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comparison of in vitro activities of amphotericin, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole, and nystatin against fusarium oxysporum.the inhibitory activity of amphotericin b, clotrimazole, econazole, miconazole and nystatin was compared against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum. the most efficient antifungal agent against the growth of fusarium oxysporum was econazole, followed by clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin and nystatin. the ed50 and ed90 values were 0.053 and 1.002 ppm for econazole, 0.088 and 1.100 ppm for clotrimazole, 0.173 and 3.210 ppm for miconazole, 0.713 and greater than 48 ppm for amphoterici ...200111411855
chronic infection due to fusarium oxysporum mimicking lupus vulgaris: case report and review of cutaneous involvement in fusariosis.a 67-year-old female presented with a 20-year-old lesion involving the right ear and preauricular area mimicking tuberculous lupus. fusarium oxysporum infection was confirmed by biopsy studies and cultures. the biopsy specimen showed an unusually extensive dermal invasion with fungal hyphae. this is an uncommon clinical presentation for fusarium infection in a healthy patient. when referred to us, the patient had received antifungal therapy with itraconazole without any benefit. improvement was ...200111411917
binary culture biofilm formation by stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fusarium oxysporum.binary culture biofilm formation by stenotrophomonas maltophilia and fusarium oxysporum was investigated using the recirculating modified robbins device batch culture system. sequential attachment studies were carried out in the robbins device on pvc and glass surfaces, with each species as either the first or the second colonizer. different surfaces had no significant effect on total numbers of s. maltophilia and f. oxysporum in the binary population biofilm. the attachment of the second coloni ...200111420659
antifungal activity of a novel endochitinase gene (chit36) from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm.a novel 36-kda endochitinase named chit36 has been isolated and characterized from trichoderma harzianum rifai tm. partial amino acid sequences from the purified protein were used to clone the fungal cdna, based on polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. the complete open reading frame encodes a 344-amino acid protein which shows 84% similarity to a putative chitinase from streptomyces coelicolor. chit36 was overexpressed under the pki1 constitutive promoter from trichoderma reesei vi ...200111425470
peptides from pinto bean and red bean with sequence homology to cowpea 10-kda protein precursor exhibit antifungal, mitogenic, and hiv-1 reverse transcriptase-inhibitory activities.peptides with a molecular weight of 5 kda have been isolated from seeds of the pinto bean and red bean, respectively. the peptides manifest an n-terminal sequence with remarkable resemblance to those of cowpea 10-kda protein precursor and garden pea disease resistance response protein. the bean peptides possess potent antifungal activity toward a variety of fungal species including botrytis cinerea, mycosphaerella arachidicola, and fusarium oxysporum. the proteins also demonstrate mitogenic acti ...200111444860
hypsin, a novel thermostable ribosome-inactivating protein with antifungal and antiproliferative activities from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom hypsizigus marmoreus.a novel ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 20 kda was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom hypsizigus marmoreus. the isolation procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on mono q. the protein designated hypsin demonstrated an inhibitory action against mycelial growth in various fungal species including mycosphaerella arachidicola, physalospora piricola, fusarium oxysp ...200111467862
subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum diagnosed by cytology and culture of fine needle aspirates. 200111480739
introduction of the phzh gene of pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 extends the range of biocontrol ability of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid-producing pseudomonas spp. strains.pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 controls tomato foot and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. its biocontrol activity is mediated by the production of phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn). in contrast, the take-all biocontrol strains p. fluorescens 2-79 and p. aureofaciens 30-84, which produce phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (pca), do not control this disease. to determine the role of the amide group in biocontrol, the pcn biosynthetic genes of strain pcl1391 were identified a ...200111497461
phenazine-1-carboxamide production in the biocontrol strain pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 is regulated by multiple factors secreted into the growth medium.pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 controls tomato foot and root rot caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. the production of phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn) is crucial for this biocontrol activity. in vitro production of pcn is observed only at high-population densities, suggesting that production is under the regulation of quorum sensing. the main autoinducer molecule produced by pcl1391 was identified structurally as n-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). the two other autoin ...200111497469
