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detection of plant growth enhancing features in psychrotolerant yeasts from patagonia (argentina).this study explores the biotechnological potential for plant production of twelve psychrotolerant yeasts strains from northwest-patagonia. these strains were isolated from different substrates associated with nothofagus sp. in native forests and vaccinium sp. in a commercial plantation. yeasts characterization was performed using in vitro assays to evaluate the production of auxin-like compounds and siderophores, ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to reduce common plant pathogen growt ...201627106520
molecular characterization and analysis of antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in saudi arabia.endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems.201627099679
regiospecific synthesis of prenylated flavonoids by a prenyltransferase cloned from fusarium oxysporum.due to their impressive pharmaceutical activities and safety, prenylated flavonoids have a high potent to be applied as medicines and nutraceuticals. biocatalysis is an effective technique to synthesize prenylated flavonoids. the major concern of this technique is that the microbe-derived prenyltransferases usually have poor regiospecificity and generate multiple prenylated products. in this work, a highly regiospecific prenyltransferase (fopt1) was found from fusarium oxysporum. it could recogn ...201627098599
diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of chinese cabbage (brassica campestris l.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.the study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of chinese cabbage (cc) cultivated in two areas in korea, namely, seosang-gun (ss) and haenam-gun (hn), and also in a transgenic plant (tp) from the laboratory. a total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of cc roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from ss, hn, and tp samples, respectively. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-g+c gram- ...201627095454
characterization of a novel cotton subtilase gene gbsbt1 in response to extracellular stimulations and its role in verticillium resistance.verticillium wilt is a disastrous vascular disease in plants caused by verticillium dahliae. verticillium pathogens secrete various disease-causing effectors in cotton. this study identified a subtilase gene gbsbt1 from gossypium babardense and investigated the roles against v. dahliae infection. gbsbt1 gene expression is responsive to v. dahliae defense signals, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatments. moreover, the gbsbt1 protein is mainly localized in the cell membrane and moves into the cytop ...201627088499
effect of polymer/nanosilver composite packaging on long-term microbiological status of iranian saffron (crocus sativus l.).crocus sativus l. (saffron) is a valuable plant which is native to iran. saffron is the dried stigmata of the flowering part of the plant that is usually contaminated with different bacteria and fungi through production process. antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles are well recognized. to survey the effects of nanosilver packaging on microbiological status of spiked, saffron samples over a six month period were chosen. saffron samples from five regions of khorasan province were purch ...201627081358
[antibacterial components from artificially induced dragon's blood of dracaena cambodiana].ten compounds were isolated from the artificially induced dragon's blood of dracaena cambodiana by various column chromatographies on silica and sephadex lh-20 gel. based on spectral analysis of nmr and ms, their structures were identified as 3, 4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (1), 3', 4', 5'-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol (2), pinoresinol (3), (2r)-7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavane (4), (2r)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methylflavane(5),(2s)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane(6) ,(2s)-4',7-dihydroxy-6, 8 ...201527062817
new fusaric acid derivatives from the endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum and their phytotoxicity to barley leaves.chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus fusarium oxysporum isolated from fruits of drepanocarpus lunatus afforded eight new fusaric acid derivatives, fusaricates a-g, 1-7, and 10-hydroxy-11-chlorofusaric acid, 8, along with four known compounds. their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional nmr as well as ms data and by comparison with the literature. the absolute configurations of fusaricates c-e, 3-5, were determined using chiral gc-ms. fusaricates a-g, 1-7, represent th ...201627050289
novel pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and antiproliferative profile.three novel series of pyridine derivatives, namely schiff's bases, 4-thiazolidinones and azetidin-2-ones bearing pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine moiety, have been synthesized. the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized. the compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion and broth macrodilution methods. the compounds were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activity using the sulforhodamine b (srb) assay. the majority of the tested ...201627040621
effect of chinese medicinal herbal residues on microbial community succession and anti-pathogenic properties during co-composting with food waste.this study investigated the antimicrobial properties of chinese medicinal herbal residues (cmhrs) during its co-composting with food waste (fw) in two different ratios along with a control. inhibition on total microbial population were assessed while the numerically dominant microbes were isolated and their antagonistic effects were assessed. results indicate that the active ingredients persist in the composting mass did not affect the microbes unspecifically as revealed from almost similar bact ...201627039351
characterization and expression profiling of myb transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).myb proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. to gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of myb genes in chinese cabbage (brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). we identified 475 chinese cabbage myb genes, among wh ...201627038155
development and application of a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the detection of sporisorium scitamineum in sugarcane.smut is a fungal disease with widespread prevalence in sugarcane planting areas. early detection and proper identification of sporisorium scitamineum are essential in smut management practices. in the present study, four specific primers targeting the core effector pep1 gene of s. scitamineum were designed. optimal concentrations of mg(2+), primer and bst dna polymerase, the three important components of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) reaction system, were screened using a sin ...201627035751
