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in vitro assessment of extracts of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) against different plant pathogenic fungi.five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom ganoderma lucidum (gl-1, gl-2, gl-3, gl-4, gl-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding lahore, pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. after studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a soxhlet extractor. different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the first fungal culture bank of pakistan, university of th ...201525954966
demethylation of arsenic limits its volatilization in fungi.arsenic (as) biomethylation is increasingly being regarded as a promising method to volatize as from the environment; however, the as volatilization efficiency of most microorganisms is low. here, the speciation transformation of dimethylarsinic acid (dma) as an important methylation intermediate in the cells of fusarium oxysporum cz-8f1, penicillium janthinellum sm-12f4, and trichoderma asperellum sm-12f1 were investigated. these fungal strains have been certified to volatilize as from as-loade ...201525951513
effect of eugenol against streptococcus agalactiae and synergistic interaction with biologically produced silver nanoparticles.streptococcus agalactiae (group b streptococci (gbs)) is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in gbs-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. however, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among gbs, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat gbs infections. ...201525945115
disseminated fusariosis and hematologic malignancies, a still devastating association. report of three new cases.fungi of the genus fusarium are primarily plant pathogens and saprobes that produce disseminated infections in immunologically deficient humans. after aspergillosis, disseminated fusariosis is the second most common cause of invasive infection by filamentous fungi in patients with hematologic malignancies or those undergoing transplants of hematopoietic progenitors.201525936697
metabolic profiling of chickpea-fusarium interaction identifies differential modulation of disease resistance pathways.chickpea is the third most widely grown legume in the world and mainly used as a vegetarian source of human dietary protein. fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc), is one of the major threats to global chickpea production. host resistance is the best way to protect crops from diseases; however, in spite of using various approaches, the mechanism of foc resistance in chickpea remains largely obscure. in the present study, non-targeted metabolic profiling at several time ...201525935544
molecular characterization of a penicillium chrysogenum exo-rhamnogalacturonan lyase that is structurally distinct from other polysaccharide lyase family proteins.we previously described an endo-acting rhamnogalacturonan (rg) lyase, termed pcrgl4a, of penicillium chrysogenum 31b. here, we describe a second rg lyase, called pcrglx. we determined the cdna sequence of the pcrglx gene, which encodes pcrglx. based on analyses using a blast search and a conserved domain search, pcrglx was found to be structurally distinct from known rg lyases and might belong to a new polysaccharide lyase family together with uncharacterized fungal proteins of nectria haematoco ...201525921806
chemical composition and antifungal activity of aaronsohnia pubescens essential oil from algeria.in the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of aaronsohnia pubescens (desf.) k.bremer & humphries (asteraceae), a chamomile-like medicinal plant, was studied. using both gc-ms and gc-fid methods, 58 volatile compounds could be identified representing 96.6% of the total essential oil composition. the main compounds in the essential oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as (z)-β-ocimene (53.8%), myrcene (15.2%) and α-pinene (7.7%). moreover, ...201525920238
synergistic action of a metalloprotease and a serine protease from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici cleaves chitin-binding tomato chitinases, reduces their antifungal activity, and enhances fungal virulence.as part of their defense strategy against fungal pathogens, plants secrete chitinases that degrade chitin, the major structural component of fungal cell walls. some fungi are not sensitive to plant chitinases because they secrete chitin-binding effector proteins that protect their cell wall against these enzymes. however, it is not known how fungal pathogens that lack chitin-binding effectors overcome this plant defense barrier. here, we investigated the ability of fungal tomato pathogens to cle ...201525915453
analyses of fusarium wilt race 3 resistance in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.).fusarium wilt [fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (fov) atk. sny & hans] represents a serious threat to cotton (gossypium spp.) production. for the last few decades, the fov pathogen has become a significant problem in uzbekistan causing severe wilt disease and yield losses of g. hirsutum l. cultivars. we present the first genetic analyses of fov race 3 resistance on uzbek cotton germplasm with a series of field and greenhouse artificial inoculation-evaluations and inheritance studies. the fie ...201525896369
synthesis, insecticidal, and fungicidal screening of some new synthetic quinoline derivatives.this paper describes the synthesis of a series of quinolines graphted with hydrazones, pyrazoles, pyridazine, phthalazine, triazepinone, semicarbazide, and thiomorpholide moieties and four metal complexes. these derivatives were screened against fusarium oxysporum and the red palm weevil (rpw) rhynchophorus ferrugineus oliver (coleopteran: curculionidae) as palm pathogens. only chlorinated quinolines were active against these organisms with hydrazones being good fungicides, while those modified ...201525895344
n2o production, a widespread trait in fungi.n2o is a powerful greenhouse gas contributing both to global warming and ozone depletion. while fungi have been identified as a putative source of n2o, little is known about their production of this greenhouse gas. here we investigated the n2o-producing ability of a collection of 207 fungal isolates. seventy strains producing n2o in pure culture were identified. they were mostly species from the order hypocreales order-particularly fusarium oxysporum and trichoderma spp.-and to a lesser extent s ...201525894103
ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels.201525887038
development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid detection of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris - wilt pathogen of chickpea.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (foc), the causal agent of fusarium wilt is a devastating pathogen of chickpea. in chickpea, various soil borne pathogens produce (s) similar symptoms, therefore cannot be distinguished easily at field level. there is real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of fusarium wilt outbreaks.201525886622
