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veterinary fusarioses within the united states.multilocus dna sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the united states. molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. the majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the fusarium solani sp ...201627605713
heterotrophic bioleaching of sulfur, iron, and silicon impurities from coal by fusarium oxysporum fe and exophiala spinifera fm with growing and resting cells.coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. in this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number kf554100 (fusarium oxysporum fe) and kc925672 (exophiala spinifera fm) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. the leaching were detected by ftir, chns, xrf analyzer and compared with iron and sulfa ...201626883128
wildly growing asparagus (asparagus officinalis l.) hosts pathogenic fusarium species and accumulates their mycotoxins.asparagus officinalis l. is an important crop in many european countries, likely infected by a number of fusarium species. most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. however, there is lack of information on fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins ...201626687343
identification of biomarkers for resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection and in silico studies in musa paradisiaca cultivar puttabale through proteomic approach.panama wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) is one of the major disease constraints of banana production. previously, we reported the disease resistance musa paradisiaca cv. puttabale clones developed from ethylmethanesulfonate and foc culture filtrate against foc inoculation. here, the same resistant clones and susceptible clones were used for the study of protein accumulation against foc inoculation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-de), their expression pattern and a ...201628248219
natural products as sources of new fungicides (ii): antiphytopathogenic activity of 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanone derivatives.a series of 17 simple 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanones were synthesised, and their structures characterised by (1)h, (13)c nmr and esi-ms. their in vitro antifungal activities were evaluated against five phytopathogenic fungi including glomerella cingulate, botrytis cirerea, fusarium graminearum, curvularia lunata and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum by the mycelial growth inhibition assay. compounds 2g and 2h exhibited broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against the mycelial growth of the ...201625978007
green synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of agnps using agave americana, mentha spicata and mangifera indica aqueous leaves extract.the current study was performed to synthesize stable, eco-friendly and bio-compatible silver nano-particles (agnps) of agave americana, mentha spicata and mangifera indica leaves and to screen them for biological activities. the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic analysis revealed that λ-max for agnps range from 350-500 nm. all agnps possessed polycrystalline structure as notified as intense graphical peaks in complete spectrum of 20 values ranging from 10-80° in x-ray diffraction measurements an ...201627676375
comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological and chemical routes with pluronic f68 as a stabilising agent.the authors report the comparative antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesised by biological (using fusarium oxysporum) and chemical routes in the presence and absence of pluronic f68 as a stabilising agent. the production of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by uv-visible spectra, with absorbance at about 420 nm in the case of both biological and chemical synthesis. x-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the presence of face-centred cubic structure (fcc plane). the nanoparticles ch ...201627463790
microbial host selection and periplasmic folding in escherichia coli affect the biochemical characteristics of a cutinase from fusarium oxysporum.a cutinase from the mesophilic fungus fusarium oxysporum (focut5a) was functionally expressed in different hosts and their recombinant products were characterized regarding their activity, thermostability and tolerance in organic solvents. the cutinase gene cut5a was expressed in the bl21 and origami 2 escherichia coli strains and the resulting protein was folded either in the cytoplasm or in the periplasmic space, with the aim of correct formation of disulfide bonds. increase of thermostability ...201627302766
[overexpression, homology modeling and coenzyme docking studies of the cytochrome p450nor2 from cylindrocarpon tonkinense].cytochrome p450nor catalyzes an unusual reaction that transfers electrons from nadp/nadph to bound heme directly. to improve the expression level of p450nor2 from cylindrocarpon tonkinense (c.p450nor2), escherichia coli system was utilized to substitute the yeast system we constructed for expression of the p450nor2 gene, and the protein was purified in soluble form using ni(+)-nta affinity chromatography. in contrast to p450nor from fusarium oxysporum (f.p450nor) and p450nor1 from cylindrocarpon ...201627239859
biological characteristics and antimicrobial activity of endophytic streptomyces sp. tqr12-4 isolated from elite citrus nobilis cultivar ham yen of vietnam.ham yen orange (citrus nobilis lour) is the highly valuable commercial fruit of vietnam. with the blooming of fruit production and farming area, this specialty crop is facing threats from several serious diseases; therefore the search for new effective biocontrollers is required to prevent the existing excessive use of fertilizers and plant protection chemicals. endophytic actinomycetes are of great scientific interest due to their high potential of application in agriculture and pharmaceutical ...201627795709
differential response of extracellular proteases of trichoderma harzianum against fungal phytopathogens.in the present study, production of extracellular proteases by trichoderma harzianum was evaluated based on the relative gene expression and spectrophotometric assay. the fungal isolates were grown in czapek dox broth medium supplemented with deactivated mycelium of plant fungal pathogens such as fusarium oxysporum, colletotrichum capsici, gloeocercospora sorghi, and colletotrichum truncatum. the maximum protease activity was detected after 48 h of incubation against colletotrichum spp. similarl ...201627278806
low utility of pediatric isolator blood culture system for detection of fungemia in children: a 10-year review.the use of the wampole isolator 1.5-ml pediatric blood culture tube for the detection of fungemia in children was assessed by a 10-year retrospective review at two pediatric hospitals, the hospital for sick children in toronto, canada, and the children's medical center of dallas, texas. over this period, a total of 9,442 pediatric isolator specimens were processed, with yeast or yeast-like organisms recovered in 297 (3.1%) of the specimens (151 [1.6%] unique clinical episodes) and filamentous or ...201627307462
