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heavy-metal remediation by a fungus as a means of production of lead and cadmium carbonate crystals.we show here that reaction of the fungus, fusarium oxysporum, with the aqueous heavy-metal ions pb2+ and cd2+ results in the one-step formation of the corresponding metal carbonates. the metal carbonates are formed by reaction of the heavy-metal ions with co2 produced by the fungus during metabolism and thus provide a completely biological method for production of crystals of metal carbonates. the pbco3 and cdco3 crystals thus produced have interesting morphologies that are shown to arise becaus ...200516042445
taking the fungal highway: mobilization of pollutant-degrading bacteria by fungi.the capacity of fungi to serve as vectors for the dispersion of pollutant-degrading bacteria was analyzed in laboratory model systems mimicking water-saturated (agar surfaces) and unsaturated soil environments (glass-bead-filled columns). two common soil fungi (fusarium oxysporum and rhexocercosporidium sp.) forming hydrophilic and hydrophobic mycelia, respectively, and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria (achromobacter sp. sk1, mycobacterium frederiksbergense lb501tg, and s ...200516047804
studies on the management of root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108.studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, vigna radiata cv ml-1108. all the treatments significantly improved ...200516052706
biodegradation and detoxification of organophosphate insecticide, malathion by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.efficiencies of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase and yeast esterase) in malathion degradation were investigated. surprisingly, degradation rate of malathion by fungal cutinase was very high, i.e. almost 60% of initial malathion (500 mg l(-1)) was decomposed within 0.5 h, and nearly 50% of the degraded malathion disappeared within initial 15 min. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more than 65% of malathion remained even after 2-day treatment. during enzymatic degradat ...200516054903
biodegradation of dipropyl phthalate and toxicity of its degradation products: a comparison of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase and candida cylindracea esterase.the efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of dipropyl phthalate (dprp) was investigated. the dprp-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e., almost 70% of the initial dprp (500 mg/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded dprp disappeared within the initial 15 min. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more than 90% of the dprp remained even after 3 days of treatment. during the enzyma ...200516059706
influence of fusaric acid on phenazine-1-carboxamide synthesis and gene expression of pseudomonas chlororaphis strain pcl1391.production of the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn) by pseudomonas chlororaphis strain pcl1391 is essential for the suppression of tomato foot and root rot caused by the soil-borne fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. the authors have shown previously that fusaric acid (fa), a phytotoxin produced by fusarium oxysporum, represses the production of pcn and of the quorum-sensing signal n-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c(6)-hsl). here they report that pcn repression by f ...200516079356
frp1 is a fusarium oxysporum f-box protein required for pathogenicity on tomato.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. in order to identify genes involved in its pathogenicity, we performed insertional mutagenesis. mutant n40 had lost its pathogenicity completely, when tested in bioassays with tomato seedlings. molecular characterization of mutant n40 revealed that the plasmid insertion had occurred in a gene that codes for a 60.2 kda protein containing an f-box motif. the gene was therefore designated as frp1 (f-box protein requir ...200516091043
[cloning and expression of fusarium moniliforme cgmcc 0536 d-lactonohydrolase gene in escherichia coli].the total cdna obtained through reverse transcription of f. oxysporum cgmcc 0536 mrna used as template, a fragment about 1.5kb was amplied with oligo(dt)15 primer and a gene specific primer designed on the base of the sequence of both nh2-terminus and the cdna sequence encoding d-lactonohydrolase of fusarium oxysporum reported on the ncbi, then the fragment was cloned to the pmd18-t vector and sequenced. the sequence encoding d-lactonohydrolase of f. moniliforme cgmcc 0536 shows a high homology ...200516108362
[population fluctuation of main pathogens and their antagonistic bacteria in cucumber rhizosphere].the investigation on the population fluctuation of main pathogens pythium spp. and fusarium oxysporum f. cucumerinum in the rhizosphere of four cucumber varieties showed that there was a significant difference in population number of pathogens for different cucumber varieties and for different growth stages of the same variety, which was in accordance with the regular disease incidence pattern. the population number of pythium spp. was significantly higher at cucumber creeping stage than at its ...200516110670
the transcription factor ataf2 represses the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in arabidopsis.ataf2, a member of the plant-specific nac-domain transcription factor family, is highly induced in leaves at a wound site and is responsive to the wound-related phytohormones methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid, but not to abscisic acid. overexpression of ataf2 leads to an increased biomass and yellowing of the leaves, but there is no obvious phenotype in two independent ataf2 t-dna insertion lines. at the transcriptome level, ataf2 overexpression resulted in repression of a number of pathogenes ...200516115070
toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud fusarium wilt.date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in morocco and algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (fao). controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. few naturally resistant c ...200516125651
an antifungal protein from ginger rhizomes.there are very few reports on antifungal proteins from rhizomes and there is none from the family of zingiberaceae. an antifungal protein with a novel n-terminal sequence was isolated from ginger rhizomes utilizing a protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. it exhibited an apparent molecul ...200516125680
force calculations in automated docking: enzyme-substrate interactions in fusarium oxysporum cel7b.autodock is a small-molecule docking program that uses an energy function to score docked ligands. here autodock's grid-based method for energy evaluation was exploited to evaluate the force exerted by fusarium oxysporum cel7b on the atoms of docked cellooligosaccharides and a thiooligosaccharide substrate analog. coupled with the interaction energies evaluated for each docked ligand, these forces give insight into the dynamics of the ligand in the active site, and help to elucidate the relative ...200516138313
a novel homodimeric lectin from astragalus mongholicus with antifungal activity.a novel lectin (amml) was isolated from a chinese herb, i.e., the roots of astragalus mongholicus, using a combination of ammonium sulfate fraction and ion exchange chromatographies. the molecular mass of intact amml was determined to be 66,396 da by maldi-tof mass spectrometry and 61.8 kda by gel filtration, respectively. amml was a dimeric protein composed of two identical subunits each with a molecular mass of 29.6 kda. the lectin was a glycoprotein with a neutral carbohydrate content of 19.6 ...200516140255