plant growth promotion and fungicidal activity in a siderophore-producing strain of proteus sp.a proteus strain inhibited mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporum in vitro. seed bacterization showed significant plant growth promotion and fusarium-wilt suppression activity of phaseolus mungo in a gnotobiotic system. the culture filtrate of this strain exhibited three prominent bands in uv-vis spectra between 300 and 400 nm. the growth promotion assay of the extracted compound against different indicator organisms indicated the production of a compound related to a 2-oxoacid-type siderophore. ...200011501420
antifungal activity of bacillus sp. isolated from compost.four strains of bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (rhizoctonia solani, bipolaris sorokiniana, sclerotinia sclerotiorum, trichothecium roseum, fusarium solani, fusarium oxysporum). it was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.200011501422
purification of chrysancorin, a novel antifungal protein with mitogenic activity from garland chrysanthemum seeds.a novel antifungal protein, designated chrysancorin, was isolated from seeds of chrysanthemum coronarium var. spatiosum with a procedure involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue resin, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and fplc-gel filtration on superdex 75. the n-terminus of chrysancorin displays sequence similarity to the genomic sequence of chromosome 1 from arabidopsis thaliana bac t19e23. chrysancorin exhibits a molecular ma ...200111501760
genome-wide dissection of fusarium resistance in tomato reveals multiple complex loci.resistance to different pathogenic races of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (f. o. lycopersici) was explored at two genomic levels in tomato. six independent fusarium resistance loci were identified by comparing the responses of a complete set of 53 lines carrying different introgressed regions of the lycopersicon pennellii genome in a l. esculentum background. the loci confer varying degrees of resistance to different races of the pathogen. corresponding map positions from different tomat ...200111523783
pantothenate synthetase from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by alpha-tomatine.the steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine which is present in tomato (lycopersicum sculentum) is assumed to protect the plant against phytopathogenic fungi. we have isolated a gene from the fungal pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that is induced by this glycoalkaloid. this gene, designated panc, encodes a predicted protein with a molecular mass of 41 kda that shows a high degree of sequence similarity to pantothenate synthetases from yeast, plants and bacteria. recombinant panc pr ...200111523810
fatty acid composition and dynamics of selected fungal-feeding nematodes and fungi.fatty acid profiles of fungal-feeding nematodes, aphelenchus avenae and aphelenchoides composticola, and selected fungi were determined in microcosm cultures of agar, broth, or sand amended with organic matter. fatty acids of a. avenae and a. composticola included 16:0 18:0, 18:1omega7, 18:1omega9, 18:2, 20:0, 20:1, 20:2, 20:3 and 20:4 phospholipid fatty acids (plfas) and neutral lipid fatty acids (nlfas). the nematodes differed in relative amounts of saturated and c(18) fatty acids. similar c(1 ...200111544084
growth of fungi and mycotoxin production on cheese under modified atmospheres.the use of modified atmospheres to prevent fungal growth and mycotoxin production in cheese was evaluated. eight fungal species: mucor plumbeus, fusarium oxysporum, byssochlamys fulva, b. nivea, penicillium commune, p. roqueforti, aspergillus flatus and eurotium chevalieri were inoculated onto cheese and incubated under conditions of decreasing concentrations of o2 (5% to < 0.5%) and increasing concentrations of co2 (20-40%). fungal growth was measured by colony diameter and ergosterol content. ...200111545212
evolutionary history of the impala transposon in fusarium oxysporum.impala is an active dna transposon family that was first identified in a strain of fusarium oxysporum pathogenic to melon. the 10 copies present in this strain define three subfamilies that differ by about 20% at the nucleotide level. this high level of polymorphism suggests the existence of an ancestral polymorphism associated with vertical transmission and/or the introduction of some subfamilies by horizontal transfer from another species. to gain insights into the molecular evolution of this ...200111557801
evaluation of propargyl bromide for control of barnyardgrass and fusarium oxysporum in three soils.with the scheduled phasing out of methyl bromide, there is an urgent need for alternatives. we evaluated the efficacy of propargyl bromide as a potential replacement for methyl bromide for the control of barnyardgrass (echinochloa crus-galli) and fusarium oxysporum in an arlington sandy loam, a carsitas loamy sand and a florida muck soil. soil was mixed with barnyardgrass seeds or f oxysporum colonized on millet seeds, and treated with propargyl bromide at a range of concentrations. the mortalit ...200111561402
