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biodegradation of dimethylsilanediol in soils.the biodegradation potential of [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the monomer unit of polydimethylsiloxane, in soils was investigated. dimethylsilanediol was found to be biodegraded in all of the tested soils, as monitored by the production of 14co2. when 2-propanol was added to the soil as a carbon source in addition to [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the production of 14co2 increased. a method for the selection of primary substrates that support cometabolic degradation of a target compound was developed. by t ...19968953708
kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity of nitroalkane oxidase.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes, transferring the electrons to oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. the steady-state kinetic patterns have been determined with nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 1-nitropentane as substrates. in all three cases, the data fit best to a ping pong kinetic mechanism. the ph dependences of the v/k values for 1-nitropentane and phenylnitromethane show that an amino acid residue on the enzyme with a pka-value o ...19968769086
purification and characterization of two low molecular mass alkaline xylanases from fusarium oxysporum f3.two low molecular mass endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanases from fusarium oxysporum were purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. they exhibit molecular masses of 20.8 (xylanase i) and 23.5 (xylanase ii) kda, and isoelectric points of 9.5 and 8.45-8.70, respectively. both xylanases display remarkable ph (9.0) stability. at 40 to 55 degrees c xylanase ii is more thermostable than xylanase i but less active on xylan. in contrast to xylanase i, xylanase ii is able to hydrolyz ...19968987884
universal fungus-specific primer systems and group-specific hybridization oligonucleotides for 18s rdna.we designed two primer systems that amplify a fragment of the gene coding for the small ribosomal subunit (18s rrna). a broadly reactive, yet fungus-specific, primer cocktail comprises two previously published primers, tr1 and tr2, which specifically amplify dermatophytes, and two newly designed primers, ca1 and af2, which specifically amplify candida and aspergillus respectively. this primer cocktail amplifies a dna fragment of approximately 578 basepairs (bp) in length (from position 838 to 14 ...19968786753
susceptibility of clinical isolates of fusarium to antifungal drugs.the inhibitory activities of amphotericin b, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine against nine isolates from clinically apparent infections of fusarium solani, four isolates of fusarium moniliforme and 10 isolates of fusarium oxysporum were determined with an agar diffusion method (neosensitabs) and an agar dilution method. the inhibition zones obtained with antifungal neosensitabs need very careful interpretation. we did not find a good correlation between the aga ...19968786755
purification and characterization of tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.the antifungal compound alpha-tomatine, present in tomato plants, has been reported to provide a preformed chemical barrier against phytopathogenic fungi. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, produces an extracellular enzyme inducible by alpha-tomatine. this enzyme, known as tomatinase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-tomatine into its nonfungitoxic forms, tomatidine and beta-lycotetraose. the maximal tomatinase activity in the fungal culture medium was observed after 48 h ...19968633858
pathogenicity of fungi to eggs of heterodera glycines.twenty-one isolates of 18 fungal species were tested on water agar for their pathogenicity to eggs of heterodera glycines. an egg-parasitic index (epi) for each of these fungi was recorded on a scale from 0 to 10, and hatch of nematode eggs was determined after exposure to the fungi on water agar for 3 weeks at 24 c. the epi for verticillium chlamydosporium was 7.6, and the fungus reduced hatch 74%. pyrenochaeta terrestris and two sterile fungi also showed a high epi and reduced hatch 42-73%. ar ...199619277130
fungi associated with storage rots of cocoyams (colocasia spp.) in nsukka, nigeria.cocoyam (colocasia spp.) corms and cormels showing spoilage symptoms were collected from many stores in nsukka locality and examined for rot and associated fungal pathogens. aspergillus niger, botryodiplodia theobromae, corticium rolfsii, geotrichum candidum, fusarium oxysporum, and f. solani were recovered from rotten cocoyams. the representative isolates of these species caused cocoyam rot in pathogenicity tests. the rot due to a. niger, b. theobromae and c. rolfsii was extensive resulting in ...199620882465
interaction of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and meloidogyne javanica on cicer arietinum.interaction of meloidogyne javanica and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied on fusarium wilt-susceptible (jg 62 and k 850) and resistant (jg 74 and avrodhi) chickpea cultivars. in greenhouse experiments, inoculation of m. javanica juveniles prior to f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri caused greater wilt incidence in susceptible cultivars and induced vascular discoloration in roots of resistant cultivars. nematode reproduction was greatest (p = 0.05) at 25 degrees c. number of galls and percenta ...199719274140
sporulation of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on stem surfaces of tomato plants and aerial dissemination of inoculum.abstract plants exhibiting symptoms of wilt and xylem discoloration typical of fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici were observed in greenhouses of cherry tomatoes at various sites in israel. however, the lower stems of some of these plants were covered with a pink layer of macroconidia of f. oxysporum. this sign resembles the sporulating layer on stems of tomato plants infected with f. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, which causes the crown and root rot disease. mo ...199718945093
treatment with the mycoparasite pythium oligandrum triggers induction of defense-related reactions in tomato roots when challenged with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.abstract the influence exerted by the mycoparasite pythium oligandrum in triggering plant defense reactions was investigated using an experimental system in which tomato plants were infected with the crown and root rot pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. to assess the antagonistic potential of p. oligandrum against f. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, the interaction between the two fungi was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (sem and tem, respectiv ...199718945162
genetic characterization by rapd analysis of isolates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli associated with an emerging epidemic in peru.abstract an epidemic of vascular wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli is currently occurring on erythroxylum coca var. coca in the coca-growing regions of the huallaga valley in peru. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) analysis of isolates of the pathogen was undertaken to elucidate its genetic complexity, as well as to identify a specific dna fingerprint for the pathogen. two hundred isolates of fusarium were collected from 10 coca-growing regions in peru. of these, 187 wer ...199718945021
