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microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
class v chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of n-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse n-acetylglucosamine polymerization. here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class v chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. the chsv gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. chsv has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synth ...200312492869
molecular markers closely linked to fusarium resistance genes in chickpea show significant alignments to pathogenesis-related genes located on arabidopsis chromosomes 1 and 5.a population of 131 recombinant inbred lines from a wide cross between chickpea ( cicer arietinum l., resistant parent) and cicer reticulatum (susceptible parent) segregating for the closely linked resistances against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri races 4 and 5 was used to develop dna amplification fingerprinting markers linked to both resistance loci. bulked segregant analysis revealed 19 new markers on linkage group 2 of the genetic map on which the resistance genes are located. closest link ...200312709786
effect of genotype and root colonization in biological control of fusarium wilts in pigeonpea and chickpea by pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1.pseudomonas aeruginosa pna1, an isolate from chickpea rhizosphere in india, protected pigeonpea and chickpea plants from fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and fusarium udum. inoculation with strain pna1 significantly reduced the incidence of fusarium wilt in pigeonpea and chickpea on both susceptible and moderately tolerant genotypes. however, strain pna1 protected the plants from fusarium wilt until maturity only in moderately tolerant genotypes of pigeo ...200312718396
in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of leaf essential oils of chukrasia tabularis adr juss and melia dubia cav (meliaceae).the essential oils of chukrasia tabularis and melia dubia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against ten different pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human pathologies using standard antimicrobial assays. chukrasia tabularis leaf oil exhibited strong antibiotic activities against proteus vulgaris and fusarium oxysporum and did not show any activity against the tested bacteria. melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against pseudomonas ...200312722153
characterization of a new pseudomonas aeruginosa strain nj-15 as a potential biocontrol agent.phylogenetic characterization of soil isolate nj-15, based on sequence homology of a partial 746-bp fragment of 16srdna amplicon, with the ribosomal database sequences (http://www.msu.edu/rdp/cgis/phylip.cgi), validated the strain as pseudomonas aeruginosa. the strain nj-15 produced a substantial amount of indole acetic acid (iaa) in tryptophan-supplemented medium. besides, the strain also exhibited significant production of both the siderophore and hydrogen cyanide (hcn) on chrome azurol s and ...200312732958
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
volatile metabolites from salvia fruticosa as antifungal agents in soilborne pathogens.the volatile metabolites of salvia fruticosa plants, growing wild in 15 localities scattered across greece, were analyzed by means of gc and gc-ms. the essential oil content ranged from 0.69 to 4.68%, and the results of the analyses showed a noticeable variation in the amounts of the five main components [1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, camphor, and (e)-caryophyllene]. the antifungal activities of the essential oils from two localities, belonging in two different groups of cluster and ...200312744657
degradation of an endocrine disrupting chemical, dehp [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate], by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.the efficiency of two lypolytic enzymes (fungal cutinase, yeast esterase) in the degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (dehp) was investigated. the dehp-degradation rate of fungal cutinase was surprisingly high, i.e. almost 70% of the initial dehp (500 mg/l) was decomposed within 2.5 h and nearly 50% of the degraded dehp disappeared within the initial 15 min. with the yeast esterase, despite the same concentration, more than 85% of the dehp remained even after 3 days of treatment. during th ...200312750855
isolation and characterization of phorate degrading soil bacteria of environmental and agronomic significance.phorate [o,o-diethyl-s-(ethylthio)methyl phosphoradiothioate] degrading bacteria were isolated from agricultural soil and characterized based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. the selected isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 were presumptively identified as rhizobium, pseudomonas and proteous species, respectively. the hplc analysis of phorate in bioaugmented soil revealed its complete disappearance within 40 days. the degradation isotherms of the isolates ps-1, ps-2 and ps-3 sugg ...200312753240
construction of a mitotic linkage map of fusarium oxysporum based on foxy-aflps.construction of the first mitotic linkage map of the asexual fungus fusarium oxysporum, based on a population of 32 parasexual fusion products, is reported. molecular markers were developed using a modified aflp technique which combines a foxy-specific primer with standard adapter primers. the retroposon foxy is abundantly present and highly variable in location in f. oxysporum isolates: 43% of the foxy-aflp markers tested appeared to be polymorphic between the strains fol004 and fol029. of the ...200312756533
hybrid respiration in the denitrifying mitochondria of fusarium oxysporum.induction of the mitochondrial nitrate-respiration (denitrification) system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum requires the supply of low levels of oxygen (o(2)). here we show that o(2) and nitrate (no(3)(-)) respiration function simultaneously in the mitochondria of fungal cells incubated under hypoxic, denitrifying conditions in which both o(2) and no(3)(-) act as the terminal electron acceptors. the no(3)(-) and nitrite (no(2)(-)) reductases involved in fungal denitrification share the mitochon ...200312761293
hop, an active mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a new type of active dna transposon has been identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niad target gene. two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. these elements, called hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) of 99 bp. the sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. the seq ...200312777515
formate-forming fungal catabolic pathway to supply electrons to nitrate respiration.pyruvate was catabolized anaerobically by resting cells of fusarium oxysporum to form formate and acetate. addition of nitrate decreased the accumulation of formate in the medium with concomitant formation of nitrite and n2o. the results suggested a unique metabolic pathway that occurs in fungi mediated by pyruvate-formate lyase to supply electrons via formate to fungal denitrification.200312784647