gene expression patterns and dynamics of the colonization of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) by highly virulent and weakly virulent strains of fusarium oxysporum.the dynamics of root and hypocotyl colonization, and the gene expression patterns of several fungal virulence factors and plant defense factors have been analyzed and compared in the interaction of two fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli strains displaying clear differences in virulence, with a susceptible common bean cultivar. the growth of the two strains on the root surface and the colonization of the root was quantitatively similar although the highly virulent (hv) strain was more efficient r ...201525883592
fungal cytochrome p450 monooxygenases of fusarium oxysporum for the synthesis of ω-hydroxy fatty acids in engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae.omega hydroxy fatty acids (ω-ohfas) are multifunctional compounds that act as the basis for the production of various industrial products with broad commercial and pharmaceutical implications. however, the terminal oxygenation of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids for the synthesis of ω-ohfas is intricate to accomplish through chemocatalysis, due to the selectivity and controlled reactivity in c-h oxygenation reactions. cytochrome p450, the ubiquitous enzyme is capable of catalyzing the select ...201525880760
priming of seeds with methyl jasmonate induced resistance to hemi-biotroph fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato via 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, salicylic acid, and flavonol accumulation.methyl jasmonate (meja) was tested by seed treatment for its ability to protect tomato seedlings against fusarium wilt caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. isolated from solanum lycopersicon l. seeds, cv. beta fungus was identified as f. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici race 3 fungus by using phytopathological and molecular methods. meja applied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mm reduced spore germination and mycelial growth in vitro. soaking of tomato seeds in meja solut ...201525867625
glycogen catabolism, but not its biosynthesis, affects virulence of fusarium oxysporum on the plant host.the role of glycogen metabolism was investigated in the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum. targeted inactivation was performed of genes responsible for glycogen biosynthesis: gnn1 encoding glycogenin, gls1 encoding glycogen synthase, and gbe1 encoding glycogen branching enzyme. moreover genes involved in glycogen catabolism were deleted: gph1 encoding glycogen phosphorylase and gdb1 encoding glycogen de-branching enzyme. glycogen reserves increased steadily during growth of the wild type strain ...201525865793
comparative genome analyses of serratia marcescens fs14 reveals its high antagonistic potential.s. marcescens fs14 was isolated from an atractylodes macrocephala koidz plant that was infected by fusarium oxysporum and showed symptoms of root rot. with the completion of the genome sequence of fs14, the first comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of the serratia genus was performed. pan-genome and cog analyses showed that the majority of the conserved core genes are involved in basic cellular functions, while genomic factors such as prophages contribute considerably to genome diversity. ...201525856195
isolation and heterologous expression of a polygalacturonase produced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 and 4.fusarium wilt (panama disease) caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) represents a significant threat to banana (musa spp.) production. musa aab is susceptible to race 1 (foc1) and race 4 (foc4), while cavendish musa aaa is found to be resistant to foc1 but still susceptible to race 4. a polygalacturonase (pgc3) was purified from the supernatant of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (foc4), which is the pathogen of fusarium wilt. pgc3 had an apparent molecular weight of 45 kda a ...201525854430
mitogen-activated protein kinases are associated with the regulation of physiological traits and virulence in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen causing devastating vascular wilt disease of banana plants and has become a great concern threatening banana production worldwide. however, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the expression of virulence determinants of this important fungal pathogen. in this study, we showed that null mutation of three mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase genes, designated as foslt2, fomkk2 an ...201525849862
fusarium oxysporum triggers tissue-specific transcriptional reprogramming in arabidopsis thaliana.some of the most devastating agricultural diseases are caused by root-infecting pathogens, yet the majority of studies on these interactions to date have focused on the host responses of aerial tissues rather than those belowground. fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting pathogen that causes wilt disease on several plant species including arabidopsis thaliana. to investigate and compare transcriptional changes triggered by f. oxysporum in different arabidopsis tissues, we infected soil-grown pla ...201525849296
[differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between lilium regale wilson and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii revealed by combined ssh and microarray analysis].fusarium wilt, caused by a soilborne pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, is the major disease of lily (lilium l.). in order to isolate the genes differentially expressed in a resistant reaction to f. oxysporum in l. regale wilson, a cdna library was constructed with l. regale root during f. oxysporum infection using the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh), and a total of 585 unique expressed sequence tags (ests) were obtained. furthermore, the gene expression profiles in the incomp ...201525845232
characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.a plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, pm 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the north eastern region of india was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16s ribosomal dna (rdna) gene sequencing. further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus tubingensis, candida albicans, colletotrichum gloeospori ...201525832181