zinc improves biocontrol of fusarium crown and root rot of tomato by pseudomonas fluorescens and represses the production of pathogen metabolites inhibitory to bacterial antibiotic biosynthesis.abstract crown and root rot of tomato caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is an increasing problem in europe, israel, japan, and north america. the biocontrol agent pseudomonas fluorescens strain cha0 provides only moderate control of this disease. a one-time amendment of zinc edta at 33 mug of zn(2+)/ml to hydroponic nutrient solution in soilless rockwool culture did not reduce disease when used alone, but did reduce disease by 25% in the presence of cha0. in in vitro studie ...199718945026
inoculum densities of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and meloidogyne incognita in relation to the development of fusarium wilt and the phenology of cotton plants (gossypium hirsutum).abstract development of fusarium wilt in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) usually requires infections of plants by both meloidogyne incognita and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. in this study, the soil densities of m. incognita and f. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and the incidence of fusarium wilt in three field sites were determined in 1982-1984. multiple regression analysis of percent incidence of fusarium wilt symptoms on population densities of m. incognita and f. oxysporum f. sp. v ...199718945178
fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of a small number of divergent and globally distributed clonal lineages.abstract a worldwide collection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense was analyzed using anonymous, single-copy, restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) loci. several lines of evidence indicated that this pathogen has a clonal population structure. of the 165 isolates examined, only 72 rflp haplotypes were identified, and nearly half the isolates were represented by the five most common haplotypes. individuals with identical haplotypes were geographically dispersed, and clone-corrected te ...199718945062
populations of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum associated with roots of four plant species compared to soilborne populations.abstract the effect of the plant on the diversity of soilborne populations of fusarium oxysporum was assessed after successive cultures of flax, melon, tomato, and wheat in separate samples of the same soil. forty soil-borne isolates of f. oxysporum and forty root-colonizing isolates of each plant species were sampled during the first (t0) and fourth (t1) cultures. the population structures were assessed by a genotypic method based on restriction fragment analysis of polymerase chain reaction-am ...199718945090
genetic diversity in the plant-pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum. 199718945129
identification of the naturally occurring flavin of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum as a 5-nitrobutyl-fad and conversion of the enzyme to the active fad-containing form.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the uv-visible absorbance spectrum of the purified enzyme shows a single absorption peak at 336 nm with an extinction coefficient of 7.4 mm-1 cm-1. upon denaturation of the enzyme at ph 7.0, a stoichiometric amount of fad is released. the spectral properties of the enzyme as isolated are consistent with an n(5) adduct of the flavin. this is not due to ...19979038163
oxysporidinone: a novel, antifungal n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone from fusarium oxysporum.oxysporidinone (1), a novel 3,5-disubstituted n-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyridone, was isolated from fermentations of fusarium oxysporum (cbs 330.95) by counter-current chromatography. the structure was determined by spectroscopic methods including nmr, ms, ir, and uv analysis. oxysporidinone exhibited growth inhibitory activity against several common plant pathogenic fungi.19979014349
uncommon clinical patterns of fusarium nail infection: report of three cases.three cases of proximal subungual onychomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum, including a patient with a fingernail infection, are described. all patients were immunocompetent and presented with acute paronychia associated with proximal or total leukonychia of the affected nails. nail avulsion followed by topical treatment produced clinical and mycological cure. the literature on fusarium onychomycosis is discussed. the combination of proximal subungual onychomycosis with subacute or acute paronych ...19979115931
fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics produced by bacillus polymyxa kt-8: isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity.fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics, have been isolated as minor components from the culture broth of bacillus polymyxa kt-8 which was obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. the structure of fusaricidin b has been elucidated mainly by various nmr experiments coupled with amino acid analysis in relation to fusaricidin a, the main component of the complex, whose structure was reported previously. the fraction consisting ...19979127193
crystallization, preliminary diffraction and electron paramagnetic resonance studies of a single crystal of cytochrome p450nor.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is a heme-containing nitric oxide reductase from the denitrifying fungus, fusarium oxysporum. this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of no to n2o. in the present study, we report results from preliminary crystallographic and electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) analysis of a single crystal of p450nor. the crystal was grown in 100 mm mes buffer at ph 5.6 using peg 4000 as a precipitant. it belongs to the orthorhombic system with cell dimensions of a = 54.99 a, b = 82.66 ...19979256249
flipper, a mobile fot1-like transposable element in botrytis cinerea.a transposable element, flipper, was isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. the element was identified as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene. the flipper sequence is 1842 bp long with perfect inverted terminal repeats (itrs) of 48 bp and an open reading frame (orf) of 533 amino acids, potentially encoding for a transposase; the element is flanked by the dinucleotide ta. the encoded protein is very similar to the putative transposases ...19979202383
unusual clinical features of fingernail infection by fusarium oxysporum.four cases of invasion of fingernails caused by fusarium oxysporum are described. the typical picture of onychomycosis by this non-dermatophytic mould is a 'white superficial onychomycosis' which usually affects the great toenail. only few cases of fingernail infections by this organism have been described in the literature and, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases on the pustulous and eczema-like aspect of paronychia by fusarium oxysporum. we report different and unusual clinical featu ...19979470412
synthetic peptide combinatorial libraries: a method for the identification of bioactive peptides against phytopathogenic fungi.synthetic combinatorial libraries were evaluated with an iterative process to identify a hexapeptide with broadspectrum activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi. a d-amino acid hexapeptide (frlkfh) and pentapeptide (frlhf) exhibited activity against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group 1), ceratocystis fagacearum, and pythium ultimum. the peptides showed no hemolytic or mutagenic activity. fluorescent microscopy studies with a membrane impermeant dy ...19979204560