plant-based heterologous expression of mal d 2, a thaumatin-like protein and allergen of apple (malus domestica), and its characterization as an antifungal protein.mal d 2 is a thaumatin-like protein and important allergen of apple fruits that is associated with ige-mediated symptoms in apple allergic individuals. we obtained a full-length cdna clone of mal d 2 from rna isolated from ripe apple (malus domestica cv. golden delicious). the cdna's open reading frame encodes a protein of 246 amino acid residues including a signal peptide of 24 residues and two putative glycosylation sites. the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature mal d 2 protein results i ...200312787673
advanced fusarium keratitis progressing to endophthalmitis.to review the clinical course, treatment, and visual outcomes of keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by the filamentary fungus fusarium.200312792470
phylogeny of hcn synthase-encoding hcnbc genes in biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads and its relationship with host plant species and hcn synthesis ability.hydrogen cyanide (hcn) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound involved in biological control of root diseases by many plant-associated fluorescent pseudomonads. the hcn synthase is encoded by three biosynthetic genes (hcna, hcnb, and hcnc), but little is known about the diversity of these genes in fluorescent pseudomonas spp. and in other bacteria. here, the partial hcnbc sequence was determined for a worldwide collection of biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonas spp. phylogenies based on hcnbc ...200312795378
design and development of a dna array for rapid detection and identification of multiple tomato vascular wilt pathogens.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we descri ...200312799009
a possible role of nadph-dependent cytochrome p450nor isozyme in glycolysis under denitrifying conditions.the denitrifying fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense contains two isozymes of cytochrome p450nor. one isozyme, p450nor1, uses nadh specifically as its electron donor whereas the other isozyme p450nor2 prefers nadph to nadh. here we show that p450nor1 is localized in both cytosol and mitochondria, like p450nor of fusarium oxysporum, while p450nor2 is exclusively in cytosol. we also found that the addition of glucose as a carbon source to the culture media leads to the production of much more p450nor ...200312834289
soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to elicitors from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense.the accumulation of soluble and wall-bound phenolics and phenolic polymers in musa acuminata roots exposed to cell wall-derived elicitor from the pathogen, fusarium oxysporum, f.sp. cubense, race four, was investigated. the root tissue from the banana cultivar "goldfinger" was found to respond strongly and rapidly towards the elicitor through the increased synthesis of phenolic compounds. following elicitation, the conjugated and non-conjugated phenolic metabolites in the induced root tissue wer ...200312842140
loss of function of the fusarium oxysporum snf1 gene reduces virulence on cabbage and arabidopsis.fusarium oxysporum pathogenicity is believed to require the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes. production of these enzymes in fungi is subject to carbon catabolite repression, a process that in yeast is mostly controlled by the snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1) gene. to elucidate the role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in f. oxysporum pathogenicity, we cloned and disrupted its snf1 homologue ( fosnf1). the fosnf1 mutants had a reduced expression of several genes encoding cell wall-degrading ...200312845476
united states department of agriculture-agricultural research service studies on polyketide toxins of fusarium oxysporum f sp vasinfectum: potential targets for disease control.a group of 133 isolates of the cotton wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum schlecht f sp vasinfectum (atk) sny & hans, representing five races and 20 vegetative compatibility groups within race 1 were used to determine the identity, biosynthetic regulation and taxonomic distribution of polyketide toxins produced by this pathogen. all isolates of f oxysporum f sp vasinfectum produced and secreted the nonaketide naphthazarin quinones, bikaverin and norbikaverin. most isolates of race 1 (previously den ...200312846324
gacs sensor domains pertinent to the regulation of exoproduct formation and to the biocontrol potential of pseudomonas fluorescens cha0.in the root-colonizing biocontrol strain cha0 of pseudomonas fluorescens, cell density-dependent synthesis of extracellular, plant-beneficial secondary metabolites and enzymes is positively regulated by the gacs/gaca two-component system. mutational analysis of the gacs sensor kinase using improved single-copy vectors showed that inactivation of each of the three conserved phosphate acceptor sites caused an exoproduct null phenotype (gacs-), whereas deletion of the periplasmic loop domain had no ...200312848429
identification and enumeration of fusarium species in poultry feed mixtures from slovakia.thirty-three samples of poultry mixed feeds collected in the region of nitra (slovakia) from august 2001-april 2002 were assayed for the incidence of fusarium link: fr. species. in tested samples, the total frequency of isolated fusaria was determined to be 48 % (16 samples) and their counts ranged from 0.2 x 10(2) to 2.4 x 10( 4 ) cfu per g of the sample on dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar (dcpa). of the total amount of fusarium isolates (609), the highest part (i.e. 584 isolates) was rep ...200312852734
dendrocin, a distinctive antifungal protein from bamboo shoots.an antifungal protein, with a molecular weight of 20 kda and an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in the fungi fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cincerea, and mycosphaerella arachidicola, was isolated from fresh bamboo shoots. the protein, designated dendrocin, was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. dendrocin showed only limited similarity in n-terminal sequence to thaumatin-like proteins, unlike other thaumatin-like proteins which closely resemble eac ...200312893287
a 2s albumin-homologous protein from passion fruit seeds inhibits the fungal growth and acidification of the medium by fusarium oxysporum.antimicrobial proteins have been isolated from a wide range of plant species. more recently, it has become increasingly clear that these types of proteins play an important role in the protection of plants. in this study, we investigate the presence of defense-related proteins from passion fruit (passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) seeds. initially, seed flour was extracted for 2h (at 4 degrees c) with phosphate buffer, ph 5.5. the precipitate obtained between 0 and 70% relative ammonium sulfate sa ...200312893296
