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[bletilla striata pseudobulb rot pathogen identification and its biological characteristic].to identify the pathogen of bletilla striata pseudobulb rot and provide foundation for formulation effective control measures.201324010310
characterization and expression analysis of dirigent family genes related to stresses in brassica.the dirigent (dir) genes are playing a vital role in enhancing stress resistance in different crop plants. in this study, we collected 29 dir like genes, two from a brassica rapa cv. osome full length cdna library and 27 from the b. rapa database designated as b. rapa dirigent (brdir) like genes. sequence analysis and a comparison study of these genes confirmed that seven were dirigent and the remaining 22 were dirigent like genes. expression analysis revealed an organ specific expression of the ...201323562798
synthesis and antifungal activities of novel nicotinamide derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole.pant diseases in agriculture are extremely difficult to control, which bring about for billions of dollars in economic losses worldwide each year; nicotinamide derivatives has attracted more and more attention in the field of pesticide due to their broad bioactivities. in an effort to discover new molecules with good antifungal activity, a series of nicotinamide derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole were synthesized and bio-assayed.201323561596
functional analysis of the cars gene of fusarium fujikuroi.the ascomycete fungus fusarium fujikuroi is a model system in the investigation of the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites, such as gibberellins, bikaverin, and carotenoids. carotenoid-overproducing mutants, generically called cars, are easily obtained in this fungus by standard mutagenesis procedures. here we report the functional characterization of gene cars, responsible for this mutant phenotype. the identity of the gene was demonstrated through the finding of mutations in six indepen ...201323543145
fusaric acid induction of programmed cell death modulated through nitric oxide signalling in tobacco suspension cells.fusaric acid (fa) is a nonhost-selective toxin mainly produced by fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of plant wilt diseases. we demonstrate that fa can induce programmed cell death (pcd) in tobacco suspension cells and the fa-induced pcd is modulated by nitric oxide (no) signalling. cells undergoing cell death induced by fa treatment exhibited typical characteristics of pcd including cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, dna fragmentation, membrane plasmolysis, and formation of small ...201323838885
analysis of hairpin rna transgene-induced gene silencing in fusarium oxysporum.hairpin rna (hprna) transgenes can be effective at inducing rna silencing and have been exploited as a powerful tool for gene function analysis in many organisms. however, in fungi, expression of hairpin rna transcripts can induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, but in some species can also lead to transcriptional gene silencing, suggesting a more complex interplay of the two pathways at least in some fungi. because many fungal species are important pathogens, rna silencing is a powerful te ...201323819794
disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma with fatal outcome.disseminated fusariosis is an uncommon clinical condition in immunocompromised patients. we report a fatal case of disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma in a male patient, 15 years old, who underwent a bone marrow transplant. the patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (picu) of a public hospital in recife-pe, brazil, presenting bone marrow aplasia, severe leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. after 15 days, the patient developed right knee effusion. synovial fluid and ...201323813153
use of a passive bioreactor to reduce water-borne plant pathogens, nitrate, and sulfate in greenhouse effluent.the goal of this study was to evaluate the use of passive bioreactors to reduce water-borne plant pathogens (pythium ultimum and fusarium oxysporum) and nutrient load (no(-) 3 and so(2-) 4) in greenhouse effluent. sterilized and unsterilized passive bioreactors filled with a reactive mixture of organic carbon material were used in three replicates. after a startup period of 2 (sterilized) or 5 (unsterilized) weeks, the bioreactor units received for 14 weeks a reconstituted commercial greenhouse ...201323947714
effects of electrokinetic operation mode on removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), and the indigenous fungal community in pah-contaminated soil.electrokinetic remediation is an emerging physical remediation technology for the removal of heavy metals and organic chemicals from contaminated soil. we set up a soil chamber (24 × 12 × 8 cm) with two stainless steel electrodes (12 × 0.5 cm), and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 v cm(-1) or 2.0 v cm(-1) was applied to study the effects of unidirectional and altered directional electric field operation modes on the moisture content and ph, the removal rate of pahs, and the abundance and diver ...201323947706
birth, death and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster during the evolutionary diversification of fusarium.fumonisins are a family of carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by members of the fusarium fujikuroi species complex (ffsc) and rare strains of fusarium oxysporum. in fusarium, fumonisin biosynthetic genes (fum) are clustered, and the cluster is uniform in gene organization. here, sequence analyses indicated that the cluster exists in five different genomic contexts, defining five cluster types. in fum gene genealogies, evolutionary relationships between fusaria with different cluster typ ...201323937442
molecular detection and genotyping of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii isolates from different agro-ecological regions of india.twenty one isolates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii (fop), causing a vascular wilt in guava (psidium guajava l.), were collected from different agro-ecological regions of india. the pathogenicity test was performed in guava seedlings, where the fop isolates were found to be highly pathogenic. all 21 isolates were confirmed as f. oxysporum f. sp. psidii by a newly developed, species-specific primer against the conserved regions of 28s rdna and the intergenic spacer region. rapd and pcr-rflp w ...201323990290
cross-talk interactions of exogenous nitric oxide and sucrose modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in yellow lupine embryo axes infected with fusarium oxysporum.the aim of the study was to examine cross-talk of exogenous nitric oxide (no) and sucrose in the mechanisms of synthesis and accumulation of isoflavonoids in embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. juno. it was verified whether the interaction of these molecules can modulate the defense response of axes to infection and development of the pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lupini. sucrose alone strongly stimulated a high level of genistein glucoside in axes pretreated with exogenous nitric ...201323987816