the f-box protein fbp1 functions in the invasive growth and cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathways in fusarium oxysporum.f-box proteins determine substrate specificity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. previous work has demonstrated that the f-box protein fbp1, a component of the scf(fbp1) e3 ligase complex, is essential for invasive growth and virulence of the fungal plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum. here, we show that, in addition to invasive growth, fbp1 also contributes to vegetative hyphal fusion and fungal adhesion to tomato roots. all of these functions have been shown previously to require the mitogen-a ...201625808603
adaptation of fusarium oxysporum and fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.members of the fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. an epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in dijon and nancy (france) and in non-hospital buildings in dijon. the fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of nancy. all fungi were identified as fusarium oxysporum species comp ...201525792434
studies on antimicrobial effects of four ligands and their transition metal complexes with 8-mercaptoquinoline and pyridine terminal groups.four types of ligands (q1-q4) and their complexes (1-36) with transition metal ions have been synthesized, in which two new complexes (15 and 20) have been prepared and tested. in vitro antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their complexes were investigated against a representative panel of strains including two gram positive bacteria (sarcina ureae, staphylococcus aureus), two gram negative bacteria (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi (aspergillus niger, saccharomyc ...201525791454
testing of the safety and the effectiveness of using samjeongpharmacopuncture solution as eye drops.this experimental study was designed to investigate the safety and the effectiveness of samjeong pharmacopuncture solution (sps) manufactured by using a the lowtemperature extract on process.201225780632
characterization of novel trichoderma asperellum isolates to select effective biocontrol agents against tomato fusarium wilt.the use of novel isolates of trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. we evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of t. asperellum against 4 different isolates of fol. the production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. the random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) method was applied to assess the ...201525774110
cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.agave tequilana weber var. 'azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. in this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy agave tequilana plants. in plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million cfu/g of fresh plant tissue. three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rdna sequences grouped the bacteria into ...201425763038
isolation, purification, and characterization of a stable defensin-like antifungal peptide from trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds.a novel defensin-like antifungal peptide (tf-afp) with molecular mass of 10.3 kda was isolated from seeds of trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange, gel-filtration, hydrophobic chromatography, and rp-hplc. mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the intact mass of the purified antifungal peptide as 10321.5 da and high similarity to plant defensins and other antifungal proteins in database search. 2d-page showed pi value to be 8.8 and absence of isof ...201525761687
naturally produced citral can significantly inhibit normal physiology and induce cytotoxicity on magnaporthe grisea.given the importance of finding alternatives to synthetic fungicides, the antifungal effects of natural product citral on six plant pathogenic fungi (magnaporthe grisea, gibberella zeae, fusarium oxysporum, valsa mali, botrytis cinerea, and rhizoctonia solani) were determined. mycelial growth rate results showed that citral possessed high antifungal activities on those test fungi with ec50 values ranging from 39.52 to 193.00 µg/ml, which had the highest inhibition rates against m. grisea. furthe ...201525752425
[biological characteristics of an hog1 mapk homologous gene fohog1 knock-out mutant of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense].this study was aimed to obtain a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) gene namely fohog1 from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and to verify its function.201425752133
candida and fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. these conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. we focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. out of 70 residentia ...201525749362
the tomato i-3 gene: a novel gene for resistance to fusarium wilt disease.plant resistance proteins provide race-specific immunity through the recognition of pathogen effectors. the resistance genes i, i-2 and i-3 have been incorporated into cultivated tomato (solanum lycopersicum) from wild tomato species to confer resistance against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) races 1, 2 and 3, respectively. although the fol effectors corresponding to these resistance genes have all been identified, only the i-2 resistance gene has been isolated from tomato. to isola ...201525740416
comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines.the introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. however, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. the aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological c ...201525737015
phylogenic analysis revealed an expanded c₂h₂-homeobox subfamily and expression profiles of c₂h₂ zinc finger gene family in verticillium dahliae.c2h2 zinc finger (czf) proteins are a major class of transcription factors that play crucial roles in fungal growth, development, various stress responses, and virulence. little genome-wide data is available regarding the roles of czf proteins in verticillium dahliae, a destructive pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in more than 200 plant species. we identified a total of 79 typical czf genes in v. dahliae. comparative analysis revealed that four plant pathogenic fungi, v. dahliae, fusar ...201525725127
[antifungal effect of phenolic and carotenoids extracts from chiltepin (capsicum annum var. glabriusculum) on alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum].the effect of phenolic and carotenoid extracts from chiltepin fruits on mycelial growth and the inhibition of conidial germination of alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum were investigated in the present work. phenolic extracts inhibited mycelial growth of a.alternata by 38.46%, and significantly reduced conidial germination on the fifth day after treatment to 92% in relation to control. no significant changes were observed in the inhibition of mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum; howev ...201525705046
distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil across tunisia: a descriptive study and review of the literature.data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of tunisia are scanty. the present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in tunisia. keratinophilic fungi were isolated using vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further dna and maldi-tof analysis when necessary. keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the ...201525690159
fluorescence assisted selection of transformants (fast): using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants.the availability of drug resistance markers for fungal transformation is often a limiting factor in both fungal genetics research and industrial applications. we describe a new technique using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants using well-known fluorescent proteins as markers for transformation. this new technique, fluorescence-assisted selection of transformants (fast), was used for a transformation of fusarium oxysporum with gfp as a marker targeted at a specific site on chromosome ...201525687933
fusarium species isolated from pennisetum clandestinum collected during outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in south africa.kikuyu poisoning occurs sporadically in south africa. it is of major economic importance, as valuable dairy cows are often poisoned by it, and once affected, the mortality rate is high. pennisetum clandestinum samples were collected during eight outbreaks of kikuyu poisoning in cattle in the eastern cape province of south africa from 2008 to 2010. the kikuyu grass samples were submitted specifically for the isolation and molecular identification of fusarium species, as it was recently suggested ...201425686222
efficacy of oryza sativa husk and quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (dioscorea rotundata poir).tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in nigeria. the main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. the potential of oryza sativa husk (osh) and quercus phillyraeoides (qp) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, lasiodiplodia theobromae, aspergillus niger, rhizoctonia solani, peni ...201425674452
understanding pea resistance mechanisms in response to fusarium oxysporum through proteomic analysis.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (fop) is an important and destructive pathogen affecting pea crop (pisum sativum) throughout the world. control of this disease is achieved mainly by integration of different disease management procedures. however, the constant evolution of the pathogen drives the necessity to broaden the molecular basis of resistance to fop. our proteomic study was performed on pea with the aim of identifying proteins involved in different resistance mechanisms operating during f. ...201525672548
rapid and efficient estimation of pea resistance to the soil-borne pathogen fusarium oxysporum by infrared imaging.fusarium wilts are widespread diseases affecting most agricultural crops. in absence of efficient alternatives, sowing resistant cultivars is the preferred approach to control this disease. however, actual resistance sources are often overcome by new pathogenic races, forcing breeders to continuously search for novel resistance sources. selection of resistant accessions, mainly based on the evaluation of symptoms at timely intervals, is highly time-consuming. thus, we tested the potential of an ...201525671514
clustering of two genes putatively involved in cyanate detoxification evolved recently and independently in multiple fungal lineages.fungi that have the enzymes cyanase and carbonic anhydrase show a limited capacity to detoxify cyanate, a fungicide employed by both plants and humans. here, we describe a novel two-gene cluster that comprises duplicated cyanase and carbonic anhydrase copies, which we name the cca gene cluster, trace its evolution across ascomycetes, and examine the evolutionary dynamics of its spread among lineages of the fusarium oxysporum species complex (hereafter referred to as the fosc), a cosmopolitan cla ...201525663439
comparative functional characterization of a novel benzoate hydroxylase cytochrome p450 of fusarium oxysporum.focyp53a19, a novel cytochrome p450 capable of performing benzoate hydroxylation, was identified and characterized from the ascomycete fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. comparative functional analysis of focyp53a19 with the heterologous and homologous cytochrome p450 reductases (cpr) such as saccharomyces cerevisiae (sccpr), candida albicans (cacpr) and f. oxysporum (focpr) revealed novel catalytic properties. the catalytic efficiency and substrate specificity of focyp53a19 were significantl ...201525659633
fusarium diversity in soil using a specific molecular approach and a cultural approach.fusarium species are ubiquitous in soil. they cause plant and human diseases and can produce mycotoxins. surveys of fusarium species diversity in environmental samples usually rely on laborious culture-based methods. in the present study, we have developed a molecular method to analyze fusarium diversity directly from soil dna. we designed primers targeting the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (ef-1α) gene and demonstrated their specificity toward fusarium using a large collection of fungi. ...201525655778
assessment of probiotic, antifungal and cholesterol lowering properties of pediococcus pentosaceus kcc-23 isolated from italian ryegrass.lactic acid bacteria (lab) are important for the processing of various food products. although genetically modified organisms have contributed to improvements in various food products, there are some limitations. thus, the discovery of wild strains from natural sources must be considered as the most suitable approach for identifying new lab. therefore, we planned to isolate and characterise the lab from italian ryegrass forage and evaluate their biological potential.201625655225
down-regulation of fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by host-delivered rna interference enhances disease resistance.fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. we have used host-delivered rna interference (hd-rnai) technology to partially silence three different genes (fow2, frp1, and opr) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. expression of double stranded rna (dsrna) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a n ...201525654075
interaction of pseudostellaria heterophylla with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.in this study, quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr) was used to determine the amount of fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. moreover, hplc was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of f. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. the amount of f. oxysporum increased significantly in p. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive r ...201525645742
