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sambutoxin, a new mycotoxin produced by toxic fusarium isolates obtained from rotted potato tubers.ninety-nine isolates of fusarium species were obtained from rotted potato tubers from various parts of korea. of these isolates, 80 were identified as fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, or f. sambucinum. the isolates of these species were grown on autoclaved wheat grains and examined for toxicity in a rat-feeding test. a total of 8 of 57 f. oxysporum isolates, 3 of 14 f. solani isolates, and 5 of 9 f. sambucinum isolates caused the death of the rats. of the 16 toxic isolates, 1 isolate of f. oxyspor ...19947811078
mechanism of resistance to the antibiotic trichothecin in the producing fungi.trichothecium roseum, an imperfecti fungus producer of the translation inhibitor trichothecin, is constitutively resistant to its product. fusarium oxysporum, a fungi not described as a toxin producer, is sensitive to trichothecin but becomes resistant when grown in the presence of the drug. in both cases, the resistance occurs at the level of the ribosomes. in cell-free polypeptide polymerization systems, trichothecin resistance is associated with the presence of 60s subunits from the resistant ...19948055913
the use of conserved cellulase family-specific sequences to clone cellulase homologue cdnas from fusarium oxysporum.five cdnas from the cellulolytic fungi fusarium oxysporum that code for five distinct cellulase homologues have been cloned and sequenced. the cloning strategy exploited the hydrophobic cluster analysis-based cellulase family classification of henrissat and bairoch [biochem. j. 293 (1993) 781-788] to design degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotides (oligos) that encoded amino-acid sequences conserved in an intra-family, but not inter-family, manner among cellulases from different species. polymerase ...19947959045
evolutionary divergence and conservation of trypsin.the trypsin sequences currently available in the data banks have been collected and aligned using first the amino acid sequence homology and, subsequently, the superposed crystal structures of trypsins from the cow, the bacterium streptomyces griseus and the fungus fusarium oxysporum. the phylogenetic tree constructed according to this multiple alignment is consistent with a continuous evolutionary divergence of trypsin from a common ancestor of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. comparison of cry ...19948140095
purification and characterization of an extracellular endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis produces extracellular endo-1,4-beta-xylanase and beta-xylosidase when grown in shaken culture at 26 degrees c in a mineral salts medium containing oat spelt xylan and glucose as carbon sources. endo-1,4-beta-xylanase was purified 251 times from 5-day-old culture filtrates, by sephacryl s-200, ion exchange and gel filtration hplc. the purified sample yielded a single band in sds polyacrylamide gels with a molecular mass of 80 kda on electrophoretic mobility and ...19948020753
nitric oxide reductase cytochrome p-450 gene, cyp 55, of the fungus fusarium oxysporum containing a potential binding-site for fnr, the transcription factor involved in the regulation of anaerobic growth of escherichia coli.a unique cytochrome p-450 (p-450) is involved in fungal denitrification, acting as a nitric oxide reductase. the phylogenetic classification of the p-450 (p-450nor) into the group of bacterial p-450s along with its involvement in the anaerobic process are of evolutional interest. the corresponding gene, cyp 55, of the fungus fusarium oxysporum was isolated and sequenced. the p-450nor gene contained 7 introns that consisted of 49 to 55 bp. the presence of the introns suggested that horizontal tra ...19947798191
cloning and nucleotide sequence of a bacterial cytochrome p-450vd25 gene encoding vitamin d-3 25-hydroxylase.the gene encoding an enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation at position 25 of vitamin d-3 was cloned from an actinomycete strain, amycolata autotrophica, by use of a host-vector system of streptomyces lividans. the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence revealed that this enzyme, tentatively named p-450vd25, contains several regions of strong similarity with amino acid sequences of cytochromes p-450 from a variety of organisms, primarily in the regions of an oxygen-binding sit ...19948086461
characterization of the formae speciales of fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbits by dna fingerprinting with nuclear repetitive dna sequences.the genetic relatedness of five formae speciales of fusarium oxysporum causing wilts of cucurbit plants was determined by dna fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive dna sequences folr1 to folr4. the four folr clones were chosen from a genomic library made from f. oxysporum f. sp. lagenariae 03-05118. total dnas from 50 strains representing five cucurbit-infecting formae speciales, cucumerinum, melonis, lagenariae, niveum, and momordicae, and 6 strains of formae speciales pathogenic to oth ...19948085813
pot2, an inverted repeat transposon from the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea.we report the cloning and characterisation of pot2, a putative transposable element from magnaporthe grisea. the element is 1857 bp in size, has 43-bp perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) and 16-bp direct repeats within the tirs. a large open reading frame, potentially coding for a transposase-like protein, was identified. this putative protein coding region showed extensive identity to that of fot1, a transposable element from another phytopathogenic fungus, fusarium oxysporum. pot2, like t ...19947816044
[in vitro tests of the antagonistic behavior of trichoderma spp. against pathogenic species of the horticultural region of la plata, argentina].the antagonistic properties of seven trichoderma species in front of the pathogens fusarium oxysporum, f. equiseti, f. solani, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, s. minor, rhizoctonia sp. and sclerotium rolfsii was evaluated in vitro. those microorganisms were isolated from horticultural soils of la plata in order to test the antagonistic-pathogenic relationship. dual cultures on pda 2% were used. all the species of trichoderma grew in the culture medium with a colonization value higher than 50%. differe ...19947772296
role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the management of infection with fusarium oxysporum in a neutropenic child. 19947516720
enzymatic synthesis of trisaccharides and alkyl beta-d-glucosides by the transglycosylation reaction of beta-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum.purified beta-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyses hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions. by utilizing the transglycosylation reaction, trisaccharides and alkyl beta-d-glucosides were synthesized under optimal conditions in the presence of various disaccharides and alcohols. the yields of trisaccharides and alkyl beta-d-glucosides were 22-37% and 10-33% of the total sugar, respectively. the enzyme retained 70-80% of its original activity in the presence of 25% (w/v) methanol, etha ...19947727348
characterization of antagonist and pathogenic fusarium oxysporum isolates by random amplification of polymorphic dna. 19947866876