the fusarium oxysporum gnt2, encoding a putative n-acetylglucosamine transferase, is involved in cell wall architecture and virulence.with the aim to decipher the molecular dialogue and cross talk between fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersci and its host during infection and to understand the molecular bases that govern fungal pathogenicity, we analysed genes presumably encoding n-acetylglucosaminyl transferases, involved in glycosylation of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans or small molecule acceptors in other microorganisms. in silico analysis revealed the existence of seven putative n-glycosyl transferase encoding ge ...201324416097
increased incidence of invasive fusariosis with cutaneous portal of entry, brazil.invasive fusariosis (if) is an infection with fusarium spp. fungi that primarily affects patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. a cutaneous portal of entry is occasionally reported. we reviewed all cases of if in brazil during 2000-2010, divided into 2 periods: 2000-2005 (period 1) and 2006-2010 (period 2). we calculated incidence rates of if and of superficial infections with fusarium spp. fungi identified in patients at a dermatology outpatient uni ...201324050318
fusarium keratitis in brazil: genotyping, in vitro susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes.the purpose of this paper is to describe clinical characteristics and determine correlations between clinical outcomes and antifungal susceptibility among molecularly characterized ocular fusarium isolates in brazil.201324039389
surveillance of bacterial and fungal infections in the postoperative period following liver transplantation: a series from 2005-2011.orthotopic liver transplantation (olt) is a life-saving procedure for the treatment of many end-stage diseases, but infectious and acute rejection episodes remain major causes of morbidity and mortality. bacterial and fungal infections can be due to intra-abdominal, biliary, respiratory, urinary, wound, central venous catheters (cvc) or unknown sources. using the computerized database of our microbiology laboratory, we analyzed all the bacterial and fungal infections in the first three months fo ...201324034031
insights from the draft genome of paenibacillus lentimorbus nrrl b-30488, a promising plant growth promoting bacterium.paenibacillus lentimorbus nrrl b-30488, a plant growth-promoting bacterium was isolated from sahiwal cow's milk. the strain shows antagonism against phytopathogens, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and alternaria solani. its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. the genome sequence of p. lentimorbus nrrl b-30488 provides the genetic basis for application of this bacterial strain in plant growth promotion, p ...201324140292
rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles from fusarium oxysporum by optimizing physicocultural conditions.synthesis of silver nanoparticles (snps) by fungi is emerging as an important branch of nanotechnology due to its ecofriendly, safe, and cost-effective nature. in order to increase the yield of biosynthesized snps of desired shape and size, it is necessary to control the cultural and physical parameters during the synthesis. we report optimum synthesis of snps on malt extract glucose yeast extract peptone (mgyp) medium at ph 9-11, 40-60°c, and 190.7 lux and in sun light. the salt concentrations, ...201324222751
development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in soil.fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon) is one of the major limiting factors for watermelon production worldwide. rapid and accurate detection of the causal pathogen is the cornerstone of integrated disease management. in this paper, a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (realamp) assay was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of fon in soil. positive products were amplified only from fon isolates and not from any other species or fo ...201324256412
plant growth-promoting activities of streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.five strains of streptomyces (cai-24, cai-121, cai-127, kai-32 and kai-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc). in the present study, the streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (pgp) of sorghum and rice. all the streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (exce ...201324255867
optimization of biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fusarium oxysporum.silver nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields of biotechnology and applications in the medicine. objectives of this study were optimization of production of silver nanoparticles using biotransformations by fusarium oxysporum, and a further study on the location of nanoparticles synthesis in this microorganism. the reaction mixture contained the following ingredients (final concentrations): agno3 (1-10 mm) as the biotransformation substrate, biomass as the biocatalyst, glucose (560 ...201324250635
routine mapping of fusarium wilt resistance in bc(1) populations of arabidopsis thaliana.susceptibility to fusarium wilt disease varies among wild accessions of arabidopsis thaliana. six resistance to fusarium oxysporum (rfo) quantitative trait loci (qtls) controlling the resistance of accession columbia-0 (col-0) and susceptibility of taynuilt-0 to fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli (fom) are detected in a recombinant population derived from a single backcross of the f1 hybrid (bc1). in particular, the rfo1 qtl appears to interact with three other loci, rfo2, rfo4 and rfo ...201324172069
analysis of banana transcriptome and global gene expression profiles in banana roots in response to infection by race 1 and tropical race 4 of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.cavendish, the most widely grown banana cultivar, is relatively resistant to race 1 of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc1) which caused widespread panama disease during the first half of the 20th century but is susceptible to tropical race 4 of foc (foc tr4) which is threatening world banana production. the genome of the diploid species musa acuminata which is the ancestor of a majority of triploid banana cultivars has recently been sequenced. availability of banana transcriptomes will be h ...201324304681
risk levels of invasive fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivation under various climate change projections.global climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by csiro-mk3.0 (cs) and miroc-h (mr) gcms, was modeled and combined with the future di ...201324340100
