TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
coccinin, an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from large scarlet runner antifungal peptide, designated coccinin, with a molecular mass of 7kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling those of defensins, was purified from the seeds of large scarlet runner beans (phaseolus coccineus cv. 'major'). the peptide isolated was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. the peptide excerted antifungal activity on a number of fungal species including botrytis cinerea, coprinus comatus, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalos ...200415572193
fostua, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein, differentially regulates development of three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores, in the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt of a wide variety of plant species. f. oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, microconidia, and chlamydospores. falcate macroconidia are formed generally from terminal phialides on conidiophores and rarely from intercalary phialides on hyphae. ellipsoidal microconidia are formed from intercalary phialides on hyphae. globose chlamydospores with thick walls are developed by the modification of hyphal and conidia ...200415590816
relaxed primer specificity associated with reverse transcriptases encoded by the pfoxc retroplasmids of fusarium oxysporum.the pfoxc mitochondrial retroplasmids are small, autonomously replicating linear dnas that have a telomere-like repeat of a 5-bp sequence at their termini. the plasmids are possible evolutionary precursors of the ribonucleoprotein complex telomerase, as they encode an active reverse transcriptase (rt) that is involved in plasmid replication. using an in vitro system to study reverse transcription, we show that the pfoxc rt is capable of copying in vitro-synthesized rnas by use of cdna primers or ...200415590832
novel mode of resistance to fusarium infection by a mild dose pre-exposure of cadmium in wheat.exposure of healthy wheat seeds (triticum aestivum var sonalika) to mild dose of cadmium (cd(2+)) given as 50 microm cdcl(2) for 48 h and then washed off cd(2+) offered resistance to the subsequent infection by fusarium oxysporum inoculum. seven days old seedlings having two primary leaves were aseptically inoculated with fungus, f. oxysporum (1 x 10(6)) spores. the seedlings pre-exposed to low level of cd(2+) survived the fusarium infection, while plantlets without cd(2+) stress wilted and then ...200415596097
disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.the portal of entry of disseminated fusarium spp. infections is still not clearly defined. we report on a disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection occurring during a long period of severe neutropenia in a child with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. a nasogastric feeding tube was the possible source of entry of the fungus.200415597228
cloning and enhanced expression of the cytochrome p450nor gene (nica; cyp55a5) encoding nitric oxide reductase from aspergillus oryzae.we cloned and characterized the gene and cdna of aspergillus oryzae cytochrome p450nor (anor). the anor gene (nica; cyp55a5) has a different gene structure from other p450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. there were not only two kinds of mrna but also two sets of tata-box and ccaat-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like cyp55a1 of fusarium oxysporum. a reporter analysis using the uida gene indicated that gene expression of cyp55a5 was induced under anaerobic ...200415502348
antifungal potential of spilanthes calva after inoculation of piriformospora indica.we investigated the influence of piriformospora indica on the antifungal principle of spilanthes calva, a plant of high commercial value. an antifungal efficacy was shown by aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of s. calva against fusarium oxysporum and trichophyton mentagrophytes. the petroleum ether extract of s. calva was more effective than the aqueous extract in inoculated as well as uninoculated plants. the antifungal activity of the plant was enhanced due to the increase in spilanthol con ...200415601453
involvement of nitric oxide in elicitor-induced defense responses and secondary metabolism of taxus chinensis cells.this work was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (no) in taxus chinensis cells induced by a fungal elicitor extracted from fusarium oxysporum mycelium and the signal role of no in the elicitation of plant defense responses and secondary metabolite accumulation. the fungal elicitor at 10-100 microg/ml (carbohydrate equivalent) induced a rapid and dose-dependent no production in the taxus cell culture, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1 h and th ...200415604042
comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic feruloyl esterases: characterization of their substrate specificity for methyl phenylalkanoates.the active sites of feruloyl esterases from mesophilic and thermophilic sources were probed using methyl esters of phenylalkanoic acids. only 13 out of 26 substrates tested were significant substrates for all the enzymes. lengthening or shortening the aliphatic side chain while maintaining the same aromatic substitutions completely abolished activity for both enzymes, which demonstrates the importance of the correct distance between the aromatic group and the ester bond. maintaining the phenylpr ...200415639097
intracellular metabolite profiling of fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) of cellulose. however, the conversion rate is low and significant amounts of acetic acid are produced as a by-product. in this study, the growth characteristics of f. oxysporum were evaluated in a minimal medium using glucose as the sole carbon source in aerobic, anaerobic and oxygen-limited batch cultivations. under aerobic conditions the maximum specific ...200415639104
aviglycine and propargylglycine inhibit conidial germination and mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporumf. sp. luffae.two inhibitors, aviglycine and propargylglycine, were tested for their ability to suppress methionine synthesis thus inhibit conidial germination and mycelial growth of czapek-dox liquid medium grown fusarium oxysporum f. sp. luffaemum. the linear inhibition range for mycelial growth was about 7.6-762.9 microm. although aviglycine did not completely inhibit both conidial germination and mycelial growth, it showed significant inhibitory effect at 1.5 microm. the inhibition range for propargylglyc ...200415645176
alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom polyporus antifungal polypeptide, with a molecular mass of 28 kda as judged by gel filtration and appearing as a single band with a molecular mass of 14 kda in sodium dodecyl suflate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom polyporus alveolaris. the antifungal polypeptide, designated as alveolarin, demonstrated an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and physalospora piricola. alveola ...200415165727