the tomato rme1 locus is required for mi-1-mediated resistance to root-knot nematodes and the potato aphid.the tomato mi-1 gene confers resistance against root-knot nematodes (meloidogyne spp.) and a biotype of the potato aphid (macrosiphum euphorbiae). four mutagenized mi-1/mi-1 tomato populations were generated and screened for altered root-knot nematode resistance. four independent mutants belonging to two phenotypic classes were isolated. one mutant was chosen for further analyzes; rme1 (for resistance to meloidogyne) exhibited levels of infection comparable with those found on susceptible contro ...200111576426
antifungal activities and cytotoxicity studies of six new azasordarins.gw 471552, gw 471558, gw 479821, gw 515716, gw 570009, and gw 587270 are members of a new family of sordarin derivatives called azasordarins. the in vitro activities of these compounds were evaluated against clinical isolates of yeasts, including candida albicans, candida non-albicans, and cryptococcus neoformans strains. activities against pneumocystis carinii, aspergillus spp., less common molds, and dermatophytes were also investigated. azasordarin derivatives displayed significant activities ...200111600368
lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes of microorganisms: their diversity and applications.microbial lactonohydrolases (lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes) with unique characteristics were found. the fusarium oxysporum enzyme catalyzes the reversible and stereospecific hydrolysis of aldonate lactones and d-pantolactone (d-pl), and is useful for the optical resolution of racemic pl. the agrobacterium tumefaciens enzyme hydrolyzes several aromatic lactones, and catalyzes the stereospecific hydrolysis of pl like the fusarium enzyme, but its selectivity is opposite. the acinetobacter calcoacet ...200111640988
atomic resolution structure of endoglucanase cel5a in complex with methyl 4,4ii,4iii,4iv-tetrathio-alpha-cellopentoside highlights the alternative binding modes targeted by substrate mimics.many three-dimensional structures of retaining beta-d-glycoside hydrolases have been determined, yet oligosaccharide complexes in which the ligand spans the catalytic centre are rare. those that have been reported so far have revealed two modes of binding: those in which the substrate adopts a distorted skew-boat or envelope conformation in the -1 subsite, reflecting the distortion observed during the catalytic cycle, and those which bypass the true catalytic centre and thus lie in a non-product ...200111679762
biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes are influenced by the structural complexity of the nitrogen source in fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans.the structural complexity of the nitrogen sources strongly affects biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in filamentous fungi. fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans were grown in media containing glucose or starch, and supplemented with a nitrogen source varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids), peptides (peptone) and protein (gelatin). in glucose, when the initial ph was adjusted to 5.0, for both microorganisms, higher bi ...200111688213
novel antifungal peptides from ceylon spinach seeds.two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the ceylon spinach basella rubra. the purification procedure involved saline extraction, (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose and fplc-gel filtration on superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kda, respe ...200111688973
fusariosis associated with pathogenic fusarium species colonization of a hospital water system: a new paradigm for the epidemiology of opportunistic mold infections.we sought the reservoir of fusarium species in a hospital with cases of known fusarial infections. cultures of samples from patients and the environment were performed and evaluated for relatedness by use of molecular methods. fusarium species was recovered from 162 (57%) of 283 water system samples. of 92 sink drains tested, 72 (88%) yielded fusarium solani; 12 (16%) of 71 sink faucet aerators and 2 (8%) of 26 shower heads yielded fusarium oxysporum. fusarium solani was isolated from the hospit ...200111692299
identification of f. o. cucumerinum and f. o. luffae by rapd-generated dna probes.to create a fast, sensitive and specific method for identifying fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and f. o. luffae.200111696104
a bowman-birk-type trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from broad beans.an isolation procedure comprising affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-toyopearl, and fast protein liquid chromatography on mono s was used to purify a peptide from broad beans which manifested antifungal activity toward mycosphaerella arachidicola, fusarium oxysporum, and botrytis cinerea. the peptide demonstrated a molecular mass of 7.5 kda. n-terminal sequence analysis disclosed the identity of the antifungal peptide to be a trypsin-chymotrypsin inhi ...200111708782
isolation of a novel deoxyribonuclease with antifungal activity from asparagus officinalis seeds.a deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kda and requiring a ph of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm dna, was isolated from asparagus officinalis seeds. the isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, and ...200111708787