fusarium subglutinans: a new eumycetoma agent.eumycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis mainly caused by madurella spp. fusarium opportunistic infections in humans are often caused by fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum. we report a case of eumycetoma by f. subglutinans, diagnosed by clinical aspect and culture, and confirmed by pcr sequencing. the patient was successfully treated with oral itraconazole. to our knowledge, this is the second report of human infection and the first case of mycetoma by fusarium subglutinans.201324432236
polyamine metabolism and lipoxygenase activity during fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini -castor interaction.polyamine oxidase and lipoxygenase enzymes are key players for hyper sensitive reaction (hr) during incompatible interaction of host-pathogen. thus, the role of lipoxygenase and polyamines was studied in the wilt pathogen infected and non infected tissues of resistant and susceptible genotypes of castor at 0 days after infection (dai), 5 dai and 10 dai (30 days after sowing). the lipoxygenase (lox) and polyamine oxidase (pao) activities were higher in the incompatible interaction at all the stag ...201324431501
changes induced by trichoderma harzianum in suppressive compost controlling fusarium wilt.the addition of species of trichoderma to compost is a widespread technique used to control different plant diseases. the biological control activity of these species is mainly attributable to a combination of several mechanisms of action, which may affect the microbiota involved in the suppressiveness of compost. this study was therefore performed to determine the effect of inoculation of trichoderma harzianum (t. harzianum) on compost, focusing on bacterial community structure (16s rrna) and c ...201325149244
[research wilt disease of salvia miltiorrhiza and its pathogen].salvia miltiorrhiza is a highly valued traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related disorders in china, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in china. the wilt disease is serious in the culture of s. miltiorrhiza. wilt disease cause biomass of plant shoots and roots is lessened, active components are decreased. to solve these problems, we research the pathogen causing wilt disease of s. miltiorrhiza. the suspected pathogen is identified by morphology a ...201324791484
salicylic acid and salicylic acid sensitive and insensitive catalases in different genotypes of chickpea against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.differential expression of catalase isozymes in different genotypes of chickpea resistant genotypes- a1, jg-315, jg-11, wr-315, r1-315, vijaya, iccv-15017, gbs-964, gbm-10, and susceptible genotypes- jg-62, mnk, iccv-08321, iccv-08311, kw-104, iccv-08123, icc-4951, icc-11322, icc-08116 for wilt disease caused by fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. ciceri (foc) was analyzed. salicylic acid (sa) and h2o2 concentrations were determined in control as well as in plants infected with f. ciceri and found that t ...201324431522
morphological and molecular characterization of fusarium. solani and f. oxysporum associated with crown disease of oil palm.crown disease (cd) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. previous studies showed that fusarium species were commonly associated with cd. however, the identity of the species has not been resolved. this study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typica ...201324516465
development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc), the causal agent of fusarium wilt (panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (musa spp.). the foc tropical race 4 (tr4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. no effective resistance is known in musa to foc, and no effective measures for controlling foc once banana plants have been infected in place. early and accurate detection of foc tr4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana plantin ...201324376590
screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. an isolate named kl1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani, on pda as well as tsa plate. supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin a by hplc analys ...201325078813
root rot of balloon flower (platycodon grandiflorum) caused by fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum.balloon flower (platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in korea. more frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting s ...201325288973
antifungal activity of extracts from endophytic fungi associated with smallanthus maintained in vitro as autotrophic cultures and as pot plants in the greenhouse.the endophytic fungal assemblages associated with smallanthus sonchifolius (poepp.) h. rob. and smallanthus uvedalius (l.) mack. ex small growing in vitro autotrophic cultures and in the greenhouse were identified and evaluated for their ability to produce bioactive compounds. a total of 25 isolates were recovered that were genetically closely related to species of the genera bionectria , cladosporium , colletotrichum , fusarium , gibberella , hypocrea , lecythophora , nigrospora , plectosphaere ...201223061637
dimerization of plant defensin nad1 enhances its antifungal activity.the plant defensin, nad1, from the flowers of nicotiana alata, is a member of a family of cationic peptides that displays growth inhibitory activity against several filamentous fungi, including fusarium oxysporum. the antifungal activity of nad1 has been attributed to its ability to permeabilize membranes; however, the molecular basis of this function remains poorly defined. in this study, we have solved the structure of nad1 from two crystal forms to high resolution (1.4 and 1.58 å, respectivel ...201222511788
endophytic fungi from pigeon pea [cajanus cajan (l.) millsp.] produce antioxidant cajaninstilbene acid.in this study, novel endophytic fungi producing cajaninstilbene acid (csa) from pigeon pea [ cajanus cajan (l.) millsp.] were investigated and screened. csa has prominent pharmacological activities. a total of 110 endophytic fungi isolates were grouped into 8 genera on the basis of morphological characteristics, and csa-producing fungi were screened by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms). according to its-rdna sequences analysis, the csa-producing fungi were identified as f ...201222494407
fungi associated with the southern eurasian orchid spiranthes spiralis (l.) chevall.the hitherto unknown relationships between the european orchid spiranthes spiralis (l.) chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. we found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern italy, can host and interact with at least ni ...201222483052
pcr-rapd profiling of fusarium spp. causing guava wilt disease in india.wilt is a serious disease of the guava crop in india. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. psidii and f. solani have been reported as causative agents of this disease. in this study, 42 isolates each of f. oxysporum f. sp. psidii and f. solani, were isolated from guava cultivars and characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) method. thirty rapd primers were tested in the genome of fusarium spp. and the number of scorable bands for corresponding primer ranged from 1-8 with an average of 5 ba ...201222428893
