cloning, expression, and role in pathogenicity of pg1 encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum.pg1 encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was cloned and sequenced. the deduced mature protein had a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kda and a pi of 6.2, and showed significant similarity with other fungal endopgs. pg1 mrna was induced in vitro by citrus pectin, tomato vascular tissue, 0.1% d-galacturonic acid, and polygalacturonic acid, and repressed by 1% d-galacturonic acid and 1% glucose. r ...19989450333
fungal microflora biodiversity as a function of pollution in oued sebou (morocco).an inventory of the fungal microflora present in sediments collected at 11 sites along oued sebou has been established. the influence of some climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall) and of pollution on the composition of the fungal communities has been questioned. emericella nidulans, eurotium amstelodami, neosartotya fisheri var. glabrum (ascomycetes), dreschslera biseptata (dematiaceae), penicillium citrinum (mucedinaceae) and phoma sp. (sphaeropsidale) can be considered as strains sensiti ...19979253167
effects of methylprednisolone and cyclosporine a on fungal growth in vitro.the management of corneal transplants after mycotic keratitis often poses a therapeutic dilemma. clinicians are hesitant to use topical steroids because of their potential enhancement of fungal growth. this study seeks to evaluate the in vitro effects of methylprednisolone and cyclosporine a on the growth of various molds that often are responsible for keratomycoses.199910336034
ph regulation of recombinant glucoamylase production in fusarium venenatum jers 325, a transformant with a fusarium oxysporum alkaline (trypsin-like) protease promoter.fusarium venenatum (formerly fusarium graminearum) jers 325 produces heterologous glucoamylase (gam) under the regulation of a fusarium oxysporum alkaline (trypsin-like) protease promoter. the glucoamylase gene was used as a reporter gene to study the effects of ammonium and ph on gam production under the control of the alkaline protease promoter. between ph 4.0 and 5.8, gam production in glucose-limited chemostat cultures of jers 325 grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h-1 (doubling time, 6.9 h) o ...199910397874
two xylanase genes of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum are differentially expressed during infection of tomato plants.two genes encoding putative family f xylanases from the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici have been cloned and sequenced. the two genes, designated xyl2 and xyl3, encode proteins with calculated molecular masses of 33 and 39.3 kda and isoelectric points of 8.9 and 6.7, respectively. the predicted amino acid sequences show significant homology to other family f xylanases. xyl3 contains a cellulose-binding domain in its n-terminal region. southern analysis suggeste ...199910323234
n-acetyl derivatives of type c fumonisins produced by fusarium oxysporumfour new fumonisins, an isomer of fumonisin c1 (iso-fc1) (1) and three n-acetyl derivatives of hydroxylated fumonisin c1 (oh-fc1) (2), fumonisin c1 (fc1) (3), and iso-fc1 (4) were isolated from wheat cultures of fusarium oxysporum. one of the hydroxy groups of compound 1 is at c-3 instead of c-4 for fc1. compounds 2-4 are similar in structure to oh-fc1, fc1, and iso-fc1, respectively, except for the presence of an acetyl group at the amine of c-1.199910075786
crystallization, preliminary diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of a single crystal of cytochrome p450nor.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is a heme-containing nitric oxide reductase from the denitrifying fungus, fusarium oxysporum. this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of no to n2o. in the present study, we report results from preliminary crystallographic and electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) analysis of a single crystal of p450nor. the crystal was grown in 100 mm mes buffer at ph 5.6 using peg 4000 as a precipitant. it belongs to the orthorhombic system with cell dimensions of a = 54.99 a, b = 82.66 ...19979256249
folyt1, a new member of the hat family, is active in the genome of the plant pathogen fusarium active transposable element, folyt1, has been isolated from the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene (nit 1) in two independent mutants (co66 and co108). folyt1 was 2615 bp in length and contained 9-bp imperfect inverted terminal repeats (itrs) and 8 bp duplicated at the target site upon insertion. the element contained a long open reading frame interrupted by a single putative intron. the predict ...199910413616
sensitivity of fusarium strains to chelidonium majus l. extracts.ten fusarium strains were tested for their sensitivity to extracts of chelidonium majus l. growth inhibition was measured either in solid or in liquid media. aqueous extracts had considerable inhibitory action but methanolic extracts showed the best results. root extracts were more inhibitory than shoot extracts. on the basis of growth inhibition the fusarium strains were aggregated into five classes, the extremes being fusarium culmorum plus fusarium graminearum (quite resistant) and fusarium o ...199910433471
genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum strains from common bean fields in spain.fusarium wilt is an endemic disease in el barco de avila (castilla y león, west-central spain), where high-quality common bean cultivars have been cultured for the last century. we used intergenic spacer (igs) region polymorphism of ribosomal dna, electrophoretic karyotype patterns, and vegetative compatibility and pathogenicity analyses to assess the genetic diversity within fusarium oxysporum isolates recovered from common bean plants growing in fields around el barco de avila. ninety-six vege ...199910427016
in vitro and in vivo antagonism of pathogenic turfgrass fungi by streptomyces hygroscopicus strains yced9 and wye53.disease prevention is a current practice used to minimize fungal diseases of turfgrasses in lawns and golf greens. prevention is accomplished through fungicide applications, and by periodic thatch removal. during the development of a microbial biodethatch product utilizing the lignocellulose-degrading streptomyces hygroscopicus strains yced9 and wye53, we demonstrated using in vitro plate antagonism bioassays that both strains are antagonists of various turfgrass fungal pathogens. these activiti ...199910455494
biotransformation of protriptyline by filamentous fungi and yeasts.1. the potential of various fungi to metabolize protriptyline (an extensively used antidepressant) was studied to investigate similarities between mammalian and microbial metabolism. 2. metabolites produced by each organism were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. the metabolites identified in one or more fungi were 2-hydroxyprotriptyline, n-desmethylprotriptyline, n-acetylprotriptyline, n-acetoxyprotriptyline, 14-ox ...199910456691
production of a new d-amino acid oxidase from the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the fungus fusarium oxysporum produced a d-amino acid oxidase (ec 1. 4.3.3) in a medium containing glucose as the carbon and energy source and ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source. the specific d-amino acid oxidase activity was increased up to 12.5-fold with various d-amino acids or their corresponding derivatives as inducers. the best inducers were d-alanine (2.7 microkat/g of dry biomass) and d-3-aminobutyric acid (2.6 microkat/g of dry biomass). the addition of zinc ions was necessary to p ...199910427080