ammonia fermentation, a novel anoxic metabolism of nitrate by fungi.the induction of fungal denitrification by fusarium oxysporum requires a minimal amount of o(2), although excess o(2) completely represses this process (zhou, z., takaya, n., sakairi, m. a. c., and shoun, h. (2001) arch. microbiol. 175, 19-25). here we describe another metabolic mechanism of nitrate in fungal cells, termed ammonia fermentation, that supports growth under conditions more anoxic than those of denitrification. the novel nitrate metabolism of eukaryotes consists of the reduction of ...200211713252
sesquiterpenoids in root exudates of solanum aethiopicum.five known sesquiterpenoids, solavetivone, lubimin, lubiminoic acid, aethione and lubiminol were isolated from the root exudates recovered from solanum aethiopicum by a newly proposed method using charcoal. quantitative analysis of the sesquiterpenoids in the root exudates of s. aethiopicum and s. melongena suggested that relatively large amounts of the sesquiterpenoids were exuded from the roots. antifungal activity of the sesquiterpenoids against fusarium oxysporum and verticillium dahliae was ...200111724373
potential role of transposable elements in the rapid reorganization of the fusarium oxysporum genome.the activity of several families of transposable elements (tes) in the genome of fusarium oxysporum represents a potential source of karyotypic instability. we investigated transposon-mediated chromosome rearrangements by analyzing the karyotypes of a set of strains in which transposition events had occurred. we uncovered exceptional electrophoretic karyotype (ek) variability, in both number and size of chromosomal bands. we showed that ek differences result from chromosomal translocations, larg ...200111728156
isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.a homodimeric lectin adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kda was isolated from red kidney beans. the hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. the lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. the n-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from phaseolus vulgaris but sho ...200111732688
isolation and identification of n-mercapto-4-formylcarbostyril, an antibiotic produced by pseudomonas fluorescens.pseudomonas fluorescens strain g308 isolated from barley leaves produces a novel antibiotic substance that was purified by preparative tlc and hplc and identified as n-mercapto-4-formylcarbostyril (cbs) by lc/dad, ir, lc-es(+)/ms, lc-es(-)/ms, gc-ei/ms, lc-hres(+)/ms, mass isotope ratios analysis, 1h nmr and 13c nmr analysis. the purified new antibiotic compound is effective against many phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. the compound inhibited at 25 ppm spore germination and germ tube growth of th ...200111738425
[study of availability of some hydrolytic and redox enzymes in strains of fusarium oxysporum (schlecht.) snyd. and hans. isolated from different habitats].the work authors have used 52 strains of f. oxysporum for the collection of cultures of the department of physiology and taxonomy of micromycetes of imv of the nas of ukraine. the strains were isolated from three habitats--grain cultures, cultivated and noncultivated soils of different regions of ukraine. activity of some hydrolytic (cellulose, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-glucosidase and amylase) and redox (monophenol-monooxygenase and peroxidase) enzymes of f. oxysporum strains. it has been sh ...200111785419
a new antifungal protein and a chitinase with prominent macrophage-stimulating activity from seeds of phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto.from the seeds of the pinto bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto), a chitinase and a novel antifungal protein, both with the ability of markedly augmenting nitrite production by murine peritoneal macrophages, were isolated. the antifungal proteins, designated phasein a and phasein b, exhibited molecular weights of 28 and 32 kda, respectively. phaseins a and b were adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and were eluted as adjacent peaks from cm-sepharose. phasein a demonstrated potent antif ...200211785974
biochemical evidence for the activation of distinct subsets of mitogen-activated protein kinases by voltage and defense-related stimuli.activation of mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases is a common reaction of plant cells in defense-related signal transduction pathways. to gain insight into the mechanisms that determine specificity in response to a particular stimulus, a biochemical approach has been employed. photoautotrophic suspension culture cells of tomato (lycopersicon peruvianum) were used as experimental system to characterize map kinase activation by different stress-related stimuli. an elicitor preparation of the t ...200211788772
developing cryopreservation protocols to secure fungal gene function.protocols that involve a freezing process are frequently used for the preservation of fungi, but there have been few studies to assess the physiological and genetic stability of isolates after preservation. in this study, the effects of cryopreservation and lyophilisation on the viability, physiology and genetic stability of isolates of metarhizium anisopliae, fusarium oxysporum and serpula lacrymans were examined. it was found that preservation regime influenced the characters of some of the te ...200111788850