in vitro antifungal activity of pneumocandin l-743,872 against a variety of clinically important molds.the in vitro activity of the new antifungal drug pneumocandin l-743,872 against 55 isolates of clinically important molds was examined by an adapted macrobroth dilution method for yeasts. pneumocandin l-743,872 exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against alternaria sp., aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, curvularia lunata, exophiala jeanselmei, fonsecaea pedrosoi, paecilomyces variotii, and scedosporium apiospermum. the drug appeared to lack significant in vitro inhibitory activity ag ...19979257774
the effect of different pectic growth substrates on beta-glucosidase in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici: partial purification and characterization.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici produces beta-glucosidase activities when it grows on pectin and glucose. the pectins were better substrates than glucose. in the medium containing galacturonic acid or sucrose the activity was present in low levels and at the end of autolysis. a beta-glucosidase from the pectin medium was purified by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. the enzyme was a unique band of protein in sds-page and isoelectric focussing. it had a molecul ...19979258944
hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid by fusarium species.a novel compound, 1 beta-hydroxydehydroabietic acid has been obtained by the microbial transformation of dehydroabietic acid, using cultures of fusarium oxysporum and f. moniliforme. its antibacterial activity was also tested.19979276983
linear mitochondrial plasmids of fusarium oxysporum contain genes with sequence similarity to genes encoding a reverse transcriptase from neurospora spp.two linear mitochondrial plasmids called pfoxc1 and pfoxc2 from the fungus fusarium oxysporum were previously described. dna sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequences of both plasmids exhibit similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the mauriceville and varkud plasmids of neurospora spp. the derived amino acid sequence of pfoxc2 has 51% similarity and 32% identity to the neurospora reverse transcriptase; sequence similarity was greatest for seven blocks of amino acid ...19979251222
the alkaline xylanase iii from fusarium oxysporum f3 belongs to family f/10.xylanase iii from fusarium oxysporum f3 was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. the enzyme has a molecular mass of 38 kda, an isoelectric point of 9.5, and is maximally active on oat spelt xylan at ph 7 and 45 degrees c with a km of 0.8 mg/ml. the xylanase displays remarkable stability at ph 9.0. it is not active on xylotriose but hydrolyzes the 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides of beta-xylobiose and beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-xylopyranose, and to a ...19979291571
synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some new 2-substituted benzoxazole/benzothiazole derivatives.in the search for new antimicrobial compounds, several new sulfur bearing heterobicyclic moieties (4-11) have been synthesized by acylation and alkylation of acetamide, thioacetamide and semicarbazide derivatives. the structure of the products was deduced from elemental analyses as well as spectral data (ir, 1h nmr and ms). significant antimicrobial activities were obtained for all new compounds especially against fusarium oxysporum.19979292916
invasive fusarium infections: a retrospective survey of 31 cases. the french 'groupe d'etudes des mycoses opportunistes' gemo.a retrospective study was conducted in france to investigate fusarium infections which are now recognized as emerging opportunistic infections. the clinical and mycological findings for 31 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 1993 by members of the french groupe d'etudes des mycoses opportunistes were analysed. all suffered from haematological disease, most often acute leucaemia (n = 19). twenty-two had received cytostatic chemotherapy and ten had undergone bone marrow transplantation. prolonged apl ...19979147270
transformation of botrytis cinerea with the nitrate reductase gene (niad) shows a high frequency of homologous recombination.the nitrate reductase (niad) gene was isolated from the phytopathogenic ascomycete botrytis cinerea using a probe obtained by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to domains conserved among three fungal nitrate reductases. the b. cinerea niad gene encodes a predicted protein of 907 amino acids and contains no intron. nitrate reductase-deficient mutants of b. cinerea have been isolated. one of them was transformed with the niad genes of fusarium oxyspor ...19979294265
characterization of hydroperoxides and carbonyl compounds obtained by lipoxygenase extracts of selected microorganisms.partially purified lipoxygenase (lox) extracts were obtained from fusarium proliferatum, fusarium oxysporum, chlorella pyrenoidosa, and saccharomyces cerevisiae; the enzymatic extract of f. proliferatum showed the highest lox activity while those of f. oxysporum and s. cerevisiae demonstrated only 27.8 and 16.5% of the activity at ph 8.0, and 61.2 and 9.7% of the enzyme activity at ph 10.0, respectively. the lowest lox activity was that in the c. pyrenoidosa extract. the microbial enzymatic prep ...19979301105
polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) with different specificities are expressed in phaseolus vulgaris.the pgip-1 gene of phaseolus vulgaris, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip), pgip-1 (p. toubart, a. desiderio, g. salvi, f. cervone, l. daroda, g. de lorenzo, c. bergmann, a. g. darvill, and p. albersheim, plant j. 2:367-373, 1992), was expressed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter in tomato plants via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. transgenic tomato plants with different expression levels of pgip-1 were used in infection experiments w ...19979304859
transfer of an autonomously replicating vector between vegetatively incompatible biotypes of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.previous research has indicated that biotypes a and b of collectotrichum gloeosporioides that infect stylosanthes spp. in australia are asexual and vegetatively incompatible. selectable marker genes conferring resistance either to hygromycin or phleomycin were introduced into isolates of these biotypes. vectors conferring resistance to hygromycin and carrying telomeric sequences from fusarium oxysporum replicated autonomously in c. gloesoporioides and gave frequencies of transformation 100-times ...19979309172
crystal structure of nitric oxide reductase from denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum.structures of nitric oxide reductase (nor) in the ferric resting and the ferrous co states have been solved at 2.0 a resolution. these structures provide significant new insights into how no is reduced in biological systems. the haem distal pocket is open to solvent, implicating this region as a possible nadh binding site. in combination with mutagenesis results, a hydrogen-bonding network from the water molecule adjacent to the iron ligand to the protein surface of the distal pocket through the ...19979334748