the cell wall of fusarium oxysporum.sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (n-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50-60% of the total mass of the wall. x-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of alpha-1, 3-glucan in the alkali-soluble cell wall fraction and of beta-1, 3-glucan and chitin in the alkali-insolub ...199910441453
specific detection of fusarium species in blood and tissues by a pcr technique.fusarium species are opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that often cause fatal invasive mycoses. we designed a primer pair that amplifies by pcr a fragment of a gene coding for the rrna of fusarium species. the dnas of the main fusarium species and neocosmospora vasinfecta but not the dnas from 11 medically important fungi were amplified by these primers. the lower limit of detection of the pcr system was 10 fg of fusarium solani dna by ethidium bromide staining. to test the ability of this pcr ...199910405380
mechanisms of coal solubilization by the deuteromycetes trichoderma atroviride and fusarium oxysporumthree different mechanisms can be envisaged that are used by fungi to solubilize coal: the production of alkaline substances, the extrusion of chelators and, of special interest in the scope of biotechnology, the action of enzymes. whether these mechanisms are operating separately or in various combinations has not yet been finally assessed. the two deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum and trichoderma atroviride solubilize coal by synergistic effects of various differnt mechanisms depending on the ...199910461370
methoxybifurcarenone: an antifungal and antibacterial meroditerpenoid from the brown alga cystoseira tamariscifolia.a meroditerpenoid metabolite has been isolated from the brown alga cystoseira tamariscifolia and characterized as methoxybifurcarenone, by spectral analysis. methoxybifurcarenone possesses antifungal activity against three tomato pathogenic fungi: botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum sp. mycopersici and verticillium alboatrum and antibacterial activity against agrobacterium tumefaciens and escherichia coli.199910466223
first chromatographic isolation of an antifungal thaumatin-like protein from french bean legumes and demonstration of its antifungal activity.a protein, with a molecular weight of 20 kda, and an n-terminal sequence analogous to those of thaumatin-like proteins (tlps) and thaumatins, was first isolated from the legume of the french bean phaseolus vulgaris cv kentucky wonder using a simple procedure involving affinity and ion exchange chromatography. the protein was adsorbed on both cm-sepharose and affi-gel blue gel. it was the first leguminous tlp-like protein demonstrated to exert antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum, pleur ...199910486265
change of biotransformation steps of formaldehyde cycle in water-melon plants after infection with fusarium oxysporum.recent experiments indicate that the measurable formaldehyde (hcho) level is considerably elevated in the parts of water-melon plants immediately after a nonlethal infection with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. at the same time the level of some quaternary ammonium compounds (n(epsilon)-trimethyl-l-lysine, choline) as potential hcho generators (gene products) is considerably decreased. that is probably due to the fact that the alarm reaction phase of this biotic stress syndrome includes an int ...199810526980
myticin, a novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from haemocytes and plasma of the mussel mytilus galloprovincialis.we report here the isolation of two isoforms of a novel cysteine-rich peptide from haemocytes (isoform a of 4.438 da and b of 4.562 da) and plasma (isoform a) of the mussel, mytilus galloprovincialis. the two molecules display antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas only isoform b is active against the fungus fusarium oxysporum and a gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli d31. complete peptide sequences were determined by a combination of edman degradation, mass spectrome ...199910491159
biotechnological production of oil: fatty acid composition of microbial oil.the fatty acid profile and the fatty acid composition of microbial lipids obtained from molds revealed that oil from aspergillus sydowii, fusarium oxysporum and f. equisetti had a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid, and had a similarity to the edible oils, groundnut and palm oil. this study sheds light on the possibilities of exploring the use of these oils as supplement to other edible fats and for other non-edible industrial purposes.199910540990
combined distal and lateral subungual and white superficial onychomycosis in the toenails.the 5 main types of onychomycosis are distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (dlso), white superficial onychomycosis (wso), proximal subungual onychomycosis (pso), candida onychomycosis, and total dystrophic onychomycosis (tdo) (primary or secondary type). in the literature there is infrequent discussion about 2 types of onychomycosis present in the toenails of the same individual.199910570377
fungal utilization of organophosphate pesticides and their degradation by aspergillus flavus and a. sydowii in soil.fungal species were isolated which utilize organophosphate pesticides, viz. phosphorothioic (pirimiphos-methyl and pyrazophos), phosphorodithioic (dimethoate and malathion), phosphonic (lancer) and phosphoric (profenfos) acid derivatives. pesticide degradation was studied in vitro and in vivo (soil). aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. niger, a. sydowii, a. terreus, emericella nidulans, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from pesticide-treated wheat straw. the number o ...199910489696
pseudomonas aeruginosa (grc1) as a strong antagonist of macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium oxysporum.a plant growth promotory bacterial strain, isolated from the potato rhizosphere, was characterized as pseudomonas aeruginosa (grc1). the isolate produced an hydroxamate type of siderophore after 48 h of incubation on tryptic soy medium under iron deficient conditions. the in vitro antifungal activity of p. aeruginosa was tested against two soil-borne plant pathogens, macrophomina phaseolina and fusarium oxysporum. the antagonistic behaviour of the isolate was tested by dual culture technique. th ...199910581709
cytochrome p450nor, a novel class of mitochondrial cytochrome p450 involved in nitrate respiration in the fungus fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum, an imperfect filamentous fungus performs nitrate respiration under limited oxygen. in the respiratory system, cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is thought to catalyze the last step; reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. we examined its intracellular localization using enzymatic, spectroscopic, and immunological analyses to show that p450nor is found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. translational fusions between the putative mitochondrial targeting signal on the amin ...199910600173
