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[genetic diversity analysis of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense populations from china using inter-simple sequence repeats-pcr (issr-pcr) technique].we used inter-simple sequence repeats (issr) markers to reveal the genetic diversity of 95 fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ( foc ) isolates from banana in china, for the rational control of the disease.201526562993
fungal endophyte diversity and bioactivity in the indian medicinal plant ocimum sanctum linn.endophytic mycopopulation isolated from india's queen of herbs tulsi (ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens botrytis cinerea, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, rhizoctonia solani and fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (delhi, hyderabad and mu ...201526529087
the abc transporter abcg29 is involved in h2o2 tolerance and biocontrol traits in the fungus clonostachys rosea.for successful biocontrol interactions, biological control organisms must tolerate toxic metabolites produced by themselves or plant pathogens during mycoparasitic/antagonistic interactions, by host plant during colonization of the plant, and xenobiotics present in the environment. atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters can play a significant role in tolerance of toxic compounds by mediating active transport across the cellular membrane. this paper reports on functional characterization of an a ...201626520102
plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture.under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. consecutive monoculture of r. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. it suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocu ...201526515244
fungal pathogen uses sex pheromone receptor for chemotropic sensing of host plant signals.for more than a century, fungal pathogens and symbionts have been known to orient hyphal growth towards chemical stimuli from the host plant. however, the nature of the plant signals as well as the mechanisms underlying the chemotropic response have remained elusive. here we show that directed growth of the soil-inhabiting plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum towards the roots of the host tomato (solanum lycopersicum) is triggered by the catalytic activity of secreted class iii peroxidases, a famil ...201526503056
the shewanella algae strain ym8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins.aflatoxigenic aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. controlling these microbes is a challenge. in this study, the shewanella algae strain ym8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against aspergillus pathogens. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (vocs) emitted from ym8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. we obtained authent ...201526500631
antagonistic activities of novel peptides from bacillus amyloliquefaciens pt14 against fusarium solani and fusarium oxysporum.bacillus species have recently drawn attention due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. this paper reports on the antifungal activity of novel peptides isolated from bacillus amyloliquefaciens pt14. reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that b. amyloliquefaciens pt14 produces five peptides (pt14-1, -2, -3, -4a, and -4b) that exhibit antifungal activity but are inactive against bacterial strains. in particular, pt14-3 and pt14-4a showed broa ...201526496638
[identification of pathogens causing root rot disease on ligusticum chuanxiong in sichuan].to identify the pathogens causing root rot disease on ligusticum chuanxiong from the main producing areas in sichuan, and to provide gist of management of this disease in the future.201526495640
a conserved co-chaperone is required for virulence in fungal plant pathogens.the maize pathogenic fungus ustilago maydis experiences endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress during plant colonization and relies on the unfolded protein response (upr) to cope with this stress. we identified the u. maydis co-chaperone, designated dnj1, as part of this conserved cellular response to er stress. ∆dnj1 cells are sensitive to the er stressor tunicamycin and display a severe virulence defect in maize infection assays. a dnj1 mutant allele unable to stimulate the atpase activity of chape ...201626487566
sequence composition of bac clones and ssr markers mapped to upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens.genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. chromosome (chr) 11 and its homoeologous chr 21 of upland cotton (g. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (r) or pathogen-induced r (pr) genes underlying qtls involved in response to root-knot nematode (meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (rotylenchulus reniformis), fusarium wilt (fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectu ...201526483808
the role of pathogen-secreted proteins in fungal vascular wilt diseases.a limited number of fungi can cause wilting disease in plants through colonization of the vascular system, the most well-known being verticillium dahliae and fusarium oxysporum. like all pathogenic microorganisms, vascular wilt fungi secrete proteins during host colonization. whole-genome sequencing and proteomics screens have identified many of these proteins, including small, usually cysteine-rich proteins, necrosis-inducing proteins and enzymes. gene deletion experiments have provided evidenc ...201526473835
heterologous coexpression of vitreoscilla hemoglobin and bacillus megaterium glucanase in streptomyces lydicus a02 enhanced its production of antifungal metabolites.streptomyces lydicus a02 is a novel producer of commercially important polyene macrocyclic antibiotic natamycin and a potential biocontrol agent to several plant fungal diseases, including wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. spp. to improve the natamycin production and the antifungal activity of s. lydicus a02, we coexpressed gene vgb encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vhb) and bglc encoding bacillus megaterium l103 glucanase, both under the control of the strong constitutive erme* promoter, in ...201526453475
diversity of laccase-coding genes in fusarium oxysporum genomes.multiple studies confirm laccase role in fungal pathogenicity and lignocellulose degradation. in spite of broad genomic research, laccases from plant wilt pathogen fusarium oxysporum are still not characterized. the study aimed to identify f. oxysporum genes that may encode laccases sensu stricto and to characterize the proteins in silico in order to facilitate further research on their impact on the mentioned processes. twelve sequenced f. oxysporum genomes available on broad institute of harva ...201526441870