generation and characterization of reduced virulence fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici mutants through plasmid-vector insertion.pathogenicity-impaired mutants, b02 and h15, of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycorpersici (fol) were obtained using restriction enzyme-mediated integration. disease severities of fusarium wilt caused by these mutants were significantly reduced, and their disease development rates were correlated with their colonization rates in tomato vessels. both b02 and h15 produced significantly smaller amounts of extracellular proteins as well as fusaric acid than the wild-type. southern blot analyses suggeste ...200516160771
immunoglobulin g antibodies against environmental moulds in a norwegian healthy population shows a bimodal distribution for aspergillus versicolor.immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against moulds related to indoor dampness problems are used as biomarkers to indicate exposure. in the present study, we evaluated the frequency of mould exposure in an adult healthy population by examining levels of mould-specific igg antibodies in norwegian blood donors. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 106 blood donor sera were analyzed for igg antibodies to aspergillus versicolor, penicillium chrysogenum, cladosporium herbarum, stachybotrys chartarum ...200516179015
repressor- and activator-type ethylene response factors functioning in jasmonate signaling and disease resistance identified via a genome-wide screen of arabidopsis transcription factor gene expression.to identify transcription factors (tfs) involved in jasmonate (ja) signaling and plant defense, we screened 1,534 arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) tfs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-pcr for their altered transcript at 6 h following either methyl ja treatment or inoculation with the incompatible pathogen alternaria brassicicola. we identified 134 tfs that showed a significant change in expression, including many apetala2/ethylene response factor (ap2/erf), myb, wrky, and nac tf ...200516183832
isolation and identification of antifungal and antialgal alkaloids from haplophyllum sieversii.bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexane/ethyl acetate/water (h/etoac/h2o) crude extract of the aerial parts of haplophyllum sieversii was performed because of preliminary screening data that indicated the presence of growth inhibitory components against colletotrichum fragariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and colletotrichum acutatum. fractionation was directed using bioautographical methods resulting in the isolation of the bioactive alkaloids flindersine, anhydroevoxine, haplamine, and ...200516190626
production of an engineered killer peptide in nicotiana benthamiana by using a potato virus x expression system.the decapeptide killer peptide (kp) derived from the sequence of a single-chain, anti-idiotypic antibody acting as a functional internal image of a microbicidal, broad-spectrum yeast killer toxin (kt) was shown to exert a strong microbicidal activity against human pathogens. with the aim to exploit this peptide to confer resistance to plant pathogens, we assayed its antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. synthetic kp exhibited antimicrobial activit ...200516204558
quantitative assessment of phytopathogenic fungi in various substrates using a dna macroarray.detection, identification and quantification of plant pathogens are the cornerstones of preventive plant disease management. to detect multiple pathogens in a single assay, dna array technology currently is the most suitable technique. however, for sensitive detection, polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification before array hybridization is required. to evaluate whether dna array technology can be used to simultaneously detect and quantify multiple pathogens, a dna macroarray was designed and ...200516232285
enrichment for enhanced competitive plant root tip colonizers selects for a new class of biocontrol bacteria.our group studies tomato foot and root rot, a plant disease caused by the fungus forl (fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici ). several bacteria have been described to be able to control the disease, using different mechanisms. here we describe a method that enables us to select, after application of a crude rhizobacterial mixture on a sterile seedling, those strains that reach the root tip faster than our best tomato root colonizer tested so far, the pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol st ...200516232295
detection and cloning of the gene encoding a protein produced by nonpathogenic mutants of fusarium oxysporum.treatment of fusarium oxysporum with 5-azacytidine, a potent inhibitor of dna methylation, induced nonpathogenic mutants. analysis of the protein expression pattern by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed a protein that is present in yeast-form cells of the mutants but absent in those of the wild-type strain. n-terminal amino acid analysis indicated that this protein is identical to a region of a polypeptide encoded by a cdna clone, sti35, previously identified as a heat shock gene in f. ...200016232860
biosynthesis of p-anisaldehyde by the white-rot basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus.the white-rot basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus produced sweet flavor compounds on a liquid medium. the major and minor compounds identified by gc-ms analysis were p-anisaldehyde (4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 3-chloro-p-anisaldehyde (3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde), respectively. p-anisaldehyde was only produced under static culture conditions. differences in the type and quantity of flavor compounds produced among wild strains of p. ostreatus were observed. aryl alcohol oxidase and manganese pero ...200216233188
genetic engineering using fungal flavohemoglobin for constructing pseudomonas stutzeri strain emitting less nitrous oxide.most denitrifiers produce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (n2o) due to insufficient anaerobiosis. we constructed a recombinant pseudomonas stutzeri strain producing fusarium oxysporum flavohemoglobin (fhb) and found that it emitted less n2o than the wild-type strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. the rate of n2 production was higher than in the wild-type strain after the depletion of oxygen in culture, suggesting that fhb enhanced the reduction of n2o to n2. the strain is the first rec ...200216233304
purification and characterization of an extracellular trypsin-like protease of fusarium oxysporum var. lini.an alkaline serineprotease, capable of hydrolyzing nalpha-benzoyl- dl arginine p-nitroanilide, was secreted by fusarium oxysporum var. lini grown in the presence of gelatin as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. the protease was purified 65-fold to electrophoretic homogenity from the culture supernatant in a three-step procedure comprising qsepharose chromatography, affinity chromatography, and fplc on a monoq column. sds-page analysis of the purified protein indicated an estimated molecular ma ...200216233307