fungal p450nor: expression in escherichia coli and site-directed mutageneses at the putative distal region.p450nor, nitric oxide reductase from fusarium oxysporum, was expressed in the soluble fraction of escherichia coli cells by modifying the n-terminal codons and utilizing the pcw vector. the modified p450nor purified to electrophoretic homogeneity had spectral and enzymatic properties identical to those of native p450nor obtained from the fungi. residues 239 to 247 of the modified p450nor were replaced with lys by site-directed mutagenesis. thr-243 to his- and arg-mutants were also created. among ...19979016831
identification of the catalytic nucleophile of endoglucanase i from fusarium oxysporum by mass spectrometry.the endoglucanase eg i from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose via a double-displacement mechanism involving the formation and hydrolysis of a glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. treatment of eg i with 2',4'-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-d-cellobioside results in the time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme (k(i) = 1.36 min(-1), ki = 0.88 mm) via trapping of a covalent 2-deoxy-2-fluorocellobiosyl-enzyme intermediate. this intermediate is, however, catalytically competent u ...19979153431
structure of the endoglucanase i from fusarium oxysporum: native, cellobiose, and 3,4-epoxybutyl beta-d-cellobioside-inhibited forms, at 2.3 a resolution.the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic degradation of cellulose are of great ecological and commercial importance. the breakdown of cellulose by fungal species is performed by a consortium of free enzymes, known as cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases, which are found in many of the 57 glycosyl hydrolase families. the structure of the endoglucanase i (eg i), found in glycosyl hydrolase family 7, from the thermophilic fungus fusarium oxysporum has been solved at 2.3 a resolution. in addition t ...19979153432
molecular cloning, structural analysis, and expression in escherichia coli of a chitinase gene from enterobacter agglomerans.the gene chia, which codes for endochitinase, was cloned from a soilborne enterobacter agglomerans. its complete sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme designated chia_entag yielded an open reading frame coding for 562 amino acids of a 61-kda precursor protein with a putative leader peptide at its n terminus. the nucleotide and polypeptide sequences of chia_entag showed 86.8 and 87.7% identity with the corresponding gene and enzyme, chia_serma, of serratia mar ...19979055404
endoglucanase production by paper-degrading mycoflora.fourteen fungal species, namely aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. niger, a. ustus, penicillium islandicum, p. wortmannii, memnoniella echinata, cladosporium herbarum, stachybotrys atra, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, torula herbarum, alternaria alternata and curvularia uncinata were isolated from different grades of paper. they differ in their distribution on various kinds of paper and also in relative occurrence. while seasonal influence on mycoflora was observed, most of the mould ...19979418063
the 24-kda protein from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production.a 24-kda protein that elicits ethylene production and necrosis in leaves of dicotyledonous plants was previously purified from culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum schlechtend:fr. f.sp. erythroxyli. antisera to the denatured 24-kda protein detected 2.5 ng of the 24-kda protein on western blots at 100000-fold dilutions. the antisera cross-reacted with a 24-kda protein on western blots of culture filtrates from three other f. oxysporum formae speciales. of seven fusarium species, only f. oxyspo ...19979057295
purification and characterization of an antifungal pr-5 protein from pumpkin leaves.a 28-kda antifungal pr-5 protein (pltp) was purified from pumpkin leaves to homogeneity by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, a regenerated chitin column, and reversed-phase column chromatographies on butyl-toyopearl and hplc c18 columns. analysis of 14 n-terminal amino acid sequences of pltp shows 100% sequence identity to those of two pr-5 proteins, np24 from tomatoes and ap24 from tobacco. the identical sequence also exhibited high amino acid sequence homology to that of an osmotin-like pr ...19979163735
in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental fusarium spp. strains.the mics of amphotericin b, miconazole, ketoconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole and fluconazole for 19 isolates of fusarium oxysporum, 16 fusarium solani, seven fusarium verticilliodes, four fusarium proliferatum, four fusarium dimerum, three fusarium equiseti, and one each of the following species: fusarium graminearum, fusarium chlamydosporum, fusarium semitectum, fusarium avenaceum and fusarium subglutinans were determined by a broth microdilution method. thirty-eight of these isolates were o ...19979069536
functional and structural comparison of nitric oxide reductases from denitrifying fungi cylindrocarpon tonkinense and fusarium oxysporum.two isozymes of nitric oxide reductase (nor) from the denitrifying fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense (c.nor1 and c.nor2) are the heme-enzyme cytochrome p-450's (usuda et al. (1995) appl. environ. microbiol. 61, 883-889). however, they catalyze the no reduction to n2o, but not the monooxygenation reaction using o2. we kinetically and spectrophotometrically studied the reactions of the two nor's with no and electron donor, nad(p)h, using flash-photolysis and stopped-flow rapid scan methods. the enz ...19979074619
nht1, a transposable element cloned from a dispensable chromosome in nectria haematococca.certain isolates of the plant-pathogenic fungus nectria haematococca mating population vi (mpvi) contain dispensable chromosomes that are unstable during sexual reproduction. several of these chromosomes carry genes for phytoalexin detoxification and thus contribute to the pathogenic potential of this organism. a repeated dna sequence, nht1, was cloned from one of these dispensable chromosomes in n. haematococca mpvi. one copy of the repeated element (nht1a) was completely sequenced. it is 2,198 ...19979245836
evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives.the antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from the fruit hulls of garcinia mangostana and some derivatives of mangostin against three phytopathogenic fungi, fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum, alternaria tenuis, and dreschlera oryzae, has been evaluated. the natural xanthones showed good inhibitory activity against the three fungi. substitution in the a and c rings has been shown to modify the bioactivities of the compounds.19979213587
fungal microflora biodiversity as a function of pollution in oued sebou (morocco).an inventory of the fungal microflora present in sediments collected at 11 sites along oued sebou has been established. the influence of some climatic parameters (temperature, rainfall) and of pollution on the composition of the fungal communities has been questioned. emericella nidulans, eurotium amstelodami, neosartotya fisheri var. glabrum (ascomycetes), dreschslera biseptata (dematiaceae), penicillium citrinum (mucedinaceae) and phoma sp. (sphaeropsidale) can be considered as strains sensiti ...19979253167