discovery of a novel linoleate dioxygenase of fusarium oxysporum and linoleate diol synthase of colletotrichum graminicola.fungal pathogens constitute serious threats for many forms of life. the pathogenic fungi fusarium and colletotrichum and their formae speciales (f. spp.) infect many types of crops with severe consequences and fusarium oxysporum can also induce keratitis and allergic conditions in humans. these fungi code for homologues of dioxygenase-cytochrome p450 (dox-cyp) fusion proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (cyclooxygenase) superfamily. the objective was to characterize the enzymatic activities of ...201526438098
antifungal activity of violacein purified from a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522).a novel strain of chromobacterium sp. niist (mtcc 5522) producing high level of purple blue bioactive compound violacein was isolated from clay mine acidic sediment. during 24 h aerobic incubation in modified luria bertani medium, around 0.6 g crude violacein was produced per gram of dry weight biomass. an inexpensive method for preparing crystalline, pure violacein from crude pigment was developed (12.8 mg violacein/l) and the pure compound was characterized by different spectrometric methods. ...201526428920
arabidopsis incurvata2 regulates salicylic acid and abscisic acid signaling, and oxidative stress responses.epigenetic regulatory states can persist through mitosis and meiosis, but the connection between chromatin structure and dna replication remains unclear. arabidopsis incurvata2 (icu2) encodes the catalytic subunit of dna polymerase α, and null alleles of icu2 have an embryo-lethal phenotype. analysis of icu2-1, a hypomorphic allele of icu2, demonstrated that icu2 functions in chromatin-mediated cellular memory; icu2-1 strongly impairs icu2 function in the maintenance of repressive epigenetic mar ...201526423959
ruta montana l. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.the aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of r. montana against botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, verticillium dahliae, aspergillus oryzae and fusarium solani. the oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective mic values ...201526417353
non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.the contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. we provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decl ...201526405729
miltefosine is effective against candida albicans and fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, use ...201526404553
the effect of d123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon.the growth of watermelon is often threatened by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of d123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by fon. the results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol ...201526388851
extraction, identification and antimicrobial activity of a new furanone, grifolaone a, from grifola frondosa.a furanone (1), (s)-methyl 2-(2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)acetate, was isolated from the edible mushroom grifola frondosa. mass spectrometry and nmr analyses were used to elucidate the structure of this compound, and its absolute configuration was determined using circular dichroism spectroscopy. compound 1 exhibited specific antifungal activity against the plant pathogens, fusarium oxysporum, gibberella zeae and piricularia oryzae and the opportunistic human pathogen, pse ...201626374926
role of antagonistic microorganisms and organic amendment in stimulating the defense system of okra against root rotting fungi.without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. in the present study, pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and ...201526373176
the antagonistic effect of banana bunchy top virus multifunctional protein b4 against fusarium oxysporum.the viral-induced banana bunchy top disease and the fungal-induced banana blight are two major causes of concern for industrial scale production of bananas. banana blight is particularly troublesome, affecting ∼80% of crops worldwide. strict guidelines and protocols are in place in order to ameliorate the effects of this devastating disease, yet little success has been achieved. from the data presented here, we have found that banana bunchy top virus (bbtv)-infected bananas are more resistant to ...201626369403
tomato i2 immune receptor can be engineered to confer partial resistance to the oomycete phytophthora infestans in addition to the fungus fusarium oxysporum.plants and animals rely on immune receptors, known as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (nlr)-containing proteins, to defend against invading pathogens and activate immune responses. how nlr receptors respond to pathogens is inadequately understood. we previously reported single-residue mutations that expand the response of the potato immune receptor r3a to avr3a(em), a stealthy effector from the late blight oomycete pathogen phytophthora infestans. i2, another nlr that mediates ...201526367241
antifungal activity of a synthetic cationic peptide against the plant pathogens colletotrichum graminicola and three fusarium species.a small cationic peptide (jh8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. jh8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of jh8944. most conidia of fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of jh8944. germinating f. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of jh8944 for 90% growth inhibition. the peptide did not c ...201526361481
expression of rice chitinase gene in genetically engineered tomato confers enhanced resistance to fusarium wilt and early blight.this is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (rcg3) gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) causing fusarium wilt and alternaria solani causing early blight (eb). in this study, three transgenic lines tl1, tl2 and tl3 of tomato solanum lycopersicum mill. cv. riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (rcg 3) gene and their r1 progeny was tested for resistance to fol by r ...201526361473
phylogenetic diversity of human pathogenic fusarium and emergence of uncommon virulent species.fusarium species cause a broad spectrum of infections. however, little is known about the etiological agents to the species level. we identified fusarium species isolated from clinical specimens including those of high risk patients to better understand the species involved in the pathogenesis.201526348828
genetic analysis and chromosome mapping of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon) race 1 and race 2 in watermelon (citrullus lanatus l.).fusarium wilt (fw) caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (fon) is the major soilborne disease of watermelon (citrullus lanatus l.). the development and deployment of resistant cultivars is generally considered to be an effective approach to control fw. in this study, an f8 population consisting of 103 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the cultivar 97103 and a wild accession pi 296341-fr was used for fon race 1 and race 2 fungal inoculations. one major qtl on chromosome 1 ...201726347205
fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. they were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (tpp) to synthesize nanoparticles (cwp-np). the nanoparticles were characterized by ftir, dls, sem, xrd and nmr analyses. the isolated cwp-np exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. the foliar application of the cwp-np to tomato plants challenged with f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wi ...201526344296
comparative proteomics analyses of two races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans that differ in pathogenicity.fusarium oxysporum is a soil-inhabiting fungus that induces vascular wilt and root rot in a variety of plants. f. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (foc), which comprises two races, can cause wilt disease in cabbage. compared with race 1 (52557(-tm), r1), race 2 (58385(-tm), r2) exhibits much stronger pathogenicity. here, we provide the first proteome reference maps for foc mycelium and conidia and identify 145 proteins with different abundances among the two races. of these proteins, most of the hi ...201526333982
[using galleria mellonella as an in vivo model to study the virulence of some bacterial and fungal agents].non-vertebrate hosts, such as galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. this organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. in this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing and non-producing escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aer ...201526313278
a novel and effective streptomyces sp. n2 against various phytopathogenic fungi.phytopathogenic fungi would induce a variety of plant diseases, resulting in a severe reduction of agricultural output. however, the current plant disease control is mainly dependent on the environmentally and healthily hazardous chemical fungicides. thus, the present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic microorganism against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. by dual culture with rhizoctonia solani, a novel streptomyces specie, streptomyces sp. n2, was screened out from a total ...201526306529
comparative genomics of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis reveals the secreted protein recognized by the fom-2 resistance gene in melon.development of resistant crops is the most effective way to control plant diseases to safeguard food and feed production. disease resistance is commonly based on resistance genes, which generally mediate the recognition of small proteins secreted by invading pathogens. these proteins secreted by pathogens are called 'avirulence' proteins. their identification is important for being able to assess the usefulness and durability of resistance genes in agricultural settings. we have used genome sequ ...201626305378
purification and characterization of a lectin from green split peas (pisum sativum).lectins have captured the attention of a large number of researchers on account of their various exploitable activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, antifungal, as well as hiv reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities. a mannose/glucose-specific lectin was isolated from green split peas (a variety of pisum sativum) and characterized. the purification step involved anion-exchange chromatography on a deae-cellulose column, cation-exchange chromatography on an sp-sepharose column, and ...201526304129
molecular phylogeny and diversity of fusarium endophytes isolated from tomato stems.plant tissues are a known habitat for two types of fusarium species: plant pathogens and endophytes. here, we investigated the molecular phylogeny and diversity of endophytic fusaria, because endophytes are not as well studied as pathogens. a total of 543 fusarium isolates were obtained from the inside of tomato stems cultivated in soils mainly obtained from agricultural fields. we then determined partial nucleotide sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (ef-1α) genes of the isol ...201526298015
structural and functional studies of a fusarium oxysporum cutinase with polyethylene terephthalate modification potential.cutinases are serine hydrolases that degrade cutin, a polyester of fatty acids that is the main component of plant cuticle. these biocatalysts have recently attracted increased biotechnological interest due to their potential to modify and degrade polyethylene terephthalate (pet), as well as other synthetic polymers.201526291558
diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from cephalotaxus hainanensis li, a well-known medicinal plant in china.about 1051 endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, branches, barks and stems of cephalotaxus hainanensis li from four sites in hainan, china. the fungi were identified as 21 genera by morphology and its sequences. one dominant species was phomopsis quercella in hainan tropical botanical garden and bawangling nature reserve, with relative frequency of 42·06 and 34·88% respectively. another dominant species was colletotrichum boninense in wuzhishan and jianfengling nature reserves, with relati ...201526280451
efficacy of fungal decolorization of a mixture of dyes belonging to different classes.dyes are the most difficult constituents to remove by conventional biological wastewater treatment. colored wastewater is mainly eliminated by physical and chemical procedures, which are very expensive and have drawbacks. therefore, the advantage of using biological processes, such as the biotransformation of dyes, is that they may lead to complete mineralization or formation of less toxic products. to prove the possibility of using fungal processes for decolorization and other applications, the ...201526273256
delftia tsuruhatensis wgr-uom-bt1, a novel rhizobacterium with pgpr properties from rauwolfia serpentina (l.) benth. ex kurz also suppresses fungal phytopathogens by producing a new antibiotic-amtm.the bacterial strain designated as wgr-uom-bt1 isolated from rhizosphere of rauwolfia serpentina exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity and also improved early plant growth. based on morphological, biochemical and 16s rrna gene sequence analyses, the strain bt1 was identified as delftia tsuruhatensis (kf727978). under in vitro conditions, the strain bt1 suppressed the growth of wide range of fungal phytopathogens. purified antimicrobial metabolite from the strain bt1 was identified as nitr ...201526258398
higher bioavailability of organic bound zinc from high zinc-enriched fungi.the organic forms of trace elements are considered more bioavailable than the inorganic forms. although yeast can enrich metal elements and convert inorganic zinc to organic species, its tolerability and transforming capacity are limited. it would therefore be very interesting to look for higher conversion and accumulation in zinc fungi to obtain organic bound zinc from the natural environment. in this paper, potato dextrose agar (pda) medium containing 800 μg/ml zinc was used for initial screen ...201426255549