investigation of bioactivity of extracts from moroccan solitary tunicate cynthia savignyi.extracts of the tunicate cynthia savignyi from the moroccan atlantic sea have been investigated in five bioassays. the first is an antibacterial test against escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and agrobacterium tumefaciens; the second is an antifungal test against three tomato pathogenic fungi, botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and verticillium albo-atrum; the third is a test based to the ability to reduce dna peak size in procedures using an hplc system for detec ...199910624861
identification of an essential tyrosine residue in nitroalkane oxidase by modification with tetranitromethane.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the respective aldehydes or ketones with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by incubation with tetranitromethane, a tyrosine-directed reagent, at ph 7.3. the inactivation is time-dependent and shows first-order kinetics for two half-lives of inactivation. further inactivation can be achieved upon a second addition of tetranitromethane. a saturat ...200010653664
antifungal nitro compounds from skunk cabbage (lysichitum americanum) leaves treated with cupric chloride.two nitro compounds, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane named as lysichitalexin and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-nitroethane were isolated as stress metabolites from the leaves of lysichitum americanum hultén and st. john treated with cupric chloride. their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and chemical reactions. the former compound showed antifungal activities against fusarium oxysporum and cladosporium herbarum. both compounds were isolated for the first time from this species and t ...200010656408
dolichin, a new chitinase-like antifungal protein isolated from field beans (dolichos lablab).an antifungal protein, possessing a molecular weight of 28 kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling chitinases, has been purified from the seeds of the field bean dolichos lablab. the procedure involved extraction with aqueous buffer, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose. the protein, designated dolichin, exhibited antifungal activity against the fungi fusarium oxysporum, rhizoctonia solani, and coprinus comatus. dolichin was capable of i ...200010694493
quinqueginsin, a novel protein with anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antifungal, ribonuclease and cell-free translation-inhibitory activities from american ginseng roots.a homodimeric protein designated quinqueginsin, with a molecular weight of 53 kda, has been isolated from the roots of american ginseng panax quinquefolium. it was unadsorbed on deae cellulose in low ionic strength and neutral ph, and adsorbed on affigel blue gel and sp-sepharose under similar conditions. its n-terminal sequence bore similarity to those of plant ribosome inactivating proteins and fungal ribonucleases. the protein displayed a variety of biological activities. it possessed ribonuc ...200010694500
fusarium species from nepalese rice and production of mycotoxins and gibberellic acid by selected species.infection of cereal grains with fusarium species can cause contamination with mycotoxins that affect human and animal health. to determine the potential for mycotoxin contamination, we isolated fusarium species from samples of rice seeds that were collected in 1997 on farms in the foothills of the nepal himalaya. the predominant fusarium species in surface-disinfested seeds with husks were species of the gibberella fujikuroi complex, including g. fujikuroi mating population a (anamorph, fusarium ...200010698766
tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici defines a new class of saponinases.plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which have antifungal activity. saponins are plant glycosides that may provide a preformed chemical barrier against phytopathogenic fungi. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and other tomato pathogens produce extracellular enzymes known as tomatinases, which deglycosylate alpha-tomatine to yield less toxic derivatives. we have cloned and characterized the cdna and genomic dna encoding tomatinase from the vascular pathogen of tomato f. ...199910517025
biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by bacillus brevis.a virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. when tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, bacillus brevis. a formulation of b. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least ...200010721480
steroid transformations with fusarium oxysporum var. cubense and colletotrichum musae.the utility of two locally isolated fungi, pathogenic to banana, for steroid biotransformation has been studied. the deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum var. cubense (imi 326069, uamh 9013) and colletotrichum musae (imi 374528, uamh 8929) had not been examined previously for this potential. in general, f. oxysporum var. cubense effected 7alpha hydroxylation on 3beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroids, 6beta, 12beta, and 15alpha hydroxylation on steroidal-4-ene-3-ones, side-chain degradation on 17alpha,21-dih ...199910576218
cloning and disruption of pgx4 encoding an in planta expressed exopolygalacturonase from fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, the causal agent of tomato vascular wilt, produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes, including at least two exo-alpha1,4-polygalacturonases (exopgs). a gene encoding an exopg, pgx4, was isolated with degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers derived from amino acid sequences conserved in two fungal exopgs. pgx4 encodes a 454 amino acid polypeptide with nine potential n-glycosylation sites and a putative 21 amino acid n-terminal signal peptide. the deduce ...200010755298
a siderophore from pseudomonas putida type a1: structural and biological characterization.a siderophore from a root-colonizing, plant-beneficial fluorescent pseudomonas (p. putida type a1) isolated from chickpea rhizosphere was studied. culture conditions required for optimal production of the chromophore by the organism were standardized. the compound was purified by gel filtration, ion exchange and rp-hplc chromatographic procedures. the purified compound exhibited siderophore activity for p. putida and antifungal activity on phytopathogens, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and hel ...199910561535
tobramycin-responsive fusarium oxysporum keratitis. 200010711382
growth-rate-independent production of recombinant glucoamylase by fusarium venenatum jers 325.most recombinant proteins generated in filamentous fungi are produced in fed-batch cultures, in which specific growth rate normally decreases progressively with time. because of this, such cultures are more suited to the production of products that are produced efficiently at low-growth rates (e.g., penicillin) than to products which are produced more efficiently at high-growth rates (e. g., glucoamylase). fusarium venenatum a3/5 has been transformed (jers 325) to produce aspergillus niger gluco ...200010745192
fungicidal activity of natural and synthetic sesquiterpene lactone analogs.fungicidal activity of 36 natural and synthetic sesquiterpene lactones with guaianolide, trans, trans-germacranolide, cis, cis-germacranolide, melampolide, and eudesmanolide carbon skeletons was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae, c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, and phomopsis sp. dose-response data for the active compounds dehydrozaluzanin c, dehydrocostuslactone, 5alpha-hydroxydehydrocostuslacone, costunolide, and zaluzani ...200010783981