dissimilatory nitrate reduction metabolisms and their control in fungi.most fungi grow under aerobic conditions by generating atp through oxygen respiration. however, they alternatively express two pathways of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in response to environmental oxygen tension when the oxygen supply is insufficient. the fungus fusarium oxysporum expressed the pathway of respiratory nitrate denitrification that is catalyzed by the sequential reactions of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. these enzymes are coupled with atp generation through the respir ...200216233342
nadph-dependent d-aldose reductases and xylose fermentation in fusarium oxysporum.two aldose (xylose) reductases (ari and arii) from fusarium oxysporum were purified and characterized. the native ari was a monomer with m(r) 41000, pi 5.2 and showed a 52-fold preference for nadph over nadh, while arii was homodimeric with a subunit of m(r) 37000, pi 3.6 and a 60-fold preference for nadph over nadh. in this study, the influence of aeration and the response to the addition of electron acceptors on xylose fermentation by f. oxysporum were also studied. the batch cultivation of f. ...200416233633
effects of the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria against phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and on the growth of host plants.the fermentation product of herbs by lactic acid bacteria (fhl) was assayed for antifungal activities against rosellinia necatrix, helicobasidium mompa, fusarium oxysporum, pythium graminicola and pyricularia oryzae. fhl completely inhibited the growth of r. necatrix, h. mompa, p. graminicola and p. oryzae, and reduced the growth of f. oxysporum by 35%. when the seeds of medicago sativa l. (alfalfa), asparagus officinalis l. (asparagus), brassica campestris l. (komatsuna), oryza sativa l. (rice) ...200416233688
variation in antibiosis ability, against potato pathogens, of bacterial communities recovered from the endo- and exoroots of potato crops produced under conventional versus minimum tillage systems.the culturable component of bacterial communities found in the endoroot and associated exoroot (root zone soil) was examined in potatoes (solanum tuberosum l.) grown under either conventional or minimum tillage systems. bacterial species--abundance relationships were determined and in vitro antibiosis ability investigated to discover whether tillage practice or bacteria source (endo- or exoroot) influenced bacterial community structure and functional versatility. antibiosis abilities against phy ...200516234863
microwave enhanced solid support synthesis of fluorine containing benzopyrano-triazolo-thiadiazepines as potent anti-fungal agents.a facile, dry media procedure has been developed for the synthesis of a series of a new class of fluorine containing 3-alkyl-7-chloro-11a,12-dihydro-11-phenyl-12-(substituted aryl)-11h-benzopyrano[4,3-e][1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazepines (4a-k) under microwaves using basic alumina as solid support. the reaction time has been brought down from hours (60-65 h) to minutes (3-5 min) with improved yield as compared to conventional method, demonstrating the versatility of the process. the m ...200616242336
antifungal effect of some spice hydrosols.the antifungal effects of rosemary, cumin, sater (savory), basil and pickling herb hydrosols were investigated against rhizoctonia solani, fusarium oxysporum f. sp tulipae, botrytis cinerea and alternaria citri. hydrosols of sater and pickling herb showed the most relevant fungicidal activity.200516243447
characterization of fusarium spp. isolates by pcr-rflp analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the rrna gene (rdna).in the present study, 44 fusarium spp. isolates (5 fusarium culmorum, 7 fusarium graminearum, 1 fusarium cerealis, 1 fusarium poae, 26 fusarium oxysporum, and 4 gibberella fujikuroi species complex) were characterized morphologically, physiologically and genetically. all except one (dutch collection: cbs 620.72) were isolated from different hosts grown in various spanish localizations. morphological characterization was made according to macroscopic and microscopic aspects. physiological charact ...200616246443
synthesis and antifungal potential of co(ii) complexes of 1-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) ethylideneanilines.synthesis of co(ii) complexes from 1-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylideneaniline and its n-phenyl derivatives has been described and their structures have been established on the basis of elemental analysis and ir studies. the complexes have been screened for their antifungal potential against alternaria alternata, fusarium oxysporum and myrothecium roridum by spore germination inhibition method and the results are discussed.200616256249
onychomycosis in children: a survey of 46 cases.this is a retrospective study of the agents, clinical aspects, sources of infection and therapy of onychomycosis in children. in the period 1989-2000, we observed 46 consecutive children, until 16 years of age with onychomycosis (29 boys, 17 girls, mean age 10.8 years). dermatophytes were isolated in 30 cases (trichophyton rubrum in 22 cases, trichophyton mentagrophytes in five, epidermophyton floccosum in two and trichophyton violaceum in one) and candida spp. in 16, associated with trichophyto ...200516262881
lunatusin, a trypsin-stable antimicrobial peptide from lima beans (phaseolus lunatus l.).an anti-fungal peptide designated as lunatusin, with a molecular mass around 7kda, was purified from the seeds of chinese lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.). the peptide was isolated using a simple protocol consisting of affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration on superdex 75. lunatusin exerted an anti-fungal activity toward fungal species such as fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and botrytis cinerea, and an antibacterial action on, bacillus megaterium, bacill ...200516269344
limenin, a defensin-like peptide with multiple exploitable activities from shelf beans.from the seeds of the shelf bean, an antifungal peptide with a molecular mass of 6.5 kda was isolated. the isolation procedure comprised affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on mono s, and gel filtration on superdex 75. the peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. it potently suppressed mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, and mycosphaerella arachidicola with an ic(50) of 2.9, 2.1, and 0.34 microm, respectively. it exerted ant ...200616285021
rapid differentiation of fusarium oxysporum isolates using pcr-sscp with the combination of ph-variable electrophoretic medium and low temperature.differentiation of fusarium oxysporum is significantly important for unraveling the pathogenetic mechanism of fusaria wilts. in this study, isolates of f. oxysporum were screened from the soils in the rhizosphere of watermelon plant by komada medium and differentiated by sscp approach with the combination of ph-variable electrophoretic medium (tris-mes-edta (tme), ph 6.1) and low temperature (9 degrees c). we found that tme was a good electrophoretic medium and its ph value was variable over the ...200516287185
