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elevated plasma glycosaminoglycans in chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia induced by a fusarium oxysporum isolate.chicken plasma glycosaminoglycans (gags) were isolated and digested. their building block molecules, namely, glucosamine and galactosamine, were quantified by gas chromatography. the levels of these two amino sugars were elevated in broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia (td) induced by culture material of fusarium oxysporum (fo), a mold isolated from corn originated from the endemic region of kaschin-beck disease (kbd) in china. as the td severity score changed from 1 (healthy) to 2, 3, ...19968883805
influence of a subinhibitory dose of antifungal fatty acids from sporothrix flocculosa on cellular lipid composition in fungi.antifungal fatty acids produced by the biocontrol fungus sporothrix flocculosa were studied on the basis of their effect on growth and cellular lipid composition of three fungi, cladosporium cucumerinum, fusarium oxysporum, and s. flocculosa, whose growth was decreased by 51, 33, and 5%, respectively, when exposed to 0.4 mg fatty acid per ml. the sensitivity to fatty acid antibiotics from s. flocculosa was related to a high degree of unsaturation of phospholipid fatty acids and a low proportion ...19968898307
transposon-like sequences at the tox2 locus of the plant-pathogenic fungus cochliobolus carbonum.the ascomycete fungus cochliobolus carbonum race 1 is pathogenic on certain genotypes of maize due to the production of hc-toxin, a host-specific cyclic peptide. hc-toxin production is controlled, at least in part, by a duplicated 22-kb region of dna that is found only in toxin-producing isolates of the fungus. this 22-kb region of dna is flanked by a repetitive element. we have sequenced the element and found an interrupted reading frame that would encode a product similar to transposases from ...19968918240
formation of tomatine in tomato plants infected with streptomyces species and treated with herbicides, correlated with reduction of pseudomonas solanacearum and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pretreatment of tomato seeds with pendimethalin or metribuzin and inoculation of seedlings with the antagonistic streptomyces corchorusii or/and streptomyces mutabilis were tested for the formation of tomatine in roots and stems of tomato, infested with pseudomonas solancearum or/and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. all treatments induced the formation of variable quantities of tomatine, compared with untreated control. the variation was proportional to: the pathogen, fusarium was more sti ...19958934667
isolation and characterization of two new type c fumonisins produced by fusarium oxysporum.two new fumonisins, hydroxylated fumonisin c1 (1) and fumonisin c3 (3), were isolated from wheat cultures of fusarium oxysporum together with known fumonisin c1 (2) and c4 (4). compound 1 is structurally similar to 2 except for the presence of an additional hydroxy group at c-3. compound 3 is similar in structure to fumonisin b3 except that the c-1 terminal methyl group is missing.19968946739
structure of the fusarium oxysporum endoglucanase i with a nonhydrolyzable substrate analogue: substrate distortion gives rise to the preferred axial orientation for the leaving group.endoglucanase i (eg i) is a cellulase, from glycosyl hydrolase family 7, which cleaves the beta-1,4 linkages of cellulose with overall retention of configuration. the structure of the eg i from fusarium oxysproum, complexed to a nonhydrolyzable thiooligosaccharide substrate analogue, has been determined by x-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.7 a utilizing the 4-fold noncrystallographic symmetry present in the asymmetric unit. the electron density map clearly reveals the presence of three ...19968952478
biodegradation of dimethylsilanediol in soils.the biodegradation potential of [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the monomer unit of polydimethylsiloxane, in soils was investigated. dimethylsilanediol was found to be biodegraded in all of the tested soils, as monitored by the production of 14co2. when 2-propanol was added to the soil as a carbon source in addition to [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the production of 14co2 increased. a method for the selection of primary substrates that support cometabolic degradation of a target compound was developed. by t ...19968953708
purification and characterization of an exo-polygalacturonase from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.an exo-polygalacturonase (ec 3.2.1.15) was purified to apparent homogeneity from cultures of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on synthetic medium supplemented with citrus pectin, using preparative isoelectric focusing. the enzyme, denominated pg2, had an apparent m(r) of 74000 da upon sds-page. the pi of the main pg2 isoform was 4.5, and ph and temperature optima were 5.0 and 55 degrees c, respectively. pg2 hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by anaysis of degr ...19968961570
ultraweak luminescence generated by sweet potato and fusarium oxysporum interactions associated with a defense response.ultraweak luminescence generated by sweet potato and nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum interactions associated with a defense response was detected by a photoncounting method using ultrahigh-sensitive photodetectors. the time-dependent intensity variation, the spectrum and the two-dimensional imaging of the ultraweak luminescence are indicative of the defense response of the sweet potato to f. oxysporum. the production of ipomeamarone as a phytoalexin means that f. oxysporum induced the defense r ...19968972637
chitinous component of the cell wall of fusarium oxysporum, its structure deduced from chitosanase digestion.the cell of fusarium oxysporum was digested with commercial bacillus chitosanase. the chitosanase produced low molecular weight heterooligosaccharides consisting of glcn and glcnac from the cell wall. a main component of the digestion products was identified as 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose. the chitosanase appeared to be more effective than streptomyces griseus chitinase for cell wall digestion. moreover, maltose was unexpectedly found in the ...19968987672
purification and characterization of two low molecular mass alkaline xylanases from fusarium oxysporum f3.two low molecular mass endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanases from fusarium oxysporum were purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. they exhibit molecular masses of 20.8 (xylanase i) and 23.5 (xylanase ii) kda, and isoelectric points of 9.5 and 8.45-8.70, respectively. both xylanases display remarkable ph (9.0) stability. at 40 to 55 degrees c xylanase ii is more thermostable than xylanase i but less active on xylan. in contrast to xylanase i, xylanase ii is able to hydrolyz ...19968987884
ests reveal a multigene family for plant defensins in arabidopsis thaliana.plant defensins, formerly named gamma-thionins, are a group of small, cysteine-rich, basic, and antimicrobial plant proteins. random sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ests) in arabidopsis thaliana has revealed several different plant defensin genes in this plant species which can be grouped into two subfamilies. we have used one est of each subfamily to study the expression of the corresponding genes in a. thaliana. pdf2.3 is constitutively expressed in seedlings, rosettes, flowers, and sil ...19979001391