molecular characterization of a novel endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.a gene, xyl5, was identified from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with family 11 xylanases. expression of xyl5 was detected during growth both on xylan and cellulose substrates as carbon sources and on tomato vascular tissue. rt-pcr analysis revealed the presence of two different transcript sizes, resulting from differential splicing of the third intron. the 3'-untranslated region of the xyl5 tra ...200111795847
isolation of cicadin, a novel and potent antifungal peptide from dried juvenile cicadas.a single-chained antifungal protein with a molecular weight of 6.5 kda and displaying a novel n-terminal sequence was isolated from dried juvenile cicadas which are used in traditional chinese medicine, by using ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and then gel filtration on a superdex peptide column. the peptide, designated cicadin, exerted potent antifungal activity with ic(50) values at nonomol ...200211814612
streptomyces plicatus as a model biocontrol agent.three hundred and seventy two isolates belonging to the genus streptomyces were isolated and screened for chitinase production. streptomyces plicatus was found to be the best producer. the highest chitinase production were incubated for 3 d at 30 degrees c on buffered culture medium (ph 8.0) containing chitin plus sucrose and calcium nitrate as carbon and nitrogen sources. s. plicatus chitinase had a highly significant inhibitory effect on spore germination, germ tube elongation and radial growt ...200111830942
cloning of nitroalkane oxidase from fusarium oxysporum identifies a new member of the acyl-coa dehydrogenase superfamily.the flavoprotein nitroalkane oxidase (nao) from fusarium oxysporum catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the respective aldehydes with production of nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. the sequences of several peptides from the fungal enzyme were used to design oligonucleotides for the isolation of a portion of the nao gene from an f. oxysporum genomic dna preparation. this sequence was used to clone the cdna for nao from an f. oxysporum cdna library. the sequence of the cloned cdna showed that ...200211867731
novel aspects of tomato root colonization and infection by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis using the green fluorescent protein as a marker.the fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is the causal agent of tomato foot and root rot disease. the green fluorescent protein (gfp) was used to mark this fungus in order to visualize and analyze the colonization and infection processes in vivo. transformation of f oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was very efficient and gfp expression was stable for at least nine subcultures. microscopic analysis of the transformants revealed homogeneity of the fluorescent signal, which was ...200211878320
isotope effects and intermediates in the reduction of no by p450(nor).the mechanism of the heme-thiolate-dependent nadh-no reductase (p450(nor)) from fusarium oxysporum was investigated by kinetic isotope effects including protio, [4s-2h]-, [4r-2h]-, [4,4(2)h(2)]-nadh and stopped-flow measurements. the respective kinetic isotope effects were measured at high no concentrations and were found to be 1.7, 2.3 and 3.8 indicating a rate-limitation at the reduction step and a moderate stereoselectivity in binding of the cofactor nadh. in a different approach the kinetic ...200211897349
new nystatin polymeric complexes and their in vitro antifungal evaluation in a model study with fusarium oxysporum.six water-soluble nystatin-polyvilnylpyrrolidone complexes with respective mw of 10 kda (nc1), 25 kda (nc2), 30 kda (nc3), 40 kda (nc4), 90 kda (nc5), 360 kda (nc6) were synthesized. the activity of the complexes was compared with that of nystatin against growth and spore germination of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radiciscucumerinum. the ed50 value (effective dose) of free nystatin in aqueous solution on growth inhibition on solid medium was determined at 35.7 ppm. the ed50 of the complexes nc3, nc ...200211913760
evolution of the fot1 transposons in the genus fusarium: discontinuous distribution and epigenetic inactivation.to understand the evolution of fot1, a member of the pogo family widely dispersed in ascomycetes, we have performed a phylogenetic survey across the genus fusarium divided into six sections. the taxonomic distribution of fot1 is not homogeneous but patchy; it is prevalent in the fusarium oxysporum complex, absent in closely related sections, and found in five species from the most distant section martiella. multiple copies of fot1 were sequenced from each strain in which the element occurs. in t ...200211919292
aberrant transposition of a tc1-mariner element, impala, in the fungus fusarium oxysporum.we previously determined that the impalad transposable element of fusarium oxysporum was able to mobilize a non autonomous copy of impala ( niad::imp::hph), inserted in the niad gene encoding nitrate reductase. generally, mobilization results in the recovery of nia(+) revertants at low frequency. in the course of this study, we recovered a transformant that gave rise to nia(+) revertants at a high rate. these revertants displayed atypical phenotypes and showed a niad hybridization pattern differ ...200211919718