suppressive effects of mycoviral proteins encoded by magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain a on conidial germination of the rice blast fungus.magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain a (mocv1-a) is the causal agent of growth repression and attenuated virulence (hypovirulence) of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe oryzae. we previously revealed that heterologous expression of the mocv1-a orf4 protein resulted in cytological damage to the yeasts saccharomyces cerevisiae and cryptococcus neoformans. since the orf4 protein is one of the components of viral particles, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the purified virus particle agains ...201627329666
investigating the compatibility of the biocontrol agent clonostachys rosea ik726 with prodigiosin-producing serratia rubidaea s55 and phenazine-producing pseudomonas chlororaphis toza7.this study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus clonostachys rosea ik726 with the phenazine-producing pseudomonas chlororaphis toza7 or with the prodigiosin-producing serratia rubidaea s55 against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. the pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas c. rosea displayed high tolerance to s. rubidaea but not to p. chlororaphis. we hypothesized that this could be attributed to the atp-binding cassette (abc) protei ...201626860841
extraction and separation of active ingredients in schisandra chinensis (turcz.) baill and the study of their antifungal effects.schisandra chinensis extracts (ses) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. this study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of s. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. concentrated active fractions (se-i, se-ii, and se-iii) were obtained from s. chinensis via speci ...201627152614
antifungal properties of hypericin, hypericin tetrasulphonic acid and fagopyrin on pathogenic fungi and spoilage yeasts.the role of hypericin-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial properties on pathogenic fungi and photodynamic therapy for human cancer cells is known. antifungal properties of hypericum perforatum l. (hypericaceae) and fagopyrum esculentum moench. (polygonaceae) extracts were also studied. the different polarities of solvents can cause complication in the identification of antifungal effects of separate biologically active compounds. in recent experimental work, we compared antifungal properties of ...201627564138
isolation and identification of the antimicrobial agent beauvericin from the endophytic fusarium oxysporum 5-19 with nmr and esi-ms/ms.endophytic microbe has been proved to be one of rich sources of bioactive natural products with potential application for new drug and pesticide discovery. one cyclodepsipeptide, beauvericin, was firstly isolated from the fermentation broth of fusarium oxysporum 5-19 endophytic on edgeworthia chrysantha linn. its chemical structure was unambiguously identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods, such as hresi-ms and (1)h and (13)c nmr. esi-ms/ms was successfully used to elucidate the spli ...201627413733
a new lupane-type triterpenoid fatty acid ester and other isolates from ophiorrhiza shendurunii.a new pentacyclic triterpenoid fatty acid ester, lupan-20-ol-3(β)-yl hexadecanoate (1), together with lupan-20-ol-3(β)-yl acetate (2), olean-18-en-3(β)-yl hexadecanoate (3), dotriacontanoic acid (4), stigmasterol (5), rubiadin (6), nonadecanoic acid (7), palmitic acid (8) and camptothecin (9) were isolated from the hexane and chloroform extracts of ophiorrhiza shendurunii from south india. structures of the isolates were determined by (1)h, (13)c, (13)c dept, (1)h-(1)h cosy, hmbc, hsqc, noesy nm ...201626979490
extraction, identification and antimicrobial activity of a new furanone, grifolaone a, from grifola frondosa.a furanone (1), (s)-methyl 2-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)acetate, was isolated from the edible mushroom grifola frondosa. mass spectrometry and nmr analyses were used to elucidate the structure of this compound, and its absolute configuration was determined using circular dichroism spectroscopy. compound 1 exhibited specific antifungal activity against the plant pathogens, fusarium oxysporum, gibberella zeae and piricularia oryzae and the opportunistic human pathogen, pse ...201626374926
combination of fluconazole with silver nanoparticles produced by fusarium oxysporum improves antifungal effect against planktonic cells and biofilm of drug-resistant candida albicans.silver nanoparticles (agnps) have been extensively studied because of their anti-microbial potential. here, we evaluated the effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (agnpbio) alone and in combination with fluconazole (flc) against planktonic cells and biofilms of flc-resistant candida albicans agnpbio exhibited a fungicidal effect, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and fungicidal concentration ranging from 2.17 to 4.35 μg/ml. the combination of agnpbio and flc reduced ...201626092103
the antagonistic effect of banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein b4 against fusarium oxysporum.the viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. from the data presented here, we have found that banana bunchy top virus (bbtv)-infected bananas are more resistant to ...201626369403
solubility, photostability and antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids encapsulated in cyclodextrins.effects of the encapsulation in cyclodextrins (cds) on the solubility, photostability and antifungal activities of some phenylpropanoids (pps) were investigated. solubility experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of cds on pps aqueous solubility. loading capacities and encapsulation efficiencies of freeze-dried inclusion complexes were determined. moreover, photostability assays for both inclusion complexes in solution and solid state were performed. finally, two of the most widespre ...201626593522
garlic, from remedy to stimulant: evaluation of antifungal potential reveals diversity in phytoalexin allicin content among garlic cultivars; allicin containing aqueous garlic extracts trigger antioxidants in cucumber.garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. an integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (age) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (cucumis sativus). initially, 28 garlic cultivars were ...201627610111