exploiting the inter-strain divergence of fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol.microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. a targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. the microorganism studied was fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. strains of f. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. using optimised ...201222420408
tomato immune receptor ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and rna sequencing.fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. the tomato immune receptor ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi verticillium dahliae and verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. by high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-kb sequence stretch was identified that only occ ...201222416119
a pr-1-like protein of fusarium oxysporum functions in virulence on mammalian hosts.the pathogenesis-related pr-1-like protein family comprises secreted proteins from the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms whose biological function remains poorly understood. here we have characterized a pr-1-like protein, fpr1, from fusarium oxysporum, an ubiquitous fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease on a wide range of plant species and can produce life-threatening infections in immunocompromised humans. fpr1 is secreted and proteolytically processed by the fungus. the fpr1 gene ...201222553200
recalcitrant purulent paronychia and onychomycosis caused by fusarium oxysporum. 201222551386
small rna isolation and library construction for expression profiling of small rnas from neurospora and fusarium using illumina high-throughput deep sequencing.due to crucial roles in gene regulation, noncoding small rnas (smrnas) of 20-30 nucleotides (nt) have been intensively studied in mammals and plants, and are known to be implicated in significant diseases and metabolic disorders. elucidation of biogenesis mechanisms and functional characterization of smrnas are often achieved using tools, such as separation of small-sized rna and high-throughput sequencing. although rna interference pathways such as quelling and meiotic silencing have been well ...201222589132
extracellular biosynthesis of platinum nanoparticles using the fungus fusarium oxysporum.nanoscience is a blooming field and promises a better future. in order to fabricate nanoparticles in an eco-friendly and inexpensive manner, significant efforts are being made to replace the chemical and physical methods currently being used with the biological methods. chemical methods are toxic while the physical ones are very expensive. biological methods, apart from being cost-effective, also provide protein capped nanoparticles which are thus very stable, have good dispersity and do not flo ...201222580481
integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.the efficacy of cowdung, bangladesh institute of nuclear agriculture (bina)-biofertilizer, and bangladesh agricultural university (bau)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. the results exhibited that bina-biofertilizer and baubiofungicide (peat soil-based rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum and sclerotium ...201222580305
synthesis, spectroscopic and biological activities studies of acyclic and macrocyclic mono and binuclear metal complexes containing a hard-soft schiff base.mono- and bi-nuclear acyclic and macrocyclic complexes with hard-soft schiff base, h(2)l, ligand derived from the reaction of 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and thiocabohydrazide, in the molar ratio 1:2 have been prepared. the h(2)l ligand reacts with co(ii), ni(ii), cu(ii), zn(ii), mn(ii) and uo(2)(vi) nitrates, vo(iv) sulfate and ru(iii) chloride to get acyclic binuclear complexes except for vo(iv) and ru(iii) which gave acyclic mono-nuclear complexes. reaction of the acyclic mono-nuclear vo(iv) and r ...201222580137
cloning and expression of pathogenesis-related protein 4 from jelly fig (ficus awkeotsang makino) achenes associated with ribonuclease, chitinase and anti-fungal activities.a cdna fragment (fapr4) encoding a class i pathogenesis-related protein 4 (pr-4) from ficus awkeotsang was obtained by pcr cloning. plant pr-4s were grouped into class i and ii, differing by the presence of chtbd and hinge. the predicted mature fapr4 comprises n-terminal chitin-binding domain (chtbd), hinge, barwin domain and c-terminal extension. fapr4-c, an n-terminal truncated form of fapr4, was designed to mimic the structural feature of class ii pr-4s. fapr4 and fapr4-c were over-expressed ...201222579939
molecular characterization of syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like dna markers.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the near east and north african countries. this tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "bayoud" disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. in this study, 18 syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like dnas. a pcr strategy that employs plasmid-like dnas-specific primer pa ...201222568006
synthesis and fungicidal activity of novel 3-(substituted/unsubstituted phenylselenonyl)-1-ribosyl/deoxyribosyl-1h-1,2,4-triazole.reaction of potassium 1h-1,2,4-triazole-3-selenolate (i) with acetylated ribose/deoxyribose (iia,b) in the presence of montmorillonite k 10 as a solid adsorbent furnished potassium 1-acetylated ribosyl/deoxyribosyl-1h-1,2,4-triazole-3-selenolate (iiia,b) with excellent yield under microwave irradiation in solvent-free conditions. this eliminates a series of complex isolation procedures and often minimizes the use of a large amount of expensive, toxic, and hazardous solvents after each step. this ...201222563913
synthesis and bioactivity of pyrazole acyl thiourea derivatives.sixteen novel pyrazole acyl thiourea derivatives 6 were synthesized from monomethylhydrazine (phenylhydrazine) and ethyl acetoacetate. the key 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-substituted-1h-pyrazole-4-carbonyl chloride intermediates 4 were first generated in four steps through cyclization, formylation, oxidation and acylation. thess were then reacted with ammonium thiocyanate in the presence of peg-400 to afford 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-substituted-1h-pyrazole-4-carbonyl isothiocyanates 5. subsequent reaction wi ...201222555301
high levels of diversity in fusarium oxysporum from non-cultivated ecosystems in australia.the fusarium oxysporum species complex (fosc) is a ubiquitous ascomycetous group that includes both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, the former being responsible for disease in over 100 cultivated plant species. previous phylogenetic studies have uncovered at least four major clades within the fosc, with clade 1 hypothesised as being ancestral. however, the origin of these clades and pathogenic strains is poorly understood. due to an emphasis on agricultural isolates in previous studies, t ...201222289774
