this review is to provide an overview of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods used for detection or quantification of the most widespread strawberry pathogens, such as fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, phytophthora ...201525588564
isolation and characteristics of protocatechuic acid from paenibacillus elgii hoa73 against botrytis cinerea on strawberry fruits.this study was undertaken to describe purification, identification, and characteristics of protocatechuic acid (pca) isolated for the first time from paenibacillus elgii hoa73 against botrytis cinerea (the cause of gray mold disease on strawberry fruit). pca was purified by different chromatographic techniques and identified as pca (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) by nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. pca displayed potent antifungal activity against b. ci ...201525081931
characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis of the mapk and mapkk genes in watermelon (citrullus lanatus).mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades, which consist of three functionally associated protein kinases, namely mekks, mkks and mpks, are universal signaling modules in all eukaryotes and have been shown to play critical roles in many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. however, little or nothing is known about the mpk and mkk families in watermelon.201526700161
the importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of trichoderma parareesei.species of trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. in addition to these abilities, trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. here we study the role in biocontrol of the t. parareesei tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (cm), a s ...201526579090
impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.banana (musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (mmt). transnational exporters market fruit of the cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. in contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often fo ...201526002290
lipopeptide biosurfactant from bacillus thuringiensis pak2310: a potential antagonist against fusarium oxysporum.the aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of a biosurfactant obtained from a novel bacillus thuringiensis on fusarium oxysporum to determine the morphological changes in the structure of the fungi and its biofilm in the presence of the biosurfactant and to evaluate the toxicity of the biosurfactant on hep-2 human epithelial cell lines.201525456418
heterologous expression of the antifungal β-chitin binding protein cbp24 from bacillus thuringiensis and its synergistic action with bacterial chitinases.the genome sequence analysis of bacillus thuringiensis serovar konkukian s4 has shown to contain two chitinases (chi74, chi39) and two chitin-binding proteins (cbp50 and cbp24). the chi74, chi39 and cbp50 have been characterized previously. the chitin-binding protein cbp24 was cloned and heterologously expressed in escherichia coli. the recombinant protein was purified using a ni-nta purification system. the purified protein was used to study its substrate binding activity using crystalline chit ...201525182053
comparative functional characterization of a novel benzoate hydroxylase cytochrome p450 of fusarium oxysporum.focyp53a19, a novel cytochrome p450 capable of performing benzoate hydroxylation, was identified and characterized from the ascomycete fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. comparative functional analysis of focyp53a19 with the heterologous and homologous cytochrome p450 reductases (cpr) such as saccharomyces cerevisiae (sccpr), candida albicans (cacpr) and f. oxysporum (focpr) revealed novel catalytic properties. the catalytic efficiency and substrate specificity of focyp53a19 were significantl ...201525659633
different forms of apolipophorin iii in galleria mellonella larvae challenged with bacteria and fungi.apolipophorin iii (apolp-iii), a lipid-binding protein and an insect homolog of human apolipoprotein e, plays an important role in lipid transport and immune response in insects. in the present study, we have demonstrated a correlation in time between changes in the apolp-iii abundance occurring in the hemolymph, hemocytes, and fat body after immunization of galleria mellonella larvae with gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli, gram-positive bacteria micrococcus luteus, yeast candida albicans, ...201525579437
a new model of in vitro fungal biofilms formed on human nail fragments allows reliable testing of laser and light therapies against onychomycosis.onychomycoses represent approximately 50 % of all nail diseases worldwide. in warmer and more humid countries like brazil, the incidence of onychomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte molds (ndm, including fusarium spp.) or yeasts (including candida albicans) has been increasing. traditional antifungal treatments used for the dermatophyte-borne disease are less effective against onychomycoses caused by ndm. although some laser and light treatments have demonstrated clinical efficacy against onychom ...201525471266
miltefosine is effective against candida albicans and fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, use ...201526404553
draft genome sequence of broad-spectrum antifungal bacterium burkholderia gladioli strain ngj1, isolated from healthy rice seeds.we report here the draft genome sequence of burkholderia gladioli strain ngj1. the strain was isolated from healthy rice seeds and exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity against several agriculturally important pathogens, including rhizoctonia solani, magnaporthe oryzae, venturia inaequalis, and fusarium oxysporum.201526205861
candida and fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. these conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. we focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. out of 70 residentia ...201525749362
antimicrobial activity of engineered shrimp ovarian peritrophin fragments from fenneropenaeus merguiensis.shrimp ovarian peritrophin (sop), a major protein in jelly layer and cortical rods, plays a role in egg protection after spawning. previous study, sequence of sop gene from fenneropenaeus merguiensis (fm-sop) was composed of domain a and domain b. the sop domain a contains amino acid sequences between 1-80 of fm-sop. the domain a had six conserved cysteines which have been found in many antimicrobial peptides. the molecular weight of purified rsop-a protein was about 9 kda. the sop domain b cont ...201525159507