ests reveal a multigene family for plant defensins in arabidopsis thaliana.plant defensins, formerly named gamma-thionins, are a group of small, cysteine-rich, basic, and antimicrobial plant proteins. random sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ests) in arabidopsis thaliana has revealed several different plant defensin genes in this plant species which can be grouped into two subfamilies. we have used one est of each subfamily to study the expression of the corresponding genes in a. thaliana. pdf2.3 is constitutively expressed in seedlings, rosettes, flowers, and sil ...19979001391
overexpression of an endogenous thionin enhances resistance of arabidopsis against fusarium oxysporum.thionins are antimicrobial proteins that are thought to be involved in plant defense. concordant with this view, we have recently shown that the arabidopsis thionin thi2.1 gene is inducible by phytopathogenic fungi. here, we demonstrate that constitutive overexpression of this thionin enhances the resistance of the susceptible ecotype columbia (col-2) against attack by fusarium oxysporum f sp matthiolae. transgenic lines had a reduced loss of chlorophyll after inoculation and supported significa ...19979144959
physiological and biochemical characterization of trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.monoconidial cultures of 15 isolates of trichoderma harzianum were characterized on the basis of 82 morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and 99 isoenzyme bands from seven enzyme systems. the results were subjected to numerical analysis which revealed four distinct groups. representative sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (its 1)-its 2 region in the ribosomal dna gene cluster were compared between groups confirming this distribution. the utility of the groupings gene ...19979251205
the i2c family from the wilt disease resistance locus i2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. members of a new multigene family, complex i2c, were isolated by map-based cloning from the i2 f. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. the genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolat ...19979144960
differential induction of systemic resistance in arabidopsis by biocontrol bacteria.selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing bacteria are able to elicit induced systemic resistance (isr) in plants. to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this type of systemic resistance, an arabidopsis-based model system was developed in which pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani were used as challenging pathogens. in arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes columbia and landsberg erecta, colonization of the rhizosphere by p. fluorescens strain wcs417r induced syst ...19979245833
[a cutaneous ulcer induced by fungi of the genus fusarium].a case of cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis, due to fusarium oxysporum, in a 40 years old man is presented. the patient came from paraguay where he worked in a tropical rural area. his disease had begun 2 months before his admission as a skin ulcer located in the left leg. clinical characteristics, diagnosis methods, differential diagnosis with other ulcers of the legs in tropical areas as well as therapeutic measures are discussed in this presentation.19979265228
detection of tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in infected tomato plants.the antifungal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine of the tomato plant (lycopersicon esculentum) is proposed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a vascular pathogen of tomato, produces a tomatinase enzyme which hydrolyses the glycoalkaloid into non-fungitoxic compounds. detoxification of alpha-tomatine may be how this fungus avoids the plant glycoalkaloid barrier. as an initial step to evaluate this possibility we have studied the induction of toma ...19979237400
detection of cross-reactive antigens shared by fusarium oxysporum and glycine max by indirect elisa and their cellular location in root tissues.pathogenicity test of fusarium oxysporum on ten cultivars of soybean revealed soymax and punjab-1 to be most resistant while js-2 and upsm-19 were most susceptible. antigens were prepared from the roots of all the ten varieties of soybean and the mycelium of f. oxysporum. polyclonal antisera were raised against the mycelial suspension of f. oxysporum and the root antigen of the susceptible cultivar upsm-19. cross reactive antigens shared by the host and the pathogen were detected first by immuno ...19979438359
fusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics produced by bacillus polymyxa kt-8: isolation, structure elucidation and biological activityfusaricidins b, c and d, new depsipeptide antibiotics, have been isolated as minor components from the culture broth of bacillus polymyxa kt-8 which was obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. the structure of fusaricidin b has been elucidated mainly by various nmr experiments coupled with amino acid analysis in relation to fusaricidin a, the main component of the complex, whose structure was reported previously. the fraction consisting ...19979439693
control of polygalacturonase synthesis in fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici.genetic control of polygalacturonase (pg) activity from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was analyzed on pectin and glucose cultures. one exopolygalacturonase from f. oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici was strongly induced, in stationary culture, when the fungus was grown on apple pectin, while on glucose no extracellular pg activity could be detected. although sds-page detected the presence of a putative pg band (66 kda) in both conditions, specific antibodies obtained against the ...19979436311
purification and characterization of a cytosolic cytochrome p450 from yeast trichosporon cutaneum.a soluble cytochrome p450 from the yeast trichosporon cutaneum was purified to homogeneity, using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) with deae-cellulose and phenyl-sepharose columns. this procedure resulted in a 45-fold increase in specific activity with an activity yield of 6.8%. one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the purified enzyme was homogeneous and had a molecular mass of 45 kda. t ...19979311133
purification and characterization of a flavohemoglobin from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum.a flavohemoprotein was purified to homogeneity from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum. the purified protein existed as a monomer with a molecular weight of 44 kda. it was purified in an oxidized form and exhibited the absorption maxima at 401, 540 and 643 nm in its resting form, and at 434 and 555 nm upon reduction with dithionite, respectively. the protein contained 0.5 mol protoheme/mol and 1.1 mol fad/mol, respectively. when the resting flavohemoprotein was aerobically incubated with ...19979323032
the course of pectin degradation by polygalacturonases from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici.the production of polygalacturonases from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (forl) occurred sequentially, and endo- and exo-polygalacturonases (pg) predominated at different times during growth. at first forl produced a pg which did not release monomers from pectins and was unable to hydrolyse dimers and trimers. later a complex was produced in which exo-pg seemed to be the predominant activity; the monomer was released rapidly and this activity was able to degrade dimers and trimers ...19979467919