comparative proteomic analyses reveal that gnt2-mediated n-glycosylation affects cell wall glycans and protein content in fusarium oxysporum.protein n-glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification that contributes to appropriate protein folding, stability, functionality and localization. n-glycosylation has been identified as an important process for morphogenesis and virulence in several fungal pathogens including fusarium oxysporum. here we conducted comparative chemical and proteome-based analyses to better understand the physiological changes associated with protein hypo-n-glycosylation in f. oxysporum n-glycosylt ...201526254006
effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and fusarium wilt.fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum j. h. owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. in this study, fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vi ...201526250808
salecan enhances the activities of β-1,3-glucanase and decreases the biomass of soil-borne fungi.salecan, a linear extracellular polysaccharide consisting of β-1,3-d-glucan, has potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salecan on soil microbial communities in a vegetable patch. compositional shifts in the genetic structure of indigenous soil bacterial and fungal communities were monitored using culture-dependent dilution plating, culture-independent pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge ...201526247592
chemotropic sensing in fungus-plant interactions.growth of fungal hyphae is guided by a variety of chemical gradients, including nutrients, mating pheromones or host compounds. over 100 years after chemotropism was first reported in fungus-plant interactions, our knowledge on the host signals, fungal receptors and cellular pathways is still rudimentary. genetic analysis in the model organisms saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa has provided valuable insights into the chemotropic machinery of the fungal hypha. moreover, recent studie ...201526247120
manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of panama disease.panama disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. biological control has been proposed to suppress panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. in order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16s rrna gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial ...201526242751
genetic analysis of verticillium wilt resistance in a backcross inbred line population and a meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci for disease resistance in cotton.verticillium wilt (vw) and fusarium wilt (fw), caused by the soil-borne fungi verticillium dahliae and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, respectively, are two most destructive diseases in cotton production worldwide. root-knot nematodes (meloidogyne incognita, rkn) and reniform nematodes (rotylenchulus reniformis, rn) cause the highest yield loss in the u.s. planting disease resistant cultivars is the most cost effective control method. numerous studies have reported mapping of quantitative ...201526239843
compost and biochar alter mycorrhization, tomato root exudation, and development of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.soil amendments like compost and biochar are known to affect soil properties, plant growth as well as soil borne plant pathogens. complex interactions based on microbial activity and abiotic characteristics are supposed to be responsible for suppressive properties of certain substrates, however, the specific mechanisms of action are still widely unknown. in the present study, the main focus was on the development of the soil borne pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (fol) in tomato (s ...201526217373
draft genome sequence of broad-spectrum antifungal bacterium burkholderia gladioli strain ngj1, isolated from healthy rice seeds.we report here the draft genome sequence of burkholderia gladioli strain ngj1. the strain was isolated from healthy rice seeds and exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity against several agriculturally important pathogens, including rhizoctonia solani, magnaporthe oryzae, venturia inaequalis, and fusarium oxysporum.201526205861
first report on fusarium wilt of zucchini caused by fusarium oxysporum, in korea.fusarium wilt of zucchini in jeonju, korea, was first noticed in may 2013. symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. infected plants eventually died during growth. based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rdna and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as fusarium oxysporum. pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via ...201526190927
identification of i-7 expands the repertoire of genes for resistance to fusarium wilt in tomato to three resistance gene classes.the tomato i-3 and i-7 genes confer resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) race 3 and were introgressed into the cultivated tomato, solanum lycopersicum, from the wild relative solanum pennellii. i-3 has been identified previously on chromosome 7 and encodes an s-receptor-like kinase, but little is known about i-7. molecular markers have been developed for the marker-assisted breeding of i-3, but none are available for i-7. we used an rna-seq and single nucleotide polymorphism ...201626177154
probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains with antifungal activity isolated from animal manure.the aim of the study was to isolate and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (lab) from animal manure. among the thirty lab strains, four strains, namely, kcc-25, kcc-26, kcc-27, and kcc-28, showed good cell growth and antifungal activity and were selected for further characterization. biochemical and physiology properties of strains confirmed that the strains are related to the lactobacillus sp.; further, the 16s rrna sequencing confirmed 99.99% sequence similarity towards lactobacillus planta ...201526167534
2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol as the antifungal, antioxidant bioactive purified from a newly isolated lactococcus sp.the volatile organic compound 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2,4 dtbp) was purified from the cell free supernatant of a newly isolated lactococcus sp. by solvent extraction and chromatographic techniques. molecular characterization of the compound by esi-ms, (1)h nmr and ftir analysis revealed the structure, c14h22o. fungicidal activity was demonstrated against aspergillus niger, fusarium oxysporum and penicillium chrysogenum by disc diffusion assay. among the cell lines tested for cytotoxicity of th ...201526164257