nuclear dynamics and genetic rearrangement in heterokaryotic colonies of fusarium oxysporum.recent studies have shown horizontal transfer of chromosomes to be a potential key contributor to genome plasticity in asexual fungal pathogens. however, the mechanisms behind horizontal chromosome transfer in eukaryotes are not well understood. here we investigated the role of conidial anastomosis in heterokaryon formation between incompatible strains of fusarium oxysporum and determined the importance of heterokaryons for horizontal chromosome transfer. using live-cell imaging we demonstrate t ...201627013267
a six1 homolog in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is required for full virulence on cabbage.fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. f. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. this study showed that a homolog of six1 protein in the arabidopsis infecting isolate fo5176 (fo5176-six1) had four isoforms in the conidia of foc by proteomic analysis. thus, we analyzed the roles of protein foc-six1. gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of ...201627010418
evaluation of the significance of cell wall polymers in flax infected with a pathogenic strain of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum infection leads to fusarium-derived wilt, which is responsible for the greatest losses in flax (linum usitatissimum) crop yield. plants infected by fusarium oxysporum show severe symptoms of dehydration due to the growth of the fungus in vascular tissues. as the disease develops, vascular browning and leaf yellowing can be observed. in the case of more virulent strains, plants die. the pathogen's attack starts with secretion of enzymes degrading the host cell wall. the main ai ...201627005923
new conjugates of polyene macrolide amphotericin b with benzoxaboroles: synthesis and properties.a novel series of conjugates of the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin b (amb) with benzoxaboroles was synthesized. antifungal activity of new compounds was tested on yeastβ candida albicans and cryptococcus humicolus and filamentous fungi aspergillus niger and fusarium oxysporum using the broth microdilution method. the potency of di-modified derivatives against the tested strains was similar to that of the parent amb. new derivatives demonstrated differential toxicity against human cells (colo ...201627005557
antifungal indole alkaloids from winchia calophylla.ten indole alkaloids (1-10) were obtained from an antifungal extract of winchia calophylla, of which two (2 and 4) were new. n(4)-methyl-10-hydroxyl-desacetylakuammilin (2) was an akuammiline-type indole alkaloid. n(1)-methyl-echitaminic acid (4) was an unusual zwitterion with a basic vincorine-type skeleton. this is the first report of 10 in w. calophylla. the structures of all of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data, and their bioactivities were assessed. compound 1 showed ...201627002397
production of fusaric acid by fusarium spp. in pure culture and in solid medium co-cultures.the ability of fungi isolated from nails of patients suffering from onychomycosis to induce de novo production of bioactive compounds in co-culture was examined. comparison between the metabolite profiles produced by sarocladium strictum, by fusarium oxysporum, and by these two species in co-culture revealed de novo induction of fusaric acid based on hrms. structure confirmation of this toxin, using sensitive microflow nmr, required only three 9-cm petri dishes of fungal culture. a targeted meta ...201626999098
biochemical defenses induced by mycorrhizae fungi glomus mosseae in controlling strawberry fusarium wilt.the effect of vam on reducing wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum schlecht. f.sp. fragariae winks et williams (fo) infection in strawberry and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. two key substance involved in disease defenses, lignin and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein were induced and formed in the cell wall of strawberry root, and the peak content of lignin and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein occurred on the 25(th) day (149.52mg/g) and on the 15(th) day (10.08 mg/g). the activi ...201526998177
chemical composition of the essential oil of bupleurum fontanesii (apiaceae) growing wild in sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical art crafts.hydrodistillation of the flowers (bpfi) of and fruits (bpfr) of bupleurumfontanesii guss. ex caruel gave two oils that were analyzed by gc and gc-ms. the main components were α-elemol (16.7%), caryophyllene oxide (16.4%) and heptacosane (15.9%) in bpfl, and spathulenol (16.8%), caryophylladienol i (13.2%) and α-elemol (12.8%) in bpfr. a good antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms, including bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus niger, all inf ...201626996033
dissection of trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (allium cepa l.) against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (foc), through triggering a number of primary an ...201626993243
lipases and whole cell biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and its ester.a wide spectrum of commercially available lipases and microbial whole cells catalysts were tested for biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 1 and its butyryl ester. the best results were achieved for biocatalytic hydrolysis of ester: 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 2 performed by lipase from candida cylindracea, what gave optically active products with 85% enantiomeric excess, 50% conversion degree and enantioselectivity 32.9 for one pair of ena ...201626989983
association analysis for disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana l).vascular wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana l.) in colombia. the development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. in order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. here we described an association mapping study in cape gooseberry ...201626988219
development of a thematic collection of musa spp accessions using scar markers for preventive breeding against fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense tropical race 4.bananas are one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, but are affected by many pests and diseases. one of the most devastating diseases is fusarium wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense (foc). recently, fusarium tropical race 4 (foc tr4) has been causing irreparable damage, especially in asia and africa where it has devastated entire plantations, including areas with cavendish, which is known to be resistant to foc race 1. although this race is not yet present in brazil, results obta ...201626985964