pseudomonas aeruginosa strain wi-1 from mandovi estuary possesses metallothionein to alleviate lead toxicity and promotes plant growth.a bacterial isolate from mandovi estuary goa, india, which can resist 0.6mm lead nitrate in tris-buffered minimal medium was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa and designated as strain wi-1. pcr amplification clearly revealed presence of bmta gene encoding bacterial metallothionein responsible for metal sequestration and aas analysis proved intracellular bioaccumulation of 26.5mg lead/gram dry weight of cells. sds-page analysis confirmed lead induced bacterial metallothionein with molecular we ...201222284824
the antagonism activity of bacteria isolated from potato cultivated soil.soil-borne fungal and bacterial root pathogens can cause serious losses to agricultural crops. resistant plant varieties are not available for several soil-borne pathogens and chemical control is often insufficiently effective in soil. the enhancement of disease suppressive properties of soils will limit disease development, thus, being of great importance for sustainable agriculture as well as organic farming systems. the aim of this research is to find and identify suppressive soils in the sét ...201223878982
fungal endophytes from three cultivars of panax ginseng meyer cultivated in korea.in order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in panax ginseng meyer cultivated in korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of ribosomal dna. three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (chunpoong, yunpoong, and gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. overall, 38 fungal ...201223717111
bilateral fusarium oxysporum keratitis after laser in situ keratomileusis.we report the successful management of a rare case of bilateral post-laser in situ keratomileusis (lasik) fusarium oxysporum keratitis and propose a therapeutic strategy. a 19-year-old white man with no systemic diseases was referred to our emergency service 3 days after microkeratome-assisted myopic bilateral lasik correction. he complained of blurred-vision, photophobia, and ocular pain. clinical findings (satellite lesions, hypopyon) suggested fungal keratitis. flaps were immediately lifted a ...201223079318
antifungal activity of phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin from psoralea corylifolia l. seeds by inhibition of acetylation activity of trichothecene 3-o-acetyltransferase (tri101).antifungal activity of petroleum ether extract of psoralea corylifolia l. seed, tested against fusarium sp. namely, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium moniliforme, and fusarium graminearum, was evaluated by agar well diffusion assay. the chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded a new phenyl derivative of pyranocoumarin (pdp). the structure of the pdp was confirmed using spectroscopic characterization (gc-ms, ir, and nmr), and a molecular mass of m/z 414 [m-2h](+) with molecular formula c(2 ...201222778547
extraction optimization of water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide from endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum dzf17 by response surface methodology.water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (wps) from the endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum dzf17 isolated from dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in d. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. in this study, response surface methodology (rsm) was employed to optimize the extraction process of wps from f. oxysporum dzf17 using box-behnken design (bbd). the ranges of the factors investigated were 1-3 h for ext ...201222754306
synthesis and characterization of dithiocarbamate chitosan derivatives with enhanced antifungal activity.in this study, ammonium dithiocarbamate chitosan (adtccs) and triethylene diamine dithiocarbamate chitosan (tedadtccs) derivatives were obtained respectively by mixing chitosan with carbon disulfide and ammonia (triethylenediamine). their structures were confirmed by ft-ir, 1h nmr, xrd, dsc, sem, and elemental analysis. antifungal properties of them against the plant pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum and alternaria porri were investigated at concentrations ranged from 31.25 to 500 mg/l. the di ...201224750734
expression of the cameleon calcium biosensor in fungi reveals distinct ca(2+) signatures associated with polarized growth, development, and pathogenesis.calcium is a universal messenger that translates diverse environmental stimuli and developmental cues into specific cellular and developmental responses. while individual fungal species have evolved complex and often unique biochemical and structural mechanisms to exploit specific ecological niches and to adjust growth and development in response to external stimuli, one universal feature to all is that ca(2+)-mediated signaling is involved. the lack of a robust method for imaging spatial and te ...201222683653
bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere showed plant growth promoting and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens.seven bacterial isolates screened from rhizosphere of common bean growing at uttarakhand himalaya showed potential plant growth promoting (pgp) and antagonistic activities. based on 16s rrna gene sequence the isolate bpr7 was identified as bacillus sp. bpr7. the strain bpr7 produced iaa, siderophore, phytase, organic acid, acc deaminase, cyanogens, lytic enzymes, oxalate oxidase, and solubilized various sources of organic and inorganic phosphates as well as potassium and zinc. strain bpr7 strong ...201222677517
high-resolution melting analysis allowed fast and accurate closed-tube genotyping of fusarium oxysporum formae speciales complex.the fungus fusarium oxysporum is a highly complex species composed by many strains put together into groups called formae speciales. as it is difficult and laborious to discriminate fusarium formae specials via biochemical or phenotypic methods, it is very important to develop novel, rapid, and simple to perform identification methods. herein, real-time pcr assay [using universal internal transcribed spacer (its) primers] coupled with high-resolution melting (hrm) analysis was developed for iden ...201222670678
thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.infection with the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc), which causes fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. to monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with foc, digital infrared thermography (dit) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. during the early stages of foc infection, stomata closure was induced by aba in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased ...201223103050
genetic variation of fusarium oxysporum isolates forming fumonisin b(1) and moniliformin.thirty single-spore isolates of a toxigenic fungus, fusarium oxysporum, were isolated from asparagus spears and identified by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef) sequence analysis. in the examined sets of f. oxysporum isolates, the dna sequences of mating type genes (mat) were identified. the distribution of mat idiomorph may suggest that mat1-2 is a predominant mating type in the f. oxysporum population. f. oxysporum is mainly recognised ...201222367665