application of serratia marcescens rz-21 significantly enhances peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil.continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. the aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. a pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liqu ...201625640613
pharmacogenomic and molecular docking studies on the cytotoxicity of the natural steroid wortmannin against multidrug-resistant tumor cells.wortmannin is a cytotoxic compound derived from the endophytic fungi fusarium oxysporum, penicillium wortmannii and penicillium funiculosum that occurs in many plants, including medicinal herbs. the rationale to develop novel anticancer drugs is the frequent development of tumor resistance to the existing antineoplasic agents. therefore, it is mandatory to analyze resistance mechanisms of novel drug candidates such as wortmannin as well to bring effective drugs into the clinic that have the pote ...201525636880
correction: genome and transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense causing banana vascular wilt disease. 201525629969
preparation and characterization of a novel extracellular polysaccharide with antioxidant activity, from the mangrove-associated fungus fusarium oxysporum.marine fungi are recognized as an abundant source of extracellular polysaccharides with novel structures. mangrove fungi constitute the second largest ecological group of the marine fungi, and many of them are new or inadequately described species and may produce extracellular polysaccharides with novel functions and structures that could be explored as a source of useful polymers. the mangrove-associated fungus fusarium oxysporum produces an extracellular polysaccharide, fw-1, when grown in pot ...201525627692
fubt, a putative mfs transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum.fusaric acid (fa) is a key component in virulence and symptom development in cotton during infection by fusarium oxysporum. a putative major facilitator superfamily (mfs) transporter gene was identified downstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of fa in a region previously believed to be unrelated to the known fa gene cluster. disruption of the transporter gene, designated fubt, resulted in loss of fa secretion, decrease in fa production and a decrease in resist ...201525627440
a novel ionic liquid-tolerant fusarium oxysporum bn secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.in this study, microbial communities from chemicals polluted microhabitats were cultured with the addition of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (il) to enrich for il-tolerant microbes. a strain of fusarium oxysporum bn producing cellulase from these enrichments was capable of growing in 10% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphinate, much higher than the normal il concentrations in the lignocellulose regenerated from ils. cellulase secreted by the strain showed high resistance to ils based on ph ...201525625459
activity of haliscosamine against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis: in vitro and in vivo analysis.marine sponges are a potential source of new molecules with diverse biological activities. we have previously isolated a sphingosine derivative, (9z)-2-amino-docos-9-ene-1,3,13,14-tetraol (haliscosamine) from the moroccan sea sponge haliclona viscosa. the aim of this study was to test haliscosamine in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis causing fusarium wilt of melon. overall, in vitro test showed that haliscosamine has a similar effect as desog ...201525625038
characterization and stress-induced expression analysis of alfin-like transcription factors in brassica rapa.the alfin-like (al) transcription factors (tfs) family is involved in many developmental processes, including the growth and development of roots, root hair elongation, meristem development, etc. however, stress resistance-related function and the regulatory mechanism of these tfs have yet to be elucidated. this study identified 15 brassica rapa al (bral) tfs from brad database, analyzed the sequences and profiled their expression first time in response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans ...201525618423
synthesis and in vitro antifungal efficacy of cu-chitosan nanoparticles against pathogenic fungi of tomato.cu-chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized and evaluated for their growth promotory and antifungal efficacy in tomato (solanum lycopersicum mill). physico-chemical characterization of the developed cu-chitosan nanoparticles was carried out by dls, ftir, tem, sem-eds and aas. the study highlighted the stability and porous nature of cu-chitosan nanoparticles. laboratory synthesized nanoparticles showed substantial growth promotory effect on tomato seed germination, seedling length, fresh and dry w ...201525617841
control of root rot and wilt diseases of roselle under field conditions.roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa l.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. in this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on fusarium oxysporum, f. solani, and macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. our results showed that micro ...201425606010
subcutaneous mycoses: an aetiological study of 15 cases in a tertiary care hospital at dibrugarh, assam, northeast india.subcutaneous mycoses are a group of fungal infections of dermis and subcutaneous tissue which consist of sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, mycetoma, subcutaneous zygomycosis, rhinosporidiosis, lobomycosis and disseminated penicilliosis. a total of 46 consecutive patients with clinically suspected subcutaneous mycoses attending various departments of assam medical college and hospital were included in this prospective study to know the prevalence of subcut ...201525596859
pcr-based specific techniques used for detecting the most important pathogens on strawberry: a systematic review.strawberry diseases are a major limiting factor that severely impact plant agronomic performance. regarding limitations of traditional techniques for detection of pathogens, researchers have developed specific dna-based tests as sensitive and specific techniques. the aim of this review is to provide an overview of polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based methods used for detection or quantification of the most widespread strawberry pathogens, such as fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, phytophthora ...201525588564
water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. the physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. the results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. the transpirati ...201525579504