nitrate reductase-formate dehydrogenase couple involved in the fungal denitrification by fusarium oxysporum.dissimilatory nitrate reductase (nar) was solubilized and partially purified from the large particle (mitochondrial) fraction of the denitrifying fungus fusarium oxysporum and characterized. many lines of evidence showed that the membrane-bound nar is distinct from the soluble, assimilatory nitrate reductase. further, the spectral and other properties of the fungal nar were similar to those of dissimilatory nars of escherichia coli and denitrifying bacteria, which are comprised of a molybdoprote ...200211926996
role in pathogenesis of two endo-beta-1,4-xylanase genes from the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.a gene, xyl4, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows significant homology with family 11 xylanases, was identified from the tomato vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. expression of xyl4 is induced on oat spelt xylan as the carbon source, subject to carbon catabolite repression and preferentially expressed at alkaline ambient ph. transcript levels of xyl4 on an inducing carbon source are differentially regulated by the nature and concentration of the nitrogen source. as ...200211929211
purification of angularin, a novel antifungal peptide from adzuki beans.an antifungal peptide was isolated from the adzuki bean with a procedure involving affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose. the protein designated angularin was adsorbed on both types of chromatographic media and possessed a molecular weight of 8 kda. angularin exhibited antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including mycospharella arachidiocola and botrytis cinerea. it inhibited mycelial growth in b. cinerea with an ic50 of ...200211931582
thiourea derivatives and their nickel(ii) and platinum(ii) complexes: antifungal activity.we have synthesized two thiourea derivatives of methyl anthranilate (1, 2) and their complexes with nickel (3) and platinum(ii) (4). we have also prepared the complexes of nickel(ii) with two benzoylthiourea derivatives (5, 6). the obtained compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (ft-ir, uv-vis, nmr), mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. compound 1, c(20)h(23)n(3)o(2)s, crystallizes in monoclinic space group p21/n, with z=4, and unit cell parameters, a=8.8042 ...200211931966
cross reaction between a pan-candida genus probe and fusarium spp. in a fatal case of fusarium oxysporum pneumonia. 200211939400
spectral shift of ultraweak photon emission from sweet potato during a defense response.consecutive spectral analyses of ultraweak photon emission from sweet potato showing a defense response were conducted to observe the process of physiological transition. the spectrum showed a drastic transition from 2 to 10 h after inoculation with fusarium oxysporum, during which the emission intensity increased slowly. the spectrum was stable from 10 to 36 h after inoculation, whereas the emission intensity peaked approximately 20 h after inoculation. a change in the physiological state conne ...200211950100
ocatin. a novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.the most abundant soluble tuber protein from the andean crop oca (oxalis tuberosa mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd and an isoelectric point of 4.8. this protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic ba ...200211950978
metabolizable and non-metabolizable sugars activate different signal transduction pathways in tomato.to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of sugar signaling in plants, the effect of derivatives of the transport sugar sucrose (suc), the suc isomers palatinose and turanose, and the suc analog fluoro-suc were tested. photo-autotrophic suspension culture cells of tomato (lycopersicon peruvianum) were used to study their effect on the regulation of marker genes of source and sink metabolism, photosynthesis, and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks). suc and glucose (g ...200211950996
a tobacco s-like rnase inhibits hyphal elongation of plant pathogens.ribonuclease (rnase) ne gene expression is induced in tobacco leaves in response to phytophthora parasitica. using antibodies directed against rnase ne, we demonstrate that rnase ne is extracellular at the early steps of the interaction, while the fungal tip growth is initiated in the apoplastic compartment. after production in pichia pastoris and biochemical purification, we show that the s-like rnase ne inhibits hyphal growth from p. parasitica zoospores and from fusarium oxysporum conidia in ...200211952127
fusarium infections of the skin.fusarium species are ubiquitous and may be found in the soil, air and on plants. fusarium species can cause mycotoxicosis in humans following ingestion of food that has been colonized by the fungal organism. in humans, fusarium species can also cause disease that is localized, focally invasive or disseminated. the pathogen generally affects immunocompromised individuals with infection of immunocompetent persons being rarely reported. localized infection includes septic arthritis, endophthalmitis ...200011964778