synthesis, absolute stereochemistry and molecular design of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201.the absolute stereochemistry of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201 has been established by achieving the total synthesis of the product. a series of analogues have also been synthesized by changing the side chain and their bioactivity assessed against different microbial strains. among them, 1e (r = c8h17) was found to be the most potent with mic of 8 microg/ml against mycobacterium tuberculosis, 12 microg/ml against escherichia coli and 16 microg/ml ...200415177476
onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum in são paulo, brazil.fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. we report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani (4) and fusarium oxysporum (4) in são paulo, brazil. these species were isolated from toenails in all cases. the infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. the clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkerat ...200415180157
frequency and diversity of fungi colonizing tissues of upland cotton.a study of the mycoflora of upland cotton in alabama was conducted throughout the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. plants were sampled at seedling, first bloom, full bloom, and maturity stages of development. thirty-seven genera representing 58 species of fungi were isolated, including 9 species of fusarium. fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and f. equiseti were the most common members of this genus occurring at all four sampling stages in both years. eight species accounted for 67% of the total fung ...200415180159
evaluation of nostoc strain atcc 53789 as a potential source of natural pesticides.the cyanobacterium nostoc strain atcc 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. the antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. among the target organisms, nine fungi (armillaria sp., fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, penicillium expansum, phytophthora cambivora, p. cinnamomi, rhizoctonia solani, rosellinia, sp., sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an ...200415184126
in vitro fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. evaluate the fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. extract and one of its components against yeasts and fungi. this activity was compared with the action of ketoconazole, a known synthetic antimycotic.200415189281
gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues in response to infection with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.microarray analysis of large-scale temporal and tissue-specific plant gene expression changes occurring during a susceptible plant-pathogen interaction revealed different gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues. in hypocotyl tissues infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, increased expression of defense-related genes was observed, whereas few changes in the expression levels of defense-related genes were found in infected root tissues. in infected roots, ...200415195948
antifungal compounds from the root and root exudate of zea mays.a maize plant (zea mays) planted in a test tube was found to inhibit the growth of the soil-borne plant pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae. the antifungal compounds, 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone and 6,7-dimethoxybenzoxazolinone, were isolated from an ethanol extract of zea mays roots, and (6r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionone and (6r,9r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionol were isolated from the root exudate.200415215605
light- and singlet oxygen-mediated antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins.the light-induced singlet oxygen production and antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins isolated from infected banana plants (musa acuminata) are reported. upon absorption of light energy all studied phenylphenalenones sensitise the production of singlet oxygen in polar and non-polar media. antifungal activity of these compounds towards fusarium oxysporum is enhanced in the presence of light. these results, together with the correlation of ic50 values under illumination with the qu ...200415239009
ethylene response factor 1 mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum.ethylene response factor 1 (erf1) is a transcriptional factor from arabidopsis thaliana that regulates plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungi botrytis cinerea and plectosphaerella cucumerina and whose overexpression enhances resistance to these fungi. here, we show that erf1 also mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungi fusarium oxysporum sp. conglutinans and f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, because its constitutive expression in arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to these ...200415242170
actinchinin, a novel antifungal protein from the gold kiwi antifungal protein designated actinchinin, with an n-terminal sequence different from that of the thaumatin-like antifungal protein from green kiwi fruit, was isolated from the gold kiwi fruit. the antifungal protein, unlike its counterpart from green kiwi fruit, did not exert antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, but was active against fusarium oxysporum which was unresponsive to thaumatin-like protein from green kiwi fruit. actinchinin was isolated using a protocol that comprised io ...200415245867
antifungal peptides, a heat shock protein-like peptide, and a serine-threonine kinase-like protein from ceylon spinach seeds.two antifungal peptides (designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins) with molecular masses of 4-5 kda and distinct n-terminal sequences, and a peptide and a protein with n-terminal sequences resembling heat shock protein (hsp) and serine-threonine kinase, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the ceylon spinach basella rubra. the purification procedure entailed saline extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ...200415245882
response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to fusarium oxysporum.defence responses of embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with fusarium oxysporum schlecht f.sp. lupini. the infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. the concentration of h2o2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. this was probably ...200415246062
the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris/cicer arietinum pathosystem: a case study of the evolution of plant-pathogenic fungi into races and pathotypes.the use of resistant cultivars is one of the most practical and cost-efficient strategies for managing plant diseases. however, the efficiency of resistant cultivars in disease management is limited by pathogenic variability in pathogen populations. knowledge of the evolutionary history and potential of the pathogen population may help to optimize the management of disease-resistance genes, irrespective of the breeding strategy used for their development. in this review, we examine the diversity ...200415248157
the fusarium wilt resistance locus fom-2 of melon contains a single resistance gene with complex features.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causes significant losses in the cultivated melon, a key member of the economically important family, the cucurbitaceae. here, we report the map-based cloning and characterization of the resistance gene fom-2 that confers resistance to race 0 and 1 of this plant pathogen. two recombination events, 75 kb apart, were found to bracket fom-2 after screening approximately 1324 gametes with pcr-based markers. sequence analysis of the fom-2 interva ...200415255859
crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms.nitroalkane oxidase (nao), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of h2o2 and nitrite. in this paper, the crystallization and preliminary x-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. the first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either p3(1)21 or p3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 a) and ...200415272176
biological synthesis of strontium carbonate crystals using the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the total biological synthesis of srco3 crystals of needlelike morphology arranged into higher order quasi-linear superstructures by challenging microorganisms such as fungi with aqueous sr2+ ions is described. we term this procedure "total biological synthesis" since the source of carbonate ions that react with aqueous sr2+ ions is the fungus itself. we believe that secretion of proteins during growth of the fungus fusarium oxysporum is responsible for modulating the morphology of strontianite ...200415274591
tomatidine and lycotetraose, hydrolysis products of alpha-tomatine by fusarium oxysporum tomatinase, suppress induced defense responses in tomato cells.many fungal pathogens of tomato produce extracellular enzymes, collectively known as tomatinases, that detoxify the preformed antifungal steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine. tomatinase from the vascular wilt pathogen of tomato fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici cleaves alpha-tomatine into the aglycon tomatidine (td) and the tetrasaccharide lycotetraose (lt). although modes of action of alpha-tomatine have been extensively studied, those of td and lt are poorly understood. here, we show tha ...200415280013
antifungal constituents of clytostoma ramentaceum and mansoa hirsuta.ethanol extracts of clytostoma ramentaceum bur. & k. schum and mansoa hirsuta dc. (bignoniaceae) inhibited the growth of standardized cultures of aspergillus niger and fusarium oxysporum, at concentrations of 400 microg and 500 microg, in bioautographic assays. the activity-guided fractionation of c. ramentaceum extract afforded ursolic acid and 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol, both active against the test fungi (100 microg). these compounds are reported for the first time in c. ramentaceum an ...200415287070
siderophore production by a marine pseudomonas aeruginosa and its antagonistic action against phytopathogenic fungi.a marine isolate of fluorescent pseudomonas sp. having the ability to produce the pyoverdine type of siderophores under low iron stress (up to 10 microm iron in the succinate medium) was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biolog breathprint and siderotyping. pyoverdine production was optimum at 0.2% (w/v) succinate, ph 6.0, in an iron-deficient medium. studies carried out in vitro revealed that purified siderophores and pseudomonas culture have good antifungal activity against the pla ...200415304753
cytochemical labeling for fungal and host components in plant tissues inoculated with fungal wilt pathogens.antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. in carnation infected with an isolate of fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. labeling of the fungus in culture ...200415327706
1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, synthesis and evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum.a novel antifungal pyrazole derivative was synthesized. designated 1-phenyl-3-toluyl-4-[ortho-1'-(n-ethyl-2'-methylpropylamine)]phenylpyrazole, the compound exerted an antifungal effect toward botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum. in fact, our results clearly show that mycelial growth and conidial germination of both fungi were blocked by the compound. indeed, a 96-well microbioassay procedure was used for fast and easy evaluation of minimal inhibitory concentration (mic). the mic values for ...200415337431
enzymatic liberation of lycotetraose from the solanum glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine.the branched tetrasaccharide, o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-o-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-o-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-galactose (lycotetraose) is a key constituent of many biologically interesting natural products. described herein is a convenient enzymatic preparation of lycotetraose from the readily available solanum glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine. the preparation makes use of the recombinant endo-glycosidase, tomatinase, from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.200415337463
a non-specific lipid transfer protein with antifungal and antibacterial activities from the mung bean.a non-specific lipid transfer peptide (nsltp) with antimicrobial activity was isolated from the mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the procedure entailed aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex and high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on poros-hs-20. the peptide exhibited a molecular mass of 9.03 kda in mass spectrometry. it exerted antifungal action toward fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum, pythium aphanidermatum and sclerotium rolfsii, and antibacterial action ...200415350690
[variation of microflora and enzyme activity in continuous cropping cucumber soil in solar greenhouse].variation of microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse soil continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 years was studied, in addition to the relationship between soil properities and microflora and enzyme activity. the results showed that number of bacteria, actinomyce as well as total microflora showed a trend with a saddle-shaped curve, while the number of fungi appeared an liner increase. continuous cropping soil microflora shifted from bacteria type to fungi type significantly, of which ...200415362624
development of selective media for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from soil and plant debris.a new semi-selective medium, acidified weak potato-dextrose agar (awpda) with mertect (active ingredient: thiabendazole), was developed for the isolation and enumeration of alternaria species from samples of soil and plant debris. the medium was selected based on growth inhibition tests against alternaria and several other commonly encountered saprobic fungi utilizing three antifungal agents, botran (active ingredient: dichloran), bayleton (active ingredient: triadimefon), and mertect, and two b ...200415381969
colonization and persistence of a plant growth-promoting bacterium pseudomonas fluorescens strain cs85, on roots of cotton seedlings.pseudomonas fluorescens cs85, which was previously isolated from the rhizosphere of cotton seedlings, acts as both a plant growth-promoting bacterium and a biocontrol agent against cotton pathogens, including rhizoctonia solani, colletotrichum gossypii, fusarium oxysporum f sp. vasinfectum, and verticillium dahliae. strain cs85 was labeled separately with luxab and gusa. the labeled strains were stably maintained and had high levels of expression of the marker genes, luxab and gusa, after succes ...200415381971