roles of three fusarium oxysporum calcium ion (ca(2+)) channels in generating ca(2+) signatures and controlling growth.spatial and temporal changes of cytoplasmic calcium ions ([ca(2+)]c), caused by external stimuli, are known as the ca(2+) signature and presumably control cellular and developmental responses. multiple types of ion channels, pumps, and transporters on plasma and organellar membranes modulate influx and efflux of ca(2+) to and from the extracellular environment and internal ca(2+) stores to form ca(2+) signatures. expression of a fluorescent protein-based ca(2+) probe, cameleon yc3.60, in fusariu ...201526162966
skin and subcutaneous mycoses in tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) caused by fusarium oxysporum in coinfection with aeromonas hydrophila.subcutaneous mycoses in freshwater fish are rare infections usually caused by oomycetes of the genus saprolegnia and some filamentous fungi. to date, fusarium infections in farmed fish have only been described in marine fish. here, we report the presence of fusarium oxysporum in subcutaneous lesions of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus). histopathologic evaluation revealed granuloma formation with fungal structures, and the identity of the etiological agent was demonstrated by morphological an ...201526155462
innovative approach to the accumulation of rubrosterone by fermentation of asparagus filicinus with fusarium oxysporum.rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting c19-steroid. however, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. fungi of genus fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert c27-steroids into c19-steroids. in this study, asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by fusarium oxysporum. the results ...201526145461
complete genome sequence of a novel dsrna mycovirus isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.a novel double-stranded rna (dsrna) mycovirus, designated fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mycovirus 1 (fodv1), was isolated from a strain of the phytopathogenic fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. the fodv1 genome had four dsrna segments, designated, from the largest to the smallest one, dsrna 1, 2 3, and 4. each one of these segments contained a single open reading frame (orf). dsrna 1 (3555 bp) and dsrna 3 (2794 bp) encoded a putative rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) and a putative coat p ...201526138558
identification of an endophytic antifungal bacterial strain isolated from the rubber tree and its application in the biological control of banana fusarium wilt.banana fusarium wilt (also known as panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. effective control methods are still under exploring. the endophytic bacterial strain itbb b5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. this strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana fusarium disease. visual agar plate assay showed that itbb b5-1 restricted the mycelial growth ...201526133557
proteomic analysis of conidia germination in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 reveals new targets in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway for controlling fusarium wilt of banana.conidial germination is a crucial step of the soilborne fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (foc tr4), a most important lethal disease of banana. in this study, a total of 3659 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (itraq)-based comparative proteomic approach, of which 1009 were differentially expressed during conidial germination of the fungus at 0, 3, 7, and 11 h. functional classification and bioinformatics analysis revealed that ...201526129952
biosynthesized silver nanoparticles performing as biogenic sers-nanotags for investigation of c26 colon carcinoma cells.in this work, two classes of silver nanoparticles (agnps) were biosynthesized with the goal to assess their reliability in vitro as surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) nanotags. mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (magnps) and phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles (pagnps) were produced through environmentally friendly procedures by reduction of silver nitrate with fusarium oxysporum cell filtrate and azadirachta indica extract, respectively. two cell lines, namely c26 murine colon carcino ...201526123850
purification and identification of two antifungal cyclic peptides produced by bacillus amyloliquefaciens l-h15.bacillus amyloliquefaciens l-h15 with broad spectrum antifungal activity was used as a biocontrol agent to suppress fusarium oxysporum and other soil-borne fungal plant pathogens. two antifungal fractions were isolated by bioactivity-guided reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. the two compounds were identified by tandem q-tof mass spectroscopy as c15 iturin a (1) and a novel cyclic peptide with a molecular weight of 852.4 da (2). both compounds showed good inhibitory activities ...201526123083
the neutral metallopeptidase nmp1 of trichoderma guizhouense is required for mycotrophy and self-defence.trichoderma guizhouense njau 4742 (harzianum clade) can suppress the causative agent of banana wild disease fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense 4 (foc4). to identify genes involved in this trait, we used t-dna insertional mutagenesis and isolated one mutant that was unable to overgrow foc4 and had reduced antifungal ability. using the high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced-pcr, the t-dna was located in the terminator of a neutral metalloprotease gene (encoding a merops family m35 protease), ...201626118314
manganese lipoxygenase of f. oxysporum and the structural basis for biosynthesis of distinct 11-hydroperoxy stereoisomers.the biosynthesis of jasmonates in plants is initiated by 13s-lipoxygenase (lox), but details of jasmonate biosynthesis by fungi, including fusarium oxysporum, are unknown. the genome of f. oxysporum codes for linoleate 13s-lox (foxlox) and for f. oxysporum manganese lox (fo-mnlox), an uncharacterized homolog of 13r-mnlox of gaeumannomyces graminis. we expressed fo-mnlox and compared its properties to cg-mnlox from colletotrichum gloeosporioides. electron paramagnetic resonance and metal analysis ...201526113537
diversity of endophytic fungi in glycine max.endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. with the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. in glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. the distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundan ...201526111593
synthesis of a novel series of fluoroarene derivatives of artemisinin as potent antifungal and anticancer agent.a series of new fluoroarene derivatives of artemisinin were prepared using suzuki and sonogashira cross-coupling reactions. an antifungal and antitumor activity was evaluated against opportunistic pathogen fusarium oxysporum and hela cancer cell line. all these derivatives have shown moderate to good activity.201526099535
[effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].a field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. the fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (cf), cow manure compost (cm), pig manure compost (pm) and bio-organic fertilizer (bio). the banana soil microflo ...201526094464
combination of fluconazole with silver nanoparticles produced by fusarium oxysporum improves antifungal effect against planktonic cells and biofilm of drug-resistant candida albicans.silver nanoparticles (agnps) have been extensively studied because of their anti-microbial potential. here, we evaluated the effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (agnpbio) alone and in combination with fluconazole (flc) against planktonic cells and biofilms of flc-resistant candida albicans agnpbio exhibited a fungicidal effect, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) and fungicidal concentration ranging from 2.17 to 4.35 μg/ml. the combination of agnpbio and flc reduced ...201626092103
control of soil-borne diseases by different composts in potted vegetable crops.the composting process and the type and nature of wastes and raw materials influence the maturity, quality and suppressiveness of composts. variability in disease suppression also depends on the pathosystem, on soil or substrate type, on chemical-physical conditions, like ph and moisture, and on the microbial component of compost. the aim of the research was to evaluate the suppressiveness of composts, originated from green wastes and/or municipal biowastes, and produced by different composting ...201426084080
characterization of vacuolar amino acid transporter from fusarium oxysporum in saccharomyces cerevisiae.fusarium oxysporum causes wilt disease in many plant families, and many genes are involved in its development or growth in host plants. a recent study revealed that vacuolar amino acid transporters play an important role in spore formation in schizosaccharomyces pombe and saccharomyces cerevisiae. to investigate the role of vacuolar amino acid transporters of this phytopathogenic fungus, the foxg_11334 (foavt3) gene from f. oxysporum was isolated and its function was characterized. transcription ...201526083447
activity of natural products against some phytopathogenic fungi.the requirement of environmental protection and food safety is perceived with always major interest by public opinion and it is consistent with european union legislation on the sustainable use of pesticides (directive 2009/128/ec). this directive requires member states to promote low pesticide-input, giving priority to non-chemical methods and low risk plant protection products. in order to contribute to the achievement of these objectives antifungal activity of natural substances, characterize ...201426080478
[inhibition of amaranthus retroflexus by wasp gut fungal isolate fusarium oxysporum mf06].to study the inhibitory effect of wasp gut fungus against the radicle growth of amaranthus retroflexus for the development of herbicides from microorganisms.201526065271
rhizosphere inhibition of cucumber fusarium wilt by different surfactin- excreting strains of bacillus subtilis.bacillus subtilis b006 strain effectively suppresses the cucumber fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (foc). the population dynamics of foc, strain b006 and its surfactin over-producing mutant b841 and surfactin-deficient mutant b1020, in the rhizosphere were determined under greenhouse conditions to elucidate the importance of the lipopeptides excreted by these strains in suppressing foc. results showed that b. subtilis strain b006 effectively suppressed the disease in ...201526060433
combined action of the major secreted exo- and endopolygalacturonases is required for full virulence of fusarium oxysporum.the genome of the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici encodes eight different polygalacturonases (pgs): four endopgs and four exopgs. quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) revealed that endopgs pg1 and pg5 and exopgs pgx4 and pgx6 are expressed at significant levels during growth on citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid or the monomer galacturonic acid, as well as during the infection of tomato plants. the remaining pg genes exhibit low ...201626060046
effects of volatile organic compounds from streptomyces albulus njzjsa2 on growth of two fungal pathogens.a streptomyces albulus strain njzjsa2 was isolated from the forest soil sample of tzu-chin mountain (nanjing china) and identified based on its morphological and physiological properties and 16s rdna gene sequence analysis. the strain s. albulus njzjsa2 was evaluated for the production of antifungal volatile organic compounds (vocs) against two fungal pathogens. results showed that the vocs generated by s. albulus njzjsa2 inhibited mycelial growth of sclerotinia sclerotiorum (ss) and fusarium ox ...201526059065
microbial and biochemical basis of a fusarium wilt-suppressive soil.crops lack genetic resistance to most necrotrophic pathogens. to compensate for this disadvantage, plants recruit antagonistic members of the soil microbiome to defend their roots against pathogens and other pests. the best examples of this microbially based defense of roots are observed in disease-suppressive soils in which suppressiveness is induced by continuously growing crops that are susceptible to a pathogen, but the molecular basis of most is poorly understood. here we report the microbi ...201626057845
fusarium wilt of banana.banana (musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. in 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. fusarium wilt (also known as panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. it devastated the 'gros michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. ...201526057187
comparative study of the fungicide benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures.six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (pgpb) and some fungi. the highest ld50 was recorded for bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by azospirillum braziliense, while penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. ld50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21-240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the ld50 value fo ...201426038670
development of co-dominant scar markers linked to resistant gene against the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.we developed highly reliable co-dominant scar markers linked to the frl gene. forl testing is difficult. the marker is expected to be quickly adapted for mas by tomato breeders. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes fusarium crown and root rot (fcr), an economically important soil-borne disease of tomato. the resistance against fcr is conferred by a single dominant gene (frl) located on chromosome 9. the aim of this study was to develop molecular markers linked to the frl gene for ...201526037087