field demonstration of a multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic platform for plant pathogens.effective disease management strategies to prevent catastrophic crop losses require rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection methods for timely decision making. to address this need, a rapid, highly specific and sensitive point-of-care method for multiplex detection of plant pathogens was developed by taking advantage of surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) labeled nanotags and recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa), which is a rapid isothermal amplification method with high specifici ...201627403651
lunatin, a novel lectin with antifungal and antiproliferative bioactivities from phaseolus lunatus billb.a novel lectin with a molecular mass of 24.3kda, designated lunatin, was isolated from edible seeds of phaseolus lunatus billb. the purification scheme consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. the lectin is a glycoprotein, as determined by staining with periodic acid-schiff (pas), and its n-terminal amino acid sequence was determined to be daviyrgpgdlhtgs. lunatin exhibited hemagglutinating activity towa ...201627164500
isolation and antifungal activity of methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate from paenibacillus elgii hoa73.the aim of the present study is to describe the purification and identification of methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (m2,3db), isolated for the first time from paenibacillus elgii hoa73, and to subsequently investigate its antifungal activity against important plant pathogens. the results show that m2,3db can be purified by many different chromatographic techniques and is identified as methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate based on nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ( ...201626796297
experimental protocol for the recovery and evaluation of bioactive compounds of tarbush against postharvest fruit fungi.the aim of this study was to recover and evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of bioactive compounds of tarbush flourensia cernua against fruit postharvest fungi and their antioxidant capacity. a yield of 15% of bioactive compounds of tarbush was obtained by infusion method and heating using water as solvent. a concentration of 4000 mg/l showed a higher antioxidant activity against the abts radical (3.21 μmol/g) in comparison with the dpph radical (7.62 μmol/g); however the dpph radical sho ...201626769505
parasitic weed management by using strigolactone-degrading fungi.seed germination is a key phase of the parasitic plant life cycle that is stimulated by the secondary metabolites, mainly strigolactones (sls), secreted by the host roots. interventions during this stage would be particularly suitable for parasitic weed management practices, as blocking these chemical signals would prevent seed germination and thus parasite attack. four fungal strains with different ecological functions were considered for their possible ability to metabolise sls: fusarium oxysp ...201626757233
cremenolide, a new antifungal, 10-member lactone from trichoderma cremeum with plant growth promotion activity.trichoderma based products are considered an alternative to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. these trichoderma spp. are among the most studied and applied fungal bcas in industry and agriculture and are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities. the analysis of metabolic profiles (the 'metabolome') of trichoderma species is complex because of the wide range of compounds produced and the molecular activities identified, including the recently determi ...201626728227
the abc transporter abcg29 is involved in h2o2 tolerance and biocontrol traits in the fungus clonostachys rosea.for successful biocontrol interactions, biological control organisms must tolerate toxic metabolites produced by themselves or plant pathogens during mycoparasitic/antagonistic interactions, by host plant during colonization of the plant, and xenobiotics present in the environment. atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters can play a significant role in tolerance of toxic compounds by mediating active transport across the cellular membrane. this paper reports on functional characterization of an a ...201626520102
improved nadph regeneration for fungal cytochrome p450 monooxygenase by co-expressing bacterial glucose dehydrogenase in resting-cell biotransformation of recombinant yeast.fungal cytochrome p450 (cyp) enzymes catalyze versatile monooxygenase reactions and play a major role in fungal adaptations owing to their essential roles in the production avoid metabolites critical for pathogenesis, detoxification of xenobiotics, and exploitation avoid substrates. although fungal cyp-dependent biotransformation for the selective oxidation avoid organic compounds in yeast system is advantageous, it often suffers from a shortage avoid intracellular nadph. in this study, we aimed ...201627666994
biosynthesis and characterization of a thermostable, alkali-tolerant chitinase from bacillus pumilus jubch08 displaying antagonism against phytopathogenic fusarium oxysporum.the present investigation highlights the process parameters influencing the submerged fermentation of chitinase by bacillus pumilus jubch08, purification and characterization of the enzyme and determination of antagonistic activity of the bacterium against fusarium oxysporum. medium supplemented with 0.5 % chitin and peptone, at initial ph 8.0, when incubated at 35 °c for 72 h favored highest chitinase production. the enzyme was purified 25.1-fold to homogeneity. the chitinase was found to be th ...201628330157
activity of flavanones isolated from rhododendron hainanense against plant pathogenic fungi.in a search for naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds in medicinal plants and herbs, seven flavanones were isolated from the aerial parts of rhododendron hainanense and were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacteria and six plant pathogenic fungi. within the series of flavanones tested, farrerol (1) displayed moderate antibacterial activities against bacillus cereus, b. subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli and erwinia carotovora, wi ...201627319130
diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.the study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of chinese cabbage (cc) cultivated in two areas in korea, namely, seosang-gun (ss) and haenam-gun (hn), and also in a transgenic plant (tp) from the laboratory. a total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of cc roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from ss, hn, and tp samples, respectively. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-g+c gram- ...201627095454
design, synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 6-n-substituted chitosan derivatives.three novel 6-n-substituted chitosan derivatives were designed and synthesised and characterized by ftir and nmr. the degree of substitution was calculated by elemental analysis results. the antimicrobial activities of the target compounds were evaluated by twofold serial broth dilution method and poisoned food technique. the antifungal activities of 6-aminoethylamino-6-deoxy chitosan (3), 6-butylamino-6-deoxy chitosan (4) and 6-pyridyl-6-deoxy chitosan (5) were significantly increased against r ...201627506558
synthesis, spectral studies and biological evaluation of 2-aminonicotinic acid metal complexes.we synthesized 2-aminonicotinic acid (2-ana) complexes with metals such as co(ii), fe(iii), ni(ii), mn(ii), zn(ii), ag(i),cr(iii), cd(ii) and cu(ii) in aqueous media. the complexes were characterized and elucidated using ft-ir, uv-vis, a fluorescence spectrophotometer and thermo gravimetric analysis (tga). tga data showed that the stoichiometry of complexes was 1:2 metal/ligand except for ag(i) and mn(ii) where the ratio was 1:1. the metal complexes showed varied antibacterial, fungicidal and ne ...201626945123
bacillus species (bt42) isolated from coffea arabica l. rhizosphere antagonizes colletotrichum gloeosporioides and fusarium oxysporum and also exhibits multiple plant growth promoting activity.colletotrichum and fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting coffea arabica l., resulting in major yield loss. in the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing colletotrichum gloeosporioides and fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth.201627863465
molecular characterization of alkaline protease of bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp1 involved in biocontrol of fusarium oxysporum.an alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic dna of bacillus amyloliquefaciens sp1 which was involved in effective biocontrol of fusarium oxysporum. we investigated the antagonistic capacity of protease of b. amyloliquifaciens sp1, under in vitro conditions. the 5.62 fold purified enzyme with specific activity of 607.69u/mg reported 24.14% growth inhibition of f. oxysporum. however, no antagonistic activity was found after addition of protease inhibitor i.e. pmsf (15mm) to purified enzym ...201627294522
molecular characterization and analysis of antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in saudi arabia.endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems.201627099679
fungal endophytes in germinated seeds of the common bean, phaseolus vulgaris.we conducted a survey of fungal endophytes in 582 germinated seeds belonging to 11 colombian cultivars of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris). the survey yielded 394 endophytic isolates belonging to 42 taxa, as identified by sequence analysis of the ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer (its) region. aureobasidium pullulans was the dominant endophyte, isolated from 46.7 % of the samples. also common were fusarium oxysporum, xylaria sp., and cladosporium cladosporioides, but found in only 13 ...201627109374
synthesis and evaluation of thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) efficient against panel of voriconazole-resistant fungal isolates.a series of new thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) were synthesized in high yields using a straightforward two-step procedure. the antifungal activity of compounds was evaluated against a wide range of medicaly important fungal strains including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes in comparison to clinically used drug voriconazole. cytotoxic properties of compounds were also determined using human lung fibroblast cell line and hemolysis assay. all guanylhydrazones showed significant ...201626867487
phytogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles, optimization and evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity against human and plant pathogens.an attempt was made to synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles from ten different cassia spp. among them, cassia roxburghii aqueous leaf extract supported the synthesis of highly efficient and stable agnps. the synthesis of agnps was optimized at different physico-chemical condition and highly stable agnps were synthesized with 1.0ml of c. roxburghii leaf extract, ph 7.0, 1.0mm agno3 and at 37°c. the synthesized agnps were characterized by xps, dls and zeta potential. dls and zeta potent ...201627664723
discrimination of aspergillosis, mucormycosis, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens by use of multiple real-time quantitative pcr assays.in a retrospective multicenter study, 102 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (ffpe) tissue specimens with histopathology results were tested. two 4- to 5-μm ffpe tissue sections from each specimen were digested with proteinase k, followed by automated nucleic acid extraction. multiple real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region of ribosomal dna, using fluorescently labeled primers, was performed to identify clinically important genera and spec ...201627605714
in vitro experimental environments lacking or containing soil disparately affect competition experiments of aspergillus flavus and co-occurring fungi in maize grains.in vitro experimental environments are used to study interactions between microorganisms, and to predict dynamics in natural ecosystems. this study highlights that experimental in vitro environments should be selected to match closely the natural environment of interest during in vitro studies to strengthen extrapolations about aflatoxin production by aspergillus and competing organisms. fungal competition and aflatoxin accumulation were studied in soil, cotton wool or tube (water-only) environm ...201627264786
2,3-dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.the antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-o-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus ochraceus, fusarium oxysporum, saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans. in the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. their mic and mfc values indicated th ...201627211660
effect of polymer/nanosilver composite packaging on long-term microbiological status of iranian saffron (crocus sativus l.).crocus sativus l. (saffron) is a valuable plant which is native to iran. saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowering part of the plant that is usually contaminated with different bacteria and fungi through production process. antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles are well recognized. to survey the effects of nanosilver packaging on microbiological status of spiked, saffron samples over a six month period were chosen. saffron samples from five regions of khorasan province were purch ...201627081358
inhibition of filamentous fungi by ketoconazole-functionalized electrospun nanofibers.nanotechnology strategies have been used for delivery and controlled release of antimicrobial drugs. electrospun nanofibers can be versatile vehicles to incorporate antimicrobials. in this work, poly-ε-caprolactone nanofibers functionalized with ketoconazole were produced by electrospinning and tested against filamentous fungi. ketoconazole-free nanofibers were produced as controls. functionalized nanofibers showed antifungal activity against aspergillus flavus, a. carbonarius, a. niger, aspergi ...201626775870