the transposable element tan1 of aspergillus niger var. awamori, a new member of the fot1 family.aspergillus niger var. awamori has transposable elements that we refer to as vader and tan1 (transposon a. niger). vader was identified by screening unstable nitrate reductase (niad) mutants for insertions. four of the isolated niad mutants were shown to contain a small insertion element. this 437 bp insertion element, vader, is flanked by 44 bp inverted repeats (ir) and is present in approximately 15 copies in the genomes of two a. niger strains examined. a synthetic 44 bp oligomer of the inver ...19969003286
stress-induced rearrangement of fusarium retrotransposon sequences.rearrangement of fusarium oxysporum retrotransposon skippy was induced by growth in the presence of potassium chlorate. three fungal strains, one sensitive to chlorate (co60) and two resistant to chlorate and deficient for nitrate reductase (co65 and co94), were studied by southern analysis of their genomic dna. polymorphism was detected in their hybridization banding pattern, relative to the wild type grown in the absence of chlorate, using various enzymes with or without restriction sites with ...19969003291
two isozymes of p450nor of cylindrocarpon tonkinense: molecular cloning of the cdnas and genes, expressions in the yeast, and the putative nad(p)h-binding site.the cdnas and genes for two isozymes of cytochrome p450nor of the fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense, p450nor1 and p450nor2, were cloned and sequenced. their deduced amino acid sequences respectively showed 83 and 70% identity to that of p450nor of fusarium oxysporum, and 69% identity to each other. the genes for p450nor1 and p450nor2 were termed, respectively, cyp 55a2 and cyp 55a3. the cdna for p450nor1 contained a targeting-like presequence upstream the n-terminus of mature protein whereas that ...19969010609
n-terminal processing and amino acid sequence of two isoforms of nitric oxide reductase cytochrome p450nor from fusarium oxysporum.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor), a nitric oxide reductase involved in the denitrifying system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum, revealed molecular multiplicity. two isoforms of p450nor, termed p450nora (nora) and p450norb (norb), were isolated. they had distinct isoelectric points of 5.1 (nora) and 4.9 (norb). however, their catalytic, spectroscopic, and immunological properties were almost identical. partial amino acid sequences, involving 263 amino acid residues of nora and 278 residues of norb a ...19969010754
oxysporidinone: a novel, antifungal n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone from fusarium oxysporum.oxysporidinone (1), a novel 3,5-disubstituted n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone, was isolated from fermentations of fusarium oxysporum (cbs 330.95) by counter-current chromatography. the structure was determined by spectroscopic methods including nmr, ms, ir, and uv analysis. oxysporidinone exhibited growth inhibitory activity against several common plant pathogenic fungi.19979014349
fungal p450nor: expression in escherichia coli and site-directed mutageneses at the putative distal region.p450nor, nitric oxide reductase from fusarium oxysporum, was expressed in the soluble fraction of escherichia coli cells by modifying the n-terminal codons and utilizing the pcw vector. the modified p450nor purified to electrophoretic homogeneity had spectral and enzymatic properties identical to those of native p450nor obtained from the fungi. residues 239 to 247 of the modified p450nor were replaced with lys by site-directed mutagenesis. thr-243 to his- and arg-mutants were also created. among ...19979016831
identification of the naturally occurring flavin of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum as a 5-nitrobutyl-fad and conversion of the enzyme to the active fad-containing form.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the uv-visible absorbance spectrum of the purified enzyme shows a single absorption peak at 336 nm with an extinction coefficient of 7.4 mm-1 cm-1. upon denaturation of the enzyme at ph 7.0, a stoichiometric amount of fad is released. the spectral properties of the enzyme as isolated are consistent with an n(5) adduct of the flavin. this is not due to ...19979038163
molecular cloning, structural analysis, and expression in escherichia coli of a chitinase gene from enterobacter agglomerans.the gene chia, which codes for endochitinase, was cloned from a soilborne enterobacter agglomerans. its complete sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme designated chia_entag yielded an open reading frame coding for 562 amino acids of a 61-kda precursor protein with a putative leader peptide at its n terminus. the nucleotide and polypeptide sequences of chia_entag showed 86.8 and 87.7% identity with the corresponding gene and enzyme, chia_serma, of serratia mar ...19979055404
the 24-kda protein from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production.a 24-kda protein that elicits ethylene production and necrosis in leaves of dicotyledonous plants was previously purified from culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum schlechtend:fr. f.sp. erythroxyli. antisera to the denatured 24-kda protein detected 2.5 ng of the 24-kda protein on western blots at 100000-fold dilutions. the antisera cross-reacted with a 24-kda protein on western blots of culture filtrates from three other f. oxysporum formae speciales. of seven fusarium species, only f. oxyspo ...19979057295
in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental fusarium spp. strains.the mics of amphotericin b, miconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole and fluconazole for 19 isolates of fusarium oxysporum, 16 fusarium solani, seven fusarium verticilliodes, four fusarium proliferatum, four fusarium dimerum, three fusarium equiseti, and one each of the following species: fusarium graminearum, fusarium chlamydosporum, fusarium semitectum, fusarium avenaceum and fusarium subglutinans were determined by a broth microdilution method. thirty-eight of these isolates were o ...19979069536
functional and structural comparison of nitric oxide reductases from denitrifying fungi cylindrocarpon tonkinense and fusarium oxysporum.two isozymes of nitric oxide reductase (nor) from the denitrifying fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense (c.nor1 and c.nor2) are the heme-enzyme cytochrome p-450's (usuda et al. (1995) appl. environ. microbiol. 61, 883-889). however, they catalyze the no reduction to n2o, but not the monooxygenation reaction using o2. we kinetically and spectrophotometrically studied the reactions of the two nor's with no and electron donor, nad(p)h, using flash-photolysis and stopped-flow rapid scan methods. the enz ...19979074619
effect of water activity, modified atmosphere packaging and storage temperature on spore germination of moulds isolated from prunes.the combined effect of medium water activity (aw) modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the conidial germination of aspergillus niger, eurotium amstelodami, penicillium chrysogenum and fusarium oxysporum was studied by applying response surface methodology (rsm) for 45 days incubation at 20, 30 and 40 degrees c. oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract (ogye) agar media were prepared over a wide range of aw (0.80-0.95), controlled by glucose. the headspace atmosphere composition varied from 0-20% ...19979081224