diversity of endophytic fungi in glycine max.endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. with the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. in glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. the distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundan ...201526111593
a novel and effective streptomyces sp. n2 against various phytopathogenic fungi.phytopathogenic fungi would induce a variety of plant diseases, resulting in a severe reduction of agricultural output. however, the current plant disease control is mainly dependent on the environmentally and healthily hazardous chemical fungicides. thus, the present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic microorganism against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. by dual culture with rhizoctonia solani, a novel streptomyces specie, streptomyces sp. n2, was screened out from a total ...201526306529
manganese lipoxygenase of f. oxysporum and the structural basis for biosynthesis of distinct 11-hydroperoxy stereoisomers.the biosynthesis of jasmonates in plants is initiated by 13s-lipoxygenase (lox), but details of jasmonate biosynthesis by fungi, including fusarium oxysporum, are unknown. the genome of f. oxysporum codes for linoleate 13s-lox (foxlox) and for f. oxysporum manganese lox (fo-mnlox), an uncharacterized homolog of 13r-mnlox of gaeumannomyces graminis. we expressed fo-mnlox and compared its properties to cg-mnlox from colletotrichum gloeosporioides. electron paramagnetic resonance and metal analysis ...201526113537
identification of volatile compounds produced by the bacterium burkholderia tropica that inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens.it has been documented that bacteria from the burkholderia genera produce different kinds of compounds that inhibit plant pathogens, however in burkholderia tropica, an endophytic diazotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing bacterium isolated from a wide diversity of plants, the capacity to produce antifungal compounds has not been evaluated. in order to expand our knowledge about burkholderia tropica as a potential biological control agent, we analyzed 15 different strains of this bacterium to eval ...201523680857
structural and functional studies of a fusarium oxysporum cutinase with polyethylene terephthalate modification potential.cutinases are serine hydrolases that degrade cutin, a polyester of fatty acids that is the main component of plant cuticle. these biocatalysts have recently attracted increased biotechnological interest due to their potential to modify and degrade polyethylene terephthalate (pet), as well as other synthetic polymers.201526291558
comparative analysis of biosynthesised and chemosynthesised silver nanoparticles with special reference to their antibacterial activity against pathogens.the present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using both biological and chemical routes to find out the best method for control of their size and activity. the fungal agent (fusarium oxysporum) and the plant (azadirachta indica) were found to be the best source for agnps synthesis. both biosynthesis and chemosynthesis were achieved by challenging filtrate with agno3 (1 mm) solution. the synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fo ...201526023154
clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages.fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the cca gene cluster, trace its evolution across ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the fosc), a cosmopolitan cla ...201525663439
delftia tsuruhatensis wgr-uom-bt1, a novel rhizobacterium with pgpr properties from rauwolfia serpentina (l.) benth. ex kurz also suppresses fungal phytopathogens by producing a new antibiotic-amtm.the bacterial strain designated as wgr-uom-bt1 isolated from rhizosphere of rauwolfia serpentina exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity and also improved early plant growth. based on morphological, biochemical and 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, the strain bt1 was identified as delftia tsuruhatensis (kf727978). under in vitro conditions, the strain bt1 suppressed the growth of wide range of fungal phytopathogens. purified antimicrobial metabolite from the strain bt1 was identified as nitr ...201526258398
[identification of pathogens causing root rot disease on ligusticum chuanxiong in sichuan].to identify the pathogens causing root rot disease on ligusticum chuanxiong from the main producing areas in sichuan, and to provide gist of management of this disease in the future.201526495640
identification of different fusarium spp. in allium spp. in germany.in 2013 allium cepa bulbs from different fields in northern and southern germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with fusarium species. the same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible allium spp. from local markets. different fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different fusarium spp. were identified. the diversity of fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to t ...201527141742
spectrum of fusarium infections in tropical dermatology evidenced by multilocus sequencing typing diagnostics.fusarium species are emerging causative agents of superficial, cutaneous and systemic human infections. in a study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of 464 fungal isolates from a dermatological ward in thailand, 44 strains (9.5%) proved to belong to the genus fusarium. species identification was based on sequencing a portion of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), rdna internal transcribed spacer and rna-dependent polymerase subunit ii (rpb2). our results revealed that 37 isolat ...201525530264
gtpase rho1 regulates the expression of xyl3 and laccase genes in fusarium oxysporum.the rho1 protein is a gtpase that participates in cell wall biogenesis. we analyzed the transcript levels of laccase genes (lccl, lcc2, lcc3, lcc4, lcc5, and lcc9), and a xylanase gene (xyl3) in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain 4287 (wild type) and two mutant strains; rhol::hyg that lacks a functional rho1, and rho1::hyg + rho1 (g14v) that has a constitutively active rho1. the transcript levels of lcc2, lcc3, lcc5, and xyl3 differed among the three strains, but those of lcc1 and lcc9 ...201525351810