indigenous bacteria with antagonistic and plant-growth-promoting activities improve slow-filtration efficiency in soilless tomato soilless culture, slow filtration allows one to control the development of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. during the disinfecting process, microbial elimination is ensured by mechanical and biological factors. in this study, system efficacy was enhanced further to a biological activation of filter by inoculating the pozzolana grains contained in the filtering unit with 5 selected bacteria. three strains identified as pseudomonas putida and 2 as bacillus cereus came from ...200415381975
a small, cysteine-rich protein secreted by fusarium oxysporum during colonization of xylem vessels is required for i-3-mediated resistance in tomato.a 12 kda cysteine-rich protein is secreted by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici during colonization of tomato xylem vessels. peptide sequences obtained with mass spectrometry allowed identification of the coding sequence. the gene encodes a 32 kda protein, designated six1 for secreted in xylem 1. the central part of six1 corresponds to the 12 kda protein found in xylem sap of infected plants. a mutant that had gained virulence on a tomato line with the i-3 resistance gene was found to have l ...200415387816
a rapid molecular method for differentiating two special forms (lycopersici and radicis-lycopersici) of fusarium oxysporum.two pathogenic special forms (f. sp.) of the fusarium oxysporum species complex f. sp. lycopersici (fol) and f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl) are morphologically indistinguishable. although they are pathogenic to the same host genus lycopersicon (tomato), and infect the same tomato cultivar, they form distinct diseases; fol causes wilt and forl causes crown rot and root rot. these two special forms apparently exist as genetically isolated populations, based on vegetative compatibility and molec ...200415446712
novel oligosaccharides isolated from fusarium oxysporum l. rapidly induce pal activity in rubus cells.activation of the phenolic pathway is known to be part of a defense response against cell wall-derived elicitors from pathogens. many examples of a defense response by increasing the synthesis of phenolic compound against the elicitor were demonstrated in the past, but the elicitor structure has so far been poorly characterized. our results indicate that a disaccharide fraction containing the following structure: alpha-d-mannopyranosyl (1-->2)alpha/beta-d-glucopyranosyl and alpha-d-mannopyranosy ...200415448725
physical and biochemical interactions of soil fungi with asbestos fibers.iron, a structural component of most asbestos, is thought to play a crucial role in asbestos toxicity. surface iron favors fiber uptake by mammalian cells and promotes the generation of free radicals with consequent dna and lipid damage. in some cases, chemical removal of iron from asbestos fibers has reduced several cellular responses to asbestos. since iron represents an essential element for soil microorganisms, many of them have developed mechanisms to scavenge this element from poorly solub ...200415095889
antimicrobial effects of quercus ilex l. extract.the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract of quercus ilex l. (pirnal oak) leaves were tested in vitro against a wide range of human and plant-associated microorganisms. a total of 132 microbial organisms belonging to 55 bacteria and five fungi and yeast species were studied using a disc-diffusion method and microdilution assays. the results were evaluated as inhibition zones around the disc impregnated with q. ilex extract at a concentration of 300 micro l/ml. the results showed that ...200415103667
fungus-elicited metabolites from plants as an enriched source for new leishmanicidal agents: antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins from the banana plant (musa acuminata) target mitochondria of leishmania donovani promastigotes.two antifungal phenyl-phenalenone phytoalexins isolated from the banana plant (musa acuminata) elicited with the fungus fusarium oxysporum, together with a methoxy derivative of one of them and two epoxide precursors of their chemical synthesis, were tested for leishmanicidal activity on leishmania donovani promastigotes and l. infantum amastigotes. drugs inhibited proliferation of both forms of the parasite with a 50% lethal concentration range between 10.3 and 68.7 micro g/ml. their lethal mec ...200415105102
isolation of allicepin, a novel antifungal peptide from onion (allium cepa) bulbs.from the bulbs of the onion allium cepa, a novel antifungal peptide distinct from the antimicrobial peptide previously reported from onion seeds was isolated. the antifungal peptide, designated allicepin, was purified with a procedure that involved aqueous extraction, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. allicepin was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. the molecular weight ...200415113089
effect of static magnetic field on growth and sporulation of some plant pathogenic fungi.growth and sporulation of phytopathogenic microscopic fungi were studied under a static magnetic field. the applied flux densities were 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mt. the magnetic field decreased the growth of colonies by 10% using this flux density region. at 0.1 mt flux density, the deviations are significant, p =.001, while in other cases the deviations generally are not significant. at the same time, the number of the developed conidia of alternaria alternata and curvularia inaequalis increased by 68-1 ...200415114642
an analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of the pea pathogenicity genes of nectria haematococca mpvi supports the hypothesis of their origin by horizontal transfer and uncovers a potentially new pathogen of garden pea: neocosmospora boniensis.the filamentous fungus nectria haematococca mating population vi (mpvi) contains a cluster of genes required to cause disease on pea. this cluster of pea pathogenicity genes (the pep cluster) is located on a supernumerary chromosome that is dispensable for normal growth in culture. the genes in the pep cluster have a different g+c content and codon usage compared with the genes located on the other chromosomes and a non-homogeneous distribution within the species. these features suggest that the ...200415118835
immobilization of biogenic gold nanoparticles in thermally evaporated fatty acid and amine thin films.we have recently demonstrated the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions by the fungus fusarium oxysporum and with extract of geranium (pelargonium graveolens) leaf. in this paper, we demonstrate the immobilization of biogenic gold nanoparticles in lipid thin films deposited by thermal evaporation. the charge on the gold nanoparticles synthesized by both the fungus and the geranium plant extract is used to facilitate their immobilization in both ...200415120279
the role of the jasmonate response in plant susceptibility to diverse pathogens with a range of lifestyles.plants defend themselves against attack from insects and pathogens with various resistance strategies. the jasmonate and salicylate signaling pathways are two induced responses that protect plants against these attackers. knowledge of the range of organisms that are affected by each response is important for understanding how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attackers and the generality of effect of different resistance mechanisms. the jasmonate response is known to protect plan ...200415133157