purification and characterisation of an extracellular beta-glucosidase with transglycosylation and exo-glucosidase activities from fusarium oxysporum.an extracellular beta-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum was purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatographies. the enzyme, a monomeric protein of 110 kda, was maximally active at ph 5.0-6.0 and at 60 degrees c. it hydrolysed 1-->4-linked aryl-beta-glucosides and 1-->4-linked, 1-->3-linked and 1-->6-linked beta-glucosides. the apparent km and kcat values for p-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (4-npglcp) and cellobiose were 0.093 (km), 1.07 mm (kcat) and 1802 (km), 46 ...19947925351
4-methyl-7,11-heptadecadienal and 4-methyl-7,11-heptadecadienoic acid: new antibiotics from sporothrix flocculosa and sporothrix rugulosa.4-methyl-7,11-heptadecadienal [1] and 4-methyl-7,11-heptadecadienoic acid [2] were isolated as new compounds from liquid cultures of sporothrix flocculosa and sporothrix rugulosa. compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the growth of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycospersici, trichoderma viride, and bacillus subtilis.19947931361
survey of mycotic and bacterial keratitis in sri lanka.over a two-year period (1976-1977 and 1980-1981), 66 cases of bacterial and mycotic cases of keratitis were diagnosed in the eye clinic of the general hospital in kandy, sri lanka. the clinical and microbiologic aspects of these cases are described. noteworthy was the first known human case caused by paecilomyces farinosus, a geophilic species, commonly encountered as an insect parasite throughout the world. the bacterial and the other fungal etiologic agents isolated and identified were: pseudo ...19947984216
effects of the antimycotic molecule iturin a2, secreted by bacillus subtilis strain m51, on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.a new system, devised for the study of early stages of arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, was used to test the effect of the biological control agent iturin a2, secreted by the strain m51 of bacillus subtilis, on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. the saprophytic growth of the fungus glomus mosseae was inhibited by iturin a2 concentrations higher than 100 micrograms/g of sand; whereas, in the presence of the tomato host plant, both, pre-infection events and intraradical growth were ...19947987612
molecular characterization of races and vegetative compatibility groups in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) and vegetative compatibility analyses were undertaken to assess genetic relationships among 52 isolates of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum of worldwide origin and representing race a, 3, or 4 on cotton plants. ten distinct vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs) were obtained, and isolates belonging to distinct races were never in the same vcg. race a isolates were separated into eight vcgs, whereas isolates of race 3 were classified into a si ...19947993090
hm17, a new polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by a new strain of spirillospora.an antifungal antibiotic (hm17) was obtained from a new isolate classified to the genus spirillospora on the basis of its chemical and morphological properties. on solid media this antibiotic strongly inhibited the growth of strains of fusarium oxysporum formae speciales albedinis, botrytis cinerea, gaeumaniomyces graminis and several other fungi known to be plant and human pathogens. antifungal activity in culture collection strains of spirillospora has not so far been reported. the u.v. absorp ...19948002474
the changing spectrum of fungal keratitis in south florida.to review the clinical experience with fungal keratitis in south florida over a 10-year period.19948008340
kinetics and thermodynamics of co binding to cytochrome p450nor.the co-binding reaction of cytochrome p450nor isolated from denitrifying fungus, fusarium oxysporum, has been studied by using a flash photolysis method in the millisecond time domain. we obtained the co on- and off-rate constants in the bimolecular reaction, and determined the activation free energy, enthalpy, and entropy from the temperature dependence of these rate constants. to discuss the structural characteristics of p450nor, these parameters were compared with those of other cytochrome p4 ...19948038156
in vitro sensitivity of medically significant fusarium species to various antimycotics.sixteen isolates belonging to fusarium chlamydosporum (n = 4), fusarium equiseti (n = 1), fusarium moniliforme (n = 2), fusarium oxysporum (n = 3), fusarium proliferatum (n = 1), and fusarium solani (n = 5) were tested against amphotericin b, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, jai-amphotericin b (water-soluble compound), hamycin and amphotericin b combined with 5-fluorocytosine, using antibiotic medium m3, high-resolution broth (ph 7.1), sabouraud's dextrose, and yeast-ni ...19948082411
fungal metabolite extracts active against phytopathogens.the effectiveness of some genetically engineered microorganisms in the control of plant disease pathogens is widely acknowledged. these biopesticides, so far, pose less danger to the environment. however, little attention has been paid to the potential benefit of the use of exometabolites of some microorganisms in spite of their known activity and high biodegradability. a total of 1108 fungal metabolite extracts obtained from different strains of micromycetes cultured in two different liquid med ...19947973617
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of nitric oxide reductase cytochrome p450nor from fusarium oxysporum.crystals of cytochrome p450nor (p450nor), nitric oxide reductase from fusarium oxysporum, were obtained by means of the hanging-drop vapour diffusion technique in the presence of 1.88 m ammonium sulphate (ph 7.2). they belong to the monoclinic space group p2(1), with unit cell dimensions of a = 74.7 a, b = 86.7 a, c = 62.0 a and beta = 97 degrees. there are two molecules of p450nor in the asymmetric unit. the crystal diffracted to beyond 2.5 a resolution and is suitable for x-ray crystallographi ...19948196045
fatty acid hydroxylase of the fungus fusarium oxysporum is possibly a fused protein of cytochrome p-450 and its reductase.fatty acid subterminal (omega-1 approximately omega-3) hydroxylase of the fungus fusarium oxysporum was solubilized from the microsomal fraction and partially purified. the hydroxylase activity was recovered into a single active fraction, and its spectral nature showed the presence of cytochrome p-450 (p-450). fatty acid hydroxylase activity was markedly restored upon addition of fad, fmn, and/or hemin to the eluted fraction. the fraction also exhibited other properties characteristic of both a ...19948037765
interaction between meloidogyne incognita and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on selected bean genotypes.four bean genotypes (ipa-1, a-107, a-211, and calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (fop) and meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. calima and a-107 were resistant to fop; a-107 and a-211 were resistant to m. incognita; and ipa-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. in fop-susceptible lines (ipa-1 and a-211), the presence of m. incognita contributed to an earli ...199419279917