a new lupane-type triterpenoid fatty acid ester and other isolates from ophiorrhiza shendurunii.a new pentacyclic triterpenoid fatty acid ester, lupan-20-ol-3(β)-yl hexadecanoate (1), together with lupan-20-ol-3(β)-yl acetate (2), olean-18-en-3(β)-yl hexadecanoate (3), dotriacontanoic acid (4), stigmasterol (5), rubiadin (6), nonadecanoic acid (7), palmitic acid (8) and camptothecin (9) were isolated from the hexane and chloroform extracts of ophiorrhiza shendurunii from south india. structures of the isolates were determined by (1)h, (13)c, (13)c dept, (1)h-(1)h cosy, hmbc, hsqc, noesy nm ...201626979490
production and characterization of highly thermostable β-glucosidase during the biodegradation of methyl cellulose by fusarium oxysporum.production of β-glucosidase from fusarium oxysporum was investigated during degradation of some cellulosic substrates (avicel, α-cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (cmc), and methylcellulose). optimized production of β-glucosidase using the cellulosic substrate that supported highest yield of enzyme was examined over 192 h fermentation period and varied ph of 3.0-11.0. the β-glucosidase produced was characterized for its suitability for industrial application. methyl cellulose supported the high ...201626977320
regulation of mir394 in response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (foc) infection in garlic (allium sativum l).micrornas (mirnas) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mrna cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. in the present study, six conserved mirnas from garlic (allium sativum l.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed mirnas in response to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (foc) infection. stem-loop rt-pcr revealed that mir394 is significantly induced in garlic ...201626973694
synthesis and antifungal activity of 2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-one derivatives.a series of 2-alkyl-2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-ones (4a-l) was easily synthesized by two-step process involving o-alkylation of 2-nitrophenols with methyl 2-bromoalkanoates and next "green" catalytic reductive cyclization of the obtained 2-nitro ester intermediates (3a-l). further, 6,7-dibromo (5a-c) and n-acetyl (6) derivatives were prepared by bromination and acetylation of unsubstituted 2-alkyl-2h-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4h)-ones (4a-c). the novel compounds (3a-l, 4d-l, 5a-c and 6) were fully character ...201626963527
double-stranded rna-mediated interference of dumpy genes in bursaphelenchus xylophilus by feeding on filamentous fungal transformants.rna interference (rnai) is a valuable tool for studying gene function in vivo and provides a functional genomics platform in a wide variety of organisms. the pinewood nematode, bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a prominent invasive plant-parasitic nematode and has become a serious worldwide threat to forest ecosystems. presently, the complete genome sequence of b. xylophilus has been published, and research involving genome-wide functional analyses is likely to increase. in this study, we describe ...201626953254
evaluation of the cytotoxic behavior of fungal extracellular synthesized ag nanoparticles using confocal laser scanning microscope.silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °c for 96 h. the biosynthesized ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using uv-vis-nir spectroscopy. structural confirmation was evident from the characteristic x-ray diffraction (xrd) pattern, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (hrtem) and the particle size analyzer. the ag nanoparticles were of dimension 40 ± 5 nm and sphe ...201626950118
comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.soil-borne fungi of the fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. we present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): f. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. me ...201626945779
synthesis, spectral studies and biological evaluation of 2-aminonicotinic acid metal complexes.we synthesized 2-aminonicotinic acid (2-ana) complexes with metals such as co(ii), fe(iii), ni(ii), mn(ii), zn(ii), ag(i),cr(iii), cd(ii) and cu(ii) in aqueous media. the complexes were characterized and elucidated using ft-ir, uv-vis, a fluorescence spectrophotometer and thermo gravimetric analysis (tga). tga data showed that the stoichiometry of complexes was 1:2 metal/ligand except for ag(i) and mn(ii) where the ratio was 1:1. the metal complexes showed varied antibacterial, fungicidal and ne ...201626945123
genotyping of fusarium isolates from onychomycoses in colombia: detection of two new species within the fusarium solani species complex and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing.fusariosis have been increasing in colombia in recent years, but its epidemiology is poorly known. we have morphologically and molecularly characterized 89 isolates of fusarium obtained between 2010 and 2012 in the cities of bogotá and medellín. using a multi-locus sequence analysis of rdna internal transcribed spacer, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef-1α) and of the rna-dependent polymerase subunit ii (rpb2) genes, we identified the phylogenetic species and circulatin ...201626943726
exchange of core chromosomes and horizontal transfer of lineage-specific chromosomes in fusarium oxysporum.horizontal transfer of supernumerary or lineage-specific (ls) chromosomes has been described in a number of plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. so far it was not known whether transfer is restricted to chromosomes of certain size or properties, or whether 'core' chromosomes can also undergo horizontal transfer. we combined a directed and a non-biased approach to determine whether such restrictions exist. selection genes were integrated into the genome of a strain of fusarium oxysporum pathogenic ...201626941045
fatty acid esters produced by lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.the botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. this work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, lasiodiplodia theobromae. nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (z, z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by l. theobromae. a variety of natural ...201626926564
fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici induces distinct transcriptome reprogramming in resistant and susceptible isogenic tomato lines.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl) is one of the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens affecting tomato crops, causing considerable field and greenhouse yield losses. despite such major economic impact, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici resistance in tomato.201626920134
antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic effects of volatile organic compounds from the endophytic fungus xylaria sp. strain pb3f3 isolated from haematoxylon brasiletto.to determine the antifungal, anti-oomycete and phytotoxic activity; and chemical composition of the volatile organic compounds (vocs) produced by endophytic fungus xylaria sp. pb3f3 isolated from haematoxylon brasiletto karst.201626920072
glucosinolate composition of colombian accessions of mashua (tropaeolum tuberosum ruíz & pavón), structural elucidation of the predominant glucosinolate and assessment of its antifungal activity.the content of individual and total glucosinolates in 65 mashua tuber accessions (tropaeolum tuberosum) from the germplasm bank at universidad nacional de colombia was determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography on enzymatically desulfated extracts. the predominant glucosinolate was identified and the possible structure of the glucosinolate present in lower proportion was postulated from evidence obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, (1) h a ...201626919585
sesquiterpene emissions from alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum: effects of age, nutrient availability, and co-cultivation.alternaria alternata is one of the most studied fungi to date because of its impact on human life - from plant pathogenicity to allergenicity. however, its sesquiterpene emissions have not been systematically explored. alternaria regularly co-occurs with fusarium fungi, which are common plant pathogens, on withering plants. we analyzed the diversity and determined the absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (vocs) in the headspace above mycelial cultures of a. alternata and fusarium ox ...201626915756
detection of human pathogenic fusarium species in hospital and communal sink biofilms by using a highly specific monoclonal antibody.the fungus fusarium is well known as a plant pathogen, but has recently emerged as an opportunistic pathogen of humans. habitats providing direct human exposure to infectious propagules are largely unknown, but there is growing evidence that plumbing systems are sources of human pathogenic strains in the fusarium solani species complex (fssc) and fusarium oxysporum species complex (fosc), the most common groups infecting humans. here, a newly developed fusarium-specific monoclonal antibody (mab ...201626914362
how phytohormones shape interactions between plants and the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum.plants interact with a huge variety of soil microbes, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. the fusarium oxysporum (fo) species complex consists of ubiquitous soil inhabiting fungi that can infect and cause disease in over 120 different plant species including tomato, banana, cotton, and arabidopsis. however, in many cases fo colonization remains symptomless or even has beneficial effects on plant growth and/or stress tolerance. also in pathogenic interactions a lengthy asymptomatic phase usua ...201626909099
comparison of fungal community in black pepper-vanilla and vanilla monoculture systems associated with vanilla fusarium wilt disease.long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. in the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. the entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla mo ...201626903995
characterization of a jaz7 activation-tagged arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum.in arabidopsis, jasmonate (ja)-signaling plays a key role in mediating fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. however, the roles of jasmonate zim-domain (jaz) proteins that repress ja-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. here, we found most jaz genes are induced following f. oxysporum challenge, and screening t-dna insertion lines in arabidopsis jaz family members identified a highly disease-susceptible jaz7 mutant (jaz7-1d). this mutant exhib ...201626896849
development of a multiplex pcr method to detect fungal pathogens for quarantine on exported cacti.major diseases in grafted cacti have been reported and fusarium oxysporum, bipolaris cactivora, phytophthora spp. and collectotrichum spp. are known as causal pathogens. these pathogens can lead to plant death after infection. therefore, some european countries have quarantined imported cacti that are infected with specific fungal pathogens. consequently, we developed pcr detection methods to identify four quarantined fungal pathogens and reduce export rejection rates of korean grafted cacti. th ...201626889115
fungal-mediated consolidated bioprocessing: the potential of fusarium oxysporum for the lignocellulosic ethanol industry.microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. the most important challenge is to overcome substrate recalcitrance and to thus reduce the number of steps needed to biorefine lignocellulose. conventionally, conversion involves chemical pretreatment of lignocellulose, followed by hydrolysis of biomass to monomer sugars that are subsequently fermented into bioethanol. consolidated bioprocessing (cbp) has been suggested as an efficien ...201626888202
retracted article: extract from the brown seaweed ascophyllum nodosum as an elicitor of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomato. 201626886193
molecular phylogeny, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.the present study aimed at the molecular characterization of pathogenic and non pathogenic f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains isolated from tomato. the causal agent isolated from symptomatic plants and soil samples was identified based on morphological and molecular analyses. pathogenicity testing of 69 strains on five susceptible tomato varieties showed 45% of the strains were highly virulent and 30% were moderately virulent. molecular analysis based on the fingerprints obtained through is ...201626883288
heterotrophic bioleaching of sulfur, iron, and silicon impurities from coal by fusarium oxysporum fe and exophiala spinifera fm with growing and resting cells.coal is the most abundant fossil fuel containing sulfur and other elements which promote environmental pollution after burning. also the silicon impurities make the transportation of coal expensive. in this research, two isolated fungi from oil contaminated soil with accessory number kf554100 (fusarium oxysporum fe) and kc925672 (exophiala spinifera fm) were used for heterotrophic biological leaching of coal. the leaching were detected by ftir, chns, xrf analyzer and compared with iron and sulfa ...201626883128
analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.chromosome substitution (cs) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. in this study, a series of interspecific cotton (gossypium spp.) cs lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. the cs lines were developed in the g. hirsutum l. tm-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment ...201626882892
biosynthesis of fluorescent bi2s3 nanoparticles and their application as dual-function spect-ct probe for animal imaging.bismuth sulphide (bi2s3) is an excellent semiconductor and its nanoparticles have numerous significant applications including photovoltaic materials, photodiode arrays, bio-imaging, etc. nevertheless, these nanoparticles when fabricated by chemical and physical routes tend to easily aggregate in colloidal solutions, are eco-unfriendly, cumbrous and very broad in size distribution. the aim of the present manuscript was to ecologically fabricate water dispersible, safe and stable bi2s3 nanoparticl ...201626876521
biosynthesis of anti-proliferative gold nanoparticles using endophytic fusarium oxysporum strain isolated from neem (a. indica) leaves.here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (azadirachta indica a. juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as fusarium oxysporum. the aqueous precursor (haucl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. these biosynthesized gold ...201626876519
changes in the proteome of xylem sap in brassica oleracea in response to fusarium oxysporum stress.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in brassica oleracea. to comprehensively understand the interaction between f. oxysporum and b. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc-ms/ms) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. whole genome seq ...201626870056
synthesis and evaluation of thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) efficient against panel of voriconazole-resistant fungal isolates.a series of new thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) were synthesized in high yields using a straightforward two-step procedure. the antifungal activity of compounds was evaluated against a wide range of medicaly important fungal strains including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes in comparison to clinically used drug voriconazole. cytotoxic properties of compounds were also determined using human lung fibroblast cell line and hemolysis assay. all guanylhydrazones showed significant ...201626867487
investigating the compatibility of the biocontrol agent clonostachys rosea ik726 with prodigiosin-producing serratia rubidaea s55 and phenazine-producing pseudomonas chlororaphis toza7.this study was carried out to assess the compatibility of the biocontrol fungus clonostachys rosea ik726 with the phenazine-producing pseudomonas chlororaphis toza7 or with the prodigiosin-producing serratia rubidaea s55 against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. the pathogen was inhibited by both strains in vitro, whereas c. rosea displayed high tolerance to s. rubidaea but not to p. chlororaphis. we hypothesized that this could be attributed to the atp-binding cassette (abc) protei ...201626860841
constitutive expression of a novel antimicrobial protein, hcm1, confers resistance to both verticillium and fusarium wilts in cotton.fusarium and verticillium wilts, two of the most important diseases in cotton, pose serious threats to cotton production. here we introduced a novel antimicrobial protein hcm1, which comprised harpin protein from xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (xoc), and the chimeric protein, cecropin a-melittin, into cotton. the transgenic cotton lines with stable hcm1 expression showed a higher resistance to verticillium and fusarium wilts both in greenhouse and field trials compared to controls. hcm1 enable ...201626856318
development of a high-resolution melting marker for selecting fusarium crown and root rot resistance in tomato.fusarium crown and root rot is a severe fungal disease of tomato caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl). in this study, the genomic location of the forl-resistance locus was determined using a set of molecular markers on chromosome 9 and an f2 population derived from forl-resistant inbred 'av107-4' (solanum lycopersicum) × susceptible 'l3708' (solanum pimpinellifolium). bioassay performed using korean forl strain kacc 40031 showed single dominant inheritance of forl resis ...201626853773
nondermatophytic onychomycosis by fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host.fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. we report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from buldhana district of maharashtra (india). bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. the case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of 250 mg daily ...201626852190
transcriptome profiling of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in cabbage (brassica oleracea) roots.fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (foc) is a destructive disease of brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. there is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. to obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of r4p1, a brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with foc and samples inoculated with distilled water. rna-seq analysis gen ...201626849436
effects of cultivation ages and modes on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere soil of panax ginseng.panax ginseng cannot be cultivated on the same land consecutively for an extended period, and the underlying mechanism regarding microorganisms is still being explored.201626843819
the ftf gene family regulates virulence and expression of six effectors in fusarium oxysporum.the ftf (fusarium transcription factor) gene family comprises a single copy gene, ftf2, which is present in all the filamentous ascomycetes analysed, and several copies of a close relative, ftf1, which is exclusive to fusarium oxysporum. an rna-mediated gene silencing system was developed to target mrna produced by all the ftf genes, and tested in two formae speciales: f. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (whose host is common bean) and f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (whose host is tomato). quantificat ...201626817616