differential accumulation of monolignol-derived compounds in elicited flax (linum usitatissimum) cell suspension cultures.lignin and lignans share monolignols as common precursors and are both potentially involved in plant defence against pathogens. in this study, we investigated the effects of fungal elicitors on lignin and lignan metabolism in flax (linum usitatissimum) cell suspensions. cell suspension cultures of flax were treated with elicitor preparations made from mycelium extracts of botrytis cinerea, phoma exigua and fusarium oxysporum f ssp lini. elicitors induced a rapid stimulation of the monolignol pat ...200616292660
an antifungal peptide from the coconut.a chromatographic procedure consisting of ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast performance liquid chromatography on supedex 75 was utilized to isolate a 10 kda antifungal peptide from coconut flesh. the peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. it displayed antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella ...200516308082
efficient microwave enhanced regioselective synthesis of a series of benzimidazolyl/triazolyl spiro [indole-thiazolidinones] as potent antifungal agents and crystal structure of spiro[3h-indole-3,2'-thiazolidine]-3'(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-2,4'(1h)-dione.a microwave-assisted three-component, regioselective one-pot cyclocondensation method has been developed for the synthesis of a series of novel spiro[indole-thiazolidinones] (6a-l) using an environmentally benign procedure at atmospheric pressure in open vessel. this rapid method produces pure products in high yields within few minutes in comparison to a conventional two-step procedure. the crystal structure of one representative compound has been determined by x-ray diffraction. the synthesized ...200616321543
the sen1 gene of arabidopsis is regulated by signals that link plant defence responses and senescence.plant defence and senescence share many similarities as evidenced by extensive co-regulation of many genes during these responses. to better understand the nature of signals that are common to plant defence and senescence, we studied the regulation of sen1 encoding a senescence-associated protein during plant defence responses in arabidopsis. pathogen inoculations and treatments with defence-related chemical signals, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate induced changes in sen1 transcript levels. ...200516325410
gibberella xylarioides sensu lato from coffea canephora: a new mating population in the gibberella fujikuroi species complex.gibberella xylarioides heim & saccas (presumed anamorph, fusarium xylarioides steyaert) is the causal agent of coffee wilt disease, an economically important tracheomycosis in africa. in vitro crosses carried out with congolese, ugandan, and tanzanian single-ascospore/conidial isolates originating from diseased coffea canephora/excelsa demonstrated a heterothallic mating system, controlled by a single locus with two alleles, mat-1 and mat-2. compatible isolates produced fertile perithecia within ...200516332836
synthesis of new bioactive venlafaxine analogs: novel thiazolidin-4-ones as antimicrobials.a one-pot, three-component, microwave irradiated and conventional solution-phase synthesis of bioactive venlafaxine analogs such as 2,3-disubstituted-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones 3a-j under mild conditions and their characterization are reported. the novel thiazolidin-4-ones, 3-(2-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-2-phenyl-thiazolidin-4-one 3a, 2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-3-(2-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)thiazolidin-4-one 3c, and 2-(furan-2-yl)-3-(2-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-2- ...200616338140
heterotrimeric g proteins facilitate arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and are involved in jasmonate signaling.heterotrimeric g proteins have been previously linked to plant defense; however a role for the gbetagamma dimer in defense signaling has not been described to date. using available arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) mutants lacking functional galpha or gbeta subunits, we show that defense against the necrotrophic pathogens alternaria brassicicola and fusarium oxysporum is impaired in gbeta-deficient mutants while galpha-deficient mutants show slightly increased resistance compared to wild-type c ...200616339801
[disseminated fusariosis by fusarium oxysporum in an adult patient with acute myeloid leukemia and severe febrile neutropenia].we report the first case of disseminated fusariosis in an adult patient in chile, with a hematologic neoplasia and chemotherapy that evolved with febrile prolonged neutropenia, refractory, treated with wide spectrum antibiotics and that developed a systemic infection with sinusal, cutaneous and pulmonary compromise by fusarium oxysporum. he was refractory to antifungal treatment with amphotericin b deoxycholate and caspofungin that were administered in a sequential schedule. the fatal outcome of ...200516341358
enzymatic and microbial preparation of d-xylulose from d-xylose.a high-d-xylulose mixture (d-xylose-d-xylulose = 33:67) was prepared from the cold ethanol extract of preisomerized d-xylose solution (d-xylose-d-xylulose = 77:23). fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini and aspergillus niger were demonstrated to preferentially utilize d-xylose in the mixture of d-xylose and d-xylulose. chromatographically pure d-xylulose was thus obtained in 90% yield. a high-d-xylulose mixture was also incubated with rhodotorula toruloides, klebsiella pneumoniae, candida utilis, or mu ...198116345816
iron-chelating compounds produced by soil pseudomonads: correlation with fungal growth inhibition.strains of pseudomonas putida, pseudomonas sp., and pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined for their ability to grow in the presence of the iron chelator, ethylenediamine-di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid). in vitro fungal inhibition assays showed that the isolates varied in their ability to inhibit the growth of representative fungal plant pathogens. fungal inhibition in vitro was superior to that of previously reported pseudomonas sp. studies with fusarium oxysporum forma sp. lycopersici and a susc ...198316346334
fusarium wilt suppression and agglutinability of pseudomonas putida.mutants of pseudomonas putida (agg) that lack the ability to agglutinate with components present in washes of bean and cucumber roots showed limited potential to protect cucumber plants against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. however, a higher level of protection was observed against fusarium wilt in cucumber plants coinoculated with the parental bacterium (agg), which was agglutinable. the agg mutants did not colonize the roots of cucumber plants as extensively as the agg parental isolat ...198816347713
regulation of sugar transport systems in fusarium oxysporum var. lini.fusarium oxysporum var. lini (atcc 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (k(s), about 10 mm) when grown under repressed conditions. under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (k(s), about 40 mum) active system. the maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. the high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. when lactose was the only carbon ...199016348256