a bacterial-fungal metaproteomic analysis enlightens an intriguing multicomponent interaction in the rhizosphere of lactuca sativa.fusarium oxysporum msa 35 [wild-type (wt) strain] is an antagonistic isolate that protects plants against pathogenic fusaria. this strain lives in association with ectosymbiotic bacteria. when cured of the prokaryotic symbionts [cured (cu) form], the fungus is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms similar to those of f. oxysporum f.sp. lactucae. the aim of this study was to understand if and how the host plant lactuca sativa contributes to the expression of the antagonistic/pathogenic behaviors of m ...201222360353
characterization of an antifungal compound produced by bacillus sp. strain a(5) f that inhibits sclerotinia sclerotiorum.a potential antagonist, bacillus sp. strain a(5) f was isolated from soybean rhizosphere following in vitro dual plate screening. the bacterium displayed strong inhibitory activity in vitro against soybean stem rot pathogen, sclerotinia sclerotiorum. the culture supernatant of strain a(5) f completely suppressed the mycelial growth of the pathogen, indicating that suppression was due to the presence of antifungal compounds in the culture filtrate. the culture filtrate also suppressed other phyto ...201222359152
biological impact of divergent land management practices on tomato crop health.development of sustainable food systems is contingent upon the adoption of land management practices that can mitigate damage from soilborne pests. five diverse land management practices were studied for their impacts on fusarium wilt (fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), galling of roots by meloidogyne spp. and marketable yield of tomato (solanum lycopersicum) and to identify associations between the severity of pest damage and the corresponding soil microbial community structure. the incide ...201222352308
comparison of the spores of paenibacillus polymyxa prepared at different temperatures.paenibacillus polymyxa sqr-21, which is antagonistic against fusarium oxysporum, is used as a biocontrol agent and, when mixed with organic substances for solid fermentation, produces a bioorganic fertilizer. the spores of p. polymyxa prepared at different temperatures were characterized with respect to the dipicolinic acid content, heat resistance, fatty acid composition and germination. spores prepared at 37°c showed higher heat resistance than those prepared at 25 and 30°c. however, the germi ...201222294453
chemical communication between the endophytic fungus paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen fusarium oxysporum.paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. a strong antagonism between the endophyte p. variabile and fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. a disorganization of the mycelium of f. oxysporum was thus noticed. interestingly, the biological effect of the main s ...201223077591
molecular screening of streptomyces isolates for antifungal activity and family 19 chitinase enzymes.thirty soil-isolates of streptomyces were analyzed to determine their antagonism against plant-pathogenic fungi including fusarium oxysporum, pythium aristosporum, colletotrichum gossypii, and rhizoctonia solani. seven isolates showed antifungal activity against one or more strain of the tested fungi. based on the 16s rdna sequence analysis, these isolates were identified as streptomyces tendae (yh3), s. griseus (yh8), s. variabilis (yh21), s. endus (yh24), s. violaceusniger (yh27a), s. endus (y ...201222752910
the structure of a gh10 xylanase from fusarium oxysporum reveals the presence of an extended loop on top of the catalytic cleft.xylanase enzymes have been the focus of considerable research in recent decades owing to their extensive use in a variety of biotechnological applications. previous structural studies of a number of gh10 xylanases revealed that all gh10 family members have the (β/α)(8)-barrel fold and their catalytic site is conserved. the structure of a new gh10 xylanase from fusarium oxysporum (foxyn10a) was determined at 1.94 å resolution from crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group p4(1)2(1)2 with f ...201222751658
individual variability of mytimycin gene expression in mussel.the antifungal peptide mytimycin (mytm) is synthesized by hemocytes of the mediterranean mussel, mytilus galloprovincialis. in addition to sequence and gene structure diversities previously reported from pooled hemocytes, the present report focused on the expression of mytm gene in individual m. galloprovincialis, before and after challenge. within untreated mussel, mytm mrna was observed by ish in about 42% of circulating hemocytes, characterized by large, diffuse nucleus. injection with fusari ...201222750680
ginkgolide b produced endophytic fungus (fusarium oxysporum) isolated from ginkgo biloba.to screen the presence of ginkgolide b-producing endophytic fungi from the root bark of ginkgo biloba, a total of 27 fungal isolates, belonging to 6 different genus, were isolated from the internal root bark of the plant ginkgo biloba. the fungal isolates were fermented on solid media and their metabolites were analyzed by tlc. the obtained potential ginkgolides-producing fungus, the isolate syp0056 which was identified as fusarium oxysporum, was successively cultured in the liquid fermentation ...201222537641
bromelain, a cysteine protease from pineapple (ananas comosus) stem, is an inhibitor of fungal plant pathogens.this study aimed to evaluate the effect of bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapple (ananas comosus), on growth of several agronomically important fungal pathogens.201222537505
genetic diversity analysis and development of scar marker for detection of indian populations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing chickpea wilt.genetic diversity of the isolates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing chickpea wilt collected from 12 states representing different agro-ecological regions of india was determined through randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. the upgma cluster analysis grouped the isolates into eight categories showing high magnitude of genetic diversity. each group had the isolates from different states present in various agro-ecological regions of india. therefore, the groups generated th ...201222528298
petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially fusarium oxysporum in vitro. full length genes coding for two petunia floral defensins, phdef1 and phdef2 having unique c-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in tr ...201222745785
efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against fusarium wilt of cucumber.fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. no efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. the aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. plant g ...201222729873
biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.to explore biocontrol potential of 39 daeb isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both verticillium dahliae kleb and fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity.201222726297
identification and antibacterial characteristics of an endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum from lilium lancifolium.the aim of this study is to isolate and identify an endophytic fungus with antibacterial activity from the asian medicinal and culinary plant lilium lancifolium and to study the characteristics of its major antibacterial fractions.201222967218
fusaric acid is a crucial factor in the disturbance of leaf water imbalance in fusarium-infected banana plants.fusarium wilt of banana is caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. the initial chlorosis symptoms occur progressively from lower to upper leaves, with wilt symptoms subsequently occurring in the whole plant. to determine the effect of the pathogen infection on the gas exchange characteristics and water content in banana leaves, hydroponic experiments with pathogen inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. compared with control plants, infected banana seedlings showed a higher le ...201222964424
genetic basis of carotenoid overproduction in fusarium oxysporum.the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum is a model organism in the study of plant-fungus interactions. as other fusarium species, illuminated cultures of f. oxysporum exhibit an orange pigmentation because of the synthesis of carotenoids, and its genome contains orthologous light-regulated car genes for this biosynthetic pathway. by chemical mutagenesis, we obtained carotenoid overproducing mutants of f. oxysporum, called cars, with upregulated mrna levels of the car genes. to identify the ...201222750191
a nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals by the hyperaccumulator sedum alfredii hance.low biomass and shallow root systems limit the application of heavy metal phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators. plant growth-promoting microbes may enhance hyperaccumulators'phytoextraction. a heavy metal-resistant fungus belonged to the fusarium oxysporum complex was isolated from the zn/cd co-hyperaccumulator sedum alfredii hance grown in a pb/zn mined area. this fusarium fungus was not pathogenic to plants but promoted host growth. hydroponic experiments showed that 500 μm zn(2+) or 50 μm cd( ...201222749969
a genetic mechanism for emergence of races in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: inactivation of avirulence gene avr1 by transposon insertion.compatible/incompatible interactions between the tomato wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) and tomato solanum lycopersicum are controlled by three avirulence genes (avr1-3) in fol and the corresponding resistance genes (i-i3) in tomato. the three known races (1, 2 and 3) of fol carry avr genes in different combinations. the current model to explain the proposed order of mutations in avr genes is: i) fol race 2 emerged from race 1 by losing the avr1 and thus avoiding host res ...201222952887
biotransformation of salvianolic acid b by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and its two degradation routes.resting cells of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (f. oxsporum) were used for the biotransformation of salvianolic acid b (sal b). three transformed products, isolithospermic acid, prolithospermic acid and danshensu, were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. the stability of the two ester bonds of sal b was studied and two degradation routes were found. in the biotransformation system, sal b was transformed into isolithospermic acid first which was then converted into ...201222908572
visualizing and quantifying fusarium oxysporum in the plant host.host-specific forms of fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of numerous plant species. i present a novel application of familiar methodology to visualize and quantify f. oxysporum in roots. infection in the roots of arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and cotton was detected with colorimetric reagents that are substrates for fusarium spp.-derived arabinofuranosidase and n-acetyl-glucosaminidase activities and without the need for genetic modification of either plant host or fungal pathogen. similar pat ...201222894177
bioefficacy of novel cyanobacteria-amended formulations in suppressing damping off disease in tomato seedlings.biological control of plant pathogens is receiving increasing relevance, as compared to chemical methods, as they are eco-friendly, economical and indirectly improve plant quality and yield attributes. an investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential of antagonistic cyanobacteria (anabaena variabilis rpan59 and a. oscillarioides rpan69) fortified formulations for suppressing damping off disease in tomato seedlings challenged by the inoculation of a fungal consortium (pythium debaryanum, ...201222869418
integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of sesamum indicum l. utilizing azotobacter chroococcum tra2 and chemical fertilizer.azotobacter chroococcum tra2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, hcn, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. in addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium oxysporum. it also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of f ...201222828791
degradation of aromatic compounds through the β-ketoadipate pathway is required for pathogenicity of the tomato wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.plant roots react to pathogen attack by the activation of general and systemic resistance, including the lignification of cell walls and increased release of phenolic compounds in root exudate. some fungi have the capacity to degrade lignin using ligninolytic extracellular peroxidases and laccases. aromatic lignin breakdown products are further catabolized via the β-ketoadipate pathway. in this study, we investigated the role of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (cmle), an enzyme of ...201222827542
structure determination of two new trichothecenes from a halotolerant fungus myrothecium sp. gs-17 by nmr spectroscopy.two new trichothecenes, named 8α-hydroxyroridin h and myrothecin a, along with six known compounds, 8α-acetoxy roridin h, isororidin k, verrucarin a, verrucarin j, verrucarin l and 8α-acetoxy verrucarin l, were isolated from the fermentation broth of a halotolerant fungus myrothecium sp. gs-17, which was separated from the soil sample of a salina. structure elucidation and nmr signal assignments were achieved on the basis of spectroscopy. in addition, compounds 1 and 2 were active against plant ...201222806769
arsenate reduction and methylation in the cells of trichoderma asperellum sm-12f1, penicillium janthinellum sm-12f4, and fusarium oxysporum cz-8f1 investigated with x-ray absorption near edge structure.synchrotron radiation-based x-ray absorption near edge structure (xanes) was introduced to directly analysis chemical species of arsenic (as) in the cells of trichoderma asperellum sm-12f1, penicillium janthinellum sm-12f4, and fusarium oxysporum cz-8f1 capable of as accumulation and volatilisation. after exposure to as(v) of 500 mg l(-1) for 15 days, a total of 60.5% and 65.3% of the accumulated as in the cells of t. asperellum sm-12f1 and p. janthinellum sm-12f4, respectively, was as(iii), fol ...201223122191