chemical profiling, antimicrobial and insecticidal evaluations of polygonum hydropiper l.the emergence of multidrug resistant (mdr) pathogens is of great concern to the global health community. our ability to effectively treat diseases is based on the discovery of potent drugs for the treatment of these challenging diseases. traditional medicines are one of the major sources for the discovery of safe, effective and economical drug candidates. in order to validate its antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal potentials with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the firs ...201627919287
an impedance-based mold sensor with on-chip optical reference.a new miniaturized sensor system with an internal optical reference for the detection of mold growth is presented. the sensor chip comprises a reaction chamber provided with a culture medium that promotes the growth of mold species from mold spores. the mold detection is performed by measuring impedance changes with integrated electrodes fabricated inside the reaction chamber. the impedance change in the culture medium is caused by shifts in the ph (i.e., from 5.5 to 8) as the mold grows. in ord ...201627690039
synergistic and additive effect of oregano essential oil and biological silver nanoparticles against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains.bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a clinical and public health problem, making therapeutic decisions more challenging. plant compounds and nanodrugs have been proposed as potential antimicrobial alternatives. studies have shown that oregano (origanum vulgare) essential oil (oeo) and silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity, also against multidrug-resistant strains; however, the strong organoleptic characteristics of oeo and the development of resistance t ...201627242772
leveraging the attributes of mucor hiemalis-derived silver nanoparticles for a synergistic broad-spectrum antimicrobial platform.driven by the need to engineer robust surface coatings for medical devices to prevent infection and sepsis, incorporation of nanoparticles has surfaced as a promising avenue to enhance non-fouling efficacy. microbial synthesis of such nanoscale metallic structures is of substantive interest as this can offer an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable route for further development. here we present a mucor hiemalis-derived fungal route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which display sig ...201628018316
assessment of probiotic, antifungal and cholesterol lowering properties of pediococcus pentosaceus kcc-23 isolated from italian ryegrass.lactic acid bacteria (lab) are important for the processing of various food products. although genetically modified organisms have contributed to improvements in various food products, there are some limitations. thus, the discovery of wild strains from natural sources must be considered as the most suitable approach for identifying new lab. therefore, we planned to isolate and characterise the lab from italian ryegrass forage and evaluate their biological potential.201625655225
plant defensins nad1 and nad2 induce different stress response pathways in fungi.nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (nad1 and nad2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall o-glycosylated proteins. therefore, we investigated if this was the case for nad1 and nad2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three aspergillus nidulans (an) o-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (ko) mutants (an∆pmta, an∆pmtb, and an∆pmtc). an∆pmta was resistant to both defensin ...201627598152
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
antifungal, anticancer and aminopeptidase inhibitory potential of a phenazine compound produced by lactococcus bsn307.a bioactive compound was purified from the culture medium of a new strain of lactococcus bsn307 by solvent extraction followed by chromatographic techniques. this bioactive compound was identified to belong to phenazine class of compounds by ms, nmr and ftir. the phenazine compound showed antifungal activity against aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum as well as fusarium oxysporum by disc diffusion assay in addition to antioxidant potential as demonstrated by dpph scavenging assay. the co ...201627784936
synthesis of novel tetrazole derivatives and evaluation of their antifungal activity.with the appearance of the antifungal resistance, novel antifungal agents need to be identified. in this context new 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives containing benzothiazole, benzoxazole or phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized by n-alkylation of aryltetrazole with 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzothiazole or 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and michael-type addition of aryltetrazole to phenyl vinyl sulfone. the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were conf ...201627745991
antifungal activity of isolated bacillus amyloliquefaciens sybc h47 for the biocontrol of peach gummosis.the gummosis disease is caused by botryosphaeria dothidea (moug. ex. fr) ces. et de not., and it is one of the most important diseases of stone fruits worldwide. the use of biocontrol as an alternative approach to synthetic chemical fungicides has aroused general concern about how to control plant diseases that are caused by phytopathogens. the aim of this study is to isolate bacillus strains from raw honeys with the capacity to inhibit b. dothidea and to explore the mechanisms by which they cou ...201627583463
synthesis and evaluation of in vivo antioxidant, in vitro antibacterial, mrsa and antifungal activity of novel substituted isatin n-(2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazones.some new isatin n-(2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazones 4a-t with different substituents at 1-, 5- and 7-positions of isatin ring have been synthesized by reaction of n-(2,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)thiosemicarbazide 2 with corresponding isatins 3a-t. compounds 4a-t were evaluated in vivo for antioxidant activity and in vitro for anti-microorganism activities. the mic values were found for gram positive bacteria (mic = 1.56-6.25 μm), for gram negative bacteri ...201627517802
[trichophyton violaceum : main cause of tinea capitis in children at mbarara regional referral hospital in uganda].tinea capitis is caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic dermatophytes of the genera microsporum or trichophyton.201627341825