antagonistic effect of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum fo47 and pseudobactin 358 upon pathogenic fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.pseudobactin production by pseudomonas putida wcs358 significantly improves biological control of fusarium wilt caused by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum fo47b10 (p. lemanceau, p. a. h. m. bakker, w. j. de kogel, c. alabouvette, and b. schippers, appl. environ. microbiol. 58:2978-2982, 1992). the antagonistic effect of fo47b10 and purified pseudobactin 358 was studied by using an in vitro bioassay. this bioassay allows studies on interactions among nonpathogenic f. oxysporum fo47b10, pathogenic ...199316348860
utilization of lactic acid by fusarium oxysporum var. lini: regulation of transport and metabolism.lactic acid was transported in fusarium oxysporum var. lini atcc 10960 by a saturable transport system that had a half-saturation constant of 56.6 +/- 7.5 mum and a maximum velocity of 0.61 +/- 0.10 mmol h g (dry weight) at 26 degrees c and ph 5.0. this transport system was inducible and was not expressed in the presence of a repressing substrate. evidence is presented that the anionic form lactate was taken up by the cells. propionic, acetic, pyruvic, and bromoacetic acids but not succinic acid ...199416349143
enzymatic reduction of iron oxide by fungi.the occurrence of the iron-reducing phenomenon among some common fungi was studied. results indicated that (i) the reduction of ferric iron to the ferrous state by fungi seems to be restricted to nitrate reductase-inducible strains such as actinomucor repens, alternaria tenuis, fusarium oxysporum, and f. solani and (ii) the amount of dissolved ferrous iron may be reduced progressively by increasing the amount of nitrate added to the medium. compared with a complex medium (sabouraud medium), less ...196916349855
fusarium oxysporum gas1 encodes a putative beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase required for virulence on tomato plants.glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (beta)-1,3-glucanosyltransferases play active roles in fungal cell wall biosynthesis and morphogenesis and have been implicated in virulence on mammals. the role of beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferases in pathogenesis to plants has not been explored so far. here, we report the cloning and mutational analysis of the gas1 gene encoding a putative beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum. in contrast to candida albicans, expres ...200516353549
nep1 orthologs encoding necrosis and ethylene inducing proteins exist as a multigene family in phytophthora megakarya, causal agent of black pod disease on cacao.phvytophthora megakarya is a devastating oomycete pathogen that causes black pod disease in cacao. phytophthora species produce a protein that has a similar sequence to the necrosis and ethylene inducing protein (nep1) of fusarium oxysporum. multiple copies of nep1 orthologs (pmegnep) have been identified in p. megakarya and four other phytophthora species (p. citrophthora, p. capsici, p. palmivora, and p. sojae). genome database searches confirmed the existence of multiple copies of nep1 orthol ...200516353637
immunolocalization of a class iii chitinase in two muskmelon cultivars reacting differently to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a highly specialized fungus that attacks the root system of melon (cucumis melo l.). in this work the presence of a class iii chitinase was examined by immunological techniques in the root and stem base of a susceptible (cv. galia) and a resistant (cv. bredor) melon during the infection process. by immunolocalization it was not possible to detect the constitutive presence of class iii chitinase in any of the cultivars. however, the immunolabelling appeared in ...200616360800
[heterologous expression and functional identification of a chitinase gene from wheat].chitinases are functional in plant defense against pathogens and also involved in plant development as well as human disease responses. in this study a chitinase gene, wch2, from wheat was expressed transiently in tobacco leaves and stably in transgenic arabidopsis thaliana plants to evaluate its heterologous expression and potential application. western blot analysis revealed that the expressed wheat chitinase was about 30 kd as was expected (fig.1) and had hydrolytic activity towards chitin po ...200516361785
zmlrk-1, a receptor-like kinase induced by fungal infection in germinating seeds.we report here on the identification and characterization of zmlrk-1, a member of the lrk class of receptor-like kinases in zea mays. this gene was found to be located at the bin21.40 region on the short arm of maize chromosome 8, closely linked to the previously reported pseudogene of the same class psizmlrk (originally called zm2lrk). transient expression experiments in onion epithelium cells, using a zmlrk-1:gfp fusion protein, indicate that zmlrk-1 is a membrane protein. zmlrk-1 is ubiquitou ...200616362327
chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities of the essential oil of achillea ligustica all.the chemical composition of the essential oil from flowering tops of achillea ligustica all. was studied. samples were collected in different localities of sardinia (italy) and hydrodistilled both with clevenger-type and with simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus. the yields ranged between 0.88 +/- 0.06 and 0.43 +/- 0.02% (vol/dry wt). the essential oils were analyzed by gc-ms, and a total of 96 components were detected. from a qualitative point of view, irrelevant differences between s ...200516366708
the possible involvement of peroxidase in defense of yellow lupine embryo axes against fusarium oxysporum.peroxidase activity (ec 1.11.1.7) towards phenolic substrates, i.e. pyrogallol, syringaldazine and guaiacol, and ascorbate peroxidase activity (ec 1.11.1.11) were analyzed in embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. polo cultured on heller medium for 96h after inoculation with the necrotrophic fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. schlecht lupini. four variants were compared: inoculated embryo axes cultured with 60mm sucrose (+si) or without it (-si), and non-inoculated embryo axes cultured with 60mm sucr ...200716376454
regulatory roles of psra and rpos in phenazine-1-carboxamide synthesis by pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391.production of the secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn) by pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 is crucial for biocontrol activity against the phytopathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on tomato. regulation of pcn production involves the two-component signalling system gacs/gaca, the quorum-sensing system phzi/phzr and the regulator psra. this paper reports that a functional rpos is required for optimal pcn and n-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c(6)-hsl) production. con ...200616385114
accumulation of coumarins in arabidopsis thaliana.the biosynthesis of coumarins in plants is not well understood, although these metabolic pathways are often found in the plant kingdom. we report here the occurrence of coumarins in arabidopsis thaliana ecotype columbia. considerably high levels of scopoletin and its beta-d-glucopyranoside, scopolin, were found in the wild-type roots. the scopolin level in the roots was approximately 1200nmol/gfw, which was approximately 180-fold of that in the aerial parts. calli accumulated scopolin at a level ...200616405932