investigating the association between flowering time and defense in the arabidopsis thaliana-fusarium oxysporum interaction.plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. in this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum. we report that f. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and ...201526034991
differentially expressed genes in resistant and susceptible common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) genotypes in response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli.fusarium wilt of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.), caused by fusarium oxysporum schlechtend.:fr. f.sp. phaseoli (fop), is one of the most important diseases of common beans worldwide. few natural sources of resistance to fop exist and provide only moderate or partial levels of protection. despite the economic importance of the disease across multiple crops, only a few of fop induced genes have been analyzed in legumes. therefore, our goal was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes duri ...201526030070
comparative analysis of biosynthesised and chemosynthesised silver nanoparticles with special reference to their antibacterial activity against pathogens.the present study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using both biological and chemical routes to find out the best method for control of their size and activity. the fungal agent (fusarium oxysporum) and the plant (azadirachta indica) were found to be the best source for agnps synthesis. both biosynthesis and chemosynthesis were achieved by challenging filtrate with agno3 (1 mm) solution. the synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fo ...201526023154
minos as a novel tc1/mariner-type transposable element for functional genomic analysis in aspergillus nidulans.transposons constitute powerful genetic tools for gene inactivation, exon or promoter trapping and genome analyses. the minos element from drosophila hydei, a tc1/mariner-like transposon, has proved as a very efficient tool for heterologous transposition in several metazoa. in filamentous fungi, only a handful of fungal-specific transposable elements have been exploited as genetic tools, with the impala tc1/mariner element from fusarium oxysporum being the most successful. here, we developed a t ...201526021704
antimicrobial action of an endophytic fungi from sophor flavescens and structure identification of its active constituent.endophytic fungus bs002 was isolated and characterized from sophora flavescens by plate method, which has broad antimicrobial activity. isolation and trace of a new bioactive compound from the fungus' culture extracts with the method of column chromatography and tlc biological autoradiography was conducted. finally, it was identified as 6,7-(2'e) dibutenyl-5,8-dihydroxy-(z)-cyclooct-2-ene-1,4-dione by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. the compound ...201426019517
impact of diseases on export and smallholder production of banana.banana (musa spp.) is one of the world's most valuable primary agricultural commodities. exported fruit are key commodities in several producing countries yet make up less than 15% of the total annual output of 145 million metric tons (mmt). transnational exporters market fruit of the cavendish cultivars, which are usually produced in large plantations with fixed infrastructures and high inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. in contrast, smallholders grow diverse cultivars, often fo ...201526002290
focvel1 influences asexual production, filamentous growth, biofilm formation, and virulence in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.velvet genes play critical roles in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. in current study, we identified the gene focvel1, a homolog of fusarium graminearum vela, in the plant pathogenic fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. this pathogen causes the destructive disease called cucumber fusarium wilt (cfw), which severely affects the production and marketing of this vegetable worldwide. transcript analyses revealed high expression of focvel1 during conidiophore development. disruption o ...201525999976
genome-wide analysis in three fusarium pathogens identifies rapidly evolving chromosomes and genes associated with pathogenicity.pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host-pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. to address this, we analyzed the genomes of three fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. we found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene grou ...201525994930
emergence of fusarioses in a university hospital in turkey during a 20-year period.fusarium species have started appearing increasingly as the main cause of infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. in this study, we aimed to present the first epidemiological data from turkey, analyze fusariosis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during the past 20 years, identify the responsible fusarium species, and determine antifungal susceptibilities. a total of 47 cases of fusariosis was included in the study. fusarium isolates were identified by multil ...201525994844
in vitro study of the growth, development and pathogenicity responses of fusarium oxysporum to phthalic acid, an autotoxin from lanzhou lily.continuous monoculture of lanzhou lily (lilium davidii var. unicolor cotton) results in frequent incidence of fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum. phthalic acid (pa), a principal autotoxin from root exudates of lanzhou lily, is involved in soil sickness by inducing autotoxicity. the aim of this study was to evaluate the direct allelopathic effects of pa on the growth, development and pathogenicity of f. oxysporum in vitro based on an ecologically relevant soil concentration. the results s ...201525994089
diversity of food-borne bacillus volatile compounds and influence on fungal growth.to evaluate the antifungal activity of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) produced by 75 different food-borne bacillus species against aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus clavatus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and moniliophthora perniciosa and to determine the vocs responsible for the inhibition.201525989039
cutin from watermelon peels: a novel inducer for cutinase production and its physicochemical characterization.cutin a polymeric biological macromolecule made up of esterified polyacids which acts as an inducer of cutinase. the present work was based on screening and characterization of newer cutin source from the agro industrial wastes as inducers of cutinase production by fusarium oxysporum mtcc 2480. cutin isolated from peels of multi green colored watermelon (wmc) yielded 6.77 u/ml as compared to that 9.64 u/ml of cutinase using apple cutin. the ftir and (13)c cp-mas solid state nmr studies indicated ...201525987459