purification and properties of a new s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase from carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l.).a new enzyme, s-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-o-methyltransferase (ec 2.1.1.-) (f 4'-omt), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (dianthus caryophyllus l). the enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kda and a pi of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of s-adenosyl-l-methionine. a high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (km = 1.7 micro m; vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1 ...200312899699
curvularia haloperoxidase: antimicrobial activity and potential application as a surface disinfectant.a presumed antimicrobial enzyme system, the curvularia haloperoxidase system, was examined with the aim of evaluating its potential as a sanitizing agent. in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, curvularia haloperoxidase facilitates the oxidation of halides, such as chloride, bromide, and iodide, to antimicrobial compounds. the curvularia haloperoxidase system caused several-log-unit reductions in counts of bacteria (pseudomonas spp., escherichia coli, serratia marcescens, aeromonas salmonicida, s ...200312902249
purification and characterization of a feruloyl esterase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzing esterification of phenolic acids in ternary water-organic solvent mixtures.an extracellular feruloyl esterase (fae-ii) from the culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by sp-sepharose, t-butyl-hic and sephacryl s-200 column chromatography. the protein corresponded to molecular mass and pi values of 27 kda and 9.9, respectively. the enzyme was optimally active at ph 7 and 45 degrees c. the purified esterase was fully stable at ph 7.0-9.0 and temperature up to 45 degrees c after 1 h incubation. determination of k(cat)/k(m) revealed that the ...200312668312
a homodimeric sporamin-type trypsin inhibitor with antiproliferative, hiv reverse transcriptase-inhibitory and antifungal activities from wampee (clausena lansium) seeds.a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor with a molecular mass of 54 kda was isolated from the seeds of clausena lansium (lour) skeels with a very simple procedure comprising extraction with an aqueous buffer and ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose. it inhibited trypsin with an ic50 of 2.2 nm but was without any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin and proteinase k. the uptake of mtt by human leukemia hl60 and hepatoma hep g2 cells was inhibited with an ic50 of 100 microm. translation in the cell-fr ...200312675522
identification of essential genes in the human fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus by transposon mutagenesis.the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent cause of deadly airborne fungal infections in developed countries. in order to identify novel antifungal-drug targets, we investigated the genome of a. fumigatus for genes that are necessary for efficient fungal growth. an artificial a. fumigatus diploid strain with one copy of an engineered impala160 transposon from fusarium oxysporum integrated into its genome was used to generate a library of diploid strains by random in vi ...200312684374
characterization and in vitro expression patterns of an exopolygalacturonase encoding gene from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici.in this work, we report the isolation, characterization and expression pattern in in vitro cultures of an exopg encoding gene (pgx2), a novel exopg encoding gene of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici, responsible for foot crown and root rot disease in tomato plants. the gene was compared with other fungal polygalacturonases (pgs) previously reported.200312694451
the ph signalling transcription factor pacc controls virulence in the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.gene expression in fungi by ambient ph is regulated via a conserved signalling cascade whose terminal component is the zinc finger transcription factor pacc/rim1p. we have identified a pacc orthologue in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum that binds the consensus 5'-gccaag-3' sequence and is proteolytically processed in a similar way to pacc from aspergillus nidulans. pacc transcript levels were elevated in f. oxysporum grown in alkaline conditions and almost undetectable at extreme a ...200312694620
the g protein beta subunit fgb1 regulates development and pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fgb1, the gene encoding a heterotrimeric g protein beta subunit fgb1 in fusarium oxysporum, was performed by standard pcr techniques to evaluate the role of g protein signaling in this fungus. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,077 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (359 amino acid residues) showed high identity with g beta subunits from other organisms. disruption of fgb1 led to decreased intracellular camp levels, reduced pathogenicity, and al ...200312695847
antifungal effects of different organic extracts from melia azedarach l. on phytopathogenic fungi and their isolated active components.extracts from different parts of melia azedarach l. were studied as potential antifungal agents for selected phytopathogenic fungi. in a serial agar dilution method, hexanic and ethanolic extracts from fruit, seed kernels, and senescent leaves exhibited fungistatic activity against aspergillus flavus,diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionales, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, fusarium verticillioides, and sclerotinia sclerotiorum. both hexanic extract from senescent leaves and ethanolic extract ...200312696928
isolation of pisumin, a novel antifungal protein from legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var macrocarpon.an antifungal protein with a novel n-terminal sequence gvgaaygcfg and a molecular mass of 31 kda was isolated from the legumes of the sugar snap pea pisum sativum var. macrocarpon. the protein, designated pisumin, exhibited antifungal activity against coprinus comatus and pleurotus ostreatus and much weaker activity against fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani. pisumin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic(50) of 6 microm. pisumin was similar to o ...200312600683
the antifungal protein from aspergillus giganteus causes membrane permeabilization.we investigated the inhibitory effects of the antifungal protein (afp) from aspergillus giganteus on the growth of several filamentous fungi. for this purpose, the mics of afp were determined and ranged from 0.1 micro g/ml for fusarium oxysporum to 200 micro g/ml for aspergillus nidulans. the antifungal activity of afp was diminished in the presence of cations. we were able to show that incubation of afp-sensitive fungi with the protein resulted in membrane permeabilization using an assay based ...200312543664
fabin, a novel calcyon-like and glucanase-like protein with mitogenic, antifungal and translation-inhibitory activities from broad beans.a protein with an n-terminal sequence displaying similarities to n-terminal sequences of human calcyon and barley endo-1,4-glucanase, and to c-terminal sequences of human translation initiation factor 4 gamma and yeast superkiller viralicidic activity, was isolated from the broad bean vicia faba. the protein, termed fabin, has a molecular mass of 34 kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. antifungal activity of the protein was observed against several fungal species including rhizoctonia ...200312817478