highly diverse endophytic and soil fusarium oxysporum populations associated with field-grown tomato plants.the diversity and genetic differentiation of populations of fusarium oxysporum associated with tomato fields, both endophytes obtained from tomato plants and isolates obtained from soil surrounding the sampled plants, were investigated. a total of 609 isolates of f. oxysporum were obtained, 295 isolates from a total of 32 asymptomatic tomato plants in two fields and 314 isolates from eight soil cores sampled from the area surrounding the plants. included in this total were 112 isolates from the ...201525304514
identification and expression analysis of wrky family genes under biotic and abiotic stresses in brassica rapa.wrky proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, and they are involved in multiple biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. genes of this family have been well documented in response to many abiotic and biotic stresses in many plant species, but not yet against pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in any of the plants. moreover, potentiali ...201525149146
identification of predictor parameters to determine agro-industrial compost suppressiveness against fusarium oxysporum and phytophthora capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings.the lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. in our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (fom) and phytophthora capsici (p. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopp ...201525074864
toxic influence of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants and synthetic activated sludge associates modeled on its pure cultures.toxic impact of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment facilities has been studied. some dominating cultures (an active nitrogen fixer agrobacterium tumifaciens (a.t) and micromyces such as fusarium nivale, fusarium oxysporum, and penicillium glabrum) have been isolated and identified as a result of selection of the activated sludge microorganisms being steadiest under stressful conditions. for these cultures, the lethal doses of silver amounted 1, 600, 50, and 300  ...201525027236
adaptation of fusarium oxysporum and fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.members of the fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. an epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in dijon and nancy (france) and in non-hospital buildings in dijon. the fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of nancy. all fungi were identified as fusarium oxysporum species comp ...201525792434
characterization of novel trichoderma asperellum isolates to select effective biocontrol agents against tomato fusarium wilt.the use of novel isolates of trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. we evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of t. asperellum against 4 different isolates of fol. the production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) method was applied to assess the ...201525774110
isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds.a novel defensin-like antifungal peptide (tf-afp) with molecular mass of 10.3 kda was isolated from seeds of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange, gel-filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and rp-hplc. mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the intact mass of the purified antifungal peptide as 10321.5 da and high similarity to plant defensins and other antifungal proteins in database search. 2d-page showed pi value to be 8.8 and absence of isof ...201525761687
hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (hyacinthus orientalis).hyacinth (hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. the purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. the application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. methyl jasmonate (ja-me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. simultaneous application of ja-me and ethephon ...201525462960
response of nbs encoding resistance genes linked to both heat and fungal stress in brassica oleracea.environmental stresses, including both abiotic and biotic stresses, cause considerable yield loss in crops and can significantly affect their development. under field conditions, crops are exposed to a variety of concurrent stresses. among abiotic and biotic stresses, heat and fusarium oxysporum, are the most important factors affecting development and yield productivity of brassica oleracea. genes encoding the nucleotide-binding site (nbs) motif are known to be related to responses to abiotic a ...201525461701
arsenic speciation transformation and arsenite influx and efflux across the cell membrane of fungi investigated using hplc-hg-afs and in-situ xanes.microorganisms dominated speciation of arsenic (as) play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of as. in the study, species transformation of arsenite [as(iii)] and as(iii) influx and efflux across the cell membranes of trichoderma asperellum sm-12f1, penicillium janthinellum sm-12f4, and fusarium oxysporum cz-8f1 cells were studied using a cellular lysis plus chromatographic separation method and further the in-situ x-ray absorption near edge structure (xanes) analysis. the results in ...201525460757
the tomato i-3 gene: a novel gene for resistance to fusarium wilt disease.plant resistance proteins provide race-specific immunity through the recognition of pathogen effectors. the resistance genes i, i-2 and i-3 have been incorporated into cultivated tomato (solanum lycopersicum) from wild tomato species to confer resistance against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) races 1, 2 and 3, respectively. although the fol effectors corresponding to these resistance genes have all been identified, only the i-2 resistance gene has been isolated from tomato. to isola ...201525740416
comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines.the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. however, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. the aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological c ...201525737015
distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil across tunisia: a descriptive study and review of the literature.data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of tunisia are scanty. the present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in tunisia. keratinophilic fungi were isolated using vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further dna and maldi-tof analysis when necessary. keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the ...201525690159
fluorescence assisted selection of transformants (fast): using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants.the availability of drug resistance markers for fungal transformation is often a limiting factor in both fungal genetics research and industrial applications. we describe a new technique using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants using well-known fluorescent proteins as markers for transformation. this new technique, fluorescence-assisted selection of transformants (fast), was used for a transformation of fusarium oxysporum with gfp as a marker targeted at a specific site on chromosome ...201525687933
understanding pea resistance mechanisms in response to fusarium oxysporum through proteomic analysis.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (fop) is an important and destructive pathogen affecting pea crop (pisum sativum) throughout the world. control of this disease is achieved mainly by integration of different disease management procedures. however, the constant evolution of the pathogen drives the necessity to broaden the molecular basis of resistance to fop. our proteomic study was performed on pea with the aim of identifying proteins involved in different resistance mechanisms operating during f. ...201525672548
rapid and efficient estimation of pea resistance to the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum by infrared imaging.fusarium wilts are widespread diseases affecting most agricultural crops. in absence of efficient alternatives, sowing resistant cultivars is the preferred approach to control this disease. however, actual resistance sources are often overcome by new pathogenic races, forcing breeders to continuously search for novel resistance sources. selection of resistant accessions, mainly based on the evaluation of symptoms at timely intervals, is highly time-consuming. thus, we tested the potential of an ...201525671514
fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. they cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. surveys of fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. in the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze fusarium diversity directly from soil dna. we designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (ef-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward fusarium using a large collection of fungi. ...201525655778
down-regulation of fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by host-delivered rna interference enhances disease resistance.fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. we have used host-delivered rna interference (hd-rnai) technology to partially silence three different genes (fow2, frp1, and opr) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. expression of double stranded rna (dsrna) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a n ...201525654075
interaction of pseudostellaria heterophylla with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.in this study, quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) was used to determine the amount of fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. moreover, hplc was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of f. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. the amount of f. oxysporum increased significantly in p. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive r ...201525645742
genetic and pathogenic variability of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from onion and welsh onion in japan.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and fusarium wilt in welsh onion. although these diseases have been detected in various areas in japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. in this study, f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and welsh onion grown in 12 locations in japan, and a total of 55 f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from welsh onion) were ch ...201525412011
dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in fusarium oxysporum.nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in fusarium oxysporum. using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that f. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. we observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth ra ...201525398376
different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.in the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) genes and internal transcribed spacer (its) regions. the results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. bray-curtis dissimi ...201525391237
biocontrol of fusarium wilt disease in tomato by paenibacillus ehimensis kwn38.this study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of paenibacillus ehimensis kwn38 against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing fusarium wilt disease in tomato. our result showed that p. ehimensis kwn38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit f. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. tomato seedlings were treated with water (w), grass medium (g), g with p. ehimensis kwn38 inoculation (gp) and g along with synthetic fun ...201525384610
shifts in soil chemical properties and bacterial communities responding to biotransformed dry olive residue used as organic amendment.dry olive residue (dor) is a waste product derived from olive oil extraction and has been proposed as an organic amendment. however, it has been demonstrated that a pre-treatment, such as its transformation by saprophytic fungi, is required before dor soil application. a greenhouse experiment was designed where 0 and 50 g kg(-1) of raw dor (dor), coriolopsis floccosa-transformed dor (cordor) and fusarium oxysporum-transformed dor (fusdor) were added to soil. analyses of the soil chemical propert ...201525501891