uncommon clinical patterns of fusarium nail infection: report of three cases.three cases of proximal subungual onychomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum, including a patient with a fingernail infection, are described. all patients were immunocompetent and presented with acute paronychia associated with proximal or total leukonychia of the affected nails. nail avulsion followed by topical treatment produced clinical and mycological cure. the literature on fusarium onychomycosis is discussed. the combination of proximal subungual onychomycosis with subacute or acute paronych ...19979115931
fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics produced by bacillus polymyxa kt-8: isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity.fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics, have been isolated as minor components from the culture broth of bacillus polymyxa kt-8 which was obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. the structure of fusaricidin b has been elucidated mainly by various nmr experiments coupled with amino acid analysis in relation to fusaricidin a, the main component of the complex, whose structure was reported previously. the fraction consisting ...19979127193
antimicrobial activities of streptomyces pulcher, s. canescens and s. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. on starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of ...19969131789
overexpression of an endogenous thionin enhances resistance of arabidopsis against fusarium oxysporum.thionins are antimicrobial proteins that are thought to be involved in plant defense. concordant with this view, we have recently shown that the arabidopsis thionin thi2.1 gene is inducible by phytopathogenic fungi. here, we demonstrate that constitutive overexpression of this thionin enhances the resistance of the susceptible ecotype columbia (col-2) against attack by fusarium oxysporum f sp matthiolae. transgenic lines had a reduced loss of chlorophyll after inoculation and supported significa ...19979144959
the i2c family from the wilt disease resistance locus i2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. members of a new multigene family, complex i2c, were isolated by map-based cloning from the i2 f. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. the genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolat ...19979144960
invasive fusarium infections: a retrospective survey of 31 cases. the french 'groupe d'etudes des mycoses opportunistes' gemo.a retrospective study was conducted in france to investigate fusarium infections which are now recognized as emerging opportunistic infections. the clinical and mycological findings for 31 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 by members of the french groupe d'etudes des mycoses opportunistes were analysed. all suffered from haematological disease, most often acute leucaemia (n = 19). twenty-two had received cytostatic chemotherapy and ten had undergone bone marrow transplantation. prolonged apl ...19979147270
identification of the catalytic nucleophile of endoglucanase i from fusarium oxysporum by mass spectrometry.the endoglucanase eg i from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose via a double-displacement mechanism involving the formation and hydrolysis of a glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. treatment of eg i with 2',4'-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-cellobioside results in the time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme (k(i) = 1.36 min(-1), ki = 0.88 mm) via trapping of a covalent 2-deoxy-2-fluorocellobiosyl-enzyme intermediate. this intermediate is, however, catalytically competent u ...19979153431
structure of the endoglucanase i from fusarium oxysporum: native, cellobiose, and 3,4-epoxybutyl beta-d-cellobioside-inhibited forms, at 2.3 a resolution.the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic degradation of cellulose are of great ecological and commercial importance. the breakdown of cellulose by fungal species is performed by a consortium of free enzymes, known as cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, which are found in many of the 57 glycosyl hydrolase families. the structure of the endoglucanase i (eg i), found in glycosyl hydrolase family 7, from the thermophilic fungus fusarium oxysporum has been solved at 2.3 a resolution. in addition t ...19979153432
purification and characterization of an antifungal pr-5 protein from pumpkin leaves.a 28-kda antifungal pr-5 protein (pltp) was purified from pumpkin leaves to homogeneity by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, a regenerated chitin column, and reversed-phase column chromatographies on butyl-toyopearl and hplc c18 columns. analysis of 14 n-terminal amino acid sequences of pltp shows 100% sequence identity to those of two pr-5 proteins, np24 from tomatoes and ap24 from tobacco. the identical sequence also exhibited high amino acid sequence homology to that of an osmotin-like pr ...19979163735
characterization and regulation of glycine transport in fusarium oxysporum var. lini.glycine was transported in fusarium oxysporum cells, grown on glycine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, by a facilitated diffusion transport system with a half-saturation constant (ks) of 11 mm and a maximum velocity (vmax) of 1.2 mm (g dry weight)-1 h-1 at ph 5.0 and 26 degrees c. under conditions of nitrogen starvation, the same system was present together with a high-affinity one (ks) of about 47 microm and vmax of about 60 microm (g dry weight)-1 h-1). the low-affinity system was mo ...19969181075
flipper, a mobile fot1-like transposable element in botrytis cinerea.a transposable element, flipper, was isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. the element was identified as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene. the flipper sequence is 1842 bp long with perfect inverted terminal repeats (itrs) of 48 bp and an open reading frame (orf) of 533 amino acids, potentially encoding for a transposase; the element is flanked by the dinucleotide ta. the encoded protein is very similar to the putative transposases ...19979202383
synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries: a method for the identification of bioactive peptides against phytopathogenic fungi.synthetic combinatorial libraries were evaluated with an iterative process to identify a hexapeptide with broadspectrum activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi. a d-amino acid hexapeptide (frlkfh) and pentapeptide (frlhf) exhibited activity against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group 1), ceratocystis fagacearum, and pythium ultimum. the peptides showed no hemolytic or mutagenic activity. fluorescent microscopy studies with a membrane impermeant dy ...19979204560
evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives.the antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of garcinia mangostana and some derivatives of mangostin against three phytopathogenic fungi, fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, alternaria tenuis, and dreschlera oryzae, has been evaluated. the natural xanthones showed good inhibitory activity against the three fungi. substitution in the a and c rings has been shown to modify the bioactivities of the compounds.19979213587