potential of a novel antibiotic, 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate, as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt of crucifers.screening for newer bioactive compounds from microbial metabolites resulted in the isolation of a novel antibiotic from the culture filtrate, streptomyces sp 201, of a soil. the bioactive compound, with antifungal and antibacterial activity, was identified as 2-methylheptyl isonicotinate. the antifungal activity of live culture, culture broth and the isolated bioactive compound showed marked inhibition against dominant soil-borne phytopathogens such as fusarium oxysporum schlect, f moniliforme s ...200211975177
fusaric acid-producing strains of fusarium oxysporum alter 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic gene expression in pseudomonas fluorescens cha0 in vitro and in the rhizosphere of wheat.the phytotoxic pathogenicity factor fusaric acid (fa) represses the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg), a key factor in the antimicrobial activity of the biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens cha0. fa production by 12 fusarium oxysporum strains varied substantially. we measured the effect of fa production on expression of the phlacbde biosynthetic operon of strain cha0 in culture media and in the wheat rhizosphere by using a translational phla'-'lacz fusion. only fa-producing f. ...200211976092
identification of novel hexapeptides bioactive against phytopathogenic fungi through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library.the purpose of the present study was to improve the antifungal activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi of the previously identified hexapeptide paf19. we describe some properties of a set of novel synthetic hexapeptides whose d-amino acid sequences were obtained through screening of a synthetic peptide combinatorial library in a positional scanning format. as a result of the screening, 12 putative bioactive peptides were identified, synthesized, and assayed. the peptides paf26 (ac-rkkwfw ...200211976121
antifungal efficacy of bacteria isolated from marine sedentary organisms.the antibiotic-producing ability of 57 bacteria isolated from 8 marine sedentary organisms, 6 sponges (spirastrella sp., phyllospongia sp., ircinia sp., aaptos sp., azorica sp., axinella sp.), 1 soft coral (lobophytum sp.) and 1 alga (sargassum sp.), was evaluated against 6 phytopathogenic fungi (helminthosporium oryzae, rhizoctonium solani, pyricularia oryzae, fusarium oxysporum, aspergillus oryzae and a. fumigatus). bacteria of the genus bacillus (20%), pseudomonas (33%) and flavobacterium (40 ...200211980270
complete dna sequence and analysis of a mitochondrial plasmid in the mycoparasitic trichoderma harzianum strain t95.a circular plasmid called pthr1, with a monomer size of 2.6 kb, was identified in the mitochondria of a trichoderma harzianum isolate. hybridization studies using cloned plasmids revealed no dna sequence similarity between the plasmid and the mitochondrial genome of the isolate. the complete sequence of the plasmid was determined, and the sequence analysis revealed that it contained a single long open reading frame of 1818 bp. sequence comparisons indicated that the derived amino acid sequence o ...200211982336
kinetic analysis of hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids by recombinant p450foxy produced by an escherichia coli expression system.cytochrome p450foxy (p450foxy, cyp505) is a fused protein of cytochrome p450 (p450) and its reductase isolated from the fungus fusarium oxysporum, which catalyzes the subterminal (omega-1 approximately omega-3) hydroxylation of fatty acids. here, we produced, purified and characterized a fused recombinant protein (rp450foxy) using the escherichia coli expression system. purified rp450foxy was catalytically and spectrally indistinguishable from the native protein, but most of the rp450foxy was re ...200211985584
occurrence of keratinophilic fungi and dermatophytes on domestic birds in nigeria.feathers, nails and beaks of one hundred and twenty common birds in nigeria, chicken [50], ducks [20], turkeys [15] and pigeons [35], were examined using the soil plate technique for their mycoflora. 15 species of fungi were recovered and they belong to the genera chrysosporium, trichophyton, microsporum, aspergillus, fusarium, mucor rhizopus, penicillium and trichoderma. microsporum gypseum was the species most frequently isolated (35% of the samples). the most common genus was chrysosporium an ...200212000131
extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus fusarium oxysporum. 200212007181
antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.petroleum ether (pe) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. the efficacy of pe extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. wild marjoram (origanum syriacum) pe extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. it resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germinatio ...200212009988
abscisic acid- and cold-induced thaumatin-like protein in winter wheat has an antifungal activity against snow mould, microdochium nivale.cold acclimation of winter wheat (triticum aestivum l.) seedlings induces accumulation in the apoplast of tatlps that are similar to thaumatin-like proteins (tlps), which are pathogenesis-related proteins. we characterized a cdna of was-3a encoding the major isoform of tatlps from winter wheat cells and showed that was-3a transcripts were markedly increased by treatment with aba and by treatment with elicitors (chitosan, beta-glucan and cell wall fractions of fusarium oxysporum and microdochium ...200212010473