effect of water activity, modified atmosphere packaging and storage temperature on spore germination of moulds isolated from prunes.the combined effect of medium water activity (aw) modified atmosphere packaging (map) on the conidial germination of aspergillus niger, eurotium amstelodami, penicillium chrysogenum and fusarium oxysporum was studied by applying response surface methodology (rsm) for 45 days incubation at 20, 30 and 40 degrees c. oxytetracycline glucose yeast extract (ogye) agar media were prepared over a wide range of aw (0.80-0.95), controlled by glucose. the headspace atmosphere composition varied from 0-20% ...19979081224
[presence of fusarium oxysporum in induced sputum from a patient with heatstroke. case report.]. 199717655392
the evolutionary biology of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is an anamorphic species that includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. plant pathogenic forms cause a wilt disease and are grouped into formae speciales based on their host range; some are further subdivided into pathogenic races. many formae speciales are comprised of multiple clonal lineages and, in some cases, a pathogenic race is associated with more than one clonal lineage, suggesting independent origins. although some evidence suggests one pathogenic race may ...199715012517
incidence and distribution of fusarium species associated with feeds and seeds from spain.samples of seeds and feeds (corn-based and mixed) were collected during surveys in 1991-92 and 1992-93 from two regions of spain, one in northern spain where the annual rainfall is over 900 mm, and the other in southeastern spain where the annual rainfall is about 400 mm. the level of fusarium contamination was determined in the 657 samples analysed, and results were analysed statistically to assess the effects of type of sample and meteorological conditions on fusarium proliferation. the predom ...199817655403
comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole sch56592 and the echinocandins mk-0991 (l-743,872) and ly303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts.the in vitro antifungal activities of sch56592, mk-0991, and ly303366 against 83 isolates of acremonium strictum, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, bipolaris spp., blastomyces dermatitidis, cladophialophora bantiana, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, histoplasma capsulatum, phialophora spp., pseudallescheria boydii, rhizopus arrhizus, scedosporium prolificans, and sporothrix schenckii were compared. the in vitro activities of these agents against 104 isolates of ...19989738049
insertional mutagenesis of pathogenic fungi.screening insertional mutants for loss of virulence is an effective method for investigating the molecular genetic basis of bacterial pathogenesis, but has only recently been applied to fungal pathogens. for many pathogenic fungi transformation with heterologous plasmid dna results in complex integration events. this problem can now be circumvented for some species using restriction enzyme mediated integration. insertional mutagenesis of fusarium oxysporum using the naturally occurring fungal tr ...199810066509
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction study of lactonohydrolase from fusarium oxysporum.the lactonohydrolase from the fungus fusarium oxysporum aku 3702 was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion procedure in the presence of polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. the crystals belong to the monoclinic space group p21 with unit-cell parameters a = 156, b = 100, c = 94.1 a, beta = 91.7 degrees. assuming that there are two lactonohydrolase-dimer molecules in the asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit molecular mass, vm, is calculated to be 2.94 a3 da-1.199810089529
fungicidal properties, sterol binding, and proteolytic resistance of the synthetic peptide d4e1.the fungicidal properties of the synthetic peptide d4e1 were studied with nongerminated and germinating conidia of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, fusarium moniliforme, and fusarium oxysporum. the minimal lethal concentrations (mlc) needed to kill 100% of germinating conidia of a. fumigatus, a. flavus, and a. niger were 12.5, 12.5, and 25 microm, respectively. the mlc value for nongerminated and germinating conidia of both fusarium spp. was 3.0 microm. except for a. ...19989734302
multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. previous work has indicated that f. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. in this study we tested whether lineages of the panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing dna sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. dna sequences ...19989482835
three highly divergent subfamilies of the impala transposable element coexist in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the transposable element impala is a member of the widespread superfamily of tc1-mariner transposons, identified in the genome of the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum. this element is present in a low copy number and is actively transposed in the f. oxysporum strain f24 that is pathogenic for melons. the structure of the impala family was investigated by cloning and sequencing all the genomic copies. the analysis revealed that this family is composed of full-length and truncated copies ...19989790589
antifungal activities of rapamycin and its derivatives, prolylrapamycin, 32-desmethylrapamycin, and 32-desmethoxyrapamycin.the antifungal agent rapamycin is highly effective in inhibiting growth of yeast and mold strains. this study demonstrates that in liquid medium, rapamycin is more active than its derivatives (prolylrapamycin, 32-desmethylrapamycin, 32-desmethoxyrapamycin) against candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae, and fusarium oxysporum. all the rapamycins were more active than amphotericin b. although four other molds were not inhibited in liquid medium, they were very sensitive to rapamycin and its d ...19989666177
change of biotransformation steps of formaldehyde cycle in water-melon plants after infection with fusarium oxysporum.recent experiments indicate that the measurable formaldehyde (hcho) level is considerably elevated in the parts of water-melon plants immediately after a nonlethal infection with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. at the same time the level of some quaternary ammonium compounds (n(epsilon)-trimethyl-l-lysine, choline) as potential hcho generators (gene products) is considerably decreased. that is probably due to the fact that the alarm reaction phase of this biotic stress syndrome includes an int ...199810526980
bacterial-fungal biofilms in flowing water photo-processing tanks.a complex seven species model community, including bacteria and fungi, was selected from organisms isolated from the walls of an industrial flowing water system. growth rates of the species were determined in single and mixed batch culture growth. the rates were found to be significantly higher in mixed culture for pseudomonas alcaligenes and flavobacterium indologenes and higher in single culture for xanthomonas maltophilia, rhodotorula glutinis and fusarium solani, whereas no significant diffe ...19989633659
identification and cloning of prs a 1, a 32-kda endochitinase and major allergen of avocado, and its expression in the yeast pichia pastoris.avocado, the fruit of the tropical tree persea americana, is a source of allergens that can elicit diverse ige-mediated reactions including anaphylaxis in sensitized individuals. we characterized a 32-kda major avocado allergen, prs a 1, which is recognized by 15 out of 20 avocado- and/or latex-allergic patients. natural prs a 1 was purified, and its n-terminal and two tryptic peptide sequences were determined. we isolated the prs a 1 encoding cdna by pcr using degenerate primers and 5'-rapid am ...19989774427