detection of tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in infected tomato plants.the antifungal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine of the tomato plant (lycopersicon esculentum) is proposed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a vascular pathogen of tomato, produces a tomatinase enzyme which hydrolyses the glycoalkaloid into non-fungitoxic compounds. detoxification of alpha-tomatine may be how this fungus avoids the plant glycoalkaloid barrier. as an initial step to evaluate this possibility we have studied the induction of toma ...19979237400
differential induction of systemic resistance in arabidopsis by biocontrol bacteria.selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing bacteria are able to elicit induced systemic resistance (isr) in plants. to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this type of systemic resistance, an arabidopsis-based model system was developed in which pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani were used as challenging pathogens. in arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes columbia and landsberg erecta, colonization of the rhizosphere by p. fluorescens strain wcs417r induced syst ...19979245833
nht1, a transposable element cloned from a dispensable chromosome in nectria haematococca.certain isolates of the plant-pathogenic fungus nectria haematococca mating population vi (mpvi) contain dispensable chromosomes that are unstable during sexual reproduction. several of these chromosomes carry genes for phytoalexin detoxification and thus contribute to the pathogenic potential of this organism. a repeated dna sequence, nht1, was cloned from one of these dispensable chromosomes in n. haematococca mpvi. one copy of the repeated element (nht1a) was completely sequenced. it is 2,198 ...19979245836
physiological and biochemical characterization of trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.monoconidial cultures of 15 isolates of trichoderma harzianum were characterized on the basis of 82 morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and 99 isoenzyme bands from seven enzyme systems. the results were subjected to numerical analysis which revealed four distinct groups. representative sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its 1)-its 2 region in the ribosomal dna gene cluster were compared between groups confirming this distribution. the utility of the groupings gene ...19979251205
linear mitochondrial plasmids of fusarium oxysporum contain genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding a reverse transcriptase from neurospora spp.two linear mitochondrial plasmids called pfoxc1 and pfoxc2 from the fungus fusarium oxysporum were previously described. dna sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequences of both plasmids exhibit similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the mauriceville and varkud plasmids of neurospora spp. the derived amino acid sequence of pfoxc2 has 51% similarity and 32% identity to the neurospora reverse transcriptase; sequence similarity was greatest for seven blocks of amino acid ...19979251222
fungal microflora biodiversity as a function of pollution in oued sebou (morocco).an inventory of the fungal microflora present in sediments collected at 11 sites along oued sebou has been established. the influence of some climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall) and of pollution on the composition of the fungal communities has been questioned. emericella nidulans, eurotium amstelodami, neosartotya fisheri var. glabrum (ascomycetes), dreschslera biseptata (dematiaceae), penicillium citrinum (mucedinaceae) and phoma sp. (sphaeropsidale) can be considered as strains sensiti ...19979253167
crystallization, preliminary diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of a single crystal of cytochrome p450nor.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is a heme-containing nitric oxide reductase from the denitrifying fungus, fusarium oxysporum. this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of no to n2o. in the present study, we report results from preliminary crystallographic and electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) analysis of a single crystal of p450nor. the crystal was grown in 100 mm mes buffer at ph 5.6 using peg 4000 as a precipitant. it belongs to the orthorhombic system with cell dimensions of a = 54.99 a, b = 82.66 ...19979256249
in vitro antifungal activity of pneumocandin l-743,872 against a variety of clinically important molds.the in vitro activity of the new antifungal drug pneumocandin l-743,872 against 55 isolates of clinically important molds was examined by an adapted macrobroth dilution method for yeasts. pneumocandin l-743,872 exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against alternaria sp., aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, curvularia lunata, exophiala jeanselmei, fonsecaea pedrosoi, paecilomyces variotii, and scedosporium apiospermum. the drug appeared to lack significant in vitro inhibitory activity ag ...19979257774
the effect of different pectic growth substrates on beta-glucosidase in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici: partial purification and characterization.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici produces beta-glucosidase activities when it grows on pectin and glucose. the pectins were better substrates than glucose. in the medium containing galacturonic acid or sucrose the activity was present in low levels and at the end of autolysis. a beta-glucosidase from the pectin medium was purified by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. the enzyme was a unique band of protein in sds-page and isoelectric focussing. it had a molecul ...19979258944
[a cutaneous ulcer induced by fungi of the genus fusarium].a case of cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis, due to fusarium oxysporum, in a 40 years old man is presented. the patient came from paraguay where he worked in a tropical rural area. his disease had begun 2 months before his admission as a skin ulcer located in the left leg. clinical characteristics, diagnosis methods, differential diagnosis with other ulcers of the legs in tropical areas as well as therapeutic measures are discussed in this presentation.19979265228
hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid by fusarium species.a novel compound, 1 beta-hydroxydehydroabietic acid has been obtained by the microbial transformation of dehydroabietic acid, using cultures of fusarium oxysporum and f. moniliforme. its antibacterial activity was also tested.19979276983
the alkaline xylanase iii from fusarium oxysporum f3 belongs to family f/10.xylanase iii from fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. the enzyme has a molecular mass of 38 kda, an isoelectric point of 9.5, and is maximally active on oat spelt xylan at ph 7 and 45 degrees c with a km of 0.8 mg/ml. the xylanase displays remarkable stability at ph 9.0. it is not active on xylotriose but hydrolyzes the 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides of beta-xylobiose and beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-xylopyranose, and to a ...19979291571
synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some new 2-substituted benzoxazole/benzothiazole derivatives.in the search for new antimicrobial compounds, several new sulfur bearing heterobicyclic moieties (4-11) have been synthesized by acylation and alkylation of acetamide, thioacetamide and semicarbazide derivatives. the structure of the products was deduced from elemental analyses as well as spectral data (ir, 1h nmr and ms). significant antimicrobial activities were obtained for all new compounds especially against fusarium oxysporum.19979292916
transformation of botrytis cinerea with the nitrate reductase gene (niad) shows a high frequency of homologous recombination.the nitrate reductase (niad) gene was isolated from the phytopathogenic ascomycete botrytis cinerea using a probe obtained by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to domains conserved among three fungal nitrate reductases. the b. cinerea niad gene encodes a predicted protein of 907 amino acids and contains no intron. nitrate reductase-deficient mutants of b. cinerea have been isolated. one of them was transformed with the niad genes of fusarium oxyspor ...19979294265
characterization of hydroperoxides and carbonyl compounds obtained by lipoxygenase extracts of selected microorganisms.partially purified lipoxygenase (lox) extracts were obtained from fusarium proliferatum, fusarium oxysporum, chlorella pyrenoidosa, and saccharomyces cerevisiae; the enzymatic extract of f. proliferatum showed the highest lox activity while those of f. oxysporum and s. cerevisiae demonstrated only 27.8 and 16.5% of the activity at ph 8.0, and 61.2 and 9.7% of the enzyme activity at ph 10.0, respectively. the lowest lox activity was that in the c. pyrenoidosa extract. the microbial enzymatic prep ...19979301105
polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) with different specificities are expressed in phaseolus vulgaris.the pgip-1 gene of phaseolus vulgaris, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip), pgip-1 (p. toubart, a. desiderio, g. salvi, f. cervone, l. daroda, g. de lorenzo, c. bergmann, a. g. darvill, and p. albersheim, plant j. 2:367-373, 1992), was expressed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter in tomato plants via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. transgenic tomato plants with different expression levels of pgip-1 were used in infection experiments w ...19979304859
transfer of an autonomously replicating vector between vegetatively incompatible biotypes of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.previous research has indicated that biotypes a and b of collectotrichum gloeosporioides that infect stylosanthes spp. in australia are asexual and vegetatively incompatible. selectable marker genes conferring resistance either to hygromycin or phleomycin were introduced into isolates of these biotypes. vectors conferring resistance to hygromycin and carrying telomeric sequences from fusarium oxysporum replicated autonomously in c. gloesoporioides and gave frequencies of transformation 100-times ...19979309172
purification and characterization of a cytosolic cytochrome p450 from yeast trichosporon cutaneum.a soluble cytochrome p450 from the yeast trichosporon cutaneum was purified to homogeneity, using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) with deae-cellulose and phenyl-sepharose columns. this procedure resulted in a 45-fold increase in specific activity with an activity yield of 6.8%. one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the purified enzyme was homogeneous and had a molecular mass of 45 kda. t ...19979311133
purification and characterization of a flavohemoglobin from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum.a flavohemoprotein was purified to homogeneity from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum. the purified protein existed as a monomer with a molecular weight of 44 kda. it was purified in an oxidized form and exhibited the absorption maxima at 401, 540 and 643 nm in its resting form, and at 434 and 555 nm upon reduction with dithionite, respectively. the protein contained 0.5 mol protoheme/mol and 1.1 mol fad/mol, respectively. when the resting flavohemoprotein was aerobically incubated with ...19979323032
crystal structure of nitric oxide reductase from denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum.structures of nitric oxide reductase (nor) in the ferric resting and the ferrous co states have been solved at 2.0 a resolution. these structures provide significant new insights into how no is reduced in biological systems. the haem distal pocket is open to solvent, implicating this region as a possible nadh binding site. in combination with mutagenesis results, a hydrogen-bonding network from the water molecule adjacent to the iron ligand to the protein surface of the distal pocket through the ...19979334748
endoglucanase production by paper-degrading mycoflora.fourteen fungal species, namely aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. niger, a. ustus, penicillium islandicum, p. wortmannii, memnoniella echinata, cladosporium herbarum, stachybotrys atra, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, torula herbarum, alternaria alternata and curvularia uncinata were isolated from different grades of paper. they differ in their distribution on various kinds of paper and also in relative occurrence. while seasonal influence on mycoflora was observed, most of the mould ...19979418063
in vitro activity of the new triazole voriconazole (uk-109,496) against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and common and emerging yeast pathogens.the in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin b against 67 isolates of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, bipolaris spp., fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, pseudallescheria boydii, rhizopus arrhizus, blastomyces dermatitidis, histoplasma capsulatum, and sporothrix schenckii. the in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin b, fluconazole, and itraconazole agains ...19989431946
control of polygalacturonase synthesis in fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici.genetic control of polygalacturonase (pg) activity from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was analyzed on pectin and glucose cultures. one exopolygalacturonase from f. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was strongly induced, in stationary culture, when the fungus was grown on apple pectin, while on glucose no extracellular pg activity could be detected. although sds-page detected the presence of a putative pg band (66 kda) in both conditions, specific antibodies obtained against the ...19979436311
detection of cross-reactive antigens shared by fusarium oxysporum and glycine max by indirect elisa and their cellular location in root tissues.pathogenicity test of fusarium oxysporum on ten cultivars of soybean revealed soymax and punjab-1 to be most resistant while js-2 and upsm-19 were most susceptible. antigens were prepared from the roots of all the ten varieties of soybean and the mycelium of f. oxysporum. polyclonal antisera were raised against the mycelial suspension of f. oxysporum and the root antigen of the susceptible cultivar upsm-19. cross reactive antigens shared by the host and the pathogen were detected first by immuno ...19979438359
fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics produced by bacillus polymyxa kt-8: isolation, structure elucidation and biological activityfusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics, have been isolated as minor components from the culture broth of bacillus polymyxa kt-8 which was obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. the structure of fusaricidin b has been elucidated mainly by various nmr experiments coupled with amino acid analysis in relation to fusaricidin a, the main component of the complex, whose structure was reported previously. the fraction consisting ...19979439693
cloning, expression, and role in pathogenicity of pg1 encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum.pg1 encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was cloned and sequenced. the deduced mature protein had a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kda and a pi of 6.2, and showed significant similarity with other fungal endopgs. pg1 mrna was induced in vitro by citrus pectin, tomato vascular tissue, 0.1% d-galacturonic acid, and polygalacturonic acid, and repressed by 1% d-galacturonic acid and 1% glucose. r ...19989450333
fot 1 insertions in the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome provide diagnostic pcr targets for detection of the date palm pathogen.populations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar fot 1 hybridization patterns. in order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for f. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several dna clones containing a copy of the transposable element fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences we ...19989464402
the course of pectin degradation by polygalacturonases from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici.the production of polygalacturonases from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (forl) occurred sequentially, and endo- and exo-polygalacturonases (pg) predominated at different times during growth. at first forl produced a pg which did not release monomers from pectins and was unable to hydrolyse dimers and trimers. later a complex was produced in which exo-pg seemed to be the predominant activity; the monomer was released rapidly and this activity was able to degrade dimers and trimers ...19979467919
unusual clinical features of fingernail infection by fusarium oxysporum.four cases of invasion of fingernails caused by fusarium oxysporum are described. the typical picture of onychomycosis by this non-dermatophytic mould is a 'white superficial onychomycosis' which usually affects the great toenail. only few cases of fingernail infections by this organism have been described in the literature and, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases on the pustulous and eczema-like aspect of paronychia by fusarium oxysporum. we report different and unusual clinical featu ...19979470412
multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. previous work has indicated that f. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. in this study we tested whether lineages of the panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing dna sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. dna sequences ...19989482835
ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. a tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. bacterial spot dise ...19989501111
nondermatophyte causes of onychomycosis and superficial mycoses.compared to dermatophytes, nondermatophytes that may cause distal and lateral subungual onychomycoses are aspergillus species, acremonium species, fusarium oxysporum and scopulariopsis brevicaulis. white superficial onychomycosis may be caused by nondermatophyte species, for example, acremonium species, aspergillus terreus, other aspergillus species and fusarium oxysporum. nondermatophyte molds such as scopulariopsis brevicaulis may uncommonly result in cutaneous infections. scytalidium dimidiat ...19969504061
biochemical and physical characterization of the active fad-containing form of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 47 955 +/- 39, as determined by maldi-tof mass spectrometry; under nondenaturing conditions, the aggregation state of the enzyme is best described by a tetramer-dimer self-associating model, with an association constant of (8.5 +/- 4.4) x 10(6) m-1 (ph 7.0 and 4 degreesc). the amino acid composition and the n-termi ...19989558355
endopolygalacturonase pg1 in different formae speciales of fusarium oxysporumpg1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. a southern analysis of genomic dna and pcr performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. two pg1-deficient isolates were identifi ...19989572983
factors affecting the specificity of beta-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum in enzymatic synthesis of alkyl-beta-d-glucosides.fusarium oxysporum beta-glucosidase has been used to catalyze the production of alkyl-beta-d-glucosides from various disaccharides, based on the transglucosylation reaction, in the presence of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as glucosyl acceptors. primary alcohols were found to be the best acceptors. the influence of the glucosyl donor concentration, as well as the enzyme specificity towards the cleaved glucosidic bond and the aglucone part of the donor, have also been investigated. the ...19989585887
differential induction of the arabidopsis thaliana thi2.1 gene by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae.the arabidopsis thaliana thi2.1 gene is inducible by necrotrophic fungi through a signal transduction pathway different from that for pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins. we have identified three ecotypes that are susceptible (col-2, ler, and ws) and two ecotypes that are resistant (mt-0 and uk-4) to spray inoculation with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae. the thi2.1 transcript level after infection correlates with resistance, being 5 to 10 times higher in the resistant than in the susceptibl ...19989612950
systemic and local induction of an arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens.the arabidopsis thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. the promoter was fused to the uida gene and stably transformed into arabidopsis to study its regulation. gus expression levels correlated with the steady-state levels of thi2.1 mrna, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the thi2.1 gene. the sensitivity of the thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and ino ...19989628023
bacterial-fungal biofilms in flowing water photo-processing tanks.a complex seven species model community, including bacteria and fungi, was selected from organisms isolated from the walls of an industrial flowing water system. growth rates of the species were determined in single and mixed batch culture growth. the rates were found to be significantly higher in mixed culture for pseudomonas alcaligenes and flavobacterium indologenes and higher in single culture for xanthomonas maltophilia, rhodotorula glutinis and fusarium solani, whereas no significant diffe ...19989633659