new conjugates of polyene macrolide amphotericin b with benzoxaboroles: synthesis and properties.a novel series of conjugates of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin b (amb) with benzoxaboroles was synthesized. antifungal activity of new compounds was tested on yeastβ candida albicans and cryptococcus humicolus and filamentous fungi aspergillus niger and fusarium oxysporum using the broth microdilution method. the potency of di-modified derivatives against the tested strains was similar to that of the parent amb. new derivatives demonstrated differential toxicity against human cells (colo ...201627005557
chemical composition of the essential oil of bupleurum fontanesii (apiaceae) growing wild in sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical art crafts.hydrodistillation of the flowers (bpfi) of and fruits (bpfr) of bupleurumfontanesii guss. ex caruel gave two oils that were analyzed by gc and gc-ms. the main components were α-elemol (16.7%), caryophyllene oxide (16.4%) and heptacosane (15.9%) in bpfl, and spathulenol (16.8%), caryophylladienol i (13.2%) and α-elemol (12.8%) in bpfr. a good antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms, including bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus niger, all inf ...201626996033
biosynthesis of anti-proliferative gold nanoparticles using endophytic fusarium oxysporum strain isolated from neem (a. indica) leaves.here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (azadirachta indica a. juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as fusarium oxysporum. the aqueous precursor (haucl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. these biosynthesized gold ...201626876519
replacement of two amino acids of 9r-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.the genome of aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (eha25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9s-dioxygenase (dox)-allene oxide synthase (aos) of fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the fusarium and colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of aspergilli, including (dox)-9r-aos of aspergillus terreus. the aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of eha25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. recombi ...201626603902
identification, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of antifungal trichoderma from tomato rhizosphere.the use of trichoderma isolates with efficient antagonistic activity represents a potentially effective and alternative disease management strategy to replace health hazardous chemical control. in this context, twenty isolates were obtained from tomato rhizosphere and evaluated by their antagonistic activity against four fungal pathogens (fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, alternaria alternata, colletotrichum gloeosporoides and rhizoctonia solani). the production of extracellular cell wall d ...201627917337
bioprospecting for secondary metabolites in the entomopathogenic bacterium photorhabdus luminescens subsp. sonorensis.crude extracts of in vitro and in vivo cultures of two strains of photorhabdus l. sonorensis (enterobacteriaceae) were analyzed by tlc, hplc-uv and lc-ms. nine unique compounds with mass/charge ratios (m/z) ranging from 331.3 to 713.5 were found in ms analyses. bioactivity of extracts was assessed on a selection of plant pathogens/pests and non-target species. caborca strain extracts showed the highest activity against helicoverpa zea (lepidoptera: noctuidae) neonates at all concentrations teste ...201627702563
molecular phylogeny, diversity, and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal north american plant echinacea purpurea (asteraceae).the endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. a total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which alternaria alternata, colletotrichum dematium, and stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. the extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important ...201627273012
synthesis and antifungal activity of 2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-one derivatives.a series of 2-alkyl-2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-ones (4a-l) was easily synthesized by two-step process involving o-alkylation of 2-nitrophenols with methyl 2-bromoalkanoates and next "green" catalytic reductive cyclization of the obtained 2-nitro ester intermediates (3a-l). further, 6,7-dibromo (5a-c) and n-acetyl (6) derivatives were prepared by bromination and acetylation of unsubstituted 2-alkyl-2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-ones (4a-c). the novel compounds (3a-l, 4d-l, 5a-c and 6) were fully character ...201626963527
sesquiterpene emissions from alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum: effects of age, nutrient availability, and co-cultivation.alternaria alternata is one of the most studied fungi to date because of its impact on human life - from plant pathogenicity to allergenicity. however, its sesquiterpene emissions have not been systematically explored. alternaria regularly co-occurs with fusarium fungi, which are common plant pathogens, on withering plants. we analyzed the diversity and determined the absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (vocs) in the headspace above mycelial cultures of a. alternata and fusarium ox ...201626915756
uptake of the fusarium effector avr2 by tomato is not a cell autonomous event.pathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate the host for their own proliferation. currently it is unclear whether the uptake of effector proteins from extracellular spaces is a host autonomous process. we study this process using the avr2 effector protein from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol). avr2 is an important virulence factor that is secreted into the xylem sap of tomato following infection. besides that, it is also an avirulence factor triggering immune responses in plants ...201628066471
double-stranded rna-mediated interference of dumpy genes in bursaphelenchus xylophilus by feeding on filamentous fungal transformants.rna interference (rnai) is a valuable tool for studying gene function in vivo and provides a functional genomics platform in a wide variety of organisms. the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a prominent invasive plant-parasitic nematode and has become a serious worldwide threat to forest ecosystems. presently, the complete genome sequence of b. xylophilus has been published, and research involving genome-wide functional analyses is likely to increase. in this study, we describe ...201626953254
rna-seq transcriptome response of flax (linum usitatissimum l.) to the pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. this interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform ...201627933082