success evaluation of the biological control of fusarium wilts of cucumber, banana, and tomato since 2000 and future research strategies.the fusarium wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. the biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. in this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (bce) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and ...201726810104
novel enzyme family found in filamentous fungi catalyzing trans-4-hydroxylation of l-pipecolic acid.hydroxypipecolic acids are bioactive compounds widely distributed in nature and are valuable building blocks for the organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals. we have found a novel hydroxylating enzyme with activity toward l-pipecolic acid (l-pip) in a filamentous fungus, fusarium oxysporum c8d. the enzyme l-pip trans-4-hydroxylase (pip4h) of f. oxysporum (fopip4h) belongs to the fe(ii)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily, catalyzes the regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of l-pip ...201626801577
fusarium oxysporum mediates systems metabolic reprogramming of chickpea roots as revealed by a combination of proteomics and metabolomics.molecular changes elicited by plants in response to fungal attack and how this affects plant-pathogen interaction, including susceptibility or resistance, remain elusive. we studied the dynamics in root metabolism during compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea and fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc), using quantitative label-free proteomics and nmr-based metabolomics. results demonstrated differential expression of proteins and metabolites upon foc inoculations in the resist ...201626801007
isolation and antifungal activity of methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate from paenibacillus elgii hoa73.the aim of the present study is to describe the purification and identification of methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (m2,3db), isolated for the first time from paenibacillus elgii hoa73, and to subsequently investigate its antifungal activity against important plant pathogens. the results show that m2,3db can be purified by many different chromatographic techniques and is identified as methyl 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate based on nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ( ...201626796297
isolation of n2 -fixing rhizobacteria from lolium perenne and evaluating their plant growth promoting traits.twenty one dinitrogen (n2 )-fixing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of lolium perenne grown for more than 10 years without n-fertilization. the nearly complete sequence of the 16s rrna gene of each strain and pairwise alignments among globally aligned sequences of the 16s rrna genes clustered them into nine different groups. out of the 21 strains, 11 were members of genus bacillus, 3 belonged to each one of genera paenibacillus and pseudoxanthomonas, and the remaining 2 strains to eac ...201626781208
identification of a novel small cysteine-rich protein in the fraction from the biocontrol fusarium oxysporum strain cs-20 that mitigates fusarium wilt symptoms and triggers defense responses in tomato.the biocontrol effect of the non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain cs-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol) has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. this study shows that cs-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. three protein-containing fractions were isolated from cs-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic f ...201526779237
inhibition of filamentous fungi by ketoconazole-functionalized electrospun nanofibers.nanotechnology strategies have been used for delivery and controlled release of antimicrobial drugs. electrospun nanofibers can be versatile vehicles to incorporate antimicrobials. in this work, poly-ε-caprolactone nanofibers functionalized with ketoconazole were produced by electrospinning and tested against filamentous fungi. ketoconazole-free nanofibers were produced as controls. functionalized nanofibers showed antifungal activity against aspergillus flavus, a. carbonarius, a. niger, aspergi ...201626775870
experimental protocol for the recovery and evaluation of bioactive compounds of tarbush against postharvest fruit fungi.the aim of this study was to recover and evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of bioactive compounds of tarbush flourensia cernua against fruit postharvest fungi and their antioxidant capacity. a yield of 15% of bioactive compounds of tarbush was obtained by infusion method and heating using water as solvent. a concentration of 4000 mg/l showed a higher antioxidant activity against the abts radical (3.21 μmol/g) in comparison with the dpph radical (7.62 μmol/g); however the dpph radical sho ...201626769505
[fungal disease survey and pathogen identification on codonopsis tangshen in chongqing].to confirm the current major diseases and corresponding pathogens of codonopsis tangshen in chongqing.201526762048
parasitic weed management by using strigolactone-degrading fungi.seed germination is a key phase of the parasitic plant life cycle that is stimulated by the secondary metabolites, mainly strigolactones (sls), secreted by the host roots. interventions during this stage would be particularly suitable for parasitic weed management practices, as blocking these chemical signals would prevent seed germination and thus parasite attack. four fungal strains with different ecological functions were considered for their possible ability to metabolise sls: fusarium oxysp ...201626757233
differential responses of vanilla accessions to root rot and colonization by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae.root and stem rot (rsr) disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-vanillae (forv) is the most damaging disease of vanilla (vanilla planifolia and v. × tahitensis, orchidaceae). breeding programs aimed at developing resistant vanilla varieties are hampered by the scarcity of sources of resistance to rsr and insufficient knowledge about the histopathology of forv. in this work we have (i) identified new genetic resources resistant to rsr including v. planifolia inbreds and vanilla relati ...201526734032
suicidal germination for parasitic weed control.parasitic weeds of the genera striga and orobanche spp. cause severe yield losses in agriculture, especially in developing countries and the mediterranean. seeds of these weeds germinate by a chemical signal exuded by the roots of host plants. the radicle thus produced attaches to the root of the host plant, which can then supply nutrients to the parasite. there is an urgent need to control these weeds to ensure better agricultural production. the naturally occurring chemical signals are strigol ...201626733056