dissection of the fusarium i2 gene cluster in tomato reveals six homologs and one active gene copy.the i2 locus in tomato confers resistance to race 2 of the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici. the selective restriction fragment amplification (aflp) positional cloning strategy was used to identify i2 in the tomato genome. a yeast artificial chromosome (yac) clone covering approximately 750 kb encompassing the i2 locus was isolated, and the aflp technique was used to derive tightly linked aflp markers from this yac clone. genetic complementation analysis in transgenic r1 pla ...19989634592
fusarium graminearum a 3/5 as a novel host for heterologous protein production.we describe a novel fungal expression system which utilizes the quorn myco-protein fungus fusarium graminearum a 3/5. a transformation system was developed for f. graminearum and was used to introduce the coding and regulatory regions of a trypsin gene from fusarium oxysporum. the protein was efficiently expressed, processed and secreted by the recombinant host strain. in addition, the promoter and terminator of the f. oxysporum trypsin gene have been successfully utilized to drive the expressio ...19959636307
antifungal activities of rapamycin and its derivatives, prolylrapamycin, 32-desmethylrapamycin, and 32-desmethoxyrapamycin.the antifungal agent rapamycin is highly effective in inhibiting growth of yeast and mold strains. this study demonstrates that in liquid medium, rapamycin is more active than its derivatives (prolylrapamycin, 32-desmethylrapamycin, 32-desmethoxyrapamycin) against candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and fusarium oxysporum. all the rapamycins were more active than amphotericin b. although four other molds were not inhibited in liquid medium, they were very sensitive to rapamycin and its d ...19989666177
systemic fusarium oxysporum infection in an immunocompetent patient with an adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ecmo).we report a case of disseminated fusariosis in a 42-year-old patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ecmo), but without definite immunosuppression. fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a bronchial lavage taken 6 days ante mortem. despite antifungal treatment with amphotericin b and flucytosine the patient died in septic multiorgan failure. a post-mortem examination was performed. the patient's liver was found to contain fungus cells and f. ...19989670761
tfo1: an ac-like transposon from the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.a transposable element from a plant pathogenic fungus, fusarium oxrysporum, was isolated and characterized. four clones carrying moderately repetitive dna were selected from a genomic library of the strain maff305118 of f. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae, which causes wilt of bottle gourd. one the four clones was found to include a transposable element, which we have named tfo1. this element is 2763 bp in size and appears to contain a long orf that can encode a polypeptide of 777 amino acids. the am ...19989671028
organochlorine compounds from a terrestrial higher plant: structures and origin of chlorinated orcinol derivatives from diseased bulbs of lilium maximowiczii.seven chlorine-containing orcinol derivatives (2-8) and orcinol (9) have been isolated from diseased bulbs of the edible lily lilium maximowiczii, and their structures have been elucidated. six of the chlorinated orcinol derivatives (2, 4-8) showed antifungal activity. because organochlorine compounds are rare in terrestrial higher plants, their biosynthetic origin was examined. these compounds were shown to be induced in intact bulb scales by uv irradiation or by inoculation with the pathogenic ...19989677274
transformation of penicillium griseoroseum nitrate reductase mutant with the nia gene from fusarium oxysporum.a heterologous transformation system for penicillium griseoroseum has been developed. this system is based on nia, the structural gene from fusarium oxysporum encoding nitrate reductase. penicillium griseoroseum niad mutants have been selected from chlorate-resistant colonies. among 24 chlorate-resistant colonies analyzed, 2 were confirmed to be niad mutants. transformation frequencies of 8 transformants/microgram of dna were obtained. dna hybridization analyses of five transformants showed dist ...19989699303
fungicidal properties, sterol binding, and proteolytic resistance of the synthetic peptide d4e1.the fungicidal properties of the synthetic peptide d4e1 were studied with nongerminated and germinating conidia of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, fusarium moniliforme, and fusarium oxysporum. the minimal lethal concentrations (mlc) needed to kill 100% of germinating conidia of a. fumigatus, a. flavus, and a. niger were 12.5, 12.5, and 25 microm, respectively. the mlc value for nongerminated and germinating conidia of both fusarium spp. was 3.0 microm. except for a. ...19989734302
comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole sch56592 and the echinocandins mk-0991 (l-743,872) and ly303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts.the in vitro antifungal activities of sch56592, mk-0991, and ly303366 against 83 isolates of acremonium strictum, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, bipolaris spp., blastomyces dermatitidis, cladophialophora bantiana, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, histoplasma capsulatum, phialophora spp., pseudallescheria boydii, rhizopus arrhizus, scedosporium prolificans, and sporothrix schenckii were compared. the in vitro activities of these agents against 104 isolates of ...19989738049
identification and cloning of prs a 1, a 32-kda endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its expression in the yeast pichia pastoris.avocado, the fruit of the tropical tree persea americana, is a source of allergens that can elicit diverse ige-mediated reactions including anaphylaxis in sensitized individuals. we characterized a 32-kda major avocado allergen, prs a 1, which is recognized by 15 out of 20 avocado- and/or latex-allergic patients. natural prs a 1 was purified, and its n-terminal and two tryptic peptide sequences were determined. we isolated the prs a 1 encoding cdna by pcr using degenerate primers and 5'-rapid am ...19989774427
in vitro activity of voriconazole against selected fungi.fifty-nine isolates consisting of 14 genera and 33 species of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and zygomycetes were tested against amphotericin b, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole using an in vitro modified macrobroth dilution procedure based upon the nccls m27-a standard method for yeasts. the triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole had similar mic values, except for acremonium alabamensis, a. strictum, fusarium oxysporum, f. solani and wangiella dermatitidis, which had substantially lowe ...19989776841
lactone-ring-cleaving enzyme: genetic analysis, novel rna editing, and evolutionary implications.a lactonohydrolase from fusarium oxysporum aku 3702 is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of aldonate lactones to the corresponding aldonic acids. the amino acid sequences of the nh2 terminus and internal peptide fragments of the enzyme were determined to prepare synthetic oligonucleotides as primers for the pcr. an approximate 1, 000-base genomic dna fragment thus amplified was used as the probe to clone both genomic dna and cdna for the enzyme. the lactonohydrolase genomic gene consists of si ...19989788992