pleiotropic effect of the insertion of the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene in tomato ( lycopersicon esculentum mill.).the agrobacterium rhizogenes rold gene, coding for an ornithine cyclodeaminase involved in the biosynthesis of proline from ornithine, has been inserted in lycopersicon esculentum cv tondino with the aim of studying its effects on plant morphological characters including pathogen defense response. the analysis of plants transgenic for rold did not show major morphological modifications. first generation transgenic plants however were found to flower earlier, and showed an increased number of inf ...200312830385
[bioprotection mechanisms of the lentil plant by rhizobium leguminosarum against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis].living and heat-killed bacterial cells of rhizobium leguminosarum protected totally lentil plants against infection by the pathogen fusarium oxysporum mr 84. culture filtrate of this rhizobacterium was also able to protect the plants to a high degree. however, when they were inoculated separately of the pathogen, living bacterial cells did not protect the plants whereas culture filtrate and killed bacterial cells protected them. these results suggest that rhizobium cannot protect lentil plants w ...200314746271
antifungal clerodane diterpenes from macaranga monandra (l) muell. et arg. (euphorbiaceae).hexane and ethyl acetate phases of the methanol extract of macaranga monandra showed fungal growth inhibition of colletotrichum acutatum, c. fragariae and c. gloeosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, botrytis cinerea, phomopsis obscurans, and p. viticola. bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two active clerodane-type diterpenes that were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1d-, 2d-nmr, and ms) as kolavenic acid and 2-oxo-kolavenic acid. a 96-well microbioassay revealed that kolaveni ...200314664515
mollisin, an antifungal protein from the chestnut castanea mollissima.the isolation of a protein designated mollisin, with an n-terminal sequence manifesting some similarity to thaumatin-like proteins (tlps), and possessing a molecular mass of 28 kda which is higher than those of tlps, is reported herein from the seeds of the chestnut castanea mollisima. the protein was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and mono s. mollisin exhibited a molecular mass of 28 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as in ...200314598205
regeneration of flax ( linum usitatissimum l.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to fusarium oxysporum.the aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. the results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. all the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than soma ...200312827441
effect of menadione sodium bisulfite, an inducer of plant defenses, on the dynamic of banana phytoalexin accumulation during pathogenesis.using an authentic sample of 2-hydroxy-9-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-phenalen-1-one, a banana phenalenone-type phytoalexin, we studied its dynamic of accumulation during pathogenesis of banana plants (musa acuminata (aaa), grand nain) inoculated with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc), race 4, the causal agent of panama disease. the results obtained demonstrate that banana plants treated prior inoculation with menadione sodium bisulfite (msb), an inducer of plant defenses, are capable of changing the ...200312926878
effect of nonylphenol surfactants on fungi following the application of sewage sludge on agricultural soils.the effect of nonylphenol on fungi following the application of contaminated sewage sludge on agricultural soil was studied in laboratory experiments. nonylphenol bioavailability and adsorption were determined in the soil alone and soil-sludge mixtures. mixing the soil with sludge made it possible to measure the nonylphenol concentration in the soil solution, which comprised between 6.6 x 10(-6) and 3.8 x 10(-7) m, according to the sludge. we then examined the dose-response relationship between ...200312931882
effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum on meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. as am fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the am fungus glomus c ...200312938032
red fluorescent protein (dsred2) as a novel reporter in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pan-dsred2 vector was constructed for constitutive cytoplasmic expression of the red fluorescent protein (dsred2) under control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter from aspergillus nidulans. dsred2-transformation of two fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains pathogenic against tomato host resulted in bright red cytoplamic fluorescence of the fungus. the transformants were screened based on the hygromycin b resistance, brightness, stability and rate of appearance ...200312951257
colonization of flax roots and early physiological responses of flax cells inoculated with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. the objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, a ...200312957934
primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (cytc) gene of the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. the structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of aspergillus nidulans. the second intron of the r. necatrix cytc gene was not present in neurospora crassa or fusarium oxysporum. however, the amino acid sequence of r. necatrix was most similar to that of neurospora crassa. thus, it seemed that the second intron of the r. necatrix cy ...200312619691
isolation of vulgin, a new antifungal polypeptide with mitogenic activity from the pinto bean.an antifungal polypeptide bearing an n-termnial sequence with some homology to chitinases was purified from an extract of pinto beans. the polypeptide, designated vulgin, exerted antifungal activity toward mycosphaerella arachidicola, coprinus cornatus, fusarium oxysporum and botrytis cinerea. vulgin inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an ic50 of 4.3 microm and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an ic50 of 58 microm. vulgin stimulated in vitro incorporation o ...200312630696
isolation and properties of floral defensins from ornamental tobacco and petunia.the flowers of the solanaceous plants ornamental tobacco (nicotiana alata) and petunia (petunia hybrida) produce high levels of defensins during the early stages of development. in contrast to the well-described seed defensins, these floral defensins are produced as precursors with c-terminal prodomains of 27 to 33 amino acids in addition to a typical secretion signal peptide and central defensin domain of 47 or 49 amino acids. defensins isolated from n. alata and petunia flowers lack the c-term ...200312644678