oxysporizoline, an antibacterial polycyclic quinazoline alkaloid from the marine-mudflat-derived fungus fusarium oxysporum. 201626732255
cremenolide, a new antifungal, 10-member lactone from trichoderma cremeum with plant growth promotion activity.trichoderma based products are considered an alternative to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. these trichoderma spp. are among the most studied and applied fungal bcas in industry and agriculture and are known to secrete several secondary metabolites with different biological activities. the analysis of metabolic profiles (the 'metabolome') of trichoderma species is complex because of the wide range of compounds produced and the molecular activities identified, including the recently determi ...201626728227
the role of strigolactones during plant interactions with the pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.strigolactones (sls) do not influence spore germination or hyphal growth of fusarium oxysporum. mutant studies revealed no role for sls but a role for ethylene signalling in defence against this pathogen in pea. strigolactones (sls) play important roles both inside the plant as a hormone and outside the plant as a rhizosphere signal in interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic weeds. what is less well understood is any potential role sls may play in interactions with disease causing micr ...201626725046
a hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptide from the penaeid shrimp adopts an alpha-helical structure that specifically permeabilizes fungal membranes.hemocyanins are respiratory proteins with multiple functions. in diverse crustaceans hemocyanins can release histidine-rich antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial challenge. in penaeid shrimp, strictly antifungal peptides are released from the c-terminus of hemocyanins.201626708991
characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis of the mapk and mapkk genes in watermelon (citrullus lanatus).mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades, which consist of three functionally associated protein kinases, namely mekks, mkks and mpks, are universal signaling modules in all eukaryotes and have been shown to play critical roles in many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. however, little or nothing is known about the mpk and mkk families in watermelon.201526700161
[molecular identification and in vitro susceptibility of fusarium from fungal keratitis in central china].to detect the genotypes and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of fusarium isolated from patients with fungal keratitis in central china.201526693650
screening and characterization of endophytic bacillus and paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters.a total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern china; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). the bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16s rrna gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their p ...201526691455
transcriptome profiling of soybean (glycine max) roots challenged with pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum is one of the most common fungal pathogens causing soybean root rot and seedling blight in u.s.a. in a recent study, significant variation in aggressiveness was observed among isolates of f. oxysporum collected from roots in iowa, ranging from highly pathogenic to weakly or non-pathogenic isolates.201526689712
wildly growing asparagus (asparagus officinalis l.) hosts pathogenic fusarium species and accumulates their mycotoxins.asparagus officinalis l. is an important crop in many european countries, likely infected by a number of fusarium species. most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. however, there is lack of information on fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins ...201626687343
carbon regulation of environmental ph by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. this capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium expansum, aspergillus nidulans and fusarium oxysporum-secrete small ph-affecting molecules. these molecules modify the environmental ph, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce ...201626666972
marker-assisted selection of fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (cucumis melo l.).in this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes acs7 (a) and wip1 (g) and the domain in the fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene fom-2 (f) in order to achieve selection of f. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. markers of a and f are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. twenty f1 and 1863 f2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line wi998 and the fusarium wilt-resistant line ...201526662419
evolution of nine microsatellite loci in the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the evolution of nine microsatellites and one minisatellite was investigated in the fungus fusarium oxysporum and sister taxa fusarium redolens and fusarium verticillioides. compared to other organisms, fungi have been reported to contain fewer and less polymorphic microsatellites. mutational patterns over evolutionary time were studied for these ten loci by mapping changes in core repeat numbers onto a phylogeny based on the sequence of the conserved translation elongation factor 1-α gene. the ...201626661928
reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. in china, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. however, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in northern china that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (ehnl) and th ...201626657371
liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum l11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. in this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (api-qtof-ms) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. the employed sources were electrospray (esi), atmospheric pressure chemic ...201626655791
an interspecies signaling system mediated by fusaric acid has parallel effects on antifungal metabolite production by pseudomonas protegens strain pf-5 and antibiosis of fusarium spp.pseudomonas protegens strain pf-5 is a rhizosphere bacterium that suppresses soilborne plant diseases and produces at least seven different secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. we derived mutants of pf-5 with single and multiple mutations in biosynthesis genes for seven antifungal metabolites: 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (dapg), pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, hydrogen cyanide, rhizoxin, orfamide a, and toxoflavin. these mutants were tested for inhibition of the pathogens fusarium verticil ...201526655755