fusion proteins comprising a fusarium-specific antibody linked to antifungal peptides protect plants against a fungal planta expression of recombinant antibodies recognizing pathogen-specific antigens has been proposed as a strategy for crop protection. we report the expression of fusion proteins comprising a fusarium-specific recombinant antibody linked to one of three antifungal peptides (afps) as a method for protecting plants against fungal diseases. a chicken-derived single-chain antibody specific to antigens displayed on the fusarium cell surface was isolated from a pooled immunocompetent phage display ...200415146196
specific detection of the toxigenic species fusarium proliferatum and f. oxysporum from asparagus plants using primers based on calmodulin gene sequences.fusarium proliferatum and fusarium oxysporum are the causal agents of a destructive disease of asparagus called fusarium crown and root rot. f. proliferatum from asparagus produces fumonisin b1 and b2, which have been detected as natural contaminants in infected asparagus plants. polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays were developed for the rapid identification of f. proliferatum and f. oxysporum in asparagus plants. the primer pairs are based on calmodulin gene sequences. the pcr products from ...200414757245
fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. role of acetyl coa synthetase in anaerobic atp synthesis.fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. the fungus fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp (zhou, z., takaya, n., nakamura, a., yamaguchi, m., takeo, k., and shoun, h. (2002) j. biol. chem. 277, 1892-1896). we identified the aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. the results showed that assimilatory ...200414722082
a one-step method to convert vectors into binary vectors suited for agrobacterium-mediated transformation.bacterial artificial chromosomes (bacs) are widely used for the construction of physical maps, positional-cloning and whole-genome sequencing strategies. unfortunately, their use for functional genomics is limited, as currently there is no efficient method to use bacs directly for complementation. we describe a novel strategy for one-step conversion of any bac into a binary bac (bibac). using agrobacterium tumefaciens, these bibacs can be efficiently transformed to virtually all organisms, inclu ...200414745506
molecular mapping of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea.sequence-tagged microsatellite site (stms) and sequence-tagged site (sts) markers linked closely to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea were identified, and linkage between three wilt resistance genes was elucidated. the resistance to race 3 in chickpea germplasm accession wr-315 was inherited as a single gene, designated foc-3, in 100 f(7) recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of wr-315 (resistant) x c-104 (susceptible). the foc-3 gene was mapped 0.6 c ...200414689189
ren1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. f. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by ...200415020411
fusarium species and fusarium wilt pathogens associated with native gossypium populations in australia.fusarium isolates were extracted from stems and rhizosphere soils of 79 populations of four gossypium species native to two regions of inland australia in 2001. six fusarium species were isolated from 31 (3%) of the 919 stem samples. f. semitectum was predominant, occurring mostly in g. bickii populations and accounting for 81% of the isolates recovered. twenty fusarium species were isolated from 68 (87%) of the 78 composite soil samples, with f. solani (71%), f. compactum (8%), f. oxysporum (5% ...200415035503
fine mapping of the tomato i-3 gene for fusarium wilt resistance and elimination of a co-segregating resistance gene analogue as a candidate for i-3.the i-3 gene from the wild tomato species lycopersicon pennellii confers resistance to race 3 of the devastating vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. as an initial step in a positional cloning strategy for the isolation of i-3, we converted restriction fragment length polymorphism and conserved orthologue set markers, known genes and a resistance gene analogue (rga) mapping to the i-3 region into pcr-based sequence characterised amplified region (scar) and cleaved amplif ...200415045176
improved technique for rapid and non-destructive in vitro differentiation between resistant and susceptible banana clones of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense were applied to field-grown banana leaves of susceptible and resistant clones. the difference in leaf lesions, measured after 48 h, varied from 13 to 51 mm2 depending on the composition of the growth medium.200415049365
extracellular matrix protein gene, emp1, is required for appressorium formation and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe grisea.magnaporthe grisea, the causal fungus of rice blast, forms a specialized infection structure called an appressorium that is crucial for host plant penetration. a cdna clone of m. grisea, showing strong sequence homology to fem1 of fusarium oxysporum and encoding an extracellular matrix protein, was isolated during an expressed sequence tag (est) analysis of an appressorium cdna library and named extracellular matrix protein 1 (emp1). sequence analysis of the corresponding genomic clone revealed ...200415055545
cloning and functional expression of a mungbean defensin vrd1 in pichia was shown previously that a bacterially expressed mungbean defensin vrcrp exhibited both antifungal and insecticidal activities. to isolate this protein in a large quantity for its characterization, the defensin cdna was expressed in pichia pastoris and the recombinant defensin (rvrd1) was purified. the recombinant vrd1 was shown to inhibit the growth of fungi such as fusarium oxysporum, pyricularia oryza, rhizoctonia solani, and trichophyton rubrum and development of bruchid larva. the prote ...200415080630
a new class (penaeidin class 4) of antimicrobial peptides from the atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus) exhibits target specificity and an independent proline-rich-domain function.a highly pure, chemically defined representative of a new class of antimicrobial peptide from the atlantic white shrimp (litopenaeus setiferus), penaeidin class 4 [pen4-1 (penaeidin class 4 isoform 1)], was produced synthetically. chemical synthesis was achieved by native ligation from two separate domains yielding a bioactive peptide that reflected the characteristics of native penaeidin. synthetic pen4-1 proved to be an effective antimicrobial peptide, particularly against the broad-spectrum p ...200415084144
combination therapy of disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection with terbinafine and amphotericin b.a case of disseminated infection with fusarium oxysporum following chemotherapy of acute myelogenous leukemia is reported. antifungal treatment was successful with a 13-day course of oral terbinafine 250 mg t.i.d. in combination with amphotericin b deoxycholate 1.0-1.5 mg/kg qd and subsequently intravenous liposomal amphotericin b 5 mg/kg qd. preceding monotherapy with amphotericin b deoxycholate 1.0-1.5 mg/kg qd had not stopped the progression of infection. the combination therapy described her ...200414648020