different forms of apolipophorin iii in galleria mellonella larvae challenged with bacteria and fungi.apolipophorin iii (apolp-iii), a lipid-binding protein and an insect homolog of human apolipoprotein e, plays an important role in lipid transport and immune response in insects. in the present study, we have demonstrated a correlation in time between changes in the apolp-iii abundance occurring in the hemolymph, hemocytes, and fat body after immunization of galleria mellonella larvae with gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli, gram-positive bacteria micrococcus luteus, yeast candida albicans, ...201525579437
in-vitro assessment of the probiotic potential of lactobacillus plantarum kcc-24 isolated from italian rye-grass (lolium multiflorum) forage.the aim of the present study was to determine the probiotic potential of the lactic acid bacteria lactobacillus plantarum kcc-24 (l. plantarum kcc-24), that was isolated and characterized from italian ryegrass (lolium multiflorum) forage. the following experiments were performed to assess the probiotic characteristics such as antifungal activity, antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low ph, stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, proteolytic activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydropho ...201525576238
local origin of two vegetative compatibility groups of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in australia.pathogenicity and genetic diversity of fusarium oxysporum from geographically widespread native gossypium populations, including a cotton growing area believed to be the center of origin of vcg 01111 and vcg 01112 of f. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (fov) in australia, was determined using glasshouse bioassays and aflps. five lineages (a-e) were identified among 856 isolates. of these, 12% were strongly pathogenic on cotton, 10% were weakly pathogenic and designated wild fov, while 78% were nonpa ...201025567943
autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in fusarium oxysporum.in the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. a search of the f. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (atg) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein at ...201525560310
[superficial mycoses in patients from anzoátegui state, venezuela, period 2002-2012].superficial fungal diseases that affect the skin and its appendages are frequently seen in basic triage and in dermatology services. these diseases are distributed in venezuela with an incidence of 92.9%. the aim of this study was to determine the genera and species that cause dermatomycoses in residents of anzoátegui state, venezuela, during the period 2002-2012. a total of 4257 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycoses were studied, with ages from 7 months to 79 years. the o ...201425558751
[repeating the platelia™ aspergillus test in samples positive for serum galactomannan: is it necessary?].the manufacturers of the platelia™ aspergillus test recommend retesting every sample with a positive result to galactomannan detection.201525556050
antimicrobial and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation of constituents isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes.this study was designed to assess the susceptibility of various microorganisms and inhibition on heat-induced protein denaturation against diosgenin and santonin, isolated from polygonatum verticillatum rhizomes. both diosgenin and santonin showed significant zone of inhibition when studied against various gram-positive (bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and salmonella typhi). in antifungal assay ...201525553804
molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.in a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (ffpe) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. detection of feline and fungal dna was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. mo ...201525550386
the application of arabidopsis thaliana in studying tripartite interactions among plants, beneficial fungal endophytes and biotrophic plant-parasitic nematodes.the research demonstrated that arabidopsis can be used as a model system for studying plant-nematode-endophyte tripartite interactions; thus, opening new possibilities for further characterizing the molecular mechanisms behind these interactions. arabidopsis has been established as an important model system for studying plant biology and plant-microbe interactions. we show that this plant can also be used for studying the tripartite interactions among plants, the root-knot nematode meloidogyne i ...201525548000
in vitro antagonistic activity, plant growth promoting traits and phylogenetic affiliation of rhizobacteria associated with wild plants grown in arid soil.the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) in adaptation of plants in extreme environments is not yet completely understood. for this study native bacteria were isolated from rhizospeheric arid soils and evaluated for both growth-promoting abilities and antagonistic potential against phytopathogenic fungi and nematodes. the phylogentic affiliation of these representative isolates was also characterized. rhizobacteria associated with 11 wild plant species from the arid soil of almadi ...201425538687
spectrum of fusarium infections in tropical dermatology evidenced by multilocus sequencing typing diagnostics.fusarium species are emerging causative agents of superficial, cutaneous and systemic human infections. in a study of the prevalence and genetic diversity of 464 fungal isolates from a dermatological ward in thailand, 44 strains (9.5%) proved to belong to the genus fusarium. species identification was based on sequencing a portion of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α), rdna internal transcribed spacer and rna-dependent polymerase subunit ii (rpb2). our results revealed that 37 isolat ...201525530264
comparative study of the bioconversion process using r-(+)- and s-(-)-limonene as substrates for fusarium oxysporum 152b.this study compared the bioconversion process of s-(-)-limonene into limonene-1,2-diol with the already established biotransformation of r-(+)-limonene into α-terpineol using the same biocatalyst in both processes, fusarium oxysporum 152b. the bioconversion of the s-(-)-isomer was tested on cell permeabilisation under anaerobic conditions and using a biphasic system. when submitted to permeabilisation trials, this biocatalyst has shown a relatively high resistance; still, no production of limone ...201525529726
detection and characterization of broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of novel rhizobacterial isolates and suppression of fusarium crown and root rot disease of tomato.to detect and characterize broad-spectrum antipathogen activity of indigenous bacterial isolates obtained from potato soil and soya bean leaves for their potential to be developed as biofungicides to control soilborne diseases such as fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (fcrr) caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl).201525512025