degradation of the metal-cyano complex tetracyanonickelate (ii) by fusarium oxysporum n-10.a fungus with the ability to utilize a metalcyano compound, tetracyanonickelate (ii) ¿k2[ni (cn)4]; tcn¿, as its sole source of nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as fusarium oxysporum n-10. both intact mycelia and cell-free extract of the strain catalyzed hydrolysis of tcn to formate and ammonia and produced formamide as an intermediate, thereby indicating that a hydratase and an amidase sequentially participated in the degradation of tcn. the enzyme catalyzing the hydration of tcn ...200010772474
isolation and identification of antifungal n-butylbenzenesulphonamide produced by pseudomonas sp. antifungal bacterial strain, isolated from a greenhouse soil sample, inhibits growth of microflora nearby. it was selected for further studies of bacterial antifungal properties. this isolate was identified as a pseudomonas sp. based on carbohydrate utilization, and other biochemical and physiological tests. petri plate assay revealed that the pseudomonas sp. exhibited antifungal activity against the plant pathogens, pythium ultimum, rhizoctonia solani, phytophthora capsici, botrytis cinerea ...200010805572
comparison of chitinase isozymes from yam tuber--enzymatic factor controlling the lytic activity of evaluate the anti-pathogen activity of chitinases, we developed a new method for measuring the lytic activity, and investigated the correlation of the lytic activity with the enzymatic properties by using four chitinase isozymes, chitinases e, f, h1 and g, which had been purified from yam tubers by column chromatography. chitinases e, f and h1 had high lytic activity against the plant pathogen, fusarium oxysporum, but chitinase g did not. chitinase e, which is the family 19 chitinase, was sim ...200010830483
hybridization and breeding of the benomyl resistant mutant, trichoderma harziantum antagonized to phytopathogenic fungi by protoplast fusion.a diploid strain obtained from heterokaryons of trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion grew on minimal medium containing 100ppm benomyl. this strain inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani on paired cultures and also protected against radish yellows and a drop in germination induced by f. oxysporum f. sp. raphani.200010830500
genome organization in fusarium oxysporum: clusters of class ii transposons.several families of transposable elements (tes) are present in the genome of the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum. they are present in copy numbers ranging from just a few elements to tens or hundreds per genome. sequence analysis of contiguous stretches of genomic dna surrounding insertion sites of one family revealed that they are packed with repeated sequences. we have carried out a detailed study of the composition and arrangement of these repeats in three chromosomal regions. we fo ...200010853772
foxy: an active family of short interspersed nuclear elements from fusarium oxysporum.a novel family of short interspersed nuclear elements (sines) has been identified in fusarium oxysporum. this family has been called foxy. the feature that makes foxy unique among sines is the presence of 5' terminal tetranucleotide repeats. both the number and the sequence of these repeats vary between individual members of the family. the genome of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici contains at least 160 copies of foxy. in a mutant obtained upon gamma irradiation of a wild-type isolate, 13 new fo ...200010778745
nitric oxide reduction, the last step in denitrification by fusarium oxysporum, is obligatorily mediated by cytochrome p450nor.the involvement of cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is the most striking feature of the fungal denitrifying system, and has never been shown in bacterial systems. to establish the physiological significance of the p450nor, we constructed and investigated mutants of fusarium oxysporum that lacked the gene for p450nor. we mutated the gene by targeted integration of a disrupted gene into the chromosome of f. oxysporum. the mutants were shown to contain neither p450nor protein nor nitric oxide (no) redu ...200010778754
molecular characterization and identification of biocontrol isolates of trichoderma spp.the most common biological control agents (bcas) of the genus trichoderma have been reported to be strains of trichoderma virens, t. harzianum, and t. viride. since trichoderma bcas use different mechanisms of biocontrol, it is very important to explore the synergistic effects expressed by different genotypes for their practical use in agriculture. characterization of 16 biocontrol strains, previously identified as "trichoderma harzianum" rifai and one biocontrol strain recognized as t. viride, ...200010788356
comparison of nccls and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2h-tetrazolium bromide (mtt) methods of in vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi and development of a new simplified method.the susceptibility of 30 clinical isolates belonging to six different species of filamentous fungi (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, scedosporium prolificans, scedosporium apiospermum, fusarium solani, and fusarium oxysporum) was tested against six antifungal drugs (miconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, ur9825, terbinafine, and amphotericin b) with the microdilution method recommended by the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) (m38-p). the mics were compared ...200010921957
cloning and sequencing of an endoglucanase gene from scopulariopsis brevicaulis tof-1212, and its expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the egi gene, encoding a major endoglucanase (egi) of scopulariopsis brevicaulis tof-1212, was cloned and sequenced. the eglgene consisted of 868 bp with one intron and encoded a protein of 229 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 22,392 daltons. the egi was assigned to a family 45 of glycosyl hydrolases and showed high similarity with other fungal endoglucanases, especially with those of humicola grisea and fusarium oxysporum, on the basis of hydrophobic cluster analysis. the egi gen ...200010923796
purification and characterization of an extracellular alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from fusarium alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase from fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by a two-step ion exchange intercalated by a gel filtration chromatography. the enzyme had a molecular mass of 66 kda and was optimally active at ph 6.0 and 60 degrees c. it hydrolyzed aryl alpha-l-arabinofuranosides and cleaved arabinosyl side chains from arabinoxylan and arabinan. there was a marked synergistic effect between the alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase and an endo-(1-->4)-beta-d-xylanase produced by f. o ...200010949693
nitrate reductase and nitrous oxide production by fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.the fungus fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 was found to be able to grow and produce nitrous oxide on nitrate-containing medium in anaerobic conditions. the rate of nitrous oxide formation was three to six orders of magnitude lower than the rates of molecular nitrogen production by common denitrifying bacteria. acetylene and ammonia did not affect the release of nitrous oxide release. it was shown that under anaerobic conditions fast increase of nitrate reductase activity occurred, caused by the synthes ...200010856377