construction of a hindiii bacterial artificial chromosome library and its use in identification of clones associated with disease resistance in chickpea.a chickpea ( cicer arietinum l.) bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library from germplasm line, flip 84-92c, was constructed to facilitate positional cloning of disease resistance genes and physical mapping of the genome. the bac library has 23,780 colonies and was calculated to comprise approximately 3.8 haploid-genome equivalents. studies on 120 randomly chosen clones revealed an average insert size of 100 kb and no empty clones. colony hybridization using the rubp carboxylase large subuni ...200414564396
nadph-dependent d-aldose reductases and xylose fermentation in fusarium oxysporum.two aldose (xylose) reductases (ari and arii) from fusarium oxysporum were purified and characterized. the native ari was a monomer with m(r) 41000, pi 5.2 and showed a 52-fold preference for nadph over nadh, while arii was homodimeric with a subunit of m(r) 37000, pi 3.6 and a 60-fold preference for nadph over nadh. in this study, the influence of aeration and the response to the addition of electron acceptors on xylose fermentation by f. oxysporum were also studied. the batch cultivation of f. ...200416233633
effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants.the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (fhl) was assayed for antifungal activities against rosellinia necatrix, helicobasidium mompa, fusarium oxysporum, pythium graminicola and pyricularia oryzae. fhl completely inhibited the growth of r. necatrix, h. mompa, p. graminicola and p. oryzae, and reduced the growth of f. oxysporum by 35%. when the seeds of medicago sativa l. (alfalfa), asparagus officinalis l. (asparagus), brassica campestris l. (komatsuna), oryza sativa l. (rice) ...200416233688
biological control of chickpea fusarium wilt by antagonistic bacteria under greenhouse this survey, fusarium oxysporum was isolated from roots infected plants and was shown to be pathogenic. experiment were carried out with seven antagonistic bacteria. based on biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates b-120, b-32, b-28 and b-22 were identified as bacillus subtilis and isolates pf-100, pf-10 and chao as pseudomonas fluorescens. in greenhouse studies, only isolate b-120 (less than benomyl) reduced fusarium wilt of chickpea in both seed and soil treatments. the ...200415756852
antagonistic effects of several bacteria on fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of root and crown rot of onion under field conditions.onion (allium cepa) is one of the most important vegetable crop which is commonly used as a food supplement. this plant is found to be vulnerable to various pathogenic infections during its growth development. among different onion diseases, root and crown rot,caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepa, s considered an importantfungal disease. in this study, the inhibitory effect of bacillus cereus (isolates 22 and 52), b. subtilis (isolate 126), pseudomonas fluorescens (isolates 48 and chao), beno ...200415756854
effects of endophytic fusarium oxysporum towards radopholus similis activity in absence of banana.four endophytic fungi (fusarium spp.) isolated from the cortical tissue of surface-sterilised banana as well as from tomato roots were tested for their capacity of biological control towards the burrowing nematode radopholus similis on banana. the pathogenic and parasitic capacities of endophytic fungi towards r. similis were tested in in vitro experiments. no parasitism of fungi on r. similis was observed. however, nematode activity decreased significantly in the presence of all endophytic fung ...200415759438
interactions between root-knot nematode meloidogyne javanica and fusarium wilt disease, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis in different varieties of melon.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and root-knot nematode (meloidogyne javanica) are destructive pathogens on cucurbits in varamin area of iran. the interaction between two pathogens was studied on local melon cultivars, garmsar and sooski. inoculum of meloidogyne javanica was prepared on susceptible cultivar, rutgers using single egg mass method in greenhouse. inoculum of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (race 1) was prepared using richard solution. a concentration of 2 x 10(5) micro conidia of f ...200415759439
novel protein from labramia bojeri a. dc. seeds homologue to kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor with lectin-like properties.this study starts by isolating and characterizing the first protein from labramia bojeri seeds, which belong to the sapotaceae family. the purified lectin analyzed by sds-page with and without beta-mercaptoethanol shows two protein bands (m(r) = 19 and 20 kda), which cannot be resolved. protein bands have shown similar characteristics as molecular masses, determined by gel filtration and native gel; n-terminal sequences presented a difference in their isoelectric points. we have suggested that t ...200415675802
the influence of detergent, the active component of detergent and sodiumtripolyphosphate on the biochemical process of some fungi.detergent "merix" (merima-krusevac) and its components, sodiumtripolyphosphate and ethoxyled oleyl-cetyl alcohol in defined concentrations have influence on the enzymatic activity, bioproduction of amino acids and proteins and total biomass of species aspergillus niger (a. niger) and fusarium oxysporum (f. oxysporum). detergent in concentration of 1% vol., in some cases, significantly stimulated production of the majority of amino acids. detergent and its components (ethoxyled oleyl-cetyl alcoho ...200415612193
anti-fungal sesquiterpenoid from the root exudate of solanum abutiloides.the solanum abutiloides plant is highly resistant to soil-borne pathogens such as fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, verticillium dahliae, and ralstonia solanacearum. this species is utilized as a mating source of resistant cultivars and is also used as a rootstock. the root exudate of solanum abutiloides was extracted from a soil system composed of charcoal and vermiculite. anti-fungal activity was found in the extract, and an active ingredient was isolated. the chemical structure of the act ...200415618642
transformation of fusarium oxysporum by particle bombardment and characterisation of the resulting transformants expressing a gfp transgene.fusarium is the causative agent of a variety of economically significant vascular wilt diseases of vegetables, flowers and field crops. the completion of the first fusarium genome and the availability of an est database now provides a platform for both forward and reverse genetic approaches to ascribe gene function in this phytopathogen. to underpin these strategies effective gene transfer procedures will be required. here we describe an efficient and robust procedure for fusarium oxysporum tran ...200415702267