effects of consecutive monoculture of pseudostellaria heterophylla on soil fungal community as determined by pyrosequencing.under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of pseudostellaria heterophylla declines significantly. in this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted to identify typical growth inhibition effects caused by extended monoculturing of p. heterophylla. deep pyrosequencing was used to examine changes in the structure and composition of soil fungal community along a three-year gradient of monoculture. the results revealed a distinct separation between the newly planted plot and the ...201627216019
characterization of a novel cotton subtilase gene gbsbt1 in response to extracellular stimulations and its role in verticillium resistance.verticillium wilt is a disastrous vascular disease in plants caused by verticillium dahliae. verticillium pathogens secrete various disease-causing effectors in cotton. this study identified a subtilase gene gbsbt1 from gossypium babardense and investigated the roles against v. dahliae infection. gbsbt1 gene expression is responsive to v. dahliae defense signals, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatments. moreover, the gbsbt1 protein is mainly localized in the cell membrane and moves into the cytop ...201627088499
characterization of a jaz7 activation-tagged arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum.in arabidopsis, jasmonate (ja)-signaling plays a key role in mediating fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. however, the roles of jasmonate zim-domain (jaz) proteins that repress ja-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. here, we found most jaz genes are induced following f. oxysporum challenge, and screening t-dna insertion lines in arabidopsis jaz family members identified a highly disease-susceptible jaz7 mutant (jaz7-1d). this mutant exhib ...201626896849
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria endowed with antimicrobial activity from a freshwater lake and their phylogenetic affiliation.antimicrobial resistance poses a serious challenge to global public health. in this study, fifty bacterial strains were isolated from the sediments of a freshwater lake and were screened for antibiotic resistance. out of fifty isolates, thirty-three isolates showed resistance against at least two of the selected antibiotics. analysis of 16s rdna sequencing revealed that the isolates belonged to ten different genera, namely staphylococcus(n = 8), bacillus(n = 7), lysinibacillus(n = 4), achromobac ...201627330861
metabolic engineering of fusarium oxysporum to improve its ethanol-producing capability.fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. it has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when saccharomyces cerevisiae is used-namel ...201627199958
fungal-mediated consolidated bioprocessing: the potential of fusarium oxysporum for the lignocellulosic ethanol industry.microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. the most important challenge is to overcome substrate recalcitrance and to thus reduce the number of steps needed to biorefine lignocellulose. conventionally, conversion involves chemical pretreatment of lignocellulose, followed by hydrolysis of biomass to monomer sugars that are subsequently fermented into bioethanol. consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) has been suggested as an efficien ...201626888202
the concept of ecthyma gangrenosum illustrated by a fusarium oxysporum infection in an immunocompetent individual.ecthyma gangrenosum (eg) involves necrotic cutaneous lesions caused by bacteria, mainly pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is usually seen in immunocompromised patients with septicemia. however, clinically similar infections have been published with fungi as etiologic agents. we present a case of an eg-like lesion due to fusarium oxysporum confirmed by clinical diagnosis, culture and molecular identification and discuss the definition of eg.201627324372
assessment of dapg-producing pseudomonas fluorescens for management of meloidogyne incognita and fusarium oxysporum on watermelon.pseudomonas fluorescens isolates clinto 1r, wayne 1r, and wood 1r, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: rkn) and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon). in a greenhouse trial, wayne 1r root dip suppressed numbers of rkn eggs per gram root on 'charleston gray' watermelon ...201627168652
development of a taqman probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) assay for detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4.this study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a taqman probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iipcr) method for the rapid detection of panama disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. by using the portable pockit™ device with the novel primer set iifoc-1/iifoc-2, the foc race 4 iipcr assay (including dna amplification and signal monitoring) could be ...201627448242
evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum infection leads to fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (linum usitatissimum) crop yield. plants infected by fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. as the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. in the case of more virulent strains, plants die. the pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. the main ai ...201627005923
constitutive expression of a novel antimicrobial protein, hcm1, confers resistance to both verticillium and fusarium wilts in cotton.fusarium and verticillium wilts, two of the most important diseases in cotton, pose serious threats to cotton production. here we introduced a novel antimicrobial protein hcm1, which comprised harpin protein from xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (xoc), and the chimeric protein, cecropin a-melittin, into cotton. the transgenic cotton lines with stable hcm1 expression showed a higher resistance to verticillium and fusarium wilts both in greenhouse and field trials compared to controls. hcm1 enable ...201626856318
structural and functional characterization of a highly stable endo-β-1,4-xylanase from fusarium oxysporum and its development as an efficient immobilized biocatalyst.replacing fossil fuel with renewable sources such as lignocellulosic biomass is currently a promising alternative for obtaining biofuel and for fighting against the consequences of climate change. however, the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic biomass residues constitutes a major limitation for its widespread use in industry. the efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials requires the complementary action of multiple enzymes including xylanases and β-xylosidases, which are respons ...201627602054