targeted disruption of sti35, a stress-responsive gene in phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.sti35 is one of the heat-shock genes in fusarium oxysporum, which is a fungal pathogen for wilt disease in plants. we have isolated a genomic clone of sti35 and used it to create disruption mutations. disruption of the sti35 coding region resulted in the loss of a 32-kda protein present in heat-shocked cells. the disruption had no detectable effect on growth and development at various temperatures, nor on the ability to acquire thermotolerance in nutrient medium. but the sti35 disruptants showed ...200010977897
effect of common food preservatives on mycelial growth and spore germination of fusarium oxysporum.the growth and spore germination inhibition of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum by the common food additives: acetic acid, formic acid potassium sorbate, propionic acid, sorbic acid, and the fungistatic agent sec-butylamine was examined in vitro. the inhibitory efficacy of these chemicals decreased in the following order: sorbic acid, potassium sorbate, propionic acid, acetic acid, sec-butylamine and formic acid. at ph 6.4, the ed50 value for mycelium growth was: 976 ppm for sorbic a ...200010874628
mungin, a novel cyclophilin-like antifungal protein from the mung bean.a protein designated mungin, isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds, possessed activity against the fungi rhizoctonia solani, coprinus comatus, mycosphaerella arachidicola, botrytis cinerea, and fusarium oxysporum. the 18-kda protein also possessed a novel n-terminal sequence with similarity to cyclophilins. it exerts an inhibitory action against alpha- and beta-glucosidases suppresses [(3)h]thymidine in corporation by mouse splenocytes.200010891380
purification of a soluble cytochrome p450 from trichosporon montevideense.the yeast trichosporon montevideense cbs 6721 expressed large amounts of cytochrome p450 after cultivation in a glucose-peptone medium. the p450, which could be detected in the cytosolic fraction after cell breakage and ultracentrifugation, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and migrated in sds-page with a m(r) of 43,000. as indicated by ief, the preparation consisted of two different p450 isoforms with pi-values of 5.9 and 6.2, which were named p450ms1 and p450ms2 respectively. both is ...200010986675
potassium and sodium fluxes in the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum var. lini.rubidium uptake in potassium-starved cells followed biphasic kinetics in the micromolar and millimolar range and was independent of the temperature. in contrast, rb(+) uptake in normal-k(+) cells followed a monophasic kinetics in the millimolar range and increased at temperatures higher than 30 degrees c. differences in the k(m) values and in the arrhenius plots of rb(+) uptake suggest different uptake systems in k(+)-starved and in normal-k(+) cells. in addition, the substantial inhibition of r ...200011014875
biolistic co-transformation of metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strain cg423 with green fluorescent protein and resistance to glufosinate ammonium.metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (syn. m. flavoviride) is recognized as a highly specific and virulent mycopathogen of locusts and grasshoppers and is currently being developed as a biological control agent for this group of insects in brazil. intact conidia of m. anisopliae var. acridum strain cg423 were transformed using microparticle bombardment. plasmids used were: (1) pbarks1 carrying the bar gene of streptomyces hygroscopicus fused to the aspergillus nidulans trpc promoter, encoding res ...200011024271
detection and substrate selectivity of new microbial d-amino acid order to screen for new microbial d-amino acid oxidase activities a selective and sensitive peroxidase/o-dianisidine assay, detecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide was developed. catalase, which coexists with oxidases in the peroxisomes or the microsomes and, which competes with peroxidase for hydrogen peroxide, was completely inhibited by o-dianisidine up to a catalase activity of 500 nkat ml(-)(1). thus, using the peroxidase/o-dianisidine assay and employing crude extracts of microorga ...200011024524
crystal structures of cytochrome p450nor and its mutants (ser286-->val, thr) in the ferric resting state at cryogenic temperature: a comparative analysis with monooxygenase cytochrome p450s.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is a heme enzyme isolated from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum and catalyzes the no reduction to n2o. crystal structures of the wild type and two ser286 mutants (ser286-->val, ser286-->thr) of p450nor have been determined for the ferric resting forms at a 1.7 a resolution at cryogenic temperature (100 k). we carried out three comparative analyses: (1) between the structures of p450nor at room temperature and cryogenic temperature, (2) between the structure ...200011051564
sativin: a novel antifungal miraculin-like protein isolated from legumes of the sugar snap pisum sativum var. antifungal protein designated sativin was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap (also known as honey pea) pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. the procedure entailed extraction, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose. the protein exhibited a molecular weight of 38 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. it possessed an n-terminal amino acid sequence which showed similarity to those of miraculin (a sweet protein) and pisavin (a ribo ...200010968407
synthesis and antifungal activity of novel bisdithiocarbamate derivatives of carbohydrates against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.novel carbamic esters possessing a carbohydrate moiety derived from glycerol or d-glucose with two n,n-diethyldithiocarbamoyl groups and a series of bisdithiocarbamic esters having a ketone or an alkyl ester have been synthesized. the in vitro activity of these new compounds was evaluated against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini. some of the compounds [bis[1,3-s-(n,n-diethyldithiocarbamoyl)]-1, 3-dideoxyglycerol) and diethyl n,n'-(1,3-dideoxyglycer-1, 3-diyl)bis(dithiocarbamate)] were more active ...200011087473
case report. pathohistological findings in a clinical case of disseminated infection with fusarium oxysporum.despite appropriate antimicrobial and antifungal therapy (amphotericin b), a disseminated infection with fusarium oxysporum in a 75-year-old immunocompromised patient (acute myeloid leukaemia, minimal leucocyte count of 0.5 giga l-1) led rapidly to death. a similarly fatal course of an f. oxysporum infection has been reported in several cases. fusarium oxysporum could be isolated shortly before death from blood cultures and from a swab taken from skin efflorescences. an autopsy revealed histopat ...200011105540
the sss colonization gene of the tomato-fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 can improve root colonization of other wild-type pseudomonas spp.bacteria.we show that the disease tomato foot and root rot caused by the pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici can be controlled by inoculation of seeds with cells of the efficient root colonizer pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365, indicating that strain wcs365 is a biocontrol strain. the mechanism for disease suppression most likely is induced systemic resistance. p. fluorescens strain wcs365 and p. chlororaphis strain pcl1391, which acts through the production of the antibiotic ph ...200011059484