the arabidopsis kh-domain rna-binding protein esr1 functions in components of jasmonate signalling, unlinking growth restraint and resistance to stress.glutathione s-transferases (gsts) play important roles in the protection of cells against toxins and oxidative damage where one arabidopsis member, gstf8, has become a commonly used marker gene for early stress and defense responses. a gstf8 promoter fragment fused to the luciferase reporter gene was used in a forward genetic screen for arabidopsis mutants with up-regulated gstf8 promoter activity. this identified the esr1-1 (enhanced stress response 1) mutant which also conferred increased resi ...201525985302
genetic mapping of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in tulip.fusarium oxysporum is a major problem in the production of tulip bulbs. breeding for resistant cultivars through a conventional approach is a slow process due to the long life cycle of tulip. until now, marker-assisted selection (mas) has been hampered by the large genome size and the absence of a genetic map. this study is aimed at construction of the first genetic map for tulip and at the identification of loci associated with resistance to f. oxysporum. a cross-pollinated population of 125 in ...201725983613
natural products as sources of new fungicides (ii): antiphytopathogenic activity of 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanone derivatives.a series of 17 simple 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanones were synthesised, and their structures characterised by (1)h, (13)c nmr and esi-ms. their in vitro antifungal activities were evaluated against five phytopathogenic fungi including glomerella cingulate, botrytis cirerea, fusarium graminearum, curvularia lunata and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum by the mycelial growth inhibition assay. compounds 2g and 2h exhibited broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against the mycelial growth of the ...201625978007
combining uv-c treatment with biocontrol yeast to control postharvest decay of melon.significant losses in harvested melon can be directly attributable to decay fungi. in the present study, the use of uv-c treatment combined with biocontrol yeast, pichia cecembensis, was evaluated for their ability to control postharvest decay of melon fruits after they were artificially inoculated with fusarium oxysporum and alternaria alternata. natural infection of fruit was also assessed. as a stand-alone treatment, uv-c or p. cecembensis significantly reduced fusarium rot and alternaria rot ...201525976334
[cloning and functional characterization of pathogenesis-related pr10-1 gene in panax notoginseng].with homology cloning approaches coupling with race (rapid-amplification of cdna ends) techniques, the full-length coding sequence of pathogenesis-related protein pr10-1 with differential expression was cloned from the total rna of the root of panax notoginseng, and its function was explored furtherly. as a result, the longest 465 bp orf (named as pnpr10-1 with the accession no. kj741402 in genbank) was detected from the cloned sequence with full-length of cdna of 863 bp. the corresponding pepti ...201525975034
antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of portuguese foeniculum vulgare fruits.the aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fruits of six fennel accessions collected from wild populations occurring in the centre and south of portugal. composition of essential oils was established by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (gc-fid) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) analysis. the obtained yields of the essential oils were found to vary greatly in the range ...201525973507
induction of defense-related enzymes in banana plants: effect of live and dead pathogenic strain of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.the aim of the present study was to scrutinize the response of banana (grand naine variety) plants when interacting with dead or live pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, a causative agent of panama disease. response of plants was evaluated in terms of induction of defense-related marker enzyme activity, namely, peroxidase (pox), polyphenol oxidase (ppo), β-1,3 glucanase, chitinase, and phenolics. plant's interaction with live pathogen resulted in early induction of defense to restrain pe ...201325969777
biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense jt1, a plant pathogenic fungus.the development of reliable processes for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. recently, reports are published on the extracellular as well as intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using microorganisms. however, these methods of synthesis are rather slow. in present study, rapid and extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles using a plant pathogenic fungus f. oxysporum f. sp. cubense jt1 (focjt1) is reported. incubation of f ...201325969773
effects of water regime, crop residues, and application rates on control of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.biological soil disinfestation is an effective method to control soil-borne disease by flooding and incorporating with organic amendments, but field conditions and resources sometimes limited its practical application. a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop practice guidelines on controlling fusarium wilt, a widespread banana disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc). foc infested soil incorporated with rice or maize straw at rates of 1.5 tons/ha and 3.0 tons/ha was inc ...201525968255
the avr2-six5 gene pair is required to activate i-2-mediated immunity in tomato.plant-invading microbes betray their presence to a plant by exposure of antigenic molecules such as small, secreted proteins called 'effectors'. in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) we identified a pair of effector gene candidates, avr2-six5, whose expression is controlled by a shared promoter. the pathogenicity of avr2 and six5 fol knockouts was assessed on susceptible and resistant tomato (solanum lycopersicum) plants carrying i-2. the i-2 nb-lrr protein confers resistance to fol rac ...201525967461
isolation of a hemagglutinin with potent antiproliferative activity and a large antifungal defensin from phaseolus vulgaris cv. hokkaido large pinto beans.lectins (hemagglutinins) are defined as sugar-binding proteins or glycoproteins with various biological activities. a 60 kda dimeric hemagglutinin with a blocked n-terminus was isolated in large yield (190 mg/60 g) from the common edible bean phaseolus vulgaris cv. hokkaido large pinto bean. its hemagglutinating, antifungal, and antitumor activities as well as the effects of carbohydrate and metal ions on its hemagglutinating activity were examined. it inhibited the proliferation of nasopharynge ...201525965006
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