[allelopathic effects of phenolic compounds of melon root exudates on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis].in this study, the phenolic compounds of melon root exudates were identified by hplc and seven phenolic compounds including gallic acid, phthalic acid, syringic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were observed. the laboratory experiment showed that ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid of 0.1 and 0.25 mmol x l(-1) could significantly promote the germination of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis spore while salicylic acid inhibited the spore germination to so ...201425509089
shifts in soil chemical properties and bacterial communities responding to biotransformed dry olive residue used as organic amendment.dry olive residue (dor) is a waste product derived from olive oil extraction and has been proposed as an organic amendment. however, it has been demonstrated that a pre-treatment, such as its transformation by saprophytic fungi, is required before dor soil application. a greenhouse experiment was designed where 0 and 50 g kg(-1) of raw dor (dor), coriolopsis floccosa-transformed dor (cordor) and fusarium oxysporum-transformed dor (fusdor) were added to soil. analyses of the soil chemical propert ...201525501891
morphological and molecular characterization of fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in brazil.the occurrence of fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (carya illinoinensis) diseases in brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in rio grande do sul state. thus, in this study, we i) obtained fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified fusarium spp to the species ...201425501150
small rna profiling reveals regulation of arabidopsis mir168 and heterochromatic sirna415 in response to fungal elicitors.small rnas (srnas), including small interfering rnas (sirnas) and micrornas (mirnas), have emerged as important regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. in plants, mirnas play critical roles in development, nutrient homeostasis and abiotic stress responses. accumulating evidence also reveals that srnas are involved in plant immunity. most studies on pathogen-regulated srnas have been conducted in arabidopsis plants infected with the bacterial pathogen pseudomonas syringae, or treated with the f ...201425491154
responses of beneficial bacillus amyloliquefaciens sqr9 to different soilborne fungal pathogens through the alteration of antifungal compounds production.bacillus amyloliquefaciens sqr9 exhibited predominantly antagonistic activities against a broad range of soilborne pathogens. the fungi-induced sqr9 extracts possess stronger antifungal activities compared with sqr9 monoculture extracts. to investigate how sqr9 fine-tunes lipopeptides (lps) and a siderophore bacillibactin production to control different fungal pathogens, lps and bacillibactin production and transcription of the respective encoding genes in sqr9 were measured and compared with si ...201425484880
molecular defense responses in roots and the rhizosphere against fusarium oxysporum.plants face many different concurrent and consecutive abiotic and biotic stresses during their lifetime. roots can be infected by numerous pathogens and parasitic organisms. unlike foliar pathogens, root pathogens have not been explored enough to fully understand root-pathogen interactions and the underlying mechanism of defense and resistance. pr gene expression, structural responses, secondary metabolite and root exudate production, as well as the recruitment of plant defense-assisting "soldie ...201425482759
microbial contamination of domiciliary nebulisers and clinical implications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.domiciliary nebulisers are widely used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) but nebuliser cleaning practice has not been assessed in patients with copd who are often elderly and may have severe disease and multiple comorbidities. we aimed to evaluate microbial contamination of home nebulisers used by patients with copd.201425478172
a new model of in vitro fungal biofilms formed on human nail fragments allows reliable testing of laser and light therapies against onychomycosis.onychomycoses represent approximately 50 % of all nail diseases worldwide. in warmer and more humid countries like brazil, the incidence of onychomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte molds (ndm, including fusarium spp.) or yeasts (including candida albicans) has been increasing. traditional antifungal treatments used for the dermatophyte-borne disease are less effective against onychomycoses caused by ndm. although some laser and light treatments have demonstrated clinical efficacy against onychom ...201525471266
hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (hyacinthus orientalis).hyacinth (hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. the purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. the application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. methyl jasmonate (ja-me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. simultaneous application of ja-me and ethephon ...201525462960
response of nbs encoding resistance genes linked to both heat and fungal stress in brassica oleracea.environmental stresses, including both abiotic and biotic stresses, cause considerable yield loss in crops and can significantly affect their development. under field conditions, crops are exposed to a variety of concurrent stresses. among abiotic and biotic stresses, heat and fusarium oxysporum, are the most important factors affecting development and yield productivity of brassica oleracea. genes encoding the nucleotide-binding site (nbs) motif are known to be related to responses to abiotic a ...201525461701
arsenic speciation transformation and arsenite influx and efflux across the cell membrane of fungi investigated using hplc-hg-afs and in-situ xanes.microorganisms dominated speciation of arsenic (as) play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of as. in the study, species transformation of arsenite [as(iii)] and as(iii) influx and efflux across the cell membranes of trichoderma asperellum sm-12f1, penicillium janthinellum sm-12f4, and fusarium oxysporum cz-8f1 cells were studied using a cellular lysis plus chromatographic separation method and further the in-situ x-ray absorption near edge structure (xanes) analysis. the results in ...201525460757
proteomics of fusarium oxysporum race 1 and race 4 reveals enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and ion transport that might play important roles in banana fusarium wilt.banana fusarium wilt is a soil-spread fungal disease caused by fusarium oxysporum. in china, the main virulence fungi in banana are f. oxysporum race 1 (f1, weak virulence) and race 4 (f4, strong virulence). to date, no proteomic analyses have compared the two races, but the difference in virulence between f1 and f4 might result from their differentially expressed proteins. here we report the first comparative proteomics of f1 and f4 cultured under various conditions, and finally identify 99 pro ...201425460190