gymnin, a potent defensin-like antifungal peptide from the yunnan bean (gymnocladus chinensis baill).from the seeds of the yunnan bean, we purified an antifungal peptide using affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, fplc-ion exchange chromatography on mono s, and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. the antifungal peptide was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel at ph 7.8 and mono s at ph 4.5. it exhibited a molecular mass of 6.5 kda in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. its n-terminal sequence closely resembled defensin-related peptides. the peptid ...200314499273
isolation of cucurmoschin, a novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds.a novel antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 8 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration on superdex 75 and designated cucurmoschin, was isolated from the seeds of the black pumpkin. the peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. cucurmoschin inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella oxysporum. it inhibited translation in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysat ...200314499274
pentamidine is active in vitro against fusarium species.fusariosis is an emerging opportunistic mycosis against which currently used antifungals have limited activity. here, we investigated the in vitro activities of pentamidine (pnt) against 10 clinical isolates of fusarium species (five fusarium solani isolates and five non-f. solani isolates) by using the national committee for clinical laboratory standards microdilution method in three different media (rpmi, rpmi-2, and a yeast nitrogen base medium), disk diffusion testing, and viability dye stai ...200314506038
an antifungal chitinase produced by bacillus cereus with shrimp and crab shell powder as a carbon source.the production of inexpensive chitinolytic enzymes is an element in the utilization of shellfish processing wastes. in this study, shrimp and crab shell powder prepared by treating shrimp and crab processing wastes with boiling and crushing was used as a substrate for the isolation of an antifungal chitinase-producing microorganism. bacillus cereus yq 308, a strain isolated from the soil samples, excreted one chitinase when cultured in a medium containing 2% (wt/vol) shrimp and crab shell powder ...200314506855
effect of sugars on the association between cowpea vicilin (7s storage proteins) and fungal cells.vicilins (7s storage proteins) found in various legume seeds have been previously shown to interfere with the germination of spores or conidia of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit yeast growth and glucose stimulated acidification of the medium by yeast cells. in the present work vicilins from cowpea (vigna unguiculata) seeds were added to the growth medium of saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and fusarium oxysporum conidia. helix pomatia lectin, wheat germ agglutinin and ulex europaeus lectin were ...200314510235
a structured kinetic model for suspension cultures of taxus chinensis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum.a structured kinetic model was established to describe the process of taxol formation in suspension cultures of taxus chinesis var. mairei induced by an oligosaccharide from fusarium oxysporum. in this model, the role of intracellular starch as a storage carbon source had to be taken into account. substrate uptake, culture growth, cell respiration, and secondary metabolites, predicted by the model, agreed with those obtained experimentally. the effective factors of oligosaccharide elicitation, e ...200314514062
the photolyase gene from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.survival of irradiated spores from fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (uv) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of uv. a genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from f. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the neurospora crassa photolyase gene. the f. oxysporum phr1 cdna was isolated and expressed in a photo ...200314516768
role of salicylic acid in systemic resistance induced by pseudomonas fluorescens against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri in chickpea.selected isolates of pseudomonas fluorescens (pf1-94, pf4-92, pf12-94, pf151-94 and pf179-94) and chemical resistance inducers (salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, dl-norvaline, indole-3-carbinol and lichenan) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea. a marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in p. fluorescens treated plants. the isolates of p. fluorescens systemically induced resistance against fusarium wilt of chickpea ...200314521230
successful outcome of disseminated fusarium infection with skin localization treated with voriconazole and amphotericin b-lipid complex in a patient with acute leukemia.a disseminated fusarium oxysporum infection with skin localization was diagnosed in a woman with a relapse of b-acute leukemia during induction chemotherapy. the infection was refractory to amphotericin b-lipid complex alone but responded successfully when voriconazole was added.200314532255
interactions in the tomato rhizosphere of two pseudomonas biocontrol strains with the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes foot and root rot of tomato plants, which can be controlled by the bacteria pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 and p. chlororaphis pcl1391. induced systemic resistance is thought to be involved in biocontrol by p. fluorescens wcs365. the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn), as well as efficient root colonization, are essential in the mechanism of biocontrol by p. chlororaphis pcl1391. to understand the effects of bacteri ...200314601666
overexpression of a cell wall glycoprotein in fusarium oxysporum increases virulence and resistance to a plant pr-5 protein.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae is a causal agent for vascular wilt disease in tobacco. it is sensitive to osmotin, a tobacco pathogenesis-related protein (pr-5) that is implicated in plant defense against phytopathogenic fungi. we show that osmotin susceptibility of f. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae was reduced by overexpression of the heterologous cell wall glycoprotein saccharomyces cerevisiae protein containing inverted repeats (pir2), a member of the pir family of fungal cell wall glycopr ...200314617095
selective inhibition of trypsins by insect peptides: role of p6-p10 loop.pmp-d2 and hi, two peptides from locusta migratoria, were shown to belong to the family of tight-binding protease inhibitors. however, they interact weakly with bovine trypsin (k(i) around 100 nm) despite a trypsin-specific arg at the primary specificity site p1. here we demonstrate that they are potent inhibitors of midgut trypsins isolated from the same insect and of a fungal trypsin from fusarium oxysporum (k(i) <or= 0.02 nm). therefore, they display a selectivity not existing for the parent ...200314622007