comparative assessment of genotyping methods for study genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum this study, we evaluated three pcr-based methods for the molecular typing of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum isolates: random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd), polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp). the analyses were performed using 64 isolates of f. oxysporum collected from cotton-producing areas in egypt. a number of polymorphic rapd, pcr-rflp and aflp bands were scored in all isolates and the genetic ...200415702916
effect of two systemic fungicides on cellulose decomposing fungi of tomato plants and on some enzymatic activities.kocide 101 (77% cupric hydroxide) and ridomil plus (15% metalaxyl and 35% copper oxychloride) were used in the treatment of tomato plants. the two fungicides exerted a depressive effect on the total counts and on the individual cellulose decomposing fungal species associated with the roots and shoots of tomato. when these fungicides were incorporated in the liquid culture medium specified for growth and extracellular enzyme production by some selected fungal species, there was a significant redu ...200415704330
[isolation and purification of ribosome-inactivating proteins from bitter melon seeds by ion exchange chromatographic columns in series].an anion exchange chromatographic column (deae-650c) and a cation exchange chromatographic column (cm-650c) were connected in series on a perfusion chromatography workstation. the crude extract of bitter melon seeds flowed through the two columns and the unadsorbed fraction on the deae-650c column was then directly readsorbed on the cm-650c column. two protein components with antifungal activity were eluted from the cation exchange chromatographic column by linear salt gradient. both of them wer ...200415706947
interaction of rotylenchulus reniformis with seedling disease pathogens of cotton.the impact of 10 fusarium species in concomitant association with rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton seedling disease was examined under greenhouse conditions. in experiment 1, fungal treatments consisted of fusarium chlamydosporum, f. equiseti, f. lateritium, f. moniliforme, f. oxysporum, f. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, f. proliferatum, f. semitectum, f. solani, and f. sporotrichioides; rhizoctonia solani; and thielaviopsis basicola. the experimental design was a 2 x 14 factorial consisting of ...200419262802
fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the fusarium oxysporum species complex.a new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in the netherlands. diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of fusarium macroconidia. a species of fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. it differed morphologically from f. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. the fusarium ...200421148861
nitrogen-responsive genes are differentially regulated in planta during fusarium oxyspsorum f. sp. lycopersici infection.summary nitrogen is an essential growth component whose availability will limit microbial spread, and as such it serves as a key control point in dictating an organism's adaptation to various environments. little is known about fungal nutrition in planta. to enhance our understanding of this process we examined the transcriptional adaptation of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent for vascular wilt in tomato, during nutritional stress and plant colonization. using rt-pcr and m ...200520565671
effect of iron availability on induction of systemic resistance to fusarium wilt of chickpea by pseudomonas spp.selected isolates of pseudomonas fluorescens (pf4-92 and pfrsc5) and p. aeruginosa (parsg18 and parsg27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea. significant increase in plant height was observed in pseudomonas treated plants. however, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of pseudomonas were used in combination with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (focrs1). it was also observed that the pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of ch ...200524049472
cloning and characterization of a plant defensin vad1 from azuki bean.a recombinant mungbean defensin vrd1 was previously shown to exhibit antifungal and bruchid-resistant activity. to study the function and regulation of vrd1, genomic dnas of plant defensins were isolated from vigna radiata vc6089a and azuki bean vigna angularis kao hsiung no. 6. the azuki bean defensin genomic dna vad1 was sequenced and converted to vad1 cdna. vad1 defensin was purified from vigna angularis kao hsiung no. 6 to apparent homogeneity. the complete amino acid sequence of the purifie ...200515713009
biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.the biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed.200515752330
isolation of trichogin, an antifungal protein from fresh fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom tricholoma antifungal protein was isolated from the mushroom tricholoma giganteum var. golden blessings. the protocol included ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the antifungal protein, designated trichogin, was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. it exhibited antifungal activity ag ...200515752570
isolation of alliumin, a novel protein with antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities from multiple-cloved garlic bulbs.a protein designated alliumin, with a molecular mass of 13 kda and an n-terminal sequence similar to a partial sequence of glucanase, and demonstrating antifungal activity against mycosphaerella arachidicola, but not against fusarium oxysporum, was isolated from multiple-cloved garlic (allium sativum) bulbs. the protein, designated as alliumin, was purified using ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, cm-cellulose and mono s, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtrati ...200515629528
new insights into the target site and mode of action of the antifungal protein of aspergillus giganteus.the antifungal protein (afp) secreted by aspergillus giganteus exerts growth inhibitory effects on various filamentous fungi. in order to obtain more information on the mode of action of afp, we used transmission electron microscopy in this study to compare the cellular ultrastructure of the afp-sensitive aspergillus niger and of the afp-resistant penicillium chrysogenum upon afp treatment. furthermore, afp was localized by immunogold staining in both fungi. severe membrane alterations in a. nig ...200515636747
effect of herbizid and touchdown herbicides on soil fungi and on production of some extracellular enzymes.glucophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi were significantly reduced in soil samples treated with 0.019-0.152 mg a.i./kg soil of the herbicides herbizid and touchdown. the decrease was regularly correlated with the doses of the two herbicides and persisted till the end of the experiment (12 weeks). the isolated fungi were found to be able to produce hydrolytic extracellular enzymes in solid media but with variable capabilities. the ability to produce enzymes was adversily affected by the incor ...200515957238
biological control agent of common scab disease by antagonistic strain bacillus sp. identify an antagonistic strain against streptomyces scabiei and to characterize the antibiotic agent. the efficacy of the isolated strain in controlling common scab disease was also evaluated.200515960681