[ecological effects of multifunctional micro-flora agent in environment].in this paper, strains zjy-1 (brevibacillus brevis) and zjy-116 (bacillus subtilis) with evident inhibitory effect on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and with promotion effect on plant growth were screened from cucumber rhizosphere, and the feasibility of exerting the ecological effects of multifunctional micro-flora agent was studied by treating cucumber seeds with the two strains singly or mixed with chlorpyrifos-degrading strain dsp3 (alcaligenes faecali). the results showed that the tw ...200516422513
denitrification by the mix-culturing of fungi and bacteria with shell.denitrification by pure and mixed culture of fusarium oxysporum and pseudomonas stutzeri in different mineral medium and in synthetic wastewater were examined. the results obtained revealed that a rapid n2 evolution by f. oxysporum and p. stutzeri in mineral medium and synthetic wastewater was observed. in co-cultures of f. oxysporum and p. stutzeri, n2o produced by f. oxysporum was rapidly consumed by p. stutzeri. this indicated that mixed culture of f. oxysporum and p. stutzeri could be used f ...200616427516
crystal structures of nitroalkane oxidase: insights into the reaction mechanism from a covalent complex of the flavoenzyme trapped during turnover.nitroalkane oxidase (nao) from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones with the production of h(2)o(2) and nitrite. the flavoenzyme is a new member of the acyl-coa dehydrogenase (acad) family, but it does not react with acyl-coa substrates. we present the 2.2 a resolution crystal structure of nao trapped during the turnover of nitroethane as a covalent n5-fad adduct (es*). the homotetrameric structure of es* was solved by mad p ...200616430210
fungal heat-shock proteins in human disease.heat-shock proteins (hsps) have been identified as molecular chaperones conserved between microbes and man and grouped by their molecular mass and high degree of amino acid homology. this article reviews the major hsps of saccharomyces cerevisiae, their interactions with trehalose, the effect of fermentation and the role of the heat-shock factor. information derived from this model, as well as from neurospora crassa and achlya ambisexualis, helps in understanding the importance of hsps in the pa ...200616438680
herbicidal and fungicidal activities of lactones in kava (piper methysticum).this is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. nine kava lactones were detected using gc-ms including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. quantities o ...200616448174
biodiversity and biogeography of fusarium species from northeastern north american asparagus fields based on microbiological and molecular approaches.sixteen fusarium species were recovered from 52 asparagus commercial fields, representing all major ecological (edaphic and climatic) area of asparagus production in the province of québec, eastern canada. this study extends our understanding of the geographic range of these species. it also provides climatological and edaphic properties linked to community changes and adaptations. fusarium oxysporum and f. proliferatum were omnipresent and abundant in all five ecological area under study, where ...200616453201
bioactive sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of vernonia amygdalina.phytochemical analysis of the leaves of vernonia amygdalina yielded two known sesquiterpene lactones: vernolide and vernodalol. the two compounds were tested by agar dilution method against 10 bacteria strains and 5 fungi species. both compounds exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against five gram positive bacteria while lacking efficacy against the gram negative strains. in the antifungal test, while vernolides exhibited high activity with lc(50) values of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mg/ml agai ...200616458461
fungi and nematodes occurring in different composts used in uruguayan agriculture.forty three thermophilic, thermotolerant and mesophilic fungal species and nematodes from five trophic groups were found in four compost types. aspergillus fumigatus and a. niger were the most frequent species. plant pathogenic fungi viz. fusarium oxysporum, f. acuminatum, f. nygamai and f. solani were found in some of the composts in low frequency. the most abundant species of nematode corresponded to bacterivores. tylenchus, a phytophagous nematode was scarcely found.200516459545
colonization of tomato root by pathogenic and nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated together and separately into the soil.in soil, fungal colonization of plant roots has been traditionally studied by indirect methods such as microbial isolation that do not enable direct observation of infection sites or of interactions between fungal pathogens and their antagonists. confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the colonization of tomato roots in heat-treated soil and to observe the interactions between a nonpathogenic strain, fo47, and a pathogenic strain, fol8, inoculated onto tomato roots in soil. whe ...200616461707
analysis of expressed sequence tag data and gene expression profiles involved in conidial germination of fusarium oxysporum.we obtained 3,372 tentative unique transcripts (tuts) from a cdna library of fusarium oxysporum. a cdna array with 3,158 tuts was produced to analyze gene expression profiles in conidial germination. it seems that ras and other signaling genes, e.g., ccg, cooperatively initiate conidial germination in fusarium by increasing protein synthesis.200616461724
variability of non-mutualistic filamentous fungi associated with atta sexdens rubropilosa nests.a survey of the filamentous fungi other than the symbiotic one found in association with atta sexdens rubropilosa colonies was carried out. different fungal species (27 taxa) were isolated a few days after treating the workers with toxic baits (sulfluramid; mirex-s), from 40 laboratory and 20 field nests. syncephalastrum racemosum (54%) and escovopsis weberi (21%), trichoderma harzianum (38%) and fusarium oxysporum (23%) were the prevalent species in laboratory and field nests, respectively. acr ...200516475502
cyclosporine a from a nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum suppressing sclerotinia sclerotiorum.to evaluate the antagonistic activity of fusarium oxysporum nonpathogenic fungal strain s6 against the phytopathogenic fungus sclerotinia sclerotiorum and to identify the antifungal compounds involved.200616478497
identification of genes up-regulated during conidiation of fusarium oxysporum through expressed sequence tag analysis.fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores, microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. f. oxysporum produces microconidia and macroconidia in carboxymethyl cellulose-added liquid medium (cmclm) and exhibits vegetative growth without conidiation in complete liquid medium (clm). the cdna libraries were constructed using mrnas from clm and cmclm cultures. a total of 1288 and 1353 clones from clm (vegetative growth) and cmclm (conidiation) libraries, respectively, were sequenced, ...200616480905
influence of plant root exudates, germ tube orientation and passive conidia transport on biological control of fusarium wilt by strains of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum.in earlier studies, biological control of fusarium wilt of cucumber induced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was demonstrated using nonpathogenic strains c5 and c14 of fusarium oxysporum. strain c14 induced resistance and competed for infection sites whether roots were wounded or intact, whereas strain c5 required wounds to achieve biocontrol. in the current work, additional attributes involved in enhanced resistance by nonpathogenic biocontrol agents strains to fusarium wilt of cucumber ...200616482390