fungi associated with females and cysts of heterodera glycines in a florida soybean field.fungal colonization was determined for females and cysts of heterodera glycines on soybean roots or in rhizosphere soil from a florida soybean field. a total of 1,620 females and cysts were examined in 1991, and 1,303 were examined in 1992. more than 35 species of fungi were isolated from females and cysts. the frequency of fungi colonizing white and yellow females was low, but a high frequency of fungi was encountered in brown cysts, which increased with time of exposure of the cysts to the soi ...199419279895
modification of competence for in vitro response to fusarium oxysporum in tomato cells. ii. effect of the integration of agrobacterium tumefaciens genes for auxin and cytokinin synthesis.we have studied the effect of a change in the endogenous hormone equilibria on the competence of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) cells to defend themselves against the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. calluses from cvs 'davis' and 'red river', respectively resistant and susceptible to fusarium and transgenic for an auxin- or cytokinin-synthesizing gene from agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used. the integration of agrobacterium hormone-related genes into susceptible cv 'red ...199424185887
modification of competence for in vitro response to fusarium oxysporum in tomato cells. i. selection from a susceptible cultivar for high and low polysaccharide content.plant cell walls play a major role in the outcome of host-parasite interactions. wall fragments released from the plant, and/or the fungal pathogen, can act respectively as endogenous and exogenous elicitors of the defence response, and other wall components, such as callose, lignin, or hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, can inhibit pathogen penetration and/or spreading. we have previously demonstrated that calli from tomato cultivars resistant in vivo to fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici sho ...199424190533
rhizosphere and root-infecting fungi and the design of ecological field experiments.as part of a wider study into the role of soil fungi in the ecology of the winter annual grass, vulpia ciliata ssp. ambigua (le gall) stace & auquier, we applied the fungicides benomyl and prochloraz to three natural populations of the grass growing in east anglia, united kingdom. the rhizosphere and rootinfecting fungi associated with the three populations were analysed each month between february and may 1992 when plants set seed. there were marked differences between the fungal floras associa ...199528306878
a streptomyces chitosanase is active in transgenic tobacco.growth inhibition towards rhizopus nigricans, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, verticillium albo-atrum and pythium ultimum was observed in vitro using a purified chitosanase from an actinomycete, streptomyces sp, strain n174. the corresponding gene, with its own signal peptide, was inserted into pbi121.7 shuttle vector to transform tobacco. transgenic plants were analysed for chitosanase activity by a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay. two major and on ...199524185780
rotations with coastal bermudagrass and fallow for management of meloidogyne incognita and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops.the efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (hibiscus esculentus cv. emerald), squash (cucurbita pepo cv. dixie hybrid), and sweet corn (zea mays cv. merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. numbers of m. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fallow ...199519277312
co-infection of wilt-resistant chickpeas by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and meloidogyne javanica.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and meloidogyne javanica are important pathogens of chickpea. interrelationships between fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and m. javanica were investigated on 53 fusarium wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes in pot experiments. all of the genotypes were susceptible to m. javanica. fusarium wilt resistance in one genotype (icc 12275) was ineffective in the presence of m. javanica, and all the plants completely wilted. resistance in four genotypes (iccs 11319, 11322, ...199519277336
fusarium graminearum a 3/5 as a novel host for heterologous protein production.we describe a novel fungal expression system which utilizes the quorn myco-protein fungus fusarium graminearum a 3/5. a transformation system was developed for f. graminearum and was used to introduce the coding and regulatory regions of a trypsin gene from fusarium oxysporum. the protein was efficiently expressed, processed and secreted by the recombinant host strain. in addition, the promoter and terminator of the f. oxysporum trypsin gene have been successfully utilized to drive the expressio ...19959636307
treatment of central venous catheter-related fungemia due to fusarium oxysporum.we report a case of fusarium oxysporum fungemia that was related to the presence of a central venous catheter and was confirmed by quantitative cultures and scanning electron microscopy of the catheter hub, subcutaneous segment and cuff, and tip. despite progressive neutropenia, the infection responded to antifungal therapy within 1 day after the catheter was removed. the removal of the catheter could have contributed to the patient's early favorable response.19957756502
partial characterization of chitinolytic enzymes from streptomyces albidoflavus.streptomyces albidoflavus nrrl b-16746 secreted three types of chitinolytic enzymes: n-acetyl-glucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and endochitinase. optimal activity for all three types of enzymes occurred at ph 4-6; however 55-74% of the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activity was detectable at ph 8-10. chitobiosidase activity originated from two strongly acidic (pi < 3.0) proteins with molecular mass of 27 kda and 34 kda, while endochitinase activity originated from five major acidic proteins (p ...19957766226
structural features of fungal beta-d-glucans for the efficient inhibition of the initiation of virus infection on nicotiana tabacum.glucans of fungal origin have been shown to inhibit the early stages of infection of nicotiana by numerous viruses of different taxonomic groups. several glucans were isolated from the cell walls of phytophthora parasitica, phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (pmg) and fusarium oxysporum, and their antiviral activity compared on tobacco leaves inoculated with tobacco mosaic virus. these polysaccharides consist of a mixture of (1-->3)(1-->6)-beta-d-glucans with m(r) varying from 1.1 x 10(3) t ...19957786491
rapid mitochondrial probes for analysis of polymorphisms in fusarium oxysporum special forms.a method is described for the production of simple mitochondrial dna probes from filamentous fungi for the partial characterization of mitochondrial dna without the need for cloning, gradient centrifugation or pcr amplification. a probe (p449) consisting of a 3.38 kb mitochondrial fragment from an isolate of fusarium oxysporum special form cubense was used to determine rflps in restriction digests of total dna from 28 isolates of f. oxysporum from a variety of hosts and locations. the probe show ...19957576508
synthetic antimicrobial peptide design.to guide the design of potential plant pathogen-resistance genes, synthetic variants of naturally occurring antimicrobial gene products were evaluated. five 20-amino acid (esf1, esf4, esf5, esf6, esf13), one 18-amino acid (esf12), and one 17-amino acid (esf17) amphipathic peptide sequences were designed, synthesized, and tested with in vitro bioassays. positive charges on the hydrophilic side of the peptide were shown to be essential for antifungal activity, yet the number of positive charges co ...19957579625