fusarium oxysporum fatty-acid subterminal hydroxylase (cyp505) is a membrane-bound eukaryotic counterpart of bacillus megaterium cytochrome p450bm3.the gene of a fatty-acid hydroxylase of the fungus fusarium oxysporum (p450foxy) was cloned and expressed in yeast. the putative primary structure revealed the close relationship of p450foxy to the bacterial cytochrome p450bm3, a fused protein of cytochrome p450 and its reductase from bacillus megaterium. the amino acid sequence identities of the p450 and p450 reductase domains of p450foxy were highest (40.6 and 35.3%, respectively) to the corresponding domains of p450bm3. recombinant p450foxy e ...200010995755
effects of mesophilic and thermophilic composts on suppression of fusarium root and stem rot of greenhouse cucumber.three composts were tested for their ability to suppress root and stem rot caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (forc) on cucumber. two of the composts were prepared from separated dairy solids either by windrow (wds) or vermicomposting (vmc) while the third, obtained from international bio-recovery (ibr), was prepared from vegetable refuse using aerobic digestion. three sets of potting mixes were prepared by mixing the composts with sawdust at v ...200011109490
a robust cysteine-deficient chitinase-like antifungal protein from inner shoots of the edible chive allium tuberosum.from the inner shoots of the chive allium tuberosum, a single-chained protein with a molecular weight of 36 kda and an n-terminal sequence manifesting resemblance to chitinases but lacking in cysteine residues characteristic of a cysteine-rich domain present in chitinases of other allium species, was purified. the isolation procedure entailed affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose and mono s, and gel filtration on superdex 75. the protein was ...200011112420
ginkbilobin, a novel antifungal protein from ginkgo biloba seeds with sequence similarity to embryo-abundant protein.a novel single-chained antifungal protein with a molecular weight of 13 kda displaying an n-terminal sequence with marked similarity to embryo-abundant protein from the white spruce was isolated from the seeds of ginkgo biloba using ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose, and then gel filtration on superdex 75. the protein, designated ginkbilobin, exerted potent antifungal activity against a variety ...200011118300
surface hydrophobicity, viability and efficacy in biological control of penicillium oxalicum spores produced in aerial and submerged culture.the surface hydrophobicity, viability and biocontrol ability of penicillium oxalicum spores, produced either in aerial or submerged culture, were characterized. a phase distribution test showed that spores produced in both methods of culture were highly hydrophobic, but those produced in aerial culture were more hydrophobic. spores stored fresh at either 4 or 25 degrees c retained a high viability (80%) after 27 weeks of storage, although aerial spores survived better. freeze-drying severely aff ...200011119160
development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber.the effect of various carrier formulations of bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas putida were tested on germination, growth, and yield of lettuce and cucumber crops in the presence of pythium aphanidermatum and fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum, respectively. survival of b. subtilis and p. putida in various carriers under refrigeration (about 0 degree c) and at room temperature (about 22 degrees c) was also studied. in all carrier formulations, b. subtilis strain bact-0 survived up to 45 da ...200011006841
root colonization by phenazine-1-carboxamide-producing bacterium pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 is essential for biocontrol of tomato foot and root rot.the phenazine-1-carboxamide-producing bacterium pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 controls tomato foot and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicislycopersici. to test whether root colonization is required for biocontrol, mutants impaired in the known colonization traits motility, prototrophy for amino acids, or production of the site-specific recombinase, sss/xerc were tested for their root tip colonization and biocontrol abilities. upon tomato seedling inoculation, colonization muta ...200011106026
mating-type genes from asexual phytopathogenic ascomycetes fusarium oxysporum and alternaria alternata.mating-type (mat) loci were cloned from two asexual (mitosporic) phytopathogenic ascomycetes, fusarium oxysporum (a pyrenomycete) and alternaria alternata (a loculoascomycete), by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based strategy. the conserved high mobility group (hmg) box domain found in the mat1-2-1 protein was used as a starting point for cloning and sequencing the entire mat1-2 idiomorph plus flanking regions. primer pairs designed to both flanking regions were used to amplify the opposite m ...200011106025
isolation and bioactivities of epidioxysterol from the tunicate cynthia savignyi.from a hexane extract of the tunicate cynthia savignyi, collected in morocco, epidioxysterol or 5,8-alpha-epidioxy-5alpha-cholest-6-en-3beta-ol has been isolated. this is the first example of epidioxysterol found in the tunicate c. savignyi. the structure of epidioxysterol has been characterised by nmr data (1h, 13c and 2d). epidioxysterol possesses antifungal activity against three tomato pathogenic fungi: botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and verticillium albo atrum and antibacterial activi ...200011204751
phytotoxicity of pathogenic fungi and their mycotoxins to cereal seedling viability.aspergillus flavus, alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum were the pathogenic fungi most reduced cereal (barley, sorghum and wheat) seedlings. the pathogens have the ability to produce aflatoxin b1 and g1, diacetoxyscirpenol, kojic acid and tenuazonic acid that reduced seedling viability. the inhibition dose for 50% reduction (ld50) was recorded by aflatoxins at 0.83 mg l-1 for barley, 1.74 mg l-1 for wheat and 2.75 mg l-1 for sorghum. diacetoxyscirpenol produced its inhibition at 1.26 mg ...199911189766
[the research on the expression of rabbit defensin (np-1) gene in transgenic tomato].rabbit defensin np-1 is one kind of alpha-defensins. it is composed of 33 amino acids. it was firstly extracted from polymorphonnuclear neutrophile of rabbits. it displayed resistance to bacteria, fungi and virus, especially high resistance to bacteria. in our experiments np-1 gene was constructed into a plant expression vector. eight transgenic plants containing the rabbit defensin gene (np-1) were obtained through agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the transgenic plants were analysized by ...200011209688
transposition of autonomous and engineered impala transposons in fusarium oxysporum and a related species.the impala transposon of fusarium oxysporum is an active element. we demonstrated that the imp160 copy, transposed into the gene encoding nitrate reductase, is an autonomous element, since it excises from this gene and reinserts at a new genomic position in backgrounds free of active elements. an element in which the transposase gene was replaced by a hygromycin b resistance gene was used (1) to demonstrate the absence of endogenous transposase in several f. oxysporum strains and (2) to check th ...200111212928