lactone-ring-cleaving enzyme: genetic analysis, novel rna editing, and evolutionary implications.a lactonohydrolase from fusarium oxysporum aku 3702 is an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of aldonate lactones to the corresponding aldonic acids. the amino acid sequences of the nh2 terminus and internal peptide fragments of the enzyme were determined to prepare synthetic oligonucleotides as primers for the pcr. an approximate 1, 000-base genomic dna fragment thus amplified was used as the probe to clone both genomic dna and cdna for the enzyme. the lactonohydrolase genomic gene consists of si ...19989788992
molecular characterization and expression of a phytase gene from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus.the phya gene encoding an extracellular phytase from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus was cloned and heterologously expressed, and the recombinant gene product was biochemically characterized. the phya gene encodes a primary translation product (phya) of 475 amino acids (aa) which includes a putative signal peptide (23 aa) and propeptide (10 aa). the deduced amino acid sequence of phya has limited sequence identity (ca. 47%) with aspergillus niger phytase. the phya gene was insert ...19989797301
benzothiadiazole-mediated induced resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomatobenzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methyl ester (bth), a synthetic chemical, was applied as a foliar spray to tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants and evaluated for its potential to confer increased resistance against the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl). in nontreated tomato plants all root tissues were massively colonized by forl hyphae. pathogen ingress toward the vascular stele was accompanied by severe host cell alterations, including c ...19989847094
alteration of cell-wall composition of fusarium oxysporum by copper stress.a strain of fusarium oxysporum tolerated copper in the growth medium at concentrations up to 600 mg/l. the optimum growth was obtained at 200 mg cu/l. the mycelium acquired a blue color in the presence of copper. the copper content of isolated cell walls obtained from mycelium grown in the presence of 600 mg cu/l was 1.5 times higher than that of cell walls obtained from mycelium grown at 200 mg cu/l and it contained 2.2 and 3.3% copper at 200 and 600 mg cu/l, respectively. the amount of protein ...19989867478
systemic and local induction of an arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens.the arabidopsis thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. the promoter was fused to the uida gene and stably transformed into arabidopsis to study its regulation. gus expression levels correlated with the steady-state levels of thi2.1 mrna, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the thi2.1 gene. the sensitivity of the thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and ino ...19989628023
reduction in the growth of non-dermatophyte moulds by itraconazole: evaluation by corneofungimetry assay.the activity of itraconazole against fungi of dermatological importance was studied using corneofungimetry performed on four test organisms: aspergillus flavus, fusarium oxysporum, scopulariopsis brevicaulis and scytalidium dimidiatum. the human stratum corneum used in the bioassay was harvested from healthy volunteers and from patients undergoing treatment with itraconazole 200 mg daily for at least 2 weeks. a fungal mycelium grew on all untreated stratum corneum samples within 1 week. the patt ...19989919887
tfo1: an ac-like transposon from the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.a transposable element from a plant pathogenic fungus, fusarium oxrysporum, was isolated and characterized. four clones carrying moderately repetitive dna were selected from a genomic library of the strain maff305118 of f. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae, which causes wilt of bottle gourd. one the four clones was found to include a transposable element, which we have named tfo1. this element is 2763 bp in size and appears to contain a long orf that can encode a polypeptide of 777 amino acids. the am ...19989671028
organochlorine compounds from a terrestrial higher plant: structures and origin of chlorinated orcinol derivatives from diseased bulbs of lilium maximowiczii.seven chlorine-containing orcinol derivatives (2-8) and orcinol (9) have been isolated from diseased bulbs of the edible lily lilium maximowiczii, and their structures have been elucidated. six of the chlorinated orcinol derivatives (2, 4-8) showed antifungal activity. because organochlorine compounds are rare in terrestrial higher plants, their biosynthetic origin was examined. these compounds were shown to be induced in intact bulb scales by uv irradiation or by inoculation with the pathogenic ...19989677274
transformation of penicillium griseoroseum nitrate reductase mutant with the nia gene from fusarium oxysporum.a heterologous transformation system for penicillium griseoroseum has been developed. this system is based on nia, the structural gene from fusarium oxysporum encoding nitrate reductase. penicillium griseoroseum niad mutants have been selected from chlorate-resistant colonies. among 24 chlorate-resistant colonies analyzed, 2 were confirmed to be niad mutants. transformation frequencies of 8 transformants/microgram of dna were obtained. dna hybridization analyses of five transformants showed dist ...19989699303
in vitro activity of voriconazole against selected fungi.fifty-nine isolates consisting of 14 genera and 33 species of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and zygomycetes were tested against amphotericin b, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole using an in vitro modified macrobroth dilution procedure based upon the nccls m27-a standard method for yeasts. the triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole had similar mic values, except for acremonium alabamensis, a. strictum, fusarium oxysporum, f. solani and wangiella dermatitidis, which had substantially lowe ...19989776841
systemic fusarium oxysporum infection in an immunocompetent patient with an adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ecmo).we report a case of disseminated fusariosis in a 42-year-old patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ards) and extracorporal membrane oxygenation (ecmo), but without definite immunosuppression. fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a bronchial lavage taken 6 days ante mortem. despite antifungal treatment with amphotericin b and flucytosine the patient died in septic multiorgan failure. a post-mortem examination was performed. the patient's liver was found to contain fungus cells and f. ...19989670761
fot 1 insertions in the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome provide diagnostic pcr targets for detection of the date palm pathogen.populations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar fot 1 hybridization patterns. in order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for f. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several dna clones containing a copy of the transposable element fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences we ...19989464402