[genetic structure of soil population of the fungus fusarium oxysporum schlechtend.: fr.: molecular reidentification of the species and genetic differentiation of isolates using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers (up-pcr)].the genetic structure of three soil populations of fungus fusarium oxysporum was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers (up-pcr). distinct up-pcr variants revealed by means of cross-dot hybridization of amplified dna and restriction analysis of nuclear ribosomal dna represent subspecies or sibling species of f. oxysporum. the remaining isolates of f. oxysporum showed moderate up-pcr polymorphism characterized by numerous types, whose relatedness was analyzed by computer ...19957607421
iron-ligand structure and iron redox property of nitric oxide reductase cytochrome p450nor from fusarium oxysporum: relevance to its no reduction activity.we studied the nitric oxide reductase, cytochrome p450nor, purified from a denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum with electron paramagnetic resonance spectral and redox potential measurements. the epr spectral features of p450nor in the ferric resting, the ferric cyanide-bound, and the ferrous no-bound forms were the same as the corresponding ones of other general p450s such as pseudomonas putida p450cam. in contrast, the metyrapone complex of ferric p450nor gave an epr spectrum with significan ...19957619804
alterations in superoxide dismutase and catalase in fusarium oxysporum during starvation-induced differentiation.vegetative hyphae of fusarium oxysporum differentiate into chlamydospore by triggering with carbon-starvation. the current changes in the cellular detoxifying defenses against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase, were examined. although there was a little change in catalase, a dramatic change in sod was observed during the differentiation. in vegetative hyphae of f. oxysporum f. sp. raphani, three isozymes of sod, all of which were not inhibited by hydrogen ...19957626660
intraspecific variation within populations of fusarium oxysporum based on rflp analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the rdna.fifty-six isolates of fusarium oxysporum, including f. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and nonpathogenic strains, were chosen from a larger collection to represent diversity in vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs), mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype, geographic distribution, and virulence. using pcr, a 2.6-kb fragment including the intergenic spacer (igs) region of the ribosomal dna was amplified from each isolate. the enzymes ecori, sau3a, cfoi, and avaii, cut this fragment differentially, revealin ...19957614373
comparative study of two trehalase activities from fusarium oxysporum var. lini.acid and neutral trehalase activities (optimum ph of 4.6 and 6.8, respectively) from fusarium oxysporum var. lini were studied separately through partial isolation by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on deae-sephacel for neutral enzyme, or using some of their differential properties. acid activity was unaffected by 1 mm of ca2+, mg2+, mn2+, ba2+, or edta. contrarily, the neutral enzyme was activated by ca2+ with an apparent ka of 0.15 mm; was inhibited by ed ...19958542549
vital fluorochromes as tracers for fungal growth studies.eight fluorescent dyes were tested for staining the spores or mycelia of six fungi and for their translocation into new growth when the preloaded spores or mycelia were incubated on agar coated coverslips. the dyes studied were cellufluor, nile red, fluorescein diacetate (fda), carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cfda), chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (cmfda), aminochloromethyl coumarin (cmac), and the carbocyamines diic18(3) and dioc18(3). the fungi on which the dyes were tested included botrytis c ...19957578589
skippy, a retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum.a retrotransposon from the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has been isolated and characterized. the element, designated skippy (skp) is 7846 bp in length, flanked by identical long terminal repeats (ltr) of 429 bp showing structural features characteristic of retroviral and retrotransposon ltrs. target-site duplications of 5 bp were found. two long overlapping open reading frames (orf) were identified. the first orf, 2562 bp in length, shows homology to retroviral gag ...19958544829
cell wall synthesis in cotton roots after infection with fusarium oxysporum. the deposition of callose, arabinogalactans, xyloglucans, and pectic components into walls, wall appositions, cell plates and plasmodesmata.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum penetration hyphae infect living cells in the meristematic zone of cotton (gossypium barbadense l.) roots. we characterized wall modifications induced by the fungus during infection of the protodermis using antibodies against callose, arabinogalactan-proteins, xyloglucan, pectin, polygalacturonic acid and rhamnogalacturonan i in high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted root tissue. using quantitative immunogold labelling we compared the cell walls before and ...19958580765
genetic duplication in fusarium oxysporum.genomic clones hybridizing to anonymous, single-copy sequences were used to probe chromosome-sized dnas of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. as expected, most clones hybridized to single chromosome bands. however, two of eight "single-copy" clones hybridized to two chromosomes in some, but not all, of 14 isolates examined. this observation suggests a degree of genetic duplication in the fungus and is consistent with recent electrophoretic karyotype ...19958590469
induction of tibial dyschondroplasia and suppression of cell-mediated immunity in chickens by fusarium oxysporum grown on sterile corn.an isolate of fusarium oxysporum from corn associated with kaschin-beck disease in humans was tested for its ability to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (td) and toxicity in chicks. both leghorn and broiler chicks were fed diets in which corn was replaced with varied amounts (0% to 50%) of the f. oxysporum culture grown on sterile corn, or with known td-inducing agents. f. oxysporum did not affect body weight in either type of chicks. in leghorn chicks, neither f. oxysporum nor the known td-induci ...19957794168
medicinal plants from riau province, sumatra, indonesia. part 2: antibacterial and antifungal activity.antibacterial assays of 114 species listed in part 1 showed that 82% of the extracts tested were active against staphylococcus aureus, while 35% were active against escherichia coli. antifungal activity was less dramatic: 19% of the extracts inhibited saccharomyces cerevisiae, while 20% inhibited fusarium oxysporum. our survey of relevant literature indicates that less than 30% of these angiosperm species have previously been assayed for any form of antimicrobial activity.19957776665
the copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase involved in the denitrifying system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a copper-containing nitrite reductase (cu-nir) was purified to homogeneity from the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum. the enzyme seemed to consist of two subunits with almost the same m(r) value of 41,800 and contains two atoms of copper per subunit. the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed that both type 1 and type 2 copper centers are present in the protein, whereas the visible absorption spectrum exhibited a sole and strong absorption maximum at 595 nm, causing a blue but not ...19957876166
bacillopeptins, new cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics from bacillus subtilis fr-2.bacilopeptins, new iturin-group antifungal antibiotics, were isolated from the culture broth of bacillus subtilis fr-2 obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. their structures were elucidated to be cyclic lipopeptides similar to bacillomycin l by nmr and mass spectral studies coupled with amino acid analysis. the absolute configuration of each amino acid residue was determined by chiral hplc.19957490214
multiple forms of endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase in the extracellular cellulase system of fusarium oxysporum. 19958654771
spectroscopic and kinetic studies on reaction of cytochrome p450nor with nitric oxide. implication for its nitric oxide reduction mechanism.cytochrome p450 purified from fusarium oxysporum (p450nor) is a unique heme enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide with electrons directly transferred from nadh (2no + nadh + h+--> n2o + h2o + nad+). we studied the reaction of p450nor with no and nadh using stopped-flow rapid scan and low temperature spectroscopic methods. the no ligand can bind to the ferric enzyme to form the stable no bound complex, p450nor(fe3+no). reduction of p450nor(fe3+no) with nadh yielded ...19957829493
purification and characterization of a less randomly acting endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase from the culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum.an extracellular endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase from fusarium oxysporum was purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration. the enzyme purified in this way was homogeneous when judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the protein corresponded to a molecular mass and pi value of 41.7 kda and 6.4, respectively. it was optimally active at ph 4.5 and at 55 degrees c. the enzyme hydrolyzed carboxymethylcellulos ...19957840647
overwhelming myocarditis due to fusarium oxysporum following bone marrow transplantation.disseminated infection by fusarium is being increasingly reported in immunocompromised patients. we report the first case of fusarium oxysporum disseminated infection with well-documented fungal myocarditis. despite antifungal therapy and hematologic recovery, the patient died in cardiogenic shock, myocardial involvement clearly contributing to the fatal outcome.19958685650
[isolation of protoplasts from vegetable tissues using extracellular lytic enzymes from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis].fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, a pathogen of melon (cucumis melo l.), was grown in shaken cultures at 26 degrees c in a mineral salts medium containing glucose, xylan and apple pectin as carbon sources. the extracellular enzymic complex obtained from these cultures showed lytic activity on plant tissues, causing maceration of melon fruits, potato tubers and carrot roots. protoplasts were isolated from melon fruits when the maceration was carried out under appropriate osmotic conditions. this ...19958850131
formation of tomatine in tomato plants infected with streptomyces species and treated with herbicides, correlated with reduction of pseudomonas solanacearum and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.pretreatment of tomato seeds with pendimethalin or metribuzin and inoculation of seedlings with the antagonistic streptomyces corchorusii or/and streptomyces mutabilis were tested for the formation of tomatine in roots and stems of tomato, infested with pseudomonas solancearum or/and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. all treatments induced the formation of variable quantities of tomatine, compared with untreated control. the variation was proportional to: the pathogen, fusarium was more sti ...19958934667
purification and properties of fructosyl lysine oxidase from fusarium oxysporum s-1f4.fructosyl lysine oxidase (flod) was examined for its use in the enzymatic measurement of the level of glycated albumin in blood serum. to isolate microorganisms having such an enzyme activity, we used n epsilon-fructosyl n alpha-z-lysine (epsilon-fl) as a sole nitrogen source in the enrichment culture medium. the isolated fungus, strain s-1f4, showed a high flod activity in the cell-free extract and was identified as fusarium oxysporum. flod was purified to an apparent homogeneity on sds-page. t ...19957766189
production of chitinase by fusarium species.the presence of chitinase activity without inducers in the enzymic precipitates from the culture fluid of 25-day-old autolyzed cultures of 17 fusarium species has been studied. in all cases endochitinase and beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase activities were found. the chitinase activity as a joint action of these two enzymes with production of n-acetylglucosamine was also determined. a correlation among endochitinase, beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase, and chitinase was always found. fusarium oxysporum f. ...19957766156
an exoantigen test for the rapid identification of medically significant fusarium species.the accurate identification of fusarium species can take 2-3 weeks. preliminary exoantigen studies indicate that a mature culture suspected of being a fusarium species may be immunologically identified 48 h after receipt. exoantigen extracts of 10-day-old slant cultures of fusarium chlamydosporum, fusarium moniliforme (= fusarium verticilloides), fusarium oxysporum, fusarium proliferatum and fusarium solani and partially purified reference homologous and heterologous shake culture extracts (6-we ...19958544080
cloning and characterisation of a gene encoding a cuticle-degrading protease from the insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.metarhizium anisophilae (ma) secretes a range of proteases when grown in vitro on insect cuticle. a trypsin-like serine protease, pr2, was purified from culture filtrates by anion exchange chromatography and the n-terminal sequence determined. using oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes based on this sequence and that of the highly conserved trypsin active site, a gene was isolated from a lambda embl3 genomic library of ma isolate me1. sequencing of the gene and rt-pcr revealed that the gene contains ...19958529882
denitrification by the fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense: anaerobic cell growth and two isozyme forms of cytochrome p-450nor.we examined the denitrification system of the fungus cylindrocapon tonkinense and found several properties distinct from those of the denitrification system of fusarium oxysporum. c. tonkinense could form n2o from nitrite under restricted aeration but could not reduce nitrate by dissimilatory metabolism. nitrite-dependent n2o formation and/or cell growth during the anaerobic culture was not affected by further addition of ammonium ions but was suppressed by respiration inhibitors such as rotenon ...19957793922