concurrent isolation of a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor with antifungal activity and a novel lectin from pseudostellaria heterophylla roots.a simple purification protocol, involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose and cm-cellulose and fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on superdex 75, was employed to isolate a kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor with antifungal activity and a novel lectin from pseudostellaria heterophylla roots. both the trypsin inhibitor and the lectin were unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on cm-cellulose. they could be separated from one another by gel filtration on superdex 75 in w ...200616483546
the application of high-throughput aflp's in assessing genetic diversity in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) is responsible for fusarium wilt of bananas. the pathogen consists of several variants that are divided into three races and 21 vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs). several dna-based techniques have previously been used to analyse the worldwide population of foc, sometimes yielding results that were not always consistent. in this study, the high-resolution genotyping method of aflp is introduced as a potentially effective molecular tool to investigate d ...200616483757
cell surface display of chi92 on escherichia coli using ice nucleation protein for improved catalytic and antifungal activity.the gene encoding chitinase 92 (chi92) from aeromonas hydrophila jp10 has been displayed on the cell surface of escherichia coli using the n-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (inpn) as an anchoring motif. immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that chi92 was anchored on the cell surface. western blot analysis further identified the synthesis of inp derivatives containing the n-terminal domain inpn-chi92 fusion protein of the expected size (112 kda). whole cell enzyme assay indicated th ...200616487328
biosynthesis of fatty acid derived aldehydes is induced upon mechanical wounding and its products show fungicidal activities in cucumber.fatty acid 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase (9/13-hpl) in cucumber is an enzyme that can cleave either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form c9- or c6-aldehydes, respectively, as products. in order to reveal the physiological function of 9/13-hpl, its expression profiles were analyzed, and it was found that 9/13-hpl expression was developmentally regulated and high in the hypocotyls, female flowers and mature fruits. however, its transcript as well as its activity was only induc ...200616497344
antifungal activity of thiophenes from echinops ritro.extracts from 30 plants of the greek flora were evaluated for their antifungal activity using direct bioautography assays with three colletotrichum species. among the bioactive extracts, the dichloromethane extract of the radix of echinops ritro (asteraceae) was the most potent. bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of eight thiophenes. antifungal activities of isolated compounds together with a previously isolated thiophene from echinops transiliensis were first eva ...200616506815
[effect of a preparation from chaetomium fungi on the growth of phytopathogenic fungi].we studied the fungicidal activity of a biological preparation from the fungi of the genus chaetomium against soil phytopathogenic fungi rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporum. the inhibitory effect of the preparation under study depended on its concentration, duration of storage, and growth characteristics of pure cultures of the phytopathogens. the highest (98.8%) inhibitory activity was observed on day 3 of the interaction with rhizoctonia solani. after a 2-year storage, this preparation w ...200616521581
root exudates of mycorrhizal tomato plants exhibit a different effect on microconidia germination of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici than root exudates from non-mycorrhizal tomato plants.the effect of root exudates from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal tomato plants on microconidia germination of the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was tested. microconidia germination was enhanced in the presence of root exudates from mycorrhizal tomato plants. the more tomato plants were colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus mosseae, the more microconidia germination was increased, indicating that alterations of the exudation pattern depended on the degree o ...200616528569
psc-afp, an antifungal protein with trypsin inhibitor activity from psoralea corylifolia seeds.an antifungal protein designated as psc-afp, with an apparent molecular mass of 18kda, was isolated from a traditional chinese herb, malaytea scurfpea (psoralea corylifolia l.). the isolation procedure entailed extraction, cation exchange chromatography on cm ff, gel filtration chromatography on superdex 75 and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography on source 5rpc column. automated edman degradation determined the partial n-terminal sequence of psc-afp to be nh2-ewepvqnggssyymvpri ...200616530884
effect of compost on rhizosphere microflora of the tomato and on the incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. a total of 709 bacte ...199516534902
extracellular chitinases of fluorescent pseudomonads antifungal to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi causing carnation wilt.vascular wilt of carnation caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (prill. & delacr.) w. c. synder & h.n. hans inflicts substantial yield and quality loss to the crop. mycolytic enzymes such as chitinases are antifungal and contribute significantly to the antagonistic activity of fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. fluorescent pseudomonads antagonistic to the vascular wilt pathogen were studied for their ability to grow and produce chitinases on differ ...200616550458
n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridinone analogues from fusarium oxysporum.three new n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridinone analogues, 6-epi-oxysporidinone (3), the dimethyl ketal of oxysporidinone (4), and n-demethylsambutoxin (5), along with the known compounds (-)-oxysporidinone (1), (-)-sambutoxin (2), wortmannin (6), enniatin a (7), enniatin a1 (8), and enniatin b1 (9) were isolated from fusarium oxysporum (n17b) by bioassay-guided fractionation. compounds 1 and 3 showed selective fungistatic activity against aspergillus fumigatus, and wortmannin had selective potent act ...200616562855
an antifungal protein from the pea pisum sativum var. arvense poir.an antifungal protein with a molecular mass of 11 kda and a lysine-rich n-terminal sequence was isolated from the seeds of the pea pisum sativum var. arvense poir. the antifungal protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-cellulose. it exerted antifungal activity against physalospora piricola with an ic50 of 0.62 microm, and also antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...200616574276