isolation and characterization of a 29-kda glycoprotein with antifungal activity from bulbs of urginea indica.in this study an antifungal protein from urginea indica bulbs was purified to homogeneity by acid precipitation, diol 300 gel-filtration, and c(18) reverse phase hplc. its molecular mass was estimated to be 29 kda and periodic acid-schiff (pas) staining showed that identified antifungal molecule is a glycoprotein. the neutralization of antifungal activity after periodate oxidation of 29 kda glycoprotein suggests that the glycan part of the molecule appears to be involved in antifungal activity. ...200314623334
antimicrobial activity and constituents of coccoloba acrostichoides.the ethanol extract and fractions from coccoloba acrostichoides aerial parts were assayed for in vitro antimicrobial activity. the extract was active against the assayed bacteria while most of the fractions also inhibited fungal growth, especially the n-hexane and etoac fractions. the isolated beta-sitosterol and betulin were tested, being the last one active against fusarium oxysporum.200314630184
geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. in this paper, we report on the use of geranium (pelargonium graveolens) leaf extract in the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. on treating aqueous silver nitrate solution with geranium leaf extract, rapid reduction of the silver ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable, crystalline silver nanoparticles in solution. ...200314656132
induction, purification, and characterization of two extracellular alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases from fusarium oxysporum.in the presence of l-arabinose as sole carbon source, fusarium oxysporum produces two alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases (abfs) named abf1 and abf2, with molecular masses of 200 and 180 kda, respectively. the two f. oxysporum proteins have been purified to homogeneity. the purified enzymes are composed of three equal subunits and are neutral proteins with pis of 6.0 and 7.3 for abf1 and abf2, respectively. with p-nitrophenyl alpha-l-arabinofuranoside (pnpa) as the substrate, abf1 and abf2 exhibited km ...200314663498
purification of glysojanin, an antifungal protein, from the black soybean glycine soja.a monomeric protein, with a molecular mass of 25 kda and an n-terminal sequence resembling a segment of chitin synthase, was isolated from the seeds of the black soybean glycine soja. the protein, designated glysojanin, demonstrated potent antifungal activity against the fungi fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it inhibited hiv-1 reverse transcriptase with an ic50 of 47 micromol/l, [methyl-3h]thymidine incorporation by mouse spleen cells with an ic50 of 175 micromol/l, and trans ...200314663505
ph response transcription factor pacc controls salt stress tolerance and expression of the p-type na+ -atpase ena1 in fusarium oxysporum.fungi possess efficient mechanisms of ph and ion homeostasis, allowing them to grow over a wide range of environmental conditions. in this study, we addressed the role of the ph response transcription factor pacc in salt tolerance of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum. loss-of-function pacc(+/-) mutants showed increased sensitivity to li(+) and na(+) and accumulated higher levels of these cations than the wild type. in contrast, strains expressing a dominant activating pacc(c) allele ...200314665459
isolation and characterization of a lectin from annona muricata seeds.a lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from annona muricata seeds (annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on sephacryl s-200, ion exchange chromatography on a deae sp-5 pw column, and molecular exclusion on a protein pak glass 300 sw column. sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kda and 22 kda. however, only one band was seen in native page. the mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance li ...200314714732
[effect of water activity and temperature on competing abilities of penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum].the in vitro effect of water activity (0.995, 0.98, 0.95, 0.90 and 0.85) and temperature (25 and 15 degrees c) on competing abilities of the biocontrol agent penicillium oxalicum against fusarium oxysporum fsp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, and fusarium oxysporum fsp. gladioli, a gladiolus pathogen, was evaluated. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of p. oxalicum to be applied as a biocontrol agent against these phytopathogenic fungi. plates were inoculated in two points with ...200315456354
biological control of fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of onion wilt by antagonistic bacteria.fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum sch. is one of the most important diseases of onion in iran. application of chemicals especially as soil drench, increased cost of onion production and may be dangerous for environment. one of the effective techniques to suppress soil-born diseases in biological control with antagonistic rhizobacteria. experiment were carried out with 120 bacterial isolates that were collected from onion rhizosphere. six highly effective isolates were selected from thes ...200315151288
rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens using a dna array.fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and verticillium wilt, caused by either verticillium albo-atrum or v. dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) found worldwide. monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any disease. the lack of rapid, accurate, and reliable means by which plant pathogens can be detected and identified is one of the main limitations in integrated disease management. in this paper, we describe t ...200315151292
field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by puccinia asparagi d.c.; 2) fusarium crown and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (cohen & heald) and fusarium proliferatum (matstush.) nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by rhizoctonia violacea tul. the object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus ...200315151301
synthetic and spectroscopic characterization of organotin(iv) complexes of biologically active schiff bases derived from sulpha drugs.a number of diorganotin(iv) complexes with schiffbase have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, infrared, electronic and multinuclear magnetic resonance ((1)h, (13)c and (119)sn nmr) spectral data. the molar conductivity data shows non-electrolytic nature of complexes. the bidentate nature of the ligands is inferred from ir and nmr spectral studies. the antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their tin complexes ...200318365062
local and systemic effects of nacl on root composition, rhizobacteria, and fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus.abstract the role of nacl in suppression of fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus was investigated in split root culture so the direct effects of nacl on the root and rhizosphere could be separated from effects that were translocated to the nontreated root side. one side of the root system was exposed to 100 ml of 0, 0.5, or 1.0% nacl, while the other side received deionized water. both sides of the root system were inoculated with conidial suspensions of the pathogens fusarium oxysporum and ...200318943133