the transposable element impala, a fungal member of the tc1-mariner superfamily.a new transposable element has been isolated from an unstable niad mutant of the fungus fusarium oxysporum. this element, called impala, is 1280 nucleotides long and has inverted repeats of 27 bp. impala inserts into a ta site and leaves behind a "foot-print" when it excises. the inserted element, impala-160, is cis-active, but is probably trans-defective owing to several stop codons and frameshifts. similarities exist between the inverted repeats of impala and those of transposons belonging to ...19957823909
structure of inhibited trypsin from fusarium oxysporum at 1.55 a.the structure of trypsin from the fungus fusarium oxysporum has been refined at 1.55 a resolution by restrained least-squares minimization to an r-factor of 14.4%. the data were recorded from a single-crystal on the x31 beamline at embl, hamburg, using a locally developed image-plate scanner. the final model consists of 1557 protein atoms, 400 water molecules, one molecule of isopropanol and one monoisopropyl phosphoryl inhibitor group covalently bound to the catalytic ser195. comparison of the ...199515299338
effect of compost on rhizosphere microflora of the tomato and on the incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.four commercial composts were added to soil to study their effect on plant growth, total rhizosphere microflora, and incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. three of the compost treatments significantly improved plant growth, while one compost treatment significantly depressed it. compost amendments caused only small variations in the total numbers of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in the rhizosphere of tomato plants. a total of 709 bacte ...199516534902
genome flux in tomato cell clones cultured in vitro in different physiological equilibria. ii. a rapd analysis of variability.an analysis of the effect of changing physiological conditions on genome evolution in tomato cell populations has been carried out on long-term in vitro cultured clones grown on different auxin-cytokinin equilibria or selected for low-high competence for active defense against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. rapd analysis, confirmed through pattern rehybridization, was used as a random tool to measure the genetic variability. through the use of a modified anova, variation was shown to depe ...199618469940
relationships among pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of fusarium oxysporum based on the partial sequence of the intergenic spacer region of the ribosomal dna.using pcr, we amplified and sequenced approximately 1,000 bp of the 5' end of the intergenic spacer (igs) of the rdna in 15 isolates of fusarium oxysporum and one isolate of f. subglutinans. isolates were selected to represent diversity in our collection based on differences in pathogenic race, vegetative compatibility group (vcg), mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype, igs haplotype, and dna fingerprint. the objective of this research was to clarify the origin of virulence within f. oxysporum, th ...19968820752
purification and characterization of tomatinase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.the antifungal compound alpha-tomatine, present in tomato plants, has been reported to provide a preformed chemical barrier against phytopathogenic fungi. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, a tomato pathogen, produces an extracellular enzyme inducible by alpha-tomatine. this enzyme, known as tomatinase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-tomatine into its nonfungitoxic forms, tomatidine and beta-lycotetraose. the maximal tomatinase activity in the fungal culture medium was observed after 48 h ...19968633858
production of fructosyl lysine oxidase from fusarium oxysporum s-1f4 on autoclave-browned medium.in fusarium oxysporum s-1f4, fructosyl lysine oxidase (flod) was induced with n epsilon-fructosyl n alpha-z-lysine (epsilon-fl), which is a model compound of a glycated protein, and the induction was inhibited by the addition of cycloheximide in the growing cells. flod formation was greatly enhanced in an autoclave-browned medium containing glucose and l-lysine. some amadori compounds formed from glucose and l-lysine during autoclaving were assumed to induce the enzyme. after optimization of the ...19968824836
characterization and regulation of glycine transport in fusarium oxysporum var. lini.glycine was transported in fusarium oxysporum cells, grown on glycine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, by a facilitated diffusion transport system with a half-saturation constant (ks) of 11 mm and a maximum velocity (vmax) of 1.2 mm (g dry weight)-1 h-1 at ph 5.0 and 26 degrees c. under conditions of nitrogen starvation, the same system was present together with a high-affinity one (ks) of about 47 microm and vmax of about 60 microm (g dry weight)-1 h-1). the low-affinity system was mo ...19969181075
antimicrobial activities of streptomyces pulcher, s. canescens and s. citreofluorescens against fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato in vitro.thirty-seven actinomycete species isolated from fertile cultivated soils in egypt were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds against a variety of test organisms. most of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against gram-positive, gram-negative, and acid-fast bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, with special attention to fungal and bacterial pathogens of tomato. on starch-nitrate agar, 14 strains were active against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (the cause of ...19969131789
a homologous and self-replicating system for efficient transformation of fusarium oxysporum.a highly efficient transformation system has been developed for fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici based on the complementation of a nitrate-reductase mutant with the homologous nit1 gene and on the presence of ars and telomeric sequences in the vector. preliminary transformation experiments with the niad gene from aspergillus niger generated self-replicating plasmids within the transformed entity that contained extra-fungal dna. a fragment of the extra dna was inserted into puc19 together wi ...19968821667
the gibberella fujikuroi niad gene encoding nitrate reductase: isolation, sequence, homologous transformation and electrophoretic karyotype location.the gibberella fujikuroi niad gene, encoding nitrate reductase, has been isolated and used to develop an efficient homologous transformation system. a cosmid vector designated pgfniad was generated based on niad selection and shown to give comparable transformation efficiencies. using pgfniad, a genomic library was prepared and used for genetic transformations, giving frequencies of up to 200 transformants per microgram dna. of 15 transformants analysed by southern blots, six showed homologous i ...19968868428
two isozymes of p450nor of cylindrocarpon tonkinense: molecular cloning of the cdnas and genes, expressions in the yeast, and the putative nad(p)h-binding site.the cdnas and genes for two isozymes of cytochrome p450nor of the fungus cylindrocarpon tonkinense, p450nor1 and p450nor2, were cloned and sequenced. their deduced amino acid sequences respectively showed 83 and 70% identity to that of p450nor of fusarium oxysporum, and 69% identity to each other. the genes for p450nor1 and p450nor2 were termed, respectively, cyp 55a2 and cyp 55a3. the cdna for p450nor1 contained a targeting-like presequence upstream the n-terminus of mature protein whereas that ...19969010609