the transmembrane protein sho1 cooperates with the mucin msb2 to regulate invasive growth and plant infection in fusarium oxysporum.in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) fmk1 is essential for plant infection. the mucin-like membrane protein msb2 regulates a subset of fmk1-dependent functions. here, we examined the role of the tetraspan transmembrane protein sho1 as an additional regulator of the fmk1 pathway and determined its genetic interaction with msb2. targeted δsho1 mutants were generated in wild-type and δmsb2 backgrounds to test possible interactions between the ...201525382187
phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin precludes fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection in lycopersicon esculentum via induction of enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway.binding of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (pdp) modulated activity of fungal endopolygalacturonase in silico. induced fit docking study of pdp with endopolygalacturonase (1hg8) showed a bifurcated hydrogen bond interaction with the protein at lys 244 with a docking score of -3.6 and glide energy of -37.30 kcal/mol. docking with endopolygalacturonase ii (1czf) resulted hydrogen bond formation with lys 258 with a docking score of -2.3 and glide energy of -30.42 kcal/mol. it was hypothesized t ...201525374140
activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to fusarium wilt in banana (musa acuminata l. aaa group, cv. cavendish).fusarium wilt caused by the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. salicylic acid (sa) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. our study is the first to examine the role of sa in conferring resistance to foc tr4 in banana (musa acuminata l. aaa group, cv. cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in musa. we used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qrt-pcr) to analyze the expres ...201525277445
the transcription factor con7-1 is a master regulator of morphogenesis and virulence in fusarium oxysporum.previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of morphogenetic regulation in fusarium oxysporum pathogenesis, including processes such as cell-wall biogenesis, cell division, and differentiation of infection-like structures. we identified three f. oxysporum genes encoding predicted transcription factors showing significant identities to magnaporthe oryzae con7p, con7-1, plus two identical copies of con7-2. targeted deletion of con7-1 produced nonpathogenic mutants with altered morphogene ...201525271883
purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, mcha-pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) leaves.an antifungal protein, designated mcha-pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. the isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on bio-gel p-6, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, an additional gel filtration on hiload 16/60 superdex 30, and finally, hplc on a source 5rpc column. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ion ...201525245535
effect of physicochemical parameters on nitrile-hydrolyzing potentials of newly isolated nitrilase of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopercisi ed-3.in recent years, nitrilases from fungus have received increasing attention, and most of the studies are performed on nitrilases of bacterial origin. frequently used methods are based on analytical methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography; therefore, an efficient, user friendly, and rapid method has been developed to screen nitrilase enzyme based on the principle of color change of a ph indicator. phenol red amended wi ...201524923632
optimization and kinetic modeling of cell-associated camptothecin production from an endophytic fusarium oxysporum nfx06.the production of cell-associated camptothecin (cpt) from an endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum nfx06 isolated from nothapodytes foetida and its kinetics studies were proposed. response surface methodology (rsm) based on central composite design (ccd) was used to construct a model to describe the effects of substrate concentration. three independent variables (dextrose, peptone, and mgso4) were successfully employed to study the yield of cpt under submerged fermentation. the maximum yield of c ...201524840354
[antibacterial components from artificially induced dragon's blood of dracaena cambodiana].ten compounds were isolated from the artificially induced dragon's blood of dracaena cambodiana by various column chromatographies on silica and sephadex lh-20 gel. based on spectral analysis of nmr and ms, their structures were identified as 3, 4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (1), 3', 4', 5'-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol (2), pinoresinol (3), (2r)-7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavane (4), (2r)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methylflavane(5),(2s)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane(6) ,(2s)-4',7-dihydroxy-6, 8 ...201527062817
[molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility of fusarium from fungal keratitis in central china].to detect the genotypes and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of fusarium isolated from patients with fungal keratitis in central china.201526693650
marker-assisted selection of fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (cucumis melo l.).in this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes acs7 (a) and wip1 (g) and the domain in the fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene fom-2 (f) in order to achieve selection of f. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. markers of a and f are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. twenty f1 and 1863 f2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line wi998 and the fusarium wilt-resistant line ...201526662419
identification of a novel small cysteine-rich protein in the fraction from the biocontrol fusarium oxysporum strain cs-20 that mitigates fusarium wilt symptoms and triggers defense responses in tomato.the biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain cs-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. this study shows that cs-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. three protein-containing fractions were isolated from cs-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic f ...201526779237
[fungal disease survey and pathogen identification on codonopsis tangshen in chongqing].to confirm the current major diseases and corresponding pathogens of codonopsis tangshen in chongqing.201526762048
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