[identification and characterization of a bacillus amyloliquefaciens with high antifungal activity].plant disease can cause serious crop losses, and chemical control of disease is costly both to the environment and to the farmer. some microorganism can produce the substance which has the preventing and exterminating functions to plant pathogens. these substances are valid to plant pathogens with only lower concentration, in addition the substances do not remain in soil and crops without being decomposed. if composization is performed with the microorganism, or the microorganism is mixed into c ...200616579456
[effect of the spaceflight radiation factor on the growth of brassica pekinensis and micromycetes fusarium oxysporum].the effects of chronic exposure in the combination of low-dose gamma- and neutron radiation on growth of brassica pekinensis (lour) rupr, var. khibinskaya, and micromycetes of fusarium oxysporum, a representative of soil microflora were stadied. seeds, water and vegetating plants raised from previously irradiated seeds were subjected to radiation exposure. the gamma-neutron dose rate was -0.013 sgy/d and the neutron flux was -20 n/cm2 d. growth of brassica pekinensis and of fusarium oxysporum on ...200616579543
accelerated degradation of dipentyl phthalate by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase and toxicity evaluation of its degradation products using bioluminescent bacteria.the efficiency of two lipolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase and yeast esterase) in the degradation of dipentyl phthalate (dpep) was investigated. the dpep degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e., almost 60% of the initial dpep (500 mg/l) was decomposed within 2.5 hours, and nearly 40% of the degraded dpep disappeared within the initial 15 minutes. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, >87% of the dpep remained even after 3 days of treatment. the final chem ...200616586026
synthesis of 1-acyl-2-alkylthio-1,2,4-triazolobenzimidazoles with antifungal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.some new derivatives of 1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-a]benzimidazoles were synthesized through the reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with carbon disulfide. the resulting 1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-a]benzimidazole-2-thione intermediate reacted with one equivalent of the alkyl halide to give the corresponding 2-alkylthio derivative 3a-g. the latters were acylated to afford the 1-acyl-2-alkylthio-1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-a]-benzimidazole derivatives 4-10 in good yields. structures of the new compounds were verified on ...200616613733
isolation and characterization of a novel banana rhizosphere bacterium as fungal antagonist and microbial adjuvant in micropropagation of banana.isolation and characterization of a bacterial isolate (strain fp10) from banana rhizosphere with innate potential as fungal antagonist and microbial adjuvant in micropropagation of banana.200616629993
suppression of fusarium wilt by combining green compost and trichoderma hamatum.fusarium wilts, caused by the fungus fusarium oxysporum, are important diseases of horticultural and agricultural crops and lead to significant yield losses. the pathogen infects the roots and colonizes the vascular tissue, leading to wilting and finally death of the plant. the objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of amendment of green compost and a trichoderma hamatum strain against fusarium wilt of radish. the substrate effects and the effect of a trichoderma strain were tes ...200516637174
biotic relation between fusarium oxysporum schlecht. and fungi isolated from the substrate of stewartia pseudocamellia (max.).the effect of the fungi community colonizing the substrate of stewartia plants on the growth of fusarium oxysporum schlecht. was investigated. the soil samples from 2 years old stewartia cuttings were taken for analysis in the second decade of october 2002 and 2003, when the symptoms of disease appeared on stewartia plant. fungi were isolated from the substrate using the sand method (mańka k. 1974). fusarium oxysporum were isolated from root system of stewartia pseudocamellia plant. the isolates ...200516637175
pathogenicity of two species of fusarium on some cultivars of bean in greenhouse.twenty isolates of fusarium oxysporum and f. solani were isolated from the infected roots of bean in different farms of east azarbaijan and tehran provinces and their pathogenicity determined. most isolates of the fungi were identified as f. oxysporun. they caused root rot, yellowing and wilting of bean in the field. in this test, the roots of 6 cultivars of bean seedlings soaked in suspension of the 7 isolates of the fungi (a1, gogan, a2, bilverdi, a3, savojbolagh-hashtgerd, a4, field of agr. c ...200516637191
relation of certain amino acids to carbon dioxide and mycelium production of fusarium oxysporum. 193416652921
conversion of helminthosporium sacchari toxin to toxoids by beta-galactofuranosidase from helminthosporium.helminthosporium sacchari produces a host-selective toxin and structurally related nontoxic compounds, here referred to as ;toxoids.' toxin and the three toxoids were each isolated to a high level of purity and were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions. the released galactose was measured by a galactose oxidase/peroxidase assay. toxin was found to contain four units of galactose per molecule, as previously reported. toxoids i, ii, and iii contained one, two, and three units of galactose, respectiv ...198316663037
subcellular localization of chitinase and of its potential substrate in tomato root tissues infected by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.antiserum raised against a tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) chitinase (molecular mass of 26 kilodaltons) was used as a probe to study the subcellular localization of this enzyme in tomato root tissues infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. a time-course experiment revealed that chitinase accumulated earlier in the incompatible interaction than in the compatible one. however, in both systems, chitinase deposition was largely correlated with pathogen distribution. the e ...199016667378
implication of pectic components in cell surface interactions between tomato root cells and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici: a cytochemical study by means of a lectin with polygalacturonic acid-binding specificity.aplysia gonad lectin, a polygalacturonic acid-binding lectin isolated from the sea mollusc aplysia depilans, was complexed to colloidal gold and used for localizing polygalacturonic-acid-containing molecules in tomato root tissues infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl). colonization of host tissues by forl was associated with striking wall modifications including disruption and even loss of middle lamellae. according to the labeling pattern observed in host wall areas ...199016667417
accumulation of beta-fructosidase in the cell walls of tomato roots following infection by a fungal wilt pathogen.active defense in plants is associated with marked metabolic alterations, but little is known about the exact role of the reported changes in specific activity of several enzymes in infected plant tissues. beta-fructosidase (invertase), the enzyme that converts sucrose into glucose and fructose, increases upon infection by fungi and bacteria. to understand the relationship between fungal growth and beta-fructosidase accumulation, we used an antiserum raised against a purified deglycosylated carr ...199116668461
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