n-terminal processing and amino acid sequence of two isoforms of nitric oxide reductase cytochrome p450nor from fusarium oxysporum.cytochrome p450nor (p450nor), a nitric oxide reductase involved in the denitrifying system of the fungus fusarium oxysporum, revealed molecular multiplicity. two isoforms of p450nor, termed p450nora (nora) and p450norb (norb), were isolated. they had distinct isoelectric points of 5.1 (nora) and 4.9 (norb). however, their catalytic, spectroscopic, and immunological properties were almost identical. partial amino acid sequences, involving 263 amino acid residues of nora and 278 residues of norb a ...19969010754
susceptibility of clinical isolates of fusarium to antifungal drugs.the inhibitory activities of amphotericin b, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine against nine isolates from clinically apparent infections of fusarium solani, four isolates of fusarium moniliforme and 10 isolates of fusarium oxysporum were determined with an agar diffusion method (neosensitabs) and an agar dilution method. the inhibition zones obtained with antifungal neosensitabs need very careful interpretation. we did not find a good correlation between the aga ...19968786755
novel osmotically induced antifungal chitinases and bacterial expression of an active recombinant isoform.nacl (428 mm)-adapted tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. var wisconsin 38) cells accumulate and secrete several antifungal chitinases. the predominant protein secreted to the culture medium was a 29-kd peptide that, based on internal amino acid sequence, was determined to be a class ii acidic chitinase with similarity to pr-q. the four predominant chitinases (t1, t2, t3, and t4) that accumulated intracellularly in 428 mm nacl-adapted cells were purified. based on n-terminal sequence analyses, two of ...19968756502
biodegradation of dimethylsilanediol in soils.the biodegradation potential of [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the monomer unit of polydimethylsiloxane, in soils was investigated. dimethylsilanediol was found to be biodegraded in all of the tested soils, as monitored by the production of 14co2. when 2-propanol was added to the soil as a carbon source in addition to [14c]dimethylsilanediol, the production of 14co2 increased. a method for the selection of primary substrates that support cometabolic degradation of a target compound was developed. by t ...19968953708
the magnaporthe grisea dna fingerprinting probe mgr586 contains the 3' end of an inverted repeat transposon.the magnaporthe grisea repeat (mgr) sequence mgr586 has been widely used for population studies of the rice blast fungus, and has enabled classification of the fungal population into hundreds of genetic lineages. while studying the distribution of mgr586 sequences in strains of m. grisea, we discovered that the plasmid probe pcb586 contains a significant amount of single-copy dna. to define precisely the boundary of the repetitive dna in pcb586, this plasmid and four cosmid clones containing mgr ...19968757398
ultraweak luminescence generated by sweet potato and fusarium oxysporum interactions associated with a defense response.ultraweak luminescence generated by sweet potato and nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum interactions associated with a defense response was detected by a photoncounting method using ultrahigh-sensitive photodetectors. the time-dependent intensity variation, the spectrum and the two-dimensional imaging of the ultraweak luminescence are indicative of the defense response of the sweet potato to f. oxysporum. the production of ipomeamarone as a phytoalexin means that f. oxysporum induced the defense r ...19968972637
chitinous component of the cell wall of fusarium oxysporum, its structure deduced from chitosanase digestion.the cell of fusarium oxysporum was digested with commercial bacillus chitosanase. the chitosanase produced low molecular weight heterooligosaccharides consisting of glcn and glcnac from the cell wall. a main component of the digestion products was identified as 2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose. the chitosanase appeared to be more effective than streptomyces griseus chitinase for cell wall digestion. moreover, maltose was unexpectedly found in the ...19968987672
purification and characterization of two low molecular mass alkaline xylanases from fusarium oxysporum f3.two low molecular mass endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanases from fusarium oxysporum were purified to homogeneity by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. they exhibit molecular masses of 20.8 (xylanase i) and 23.5 (xylanase ii) kda, and isoelectric points of 9.5 and 8.45-8.70, respectively. both xylanases display remarkable ph (9.0) stability. at 40 to 55 degrees c xylanase ii is more thermostable than xylanase i but less active on xylan. in contrast to xylanase i, xylanase ii is able to hydrolyz ...19968987884
dna polymorphism among fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence "palm".a worldwide collection, of 76 f. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (foe), and of 21 f. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by rflp. as a probe, we used a random dna fragment (probe 46) from a genomic library of a foe isolate. this probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed in the genome "palm", the other being a single-copy sequence. all f. oxysporum isolates from the palm-grove soils were non-pathogenic to oil palm. they all ...19968660464
elevated plasma glycosaminoglycans in chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia induced by a fusarium oxysporum isolate.chicken plasma glycosaminoglycans (gags) were isolated and digested. their building block molecules, namely, glucosamine and galactosamine, were quantified by gas chromatography. the levels of these two amino sugars were elevated in broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia (td) induced by culture material of fusarium oxysporum (fo), a mold isolated from corn originated from the endemic region of kaschin-beck disease (kbd) in china. as the td severity score changed from 1 (healthy) to 2, 3, ...19968883805
sensitivity of fungi to nikkomycin z.nikkomycin z inhibited colony radial extension (kr) and hyphal density in geotrichum candidum, trichoderma koningii, mucor plumbeus, and fusarium oxysporum, although the level of inhibition varied with the fungal species and was influenced by the concentration of nutrients in the culture medium. while g. candidum and m. plumbeus were sensitive to the inhibitory effects of nikkomycin z, t. koningii and f. oxysporum were relatively tolerant of concentrations of the antibiotic up to 100 mumol. nikk ...19968634944
cytochrome p450foxy, a catalytically self-sufficient fatty acid hydroxylase of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.we have purified membrane-bound fatty acid (omega-1-omega-3) hydroxylase of the fungus fusarium oxysporum mt-811 and found that the activity depends on a single polypeptide with an apparent m(r) value of 118,000. the purified hydroxylase exhibited spectral characteristics of cytochrome p450 (p450), and could catalyze the hydroxylation without the aid of any other proteinaceous components, such as nadph-p450 reductase. these properties of the fungal hydroxylase are the same as those of bacterial ...19968830036