development of a specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the identification of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and its pathogenic races 0, 1a, 5, and 6.abstract specific primers and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays that identify fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and each of the f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris pathogenic races 0, 1a, 5, and 6 were developed. f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris- and race-specific random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers identified in a previous study were cloned and sequenced, and sequence characterized amplified region (scar) primers for specific pcr were developed. each cloned rapd marker was characterized by ...200318943135
use of a nitrate-nonutilizing mutant and selective media to examine population dynamics of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil.abstract determining the population density of the spinach wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae in soil with conventional fusarium-selective media is quite difficult because nonpathogenic strains of f. oxysporum also grow on those media and are indistinguishable from the pathogen. therefore, a nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutant of the pathogen and corresponding selective media were tested in an experimental approach to determine the population density of the pathogen. colony forming ...200318944103
effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of soilborne pathogens under structural solarization.abstract structural solarization of greenhouses for sanitation by closing them involves dry heating to 60 degrees c and higher with a consequent low relative humidity (rh) ( approximately 15%), thus requiring an extended period for thermal inactivation of pathogens. in an attempt to enhance pathogen control by increasing moisture during the hot hours of the day, various regimes of inoculum moistening were studied. however, wetting inoculum of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and f. oxysporum f. ...200418943535
cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.abstract in the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. here we describe that cerebroside c is produced in diverse strains of fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. in addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside a, b, or c was detected in other soilborne phytop ...200418943100
integrated management of fusarium wilt of chickpea with sowing date, host resistance, and biological control.abstract a 3-year experiment was conducted in field microplots infested with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 at córdoba, spain, in order to assess efficacy of an integrated management strategy for fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the choice of sowing date, use of partially resistant chickpea genotypes, and seed and soil treatments with biocontrol agents bacillus megaterium rgaf 51, b. subtilis gb03, nonpathogenic f. oxysporum fo 90105, and pseudomonas fluorescens rg 26. advancing ...200418943071
quantification of root and stem colonization of watermelon by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and its use in evaluating resistance.abstract colonization of watermelon root and stem tissues by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 1 and its relationship to the apparent resistance to fusarium wilt was investigated. in each of 2 years, 17 differentially susceptible watermelon cultivars and one accession were tested in the greenhouse, and 7 cultivars also were tested in the field. colonization by a chlorate-resistant marked isolate of the fungus was assayed by plating homogenized tissue samples on a selective medium. six days a ...200418943103
genetic diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic populations of fusarium oxysporum isolated from carnation fields in argentina.abstract in order to elucidate the origin of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in argentina, the genetic diversity among pathogenic isolates together with co-occurring nonpathogenic isolates on carnation was investigated. in all, 151 isolates of f. oxysporum were obtained from soils and carnation plants from several horticultural farms in argentina. the isolates were characterized using vegetative compatibility group (vcg), intergenic spacer (igs) typing, and pathogenicity tests on carnation. se ...200418943491
alveolarin, a novel antifungal polypeptide from the wild mushroom polyporus alveolaris.an antifungal polypeptide, with a molecular mass of 28 kda as judged by gel filtration and appearing as a single band with a molecular mass of 14 kda in sodium dodecyl suflate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the mushroom polyporus alveolaris. the antifungal polypeptide, designated as alveolarin, demonstrated an inhibitory action on mycelial growth in botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola and physalospora piricola. alveola ...200415165727
synthesis, absolute stereochemistry and molecular design of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201.the absolute stereochemistry of the new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by streptomyces sp.201 has been established by achieving the total synthesis of the product. a series of analogues have also been synthesized by changing the side chain and their bioactivity assessed against different microbial strains. among them, 1e (r = c8h17) was found to be the most potent with mic of 8 microg/ml against mycobacterium tuberculosis, 12 microg/ml against escherichia coli and 16 microg/ml ...200415177476
onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum in são paulo, brazil.fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. we report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by fusarium solani (4) and fusarium oxysporum (4) in são paulo, brazil. these species were isolated from toenails in all cases. the infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. the clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkerat ...200415180157
frequency and diversity of fungi colonizing tissues of upland cotton.a study of the mycoflora of upland cotton in alabama was conducted throughout the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. plants were sampled at seedling, first bloom, full bloom, and maturity stages of development. thirty-seven genera representing 58 species of fungi were isolated, including 9 species of fusarium. fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and f. equiseti were the most common members of this genus occurring at all four sampling stages in both years. eight species accounted for 67% of the total fung ...200415180159
evaluation of nostoc strain atcc 53789 as a potential source of natural pesticides.the cyanobacterium nostoc strain atcc 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. the antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. among the target organisms, nine fungi (armillaria sp., fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, penicillium expansum, phytophthora cambivora, p. cinnamomi, rhizoctonia solani, rosellinia, sp., sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an ...200415184126