proteomic analysis reveals the positive roles of the plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium nsy50 in the response of cucumber roots to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum inoculation.plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) can both improve plant growth and enhance plant resistance against a variety of environmental stresses. to investigate the mechanisms that pgpr use to protect plants under pathogenic attack, transmission electron microscopy analysis and a proteomic approach were designed to test the effects of the new potential pgpr strain paenibacillus polymyxa nsy50 on cucumber seedling roots after they were inoculated with the destructive phytopathogen fusarium oxys ...201628018395
control of wilt and rot pathogens of tomato by antagonistic pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic delftia lacustris and bacillus spp.the studies on the biocontrol potential of pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic (ppfm) bacteria other than the genus methylobacterium are scarce. in the present study, we report three facultative methylotrophic isolates; ppo-1, ppt-1, and ppb-1, respectively, identified as delftia lacustris, bacillus subtilis, and bacillus cereus by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. hemolytic activity was tested to investigate the potential pathogenicity of isolates to plants and humans, the results indicate ...201627872630
screening and characterization of endophytic bacillus and paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters.a total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern china; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). the bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16s rrna gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their p ...201526691455
diversity and activity of lysobacter species from disease suppressive soils.the genus lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from rhizoctonia-suppressive ...201526635735
diversity, distribution, and antagonistic activities of rhizobacteria of panax notoginseng.rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. this study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of panax notoginseng.201527158229
comparative genome analyses of serratia marcescens fs14 reveals its high antagonistic potential.s. marcescens fs14 was isolated from an atractylodes macrocephala koidz plant that was infected by fusarium oxysporum and showed symptoms of root rot. with the completion of the genome sequence of fs14, the first comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of the serratia genus was performed. pan-genome and cog analyses showed that the majority of the conserved core genes are involved in basic cellular functions, while genomic factors such as prophages contribute considerably to genome diversity. ...201525856195
fusarium oxysporum triggers tissue-specific transcriptional reprogramming in arabidopsis thaliana.some of the most devastating agricultural diseases are caused by root-infecting pathogens, yet the majority of studies on these interactions to date have focused on the host responses of aerial tissues rather than those belowground. fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting pathogen that causes wilt disease on several plant species including arabidopsis thaliana. to investigate and compare transcriptional changes triggered by f. oxysporum in different arabidopsis tissues, we infected soil-grown pla ...201525849296
isolation and heterologous expression of a polygalacturonase produced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 and 4.fusarium wilt (panama disease) caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) represents a significant threat to banana (musa spp.) production. musa aab is susceptible to race 1 (foc1) and race 4 (foc4), while cavendish musa aaa is found to be resistant to foc1 but still susceptible to race 4. a polygalacturonase (pgc3) was purified from the supernatant of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (foc4), which is the pathogen of fusarium wilt. pgc3 had an apparent molecular weight of 45 kda a ...201525854430
the effector repertoire of fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection.plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. during colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as six (secreted in xylem) proteins. of these, six1 (avr3), six3 (avr2), six5, and six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. to investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with fol wild-type or ...201526583031
investigating the association between flowering time and defense in the arabidopsis thaliana-fusarium oxysporum interaction.plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. in this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum. we report that f. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and ...201526034991
the arabidopsis kh-domain rna-binding protein esr1 functions in components of jasmonate signalling, unlinking growth restraint and resistance to stress.glutathione s-transferases (gsts) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one arabidopsis member, gstf8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. a gstf8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated gstf8 promoter activity. this identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resi ...201525985302
identification of an endophytic antifungal bacterial strain isolated from the rubber tree and its application in the biological control of banana fusarium wilt.banana fusarium wilt (also known as panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. effective control methods are still under exploring. the endophytic bacterial strain itbb b5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. this strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana fusarium disease. visual agar plate assay showed that itbb b5-1 restricted the mycelial growth ...201526133557
transcriptome profiling of soybean (glycine max) roots challenged with pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is one of the most common fungal pathogens causing soybean root rot and seedling blight in u.s.a. in a recent study, significant variation in aggressiveness was observed among isolates of f. oxysporum collected from roots in iowa, ranging from highly pathogenic to weakly or non-pathogenic isolates.201526689712
differentially expressed genes in resistant and susceptible common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes in response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.fusarium wilt of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.), caused by fusarium oxysporum schlechtend.:fr. f.sp. phaseoli (fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. few natural sources of resistance to fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes duri ...201526030070
ruta montana l. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.the aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of r. montana against botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, verticillium dahliae, aspergillus oryzae and fusarium solani. the oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective mic values ...201526417353
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