a general monte carlo method for mapping multiple quantitative trait loci.in this paper we address the mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci (qtls) in line crosses for which the genetic data are highly incomplete. such complicated situations occur, for instance, when dominant markers are used or when unequally informative markers are used in experiments with outbred populations. we describe a general and flexible monte carlo expectation-maximization (monte carlo em) algorithm for fitting multiple-qtl models to such data. implementation of this algorithm is strai ...19968770607
transposon-like sequences at the tox2 locus of the plant-pathogenic fungus cochliobolus carbonum.the ascomycete fungus cochliobolus carbonum race 1 is pathogenic on certain genotypes of maize due to the production of hc-toxin, a host-specific cyclic peptide. hc-toxin production is controlled, at least in part, by a duplicated 22-kb region of dna that is found only in toxin-producing isolates of the fungus. this 22-kb region of dna is flanked by a repetitive element. we have sequenced the element and found an interrupted reading frame that would encode a product similar to transposases from ...19968918240
denitrification, a novel type of respiratory metabolism in fungal mitochondrion.subcellular localization and coupling to atp synthesis were investigated with respect to the denitrifying systems of two fungi, fusarium oxysporum and cylindrocarpon tonkinense. dissimilatory nitrate reductase of f. oxysporum or nitrite reductase of c. tonkinense could be detected in the mitochondrial fraction prepared from denitrifying cells of each fungus. fluorescence immunolocalization, cofractionation with mitochondrial marker enzymes, and cytochromes provided evidence that the denitrifying ...19968663075
systemic resistance in arabidopsis induced by biocontrol bacteria is independent of salicylic acid accumulation and pathogenesis-related gene expression.systemic acquired resistance is a pathogen-inducible defense mechanism in plants. the resistant state is dependent on endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (sa) and is characterized by the activation of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins. recently, selected nonpathogenic, root-colonizing biocontrol bacteria have been shown to trigger a systemic resistance response as well. to study the molecular basis underlying this type of systemic resistance, we developed an arabidopsis-bas ...19968776893
characterization of the aspergillus parasiticus niad and niia gene cluster.the nitrate reductase gene (niad) and nitrite reductase gene (niia) of aspergillus parasiticus are clustered and are divergently transcribed from a 1.6-kb intergenic region (niad-niia). the deduced aminoacid sequence of the a. parasiticus nitrate reductase demonstrated a high degree of homology to those of other aspergillus species, as well as to leptosphaeria maculans, fusarium oxysporum, gibberella fujikuroi and neurospora crassa, particularly in the cofactor-binding domains for molybdenum, he ...19968662212
purification and characterisation of a major xylanase with cellulase and transferase activities from fusarium oxysporum.a major xylanase from fusarium oxysporum was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration, affinity, and ion-exchange chromatographies. it has a molecular mass of 60.2 kda and pi of 6.6 and was optimally active at ph 7.4 and at 50 degrees c. the enzyme was stable over the ph range 5.8-8.2 at 40 degrees c for 24 h and lost 45% of its original activity at ph 9.0 under the identical conditions. the enzyme rapidly hydrolysed xylans from oat spelts (husks) and birchwood, but the activities on carboxymet ...19968805776
universal fungus-specific primer systems and group-specific hybridization oligonucleotides for 18s rdna.we designed two primer systems that amplify a fragment of the gene coding for the small ribosomal subunit (18s rrna). a broadly reactive, yet fungus-specific, primer cocktail comprises two previously published primers, tr1 and tr2, which specifically amplify dermatophytes, and two newly designed primers, ca1 and af2, which specifically amplify candida and aspergillus respectively. this primer cocktail amplifies a dna fragment of approximately 578 basepairs (bp) in length (from position 838 to 14 ...19968786753
[fusarium onychomycosis].introduction: a 69-year-old man with an uneventful past history consulted for a proximal subungueal leukonychia and associated paronychia of the right greater toe. macroscopic examination and culture lead to the diagnosis of fusarium oxysporum. local treatment with bifonazol and cyclopirox was effective. discussion: fungal onychomycoses are uncommon and usually present as superficial leukonychia. the association of a proximal localization with paronychia would suggest possible fusarium infection ...19968761783
port-a-cath-related fusarium oxysporum infection in an hiv-infected patient: treatment with liposomal amphotericin b.the first case of port-a-cath-related disseminated fusariosis in an hiv-infected patient is presented. antifungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) in a dose of 2 mg kg-1 day-1 for 14 days was successful.19968767004
kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity of nitroalkane oxidase.nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to aldehydes, transferring the electrons to oxygen to form hydrogen peroxide. the steady-state kinetic patterns have been determined with nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 1-nitropentane as substrates. in all three cases, the data fit best to a ping pong kinetic mechanism. the ph dependences of the v/k values for 1-nitropentane and phenylnitromethane show that an amino acid residue on the enzyme with a pka-value o ...19968769086
fusaricidin a, a new depsipeptide antibiotic produced by bacillus polymyxa kt-8. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity.fusaricidin a, a new depsipeptide antibiotic, was isolated from the culture broth of bacillus polymyxa kt-8 obtained from the rhizosphere of garlic suffering from the basal rot caused by fusarium oxysporum. the structure of fusaricidin a was determined by 1d and 2d nmr and ms experiments coupled with amino acid analysis to be a hexadepsipeptide containing 15-guanidino-3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid as a side chain. the absolute configuration of each amino acid residue was determined by chiral hplc. ...19968621351
the transposable element tan1 of aspergillus niger var. awamori, a new member of the fot1 family.aspergillus niger var. awamori has transposable elements that we refer to as vader and tan1 (transposon a. niger). vader was identified by screening unstable nitrate reductase (niad) mutants for insertions. four of the isolated niad mutants were shown to contain a small insertion element. this 437 bp insertion element, vader, is flanked by 44 bp inverted repeats (ir) and is present in approximately 15 copies in the genomes of two a. niger strains examined. a synthetic 44 bp oligomer of the inver ...19969003286
stress-induced rearrangement of fusarium retrotransposon sequences.rearrangement of fusarium oxysporum retrotransposon skippy was induced by growth in the presence of potassium chlorate. three fungal strains, one sensitive to chlorate (co60) and two resistant to chlorate and deficient for nitrate reductase (co65 and co94), were studied by southern analysis of their genomic dna. polymorphism was detected in their hybridization banding pattern, relative to the wild type grown in the absence of chlorate, using various enzymes with or without restriction sites with ...19969003291
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