linking fungal communities in roots, rhizosphere, and soil to the health status of pisum sativum.changes in fungal communities associated with healthy and diseased pea roots were investigated using deep amplicon pyrosequencing in three spatial compartments: roots, rhizosphere, and surrounding soil. thirty root systems were collected from three fields, half of which showing clear symptoms of root rot. in total, 500,461 internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences were obtained that were clustered into 123 (roots), 271 (rhizosphere), and 440 (bulk soil) nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (ot ...201222775574
diversity and chemotaxis of soil bacteria with antifungal activity against fusarium wilt of banana.the chemotactic response of bacteria to root exudates plays an important role in the colonization of bacteria in the rhizosphere. in this study, 420 strains of antifungal bacteria against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) were screened for chemotaxis based on a chea molecular diagnostic method. a total of 124 strains with antifungal efficiencies of 27.26-67.14 % generated a characteristic band of chea. the chemotaxis of 97 bacterial strains producing a chea band was confirmed using the dro ...201222763749
lateral organ boundaries domain transcription factors: new roles in plant defense.over the last two decades, several transcription factor gene families have been identified with some of them characterized in detail for their roles on transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses against pest or pathogen attack. we have recently added another transcription factor gene family to this list through the characterization of the lateral organ boundaries (lob) domain (lbd)-containing protein20 (lbd20). we showed lbd20 acts as a repressor of a subset of jasmonate mediated defe ...201223073022
the role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, veronaeopsis simplex y34, in fusarium disease suppression in chinese cabbage.the soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.). a dark septate endophytic fungus, veronaeopsis simplex y34, isolated from yaku island, japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress fusarium disease. seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. the disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical ...201222923110
cloning and expression analysis of squalene synthase, a key enzyme involved in antifungal steroidal glycoalkaloids biosynthesis from solanum nigrum.steroidal glycoalkaloids (sgas) are a family of nitrogenous secondary metabolites produced in solanaceous plants. in our present study, γ-solamargine and its aglycone solasodine from solanum nigrum were found to inhibit hyphae formation of fusarium oxysporum. as phytoalexins, the formation of sgas was significantly increased in the plants when infected with the spore of f. oxysporum. in order to understand this inducible defense mechanism, the rate-limiting enzyme squalene synthase in the biosyn ...201223229144
identification and regulation of fusa, the polyketide synthase gene responsible for fusarin production in fusarium fujikuroi.fusarins are a class of mycotoxins of the polyketide family produced by different fusarium species, including the gibberellin-producing fungus fusarium fujikuroi. based on sequence comparisons between polyketide synthase (pks) enzymes for fusarin production in other fusarium strains, we have identified the f. fujikuroi orthologue, called fusa. the participation of fusa in fusarin biosynthesis was demonstrated by targeted mutagenesis. fusarin production is transiently stimulated by nitrogen avail ...201222865073
fungal-mediated nano silver: an effective adulticide against mosquito.fungi as such are known to be an effective mosquito control agent. in the present investigation, the effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized with chrysosporium keratinophilum, verticillium lecanii, and fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi has been evaluated against the adult mosquito of filariasis vector culex quinquefasciatus. the silver nanoparticles were characterized by using the uv-vis spectrophotometer and x-ray diffraction techniques. the micrographs of silver nanoparticles were obtained by t ...201222864863
sesquiterpenes from the conifer root rot pathogen heterobasidion occidentale.investigation of the production of secondary metabolites of heterobasidion occidentale led to the isolation and identification of six sesquiterpenes (illudolone a and b, illudolactone a and b, deoxyfomannosin a and b) along with the well-known sesquiterpene fomannosin and the previously described benzohydrofuran fomannoxin. the structures and relative configurations of the compounds were determined by 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopic analysis as well as by hrms. their absolute configuration and biosy ...201222831894
purification and characterization of an alkaliphilic choline oxidase of fusarium oxysporum.a novel choline oxidase found in a fungus, fusarium oxysporum strain v2, was purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the enzyme has a molecular mass of 128 kda and consists of two identical subunits. the purified enzyme showed adsorption peaks at 340 nm and 450 nm. it showed alkaliphilic ph characteristics: its optimum ph was 9.0-10.0, and it was stable at ph 8.0-10.2. the michaelis constant (km) values for choline and betaine aldehyde ...201223221722
antifungal activity of (kw)n or (rw)n peptide against fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum.the presence of lysine (lys) or arginine (arg) and tryptophan (trp) are important for the antimicrobial effects of cationic peptides. therefore, we designed and synthesized a series of antimicrobial peptides with various numbers of lys (or arg) and trp repeats [(kw and rw)(n)-nh(2), where n equals 2, 3, 4, or 5]. antifungal activities of these peptides increased with chain length. light microscopy demonstrated that longer peptides (n = 4, 5) strongly inhibited in vitro growth of fusarium solani, ...201223203110
synthesis of novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones and evaluation of their biocidal effects.novel 12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-thiones have been synthesized in high yields by treatment of the corresponding oxo analogs with lawesson's reagent. the structure has been confirmed by x-ray analysis. the compounds were tested for in vitro antifungal activity against rhizoctonia bataticola, sclerotium rolfsii, fusarium oxysporum and alternaria porii. the compounds exhibited moderate to good activity against all pathogens. insecticidal activity of these compounds against spod ...201223153816
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