in vitro fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. extracts.to evaluate the fungitoxic activity of larrea divaricata cav. extract and one of its components against yeasts and fungi. this activity was compared with the action of ketoconazole, a known synthetic antimycotic.200415189281
gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues in response to infection with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.microarray analysis of large-scale temporal and tissue-specific plant gene expression changes occurring during a susceptible plant-pathogen interaction revealed different gene expression profile changes in cotton root and hypocotyl tissues. in hypocotyl tissues infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, increased expression of defense-related genes was observed, whereas few changes in the expression levels of defense-related genes were found in infected root tissues. in infected roots, ...200415195948
antifungal compounds from the root and root exudate of zea mays.a maize plant (zea mays) planted in a test tube was found to inhibit the growth of the soil-borne plant pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae. the antifungal compounds, 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone and 6,7-dimethoxybenzoxazolinone, were isolated from an ethanol extract of zea mays roots, and (6r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionone and (6r,9r)-7,8-dihydro-3-oxo-alpha-ionol were isolated from the root exudate.200415215605
light- and singlet oxygen-mediated antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins.the light-induced singlet oxygen production and antifungal activity of phenylphenalenone phytoalexins isolated from infected banana plants (musa acuminata) are reported. upon absorption of light energy all studied phenylphenalenones sensitise the production of singlet oxygen in polar and non-polar media. antifungal activity of these compounds towards fusarium oxysporum is enhanced in the presence of light. these results, together with the correlation of ic50 values under illumination with the qu ...200415239009
ethylene response factor 1 mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum.ethylene response factor 1 (erf1) is a transcriptional factor from arabidopsis thaliana that regulates plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungi botrytis cinerea and plectosphaerella cucumerina and whose overexpression enhances resistance to these fungi. here, we show that erf1 also mediates arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungi fusarium oxysporum sp. conglutinans and f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, because its constitutive expression in arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to these ...200415242170
actinchinin, a novel antifungal protein from the gold kiwi fruit.an antifungal protein designated actinchinin, with an n-terminal sequence different from that of the thaumatin-like antifungal protein from green kiwi fruit, was isolated from the gold kiwi fruit. the antifungal protein, unlike its counterpart from green kiwi fruit, did not exert antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea, but was active against fusarium oxysporum which was unresponsive to thaumatin-like protein from green kiwi fruit. actinchinin was isolated using a protocol that comprised io ...200415245867
antifungal peptides, a heat shock protein-like peptide, and a serine-threonine kinase-like protein from ceylon spinach seeds.two antifungal peptides (designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins) with molecular masses of 4-5 kda and distinct n-terminal sequences, and a peptide and a protein with n-terminal sequences resembling heat shock protein (hsp) and serine-threonine kinase, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the ceylon spinach basella rubra. the purification procedure entailed saline extraction, (nh4)2so4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ...200415245882
response of embryo axes of germinating seeds of yellow lupine to fusarium oxysporum.defence responses of embryo axes of lupinus luteus l. cv. polo were studied 48-96 h after inoculation with fusarium oxysporum schlecht f.sp. lupini. the infection restricted the growth of embryo axes, the lengths of infected embryo axes 72 and 96 h after inoculation were 11 and 12 mm less in the controls, respectively, while their masses c. 0.03 g less than in the controls. the concentration of h2o2 in embryo axes of inoculated germinating seeds was higher than in the control. this was probably ...200415246062
the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris/cicer arietinum pathosystem: a case study of the evolution of plant-pathogenic fungi into races and pathotypes.the use of resistant cultivars is one of the most practical and cost-efficient strategies for managing plant diseases. however, the efficiency of resistant cultivars in disease management is limited by pathogenic variability in pathogen populations. knowledge of the evolutionary history and potential of the pathogen population may help to optimize the management of disease-resistance genes, irrespective of the breeding strategy used for their development. in this review, we examine the diversity ...200415248157
the fusarium wilt resistance locus fom-2 of melon contains a single resistance gene with complex features.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causes significant losses in the cultivated melon, a key member of the economically important family, the cucurbitaceae. here, we report the map-based cloning and characterization of the resistance gene fom-2 that confers resistance to race 0 and 1 of this plant pathogen. two recombination events, 75 kb apart, were found to bracket fom-2 after screening approximately 1324 gametes with pcr-based markers. sequence analysis of the fom-2 interva ...200415255859
crystallization and preliminary analysis of active nitroalkane oxidase in three crystal forms.nitroalkane oxidase (nao), a flavoprotein cloned and purified from fusarium oxysporum, catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, with the production of h2o2 and nitrite. in this paper, the crystallization and preliminary x-ray data analysis of three crystal forms of active nitroalkane oxidase are described. the first crystal form belongs to a trigonal space group (either p3(1)21 or p3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.8, c = 487.0 a) and ...200415272176
biological synthesis of strontium carbonate crystals using the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the total biological synthesis of srco3 crystals of needlelike morphology arranged into higher order quasi-linear superstructures by challenging microorganisms such as fungi with aqueous sr2+ ions is described. we term this procedure "total biological synthesis" since the source of carbonate ions that react with aqueous sr2+ ions is the fungus itself. we believe that secretion of proteins during growth of the fungus fusarium oxysporum is responsible for modulating the morphology of strontianite ...200415274591
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