rare trisubstituted sesquiterpenes daucanes from the wild daucus carota.phytochemical and biological investigation of the roots of the wild daucus carota ssp. carota afforded three new and four known compounds, including four sesquiterpenes daucane esters (1-3 [new], and 4), one polyacetylene (5), one sesquiterpene coumarin (6), and sitosterol glucoside. the structures of the new compounds were determined by comprehensive nmr studies, including dept, cosy, noesy, hmqc and hmbc analyses. based on an agar diffusion assay, 1, 2 and 4-6 were screened and found to contai ...200515964039
resistance to fusarium oxysporum 1, a dominant arabidopsis disease-resistance gene, is not race specific.arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes differ in their susceptibility to fusarium wilt diseases. ecotype taynuilt-0 (ty-0) is susceptible to fusarium oxysporum forma specialis (f.) matthioli whereas columbia-0 (col-0) is resistant. segregation analysis of a cross between ty-0 and col-0 revealed six dominant resistance to fusarium oxysporum (rfo) loci that significantly contribute to f. matthioli resistance in col-0 relative to ty-0. we refer to the locus with the strongest effect as rfo1. ty-0 plants in ...200515965251
[properties of nitrate reductase from fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 fungi grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions].production of nitrate reductase was studied in 15 species of microscopic fungi grown on a nitrate-containing medium. experiments were performed with fusarium oxysporum 11dn1, a fungus capable of producing nitrous oxide as the end product of denitrification. moreover, a shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions of growth was accompanied by a sharp increase in the activity of nitrate reductase. studies of nitrate reductase from the mycelium of fusarium oxysporum 11dn1, grown under aerobic and ana ...200515977789
developmental expression of stress response genes in theobroma cacao leaves and their response to nep1 treatment and a compatible infection by phytophthora megakarya.developmental expression of stress response genes in theobroma cacao leaves and their response to nep1 and a compatible infection by phytophthora megakarya were studied. ten genes were selected to represent genes involved in defense (tccaf-1, tcglu1,3, tcchib, tccou-1, and tcper-1), gene regulation (tcwrky-1 and tcorfx-1), cell wall development (tccou-1, tcper-1, and tcglu-1), or energy production (tclhca-1 and tcrbcs). leaf development was separated into unexpanded (ue), young red (yr), immatur ...200515979314
the influence of different cultivation conditions on the metabolome of fusarium oxysporum.the two most widespread pentose sugars found in the biosphere are d-xylose and l-arabinose. they are both potential substrates for ethanol production. the purpose of this study was to better understand the redox constraints imposed to fusarium oxysporum during utilization of pentoses. in order to increase ethanol yield and decrease by-product formation, nitrate was used as nitrogen source. the use of nadh, the cofactor in denitrification process when using nitrate as a nitrogen source, improved ...200515996783
heat shock protein 90 and its co-chaperone protein phosphatase 5 interact with distinct regions of the tomato i-2 disease resistance protein.recent data suggest that plant disease resistance (r) proteins are present in multi-protein complexes. tomato r protein i-2 confers resistance against the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum. to identify components of the i-2 complex, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the i-2 leucine-rich repeat (lrr) domain as bait, and identified protein phosphatase 5 (pp5) as an i-2 interactor. subsequent screens revealed two members of the cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) family as interactor ...200515998314
mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several fusarium oxysporum strains.extracellular production of metal nanoparticles by several strains of the fungus fusarium oxysporum was carried out. it was found that aqueous silver ions when exposed to several fusarium oxysporum strains are reduced in solution, thereby leading to the formation of silver hydrosol. the silver nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm in dimensions. the reduction of the metal ions occurs by a nitrate-dependent reductase and a shuttle quinone extracellular process. the potentialities of this na ...200516014167
molecular detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and mycosphaerella melonis in infected plant tissues and soil.we developed two species-specific pcr assays for rapid and accurate detection of the pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and mycosphaerella melonis in diseased plant tissues and soil. based on differences in internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of fusarium spp. and mycosphaerella spp., two pairs of species-specific primers, fn-1/fn-2 and mn-1/mn-2, were synthesized. after screening 24 isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, 22 isolates of m. melonis, and 72 isolates from the ...200516019161
inorganic materials and living organisms: surface modifications and fungal responses to various asbestos a previous study several strains of soil fungi were reported to remove iron in vitro from crocidolite asbestos, a process that was envisaged as a possible bioremediation route for asbestos-polluted soils. here, we get some new insight into the chemical basis of the fiber/fungi interaction by comparing the action of the most active fungal strain fusarium oxysporum on three kind of asbestos fibers--chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite--and on a surface-modified crocidolite. none of the fibers e ...200516021644
an antifungal protein from flageolet beans.a protein with antifungal and hemagglutinating activities was isolated from dried flageolet beans (phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'flageolet bean'). the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. the protein demonstrated antifungal activity against mycophaerella arachidicola with an ic50 of 9.8 microm, but was inactive toward fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. its hemagglutinating activity could not be inhibited by a variety of the sugars tested. t ...200516026901
microfungi in cultivated fields in eski┼čehir provience (turkey).the soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of eski┼čehir (turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of karacahöyük, bahçecik, ogu i, and ogu ii. a total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including absidia, acremonium, alternaria, aspergillus, beauveria, botryoderma, chaetomium, chrysosporium, cladosporium, eupenicillium, eurotium, fusarium, geotrichum, gliocladium, gonytrichum, metarrhizium, mucor, myrothecium, paecilomy ...200516028200
extraction of functional motion in trypsin crystal structures.the analysis of anisotropic atomic displacement parameters for the direct extraction of functionally relevant motion from x-ray crystal structures of fusarium oxysporum trypsin is presented. several atomic resolution structures complexed with inhibitors or substrates and determined at different ph values and temperatures were investigated. the analysis revealed a breathing-like molecular motion conserved across trypsin structures from two organisms and three different crystal forms. directional ...200516041079
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