fusarium oxysporum trypsin at atomic resolution at 100 and 283 k: a study of ligand binding.the x-ray structure of f. oxysporum trypsin has been determined at atomic resolution, revealing electron density in the binding site which was interpreted as a peptide bound in the sites s1, s2 and s3. the structure, which was initially determined at 1.07 a resolution and 283 k, has an arg in the s1 specificity pocket. the study was extended to 0.81 a resolution at 100 k using crystals soaked in arg, lys and gln to study in greater detail the binding at the s1 site. the electron density in the b ...200111134922
phytotoxicity of pathogenic fungi and their mycotoxins to cereal seedling viability.aspergillus flavus, alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum were found to be the pathogenic fungi mostly reducing cereal (barley, sorghum and wheat) seedlings. the pathogens have the ability to produce aflatoxin b1 and g1, diacetoxyscirpenol, kojic acid and tenuazonic acid that reduced seedling viability. the inhibition dose for 50% reduction (ld50) was recorded by aflatoxins at 0.83 mg l-1 for barley, 1.74 mg l-1 for wheat and 2.75 mg l-1 for sorghum. diacetoxyscirpenol produced its inhibit ...200111233698
novel microbial lipases: catalytic activity in reactions in organic media.2,000 microbial strains were isolated from soil samples and tested to determine their lipolytic activity by employing screening techniques on solid and in liquid media. culture broths were initially tested with 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-resorufinyl ester, a chromogenic substrate specific for lipases. fourteen lipase-producing microorganisms were selected and their taxonomic identification was carried out. hydrolysis of tributyrin or olive oil and the esterification of oleic acid ...200111166805
mycoflora and mycotoxins in brazilian black pepper, white pepper and brazil nuts.a wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and brazil nut kernels from amazonia. a total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. aspergillus flavus and a. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: a. ochraceus, a. tamarii, a. versicolor, emericella nidulans and chaetomium globosum, penicillium brevicompactum, p. citrinum, p. islandicum and p. glabrum. species is ...200011229375
panaxagin, a new protein from chinese ginseng possesses anti-fungal, anti-viral, translation-inhibiting and ribonuclease activities.from the roots of the chinese ginseng panax ginseng a protein designated panaxagin with ribonuclease activity, but possessing a sequence distinct from ribonucleases previously reported from ginseng calluses, was isolated. the purification protocol employed comprised extraction with cold saline, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose, and gel filtration on superdex 75 by fast ...200111205866
a map kinase of the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum is essential for root penetration and pathogenesis.the soil-borne vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum infects a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots, invading the cortex and colonizing the vascular tissue. we have identified fmk1, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) of f. oxysporum that belongs to the yeast and fungal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (yerk1) subfamily. targeted mutants of f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici carrying an inactivated copy of fmk1 have lost pathogenicity on tomato plants bu ...200111251832
heterologous transposition in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans is one of the model ascomycete fungi. transposition events have never been described in this organism. we have determined that this organism has at least 13 copies of a fot1-related element. these copies are transcribed, non-methylated and polymorphic in various wild isolates. in spite of this, we have failed to isolate transposon insertions when the resident niad gene is used as a transposon trap. this contrasts with the situation described previously in fusarium oxysporum. ...200111251848
evolution of a recombinant (gucoamylase-producing) strain of fusarium venenatum a3/5 in chemostat culture.fusarium venenatum jers 325 is a transformant of strain a3/5 which produces aspergillus niger glucoamylase (gam) under the control of a fusarium oxysporum trypsin-like protease promoter. the evolution of jers 325 was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown on nano3 or (nh4)2so4 as the nitrogen source. thirteen mutants which were more highly branched and four mutants which were more sparsely branched than the parental strain were isolated from the nano3 chemostat. the highly branched ...200111255162
structural characterization of n-butyl-isocyanide complexes of cytochromes p450nor and p450cam.alkyl-isocyanides are able to bind to both ferric and ferrous iron of the heme in cytochrome p450, and the resulting complexes exhibit characteristic optical absorption spectra. while the ferric complex gives a single soret band at 430 nm, the ferrous complex shows double soret bands at 430 and 450 nm. the ratio of intensities of the double soret bands in the ferrous isocyanide complex of p450 varies, as a function of ph, ionic strength, and the origin of the enzyme. to understand the structural ...200111258878
oxygen requirement for denitrification by the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the effects of dioxygen (o2) on the denitrification activity of the fungus fusarium oxysporum mt-811 in fed-batch culture in a stirred jar fermentor were examined. the results revealed that fungal denitrifying activity requires a minimal amount of o2 for induction, which is repressed by excess o2. the optimal o2 supply differed between the denitrification substrates : 690 micromol o2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrate (no3-) and about 250 micromol o2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrit ...200111271416
effect of novel water-soluble polymeric forms of sorbic acid against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. controlled release water-soluble formulations of sorbic (2,4-hexadienoic) acid were prepared and their inhibitory activity on mycelium growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum was evaluated. the new products are epoxidized polymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) containing covalently bonded sorbic acid (polymeric esters of sorbic acid) and complexes of pvp with hydrogen bonded sorbic acid, characterized by controlled release of sorbic acid. it was shown that the polymeric comple ...200011271842
transposon impala, a novel tool for gene tagging in the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.impala, a tc1-mariner transposable element from fusarium oxysporum, was introduced into the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea to develop transposon-based insertional mutagenesis. a construct (pnil160) containing an autonomous impala copy inserted in the promoter of niad encoding aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase was introduced by transformation into a m. grisea nitrate reductase-deficient mutant. impala excision was monitored by restoration of prototrophy for nitrate. southern analysis o ...200111277428