illumina miseq investigations on the changes of microbial community in the fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense infected soil during and after reductive soil disinfestation.although reductive soil disinfestation (rsd) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after rsd remains poorly understood. miseq pyrosequencing, real-time pcr and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (foc) infected soil during rsd and at the simulative banana cultivation after rsd. the results showed that rsd signif ...201526640050
diversity and activity of lysobacter species from disease suppressive soils.the genus lysobacter includes several species that produce a range of extracellular enzymes and other metabolites with activity against bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. lysobacter species were found to be more abundant in soil suppressive against the fungal root pathogen rhizoctonia solani, but their actual role in disease suppression is still unclear. here, the antifungal and plant growth-promoting activities of 18 lysobacter strains, including 11 strains from rhizoctonia-suppressive ...201526635735
fusarium oxysporum volatiles enhance plant growth via affecting auxin transport and signaling.volatile organic compounds (vocs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. in this study, we examine the less understood roles of vocs in plant-fungal relationships. phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. growth responses of a. thaliana h ...201526617587
antibody-mediated pathogen resistance in plants.the methods described in this chapter were developed in order to produce transgenic plants expressing pathogen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scfv) antibodies fused to antifungal peptides (afps), conferring resistance against fungal pathogens. we describe the selection from a phage display library of avian scfv antibodies that recognize cell surface proteins on fungi from the genus fusarium, and the construction of scfv-afp fusion protein constructs followed by their transient expressi ...201626614296
identification of pathogenicity-related genes in fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.pathogenic isolates of fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (foc) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the uk. we characterized 31 f. oxysporum isolates collected from uk onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effect ...201626609905
replacement of two amino acids of 9r-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.the genome of aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (eha25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9s-dioxygenase (dox)-allene oxide synthase (aos) of fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the fusarium and colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of aspergilli, including (dox)-9r-aos of aspergillus terreus. the aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of eha25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. recombi ...201626603902
[keratomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].in developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. we report the case of a keratomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. the diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the ophthalmological clinic at the university ho ...201526597147
solubility, photostability and antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids encapsulated in cyclodextrins.effects of the encapsulation in cyclodextrins (cds) on the solubility, photostability and antifungal activities of some phenylpropanoids (pps) were investigated. solubility experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of cds on pps aqueous solubility. loading capacities and encapsulation efficiencies of freeze-dried inclusion complexes were determined. moreover, photostability assays for both inclusion complexes in solution and solid state were performed. finally, two of the most widespre ...201626593522
the effector repertoire of fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection.plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. during colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as six (secreted in xylem) proteins. of these, six1 (avr3), six3 (avr2), six5, and six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. to investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with fol wild-type or ...201526583031
detailed mapping of a resistance locus against fusarium wilt in cultivated eggplant (solanum melongena).this is the first report on genetic mapping of a resistance locus against fusarium wilt caused by the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in cultivated eggplant.201626582508
the importance of chorismate mutase in the biocontrol potential of trichoderma parareesei.species of trichoderma exert direct biocontrol activity against soil-borne plant pathogens due to their ability to compete for nutrients and to inhibit or kill their targets through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. in addition to these abilities, trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects for plants, including the stimulation of defenses and the promotion of growth. here we study the role in biocontrol of the t. parareesei tparo7 gene, encoding a chorismate mutase (cm), a s ...201526579090
[screening probiotic endophytic bacteria from medicinal plant flex cornuta and the phytopathogen-inhibiting effect].culturable endophytic bacteria were isolated from medicinal plant ilex cornuta by plate-spreading method, strains with strong inhibitory effect on phytopathogen were screened by confrontation culture and fermentation filtrate culture methods, and the morphological changes of phytopathogen hyphae treated with endophytic bacteria were examined by microscopy and micrograph. their phylogenetic relationships were determined by homology analysis of the 16s rdna sequences of pcr products and the taxono ...201526571677
synthesis of novel β-keto-enol derivatives tethered pyrazole, pyridine and furan as new potential antifungal and anti-breast cancer agents.recently, a new generation of highly promising inhibitors bearing β-keto-enol functionality has emerged. reported herein is the first synthesis and use of novel designed drugs based on the β-keto-enol group embedded with heterocyclic moieties such as pyrazole, pyridine, and furan, prepared in a one-step procedure by mixed claisen condensation. all the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by ft-ir, ¹h-nmr, (13)c-nmr, esi/lc-ms, elemental analysis, and evaluated for their in vitro antipro ...201526569202
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