lipopeptide biosurfactant from bacillus thuringiensis pak2310: a potential antagonist against fusarium oxysporum.the aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of a biosurfactant obtained from a novel bacillus thuringiensis on fusarium oxysporum to determine the morphological changes in the structure of the fungi and its biofilm in the presence of the biosurfactant and to evaluate the toxicity of the biosurfactant on hep-2 human epithelial cell lines.201525456418
lignin and lignans in plant defence: insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in populus.cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cad) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. we re-analysed the phylogeny of cad/cad-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of cad/cad-like genes in populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. three fungal pathogens (rhizoctonia solani, fu ...201425443838
burkholderia terrae bs001 migrates proficiently with diverse fungal hosts through soil and provides protection from antifungal agents.soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium burkholderia terrae bs001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi trichoderma asperellum, rhizoctonia solani, fusarium oxysporum, f. oxysporum pv lini, coniochaeta ligniaria, phanerochaete velutina, and phallus impudicus. we ...201425426111
challenges in ethanol production with fusarium oxysporum through consolidated bioprocessing.fusarium oxysporum has been reported as being able to both produce the enzymes necessary to degrade lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and also ferment the monosaccharides to ethanol under anaerobic or microaerobic conditions. however, in order to become an economically feasible alternative to other ethanol-producing microorganisms, a better understanding of its physiology, metabolic pathways, and bottlenecks is required, together with an improvement in its efficiency and robustness. in this repo ...201425424444
genetic and pathogenic variability of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from onion and welsh onion in japan.fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and fusarium wilt in welsh onion. although these diseases have been detected in various areas in japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. in this study, f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and welsh onion grown in 12 locations in japan, and a total of 55 f. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from welsh onion) were ch ...201525412011
dynamics of the establishment of multinucleate compartments in fusarium oxysporum.nuclear dynamics can vary widely between fungal species and between stages of development of fungal colonies. here we compared nuclear dynamics and mitotic patterns between germlings and mature hyphae in fusarium oxysporum. using fluorescently labeled nuclei and live-cell imaging, we show that f. oxysporum is subject to a developmental transition from a uninucleate to a multinucleate state after completion of colony initiation. we observed a special type of hypha that exhibits a higher growth ra ...201525398376
identification and characterization of an antifungal protein, afafpr9, produced by marine-derived aspergillus fumigatus r9.a fungal strain, r9, was isolated from the south atlantic sediment sample and identified as aspergillus fumigatus. an antifungal protein, afafpr9, was purified from the culture supernatant of aspergillus fumigatus r9. afafpr9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (rips), by maldi-tof-tof-ms. afafpr9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fusarium oxysporum, alternaria longipes, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, paecilomyces vario ...201525394604
in vitro screening of antifungal activity of marine sponge extracts against five phytopathogenic fungi.the aim of our research is the screening of extracts of marine sponges for their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. the in vitro screening of hydroalcoholic and organic extracts of ten marine sponges from atlantic coast of morocco against five phytopathogenic fungi (fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, botrytis cinerea and penicillium digitatum) showed that only two sponges (haliclona viscosa and cynachi ...201425392799
different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.in the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) genes and internal transcribed spacer (its) regions. the results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. bray-curtis dissimi ...201525391237
biocontrol of fusarium wilt disease in tomato by paenibacillus ehimensis kwn38.this study was conducted to investigate biocontrol potential of paenibacillus ehimensis kwn38 against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici causing fusarium wilt disease in tomato. our result showed that p. ehimensis kwn38 produced extracellular organic compounds and crude enzyme to inhibit f. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici conidial germination in in vitro assays. tomato seedlings were treated with water (w), grass medium (g), g with p. ehimensis kwn38 inoculation (gp) and g along with synthetic fun ...201525384610
onychomycosis by fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero.fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. we describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by fusarium oxysporum. the infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a hiv-posi ...201425383318
the transmembrane protein sho1 cooperates with the mucin msb2 to regulate invasive growth and plant infection in fusarium oxysporum.in the vascular wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) fmk1 is essential for plant infection. the mucin-like membrane protein msb2 regulates a subset of fmk1-dependent functions. here, we examined the role of the tetraspan transmembrane protein sho1 as an additional regulator of the fmk1 pathway and determined its genetic interaction with msb2. targeted δsho1 mutants were generated in wild-type and δmsb2 backgrounds to test possible interactions between the ...201525382187
development of quantitative proteomics using itraq based on the immunological response of galleria mellonella larvae challenged with fusarium oxysporum microconidia.galleria mellonella has emerged as a potential invertebrate model for scrutinizing innate immunity. larvae are easy to handle in host-pathogen assays. we undertook proteomics research in order to understand immune response in a heterologous host when challenged with microconidia of fusarium oxysporum. the aim of this study was to investigate hemolymph proteins that were differentially expressed between control and immunized larvae sets, tested with f. oxysporum at two temperatures. the itraq app ...201425379782
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