study of the role of antimicrobial glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates in resistance of arabidopsis to microbial pathogens.crude aqueous extracts from arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus neurospora crassa as a test organism. two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus alternaria brassicicola. one of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and iden ...200111299350
mutation of an arginine biosynthesis gene causes reduced pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for pathogenicity of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis. of the 1,129 remi transformants tested, 13 showed reduced pathogenicity on susceptible melon cultivars. one of the mutants, fmmp95-1, was an arginine auxotroph. structural analysis of the tagged site in fmmp95-1 identified a gene, designated arg1, which possibly encodes argininosuccinate lyase, catalyzing the last step for arginine biosynthesis. comple ...200111310747
isolation of a small chitinase-like antifungal protein from panax notoginseng (sanchi ginseng) antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 15 kda and an n-terminal sequence analogous to those of chitinases, was first isolated from the chinese medicinal material panax notoginseng, using cation exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. the protein was adsorbed on cm-cellulose, affi-gel blue gel and mono s. it exerted antifungal activity against coprinus comatus, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola but not against rhizoctonia solani. the protein was devoid of ...200111311860
kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.a kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar novada. the chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2d nmr experiments. it showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. novada to resist to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.200111314958
molecular characterization of an endopolygalacturonase from fusarium oxysporum expressed during early stages of infection.the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces an array of pectinolytic enzymes that may contribute to penetration and colonization of the host plant. here we report the isolation of pg5, encoding a novel extracellular endopolygalacturonase (endopg) that is highly conserved among different formae speciales of f. oxysporum. the putative mature pg5 product has a calculated molecular mass of 35 kda and a pi of 8.3 and is more closely related to endopgs from other f ...200111319099
hypogin, a novel antifungal peptide from peanuts with sequence similarity to peanut allergen.a protein designated hypogin, with a prominent suppressive action on the growth of the fungi mycosphaerella arachidicola, fusarium oxysporum and coprinus comatus, was isolated from seeds of the peanut arachis hypogaea. the protein inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) reverse transcriptase and enzymes associated with hiv infection including alpha-glucosidase and beta-glucosidase. the proliferative response of mouse splenocytes was attenuated in the presence of the protein. the protein exh ...200111328490
molecular characterization of a subtilase from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.the gene prt1 was isolated from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with subtilisin-like fungal proteinases. prt1 is a single-copy gene, and its structure is highly conserved among different formae speciales of f. oxysporum. prt1 is expressed constitutively at low levels during growth on different carbon and nitrogen sources and strongly induced in medium containing collagen and glucose. as shown by ...200111332729
evidence for an essential arginine in the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase from the fungus fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidative denitrification of primary or secondary nitroalkanes to yield the respective aldehydes or ketones, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. the enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent fashion upon treatment with the arginine-directed reagents phenylglyoxal, 2,3-butanedione, and cyclohexanedione. the inactivation shows first order kinetics with all reagents. valerate, a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, ful ...200111342284
[ocular parasitoses and mycoses: cases diagnosed in the central university hospital of sfax between 1996 and 1999].parasitical and fungal ophthalmic infections are polymorphic and variably severe. they are rarely reported in publications. the aim of our study has been to specify the parasitic and fungal agents isolated from the ocular samples in our district (sfax-tunisia). we surveyed retrospectively the different ocular parasitosis and mycosis diagnosed in our laboratory (sfax hospital) over a 4 year-period (1996-1999). fungal ophthalmic infections were dominated by corneal localisations: 20 cases of kerat ...200111346972
fem1, a fusarium oxysporum glycoprotein that is covalently linked to the cell wall matrix and is conserved in filamentous part of an investigation of the cell wall structure of plant pathogenic, filamentous fungi, we set out to characterize covalently bound cell wall glycoproteins (cwps) of the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum. n-terminal sequencing of an abundant 60-kda cwp led to the cloning of the corresponding gene, which we have designated fem1 (fusarium extracellular matrix protein). the gene contains an orf encoding a primary translation product of 212 amino acids, including an n-terminal 17-amino acid ...200111370861
genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum populations isolated from different soils in france.the genetic diversity of soil-borne populations of fusarium oxysporum was assessed using 350 isolates collected from six different french soils. all isolates were characterised by restriction fragment analysis of the pcr-amplified ribosomal intergenic spacer (igs). twenty-six igs types were identified among the 350 isolates analysed. five to nine different igs types were detected in each soil. none of the igs types was common to all of the soils. an analysis of the molecular variance based on ig ...200111377774
[spatial peculiarities of rhizoplane colonization by microscopic fungi].spatial peculiarities in the colonization of the tomato, cucumber, and barley rhizoplanes by microscopic fungi were studied. the apical zone of roots was colonized with a limited number of r strategists (the order mucorales, fusarium sp., aspergillus niger, and mycelia sterilia). the fungal population of the root hairs and the basal zone of roots was 2- to 3-fold more dense due to the prevalence of k strategists. fusaria, fusarium oxysporum in particular, colonized roots in earlier terms than th ...200111386053
cloning and sequence analysis of the endopolygalacturonase gene from the pitch canker fungus, fusarium circinatum.the fungus fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease on mature pine trees and root rot and damping-off of pine seedlings. endopolygalacturonases (endopgs) play a major role during penetration of plants by fungi. digestion of the pectic polysaccharides in the plant primary cell walls is one of the earliest functions of endopgs during infection. the research objective was to clone and characterize the gene encoding endopolygalacturonase in f. circinatum. a 970-bp dna fragment was cloned by u ...200111400056
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