three highly divergent subfamilies of the impala transposable element coexist in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the transposable element impala is a member of the widespread superfamily of tc1-mariner transposons, identified in the genome of the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum. this element is present in a low copy number and is actively transposed in the f. oxysporum strain f24 that is pathogenic for melons. the structure of the impala family was investigated by cloning and sequencing all the genomic copies. the analysis revealed that this family is composed of full-length and truncated copies ...19989790589
molecular characterization and expression of a phytase gene from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus.the phya gene encoding an extracellular phytase from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus was cloned and heterologously expressed, and the recombinant gene product was biochemically characterized. the phya gene encodes a primary translation product (phya) of 475 amino acids (aa) which includes a putative signal peptide (23 aa) and propeptide (10 aa). the deduced amino acid sequence of phya has limited sequence identity (ca. 47%) with aspergillus niger phytase. the phya gene was insert ...19989797301
benzothiadiazole-mediated induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomatobenzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methyl ester (bth), a synthetic chemical, was applied as a foliar spray to tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants and evaluated for its potential to confer increased resistance against the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl). in nontreated tomato plants all root tissues were massively colonized by forl hyphae. pathogen ingress toward the vascular stele was accompanied by severe host cell alterations, including c ...19989847094
alteration of cell-wall composition of fusarium oxysporum by copper stress.a strain of fusarium oxysporum tolerated copper in the growth medium at concentrations up to 600 mg/l. the optimum growth was obtained at 200 mg cu/l. the mycelium acquired a blue color in the presence of copper. the copper content of isolated cell walls obtained from mycelium grown in the presence of 600 mg cu/l was 1.5 times higher than that of cell walls obtained from mycelium grown at 200 mg cu/l and it contained 2.2 and 3.3% copper at 200 and 600 mg cu/l, respectively. the amount of protein ...19989867478
a hemorrhagic factor (apicidin) produced by toxic fusarium isolates from soybean seeds.fifty-two isolates of fusarium species were obtained from soybean seeds from various parts of korea and identified as fusarium oxysporum, f. moniliforme, f. semitectum, f. solani, f. graminearum, or f. lateritium. these isolates were grown on autoclaved wheat grains and examined for toxicity in a rat-feeding test. nine cultures were toxic to rats. one of these, a culture of fusarium sp. strain kctc 16677, produced apicidin, an antiprotozoal agent that caused toxic effects in rats (including body ...19999872769
skin and nail infections due to fusarium oxysporum in tuscany, italy.nine cases of skin and nail infection due to fusarium oxysporum, diagnosed in tuscany in the period 1985-97, are described. two manifested as interdigital intertrigo of the feet and seven as onychomycosis. all were diagnosed on the basis of repeated mycological examination, direct microscope observation and culture, as well as histological examination of biopsy specimens in two cases of intertrigo. fragments of the fungal colonies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (sem) for more deta ...19989916472
reduction in the growth of non-dermatophyte moulds by itraconazole: evaluation by corneofungimetry assay.the activity of itraconazole against fungi of dermatological importance was studied using corneofungimetry performed on four test organisms: aspergillus flavus, fusarium oxysporum, scopulariopsis brevicaulis and scytalidium dimidiatum. the human stratum corneum used in the bioassay was harvested from healthy volunteers and from patients undergoing treatment with itraconazole 200 mg daily for at least 2 weeks. a fungal mycelium grew on all untreated stratum corneum samples within 1 week. the patt ...19989919887
biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of colletotrichum magnaa nonpathogenic mutant of colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type c. magna. disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and ...19999952476
cloning and characterization of pl1 encoding an in planta-secreted pectate lyase of fusarium oxysporum.a pectate lyase (pl1) from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici was previously characterized, and evidence was obtained for its production in planta. the gene encoding pl1 was isolated from a genomic library of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. pl1 encodes a 240 amino-acid polypeptide with one putative n-glycosylation site and a 15 amino-acid n-terminal signal peptide. pl1 showed 89%, 67%, 55% and 56% identity with the products of the fusarium solani f.sp. pisi p ...199910022947
antibiosis plays a role in the context of direct interaction during antagonism of paenibacillus polymyxa towards fusarium oxysporum.interaction of fusarium oxysporum and paenibacillus polymyxa starts with polar attachment of bacteria to the fungal hyphae followed by the formation of a large cluster of non-motile cells embedded in an extracellular matrix in which the bacteria develop endospores. enumeration of fungal viable counts showed that less than one of 36,000 colony-forming units survived in paired cultures for 71 h. effective antagonism was not observed below ph5 and was specific for the bacterial species. development ...199910030009
transposition of the autonomous fot1 element in the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum.autonomous mobility of different copies of the fot1 element was determined for several strains of the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum to develop a transposon tagging system. two fot1 copies inserted into the third intron of the nitrate reductase structural gene (niad) were separately introduced into two genetic backgrounds devoid of endogenous fot1 elements. mobility of these copies was observed through a phenotypic assay for excision based on the restoration of nitrate reductase activi ...199910049918
insertional mutagenesis of pathogenic fungi.screening insertional mutants for loss of virulence is an effective method for investigating the molecular genetic basis of bacterial pathogenesis, but has only recently been applied to fungal pathogens. for many pathogenic fungi transformation with heterologous plasmid dna results in complex integration events. this problem can now be circumvented for some species using restriction enzyme mediated integration. insertional mutagenesis of fusarium oxysporum using the naturally occurring fungal tr ...199810066509
substrate specificity of a nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes with production of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. the substrate specificity of the fad-containing enzyme has been determined as a probe of the active site structure. nitroalkane oxidase is active on primary and secondary nitroalkanes, with a marked preference for unbranched primary nitroalkanes. the v/k values for primary nitroalkanes increase with increasing length of the alkyl chai ...199910068453
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