ethylene regulates the susceptible response to pathogen infection in tomato.ethylene evolution occurs concomitantly with the progression of disease symptoms in response to many virulent pathogen infections in plants. a tomato mutant impaired in ethylene perception-never ripe-exhibited a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to the wild type after inoculations of both genotypes with virulent bacterial (xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria and pseudomonas syringae pv tomato) and fungal (fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici) pathogens. bacterial spot dise ...19989501111
cloning, expression, and role in pathogenicity of pg1 encoding the major extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum.pg1 encoding the major in vitro extracellular endopolygalacturonase of the tomato vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was cloned and sequenced. the deduced mature protein had a calculated molecular mass of 35.5 kda and a pi of 6.2, and showed significant similarity with other fungal endopgs. pg1 mrna was induced in vitro by citrus pectin, tomato vascular tissue, 0.1% d-galacturonic acid, and polygalacturonic acid, and repressed by 1% d-galacturonic acid and 1% glucose. r ...19989450333
endopolygalacturonase pg1 in different formae speciales of fusarium oxysporumpg1, the major endopolygalacturonase of the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum, was secreted during growth on pectin by 10 of 12 isolates belonging to seven formae speciales, as determined with isoelectric focusing zymograms and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. a southern analysis of genomic dna and pcr performed with gene-specific primers revealed that the pg1 locus was highly conserved structurally in most isolates. two pg1-deficient isolates were identifi ...19989572983
factors affecting the specificity of beta-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum in enzymatic synthesis of alkyl-beta-d-glucosides.fusarium oxysporum beta-glucosidase has been used to catalyze the production of alkyl-beta-d-glucosides from various disaccharides, based on the transglucosylation reaction, in the presence of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as glucosyl acceptors. primary alcohols were found to be the best acceptors. the influence of the glucosyl donor concentration, as well as the enzyme specificity towards the cleaved glucosidic bond and the aglucone part of the donor, have also been investigated. the ...19989585887
differential induction of the arabidopsis thaliana thi2.1 gene by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae.the arabidopsis thaliana thi2.1 gene is inducible by necrotrophic fungi through a signal transduction pathway different from that for pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins. we have identified three ecotypes that are susceptible (col-2, ler, and ws) and two ecotypes that are resistant (mt-0 and uk-4) to spray inoculation with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae. the thi2.1 transcript level after infection correlates with resistance, being 5 to 10 times higher in the resistant than in the susceptibl ...19989612950
dissection of the fusarium i2 gene cluster in tomato reveals six homologs and one active gene copy.the i2 locus in tomato confers resistance to race 2 of the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici. the selective restriction fragment amplification (aflp) positional cloning strategy was used to identify i2 in the tomato genome. a yeast artificial chromosome (yac) clone covering approximately 750 kb encompassing the i2 locus was isolated, and the aflp technique was used to derive tightly linked aflp markers from this yac clone. genetic complementation analysis in transgenic r1 pla ...19989634592
skin and nail infections due to fusarium oxysporum in tuscany, italy.nine cases of skin and nail infection due to fusarium oxysporum, diagnosed in tuscany in the period 1985-97, are described. two manifested as interdigital intertrigo of the feet and seven as onychomycosis. all were diagnosed on the basis of repeated mycological examination, direct microscope observation and culture, as well as histological examination of biopsy specimens in two cases of intertrigo. fragments of the fungal colonies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (sem) for more deta ...19989916472
biochemical and physical characterization of the active fad-containing form of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the enzyme has a molecular weight of 47 955 +/- 39, as determined by maldi-tof mass spectrometry; under nondenaturing conditions, the aggregation state of the enzyme is best described by a tetramer-dimer self-associating model, with an association constant of (8.5 +/- 4.4) x 10(6) m-1 (ph 7.0 and 4 degreesc). the amino acid composition and the n-termi ...19989558355
in vitro activity of the new triazole voriconazole (uk-109,496) against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and common and emerging yeast pathogens.the in vitro antifungal activity of a new triazole derivative, voriconazole, was compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin b against 67 isolates of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, bipolaris spp., fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, pseudallescheria boydii, rhizopus arrhizus, blastomyces dermatitidis, histoplasma capsulatum, and sporothrix schenckii. the in vitro activities of voriconazole were also compared with those of amphotericin b, fluconazole, and itraconazole agains ...19989431946
characterization of the antigenic determinant on fusarium oxysporum recognized by a genus-specific monoclonal antibody.the antigenic determinant of a monoclonal antibody (mab) (api9-2) having specific reactivity with the fungi grouped into the genus fusarium was analyzed. the culture supernatant of the fungi showed antigenicity against mab api9-2, proving that the antigen exists as an exoantigen. the heat-resistant, proteinase k-resistant and periodate oxidation-labile features of the antigenic determinant indicated its carbohydrate nature. also, lectin affinity tests and thin-layer chromatography analysis sugge ...199812501292
interactions of pratylenchus thornei and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris on chickpea.abstract fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and the root-lesion nematode pratylenchus thornei coinfect chickpeas in southern spain. the influence of root infection by p. thornei on the reaction of fusarium wilt-susceptible (cps 1 and pv 61) and wilt-resistant (uc 27) chickpea cultivars to f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5 was investigated under controlled and field conditions. severity of fusarium wilt was not modified by coinfection of chickpeas by p. thornei and f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, in ...199818944890
genetic variation among vegetative compatibility groups of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense analyzed by dna fingerprinting.abstract genetic variation within a worldwide collection of 208 isolates of fu-sarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, representing physiological races 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the 20 reported vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs), was analyzed using modified dna amplification fingerprinting. also characterized were 133 isolates that did not belong to any of the reported vcgs of f. oxysporum f. sp. cubense including race 3 isolates from a heliconia species and isolates from a symptomatic wild banana species ...199818944830
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