keratomycosis due to fusarium oxysporum--a case report.a 30 year old muslim housewife presented with foreign body sensation to start with and later noticed white patch in the left eye with blurred vision since 3 days. koh preparation of corneal scrapings revealed fungal elements. culture isolate is identified as fusarium oxysporum by standard methods. fusarium oxysporum causing keratomycosis is reported for its rarity.200112024926
in vitro evaluation on inhibitory nature of some neem formulations against plant pathogenic fungi.different neem formulations derived from the neem tree (azadirachta indica) have been found to be potential fungicides against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi. some neem formulations viz. achook (0.15% ec), bioneem (0.03% ec), nimbecidine (0.03% ec) and neemark (0.03% ec) were examined against some plant pathogenic fungi such as (fusarium oxysporum, alternaria solani, curvularia lunata, helminthosporium sp. and sclerotium rolfsii). among these achook (0.15% ec) was found to be more ac ...199912024976
antagonistic effects of streptomyces violaceusniger strain g10 on fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense race 4: indirect evidence for the role of antibiosis in the antagonistic process.fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is the causal pathogen of wilt disease of banana. a cost-effective measure of control for this disease is still not available. streptomyces violaceusniger strain g10 acts as an antifungal agent antagonistic towards many different phytopathogenic fungi, including different pathogenic races of the fusarium wilt pathogen. in an attempt to understand the mode of action of this antagonist in nature, the interaction between s. violaceusniger strain g10 and f. oxysporum ...200212032802
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus-promoted accumulation of two new triterpenoids in cucumber roots.cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) roots were analyzed by hplc and tlc for their levels of secondary metabolites upon inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, glomus caledonium. three compounds in etoac extracts from the mycorrhizal roots showed significant increases six weeks after inoculation. these compounds were isolated by column chromatography and determined to be two novel triterpenes, 2beta-hydroxybryonolic acid (2beta,3beta-dihydroxy-d:c-friedoolean-8-en-29-oic acid) and 3beta-bry ...200212036048
purification and characterization of aavp, a protein inhibitor of tmv infection, from the edible fungus, agrocybe aegerita.a protein with activity of inhibiting tmv infection on nicotiana glutinosa, named aavp, was isolated and purified from the fruiting bodies of edible fungus agrocybe aegerita by precipitation of 40%--80% saturation of (nh(4))(2)so(4) followed by deae-fast flow and s-200 column chromatography. the protein was proved to be homogeneous by sds-page and ief. analysis of the composition of amino acids showed that this protein contained no cysteine, poor in methionine and phenylalanine and rich in acidi ...200112050799
cay-i, a fungicidal saponin from capsicum sp. fruit.saponins are steroidal or terpenoid-based glycosides with surface active properties. a steroidal saponin, cay-1, with a molecular weight of 1243.35 da, was isolated and purified to homogeneity from commercially available dry, ground fruit of capsicum frutescens. cay-1 was shown to be a potent fungicide for the germinating conidia of aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. parasiticus and a. niger with species-dependent ld90 values between 3 and 20 microm. activity against some aspergillus species w ...200212058725
gibberellin and auxin-indole production by plant root-fungi and their biosynthesis under salinity-calcium interaction.rhizosphere and rhizoplane of fababean (vicia faba), melochia (corchorus olitorius), sesame (sesamum indicum) and soyabean (glycine max) plants are inhabited with fungi, mostly aspergillus flavus, a. niger, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium corylophilum, p. cyclopium, p. funiculosum and rhizopus stolonifer. all fungal species have the ability to produce gibberellin (ga) but f. oxysporum was found to produce both ga and indole-acetic acid (iaa). the optimum period for ga and iaa production by f. ox ...200212073817
resistance of polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [citrullus lanatus (thunb.) matsum et nakai] to fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the polish climate. this species is frequently at risk of fusarium oxysporum infection. between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. the test was conducted with the use of four isolates of f. oxysporum: three from polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth ...200212080172
cicerin and arietin, novel chickpea peptides with different antifungal potencies.two antifungal peptides with novel n-terminal sequences, designated cicerin and arietin were isolated from seeds of the chickpea (cicer arietinum), respectively. both peptides were adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose and exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 8.2 and 5.6 kda, respectively. arietin was more strongly adsorbed on cm-sepharose than cicerin and manifested a higher translation-inhibiting activity in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and a higher antifungal potency ...200212084511
transcriptional control of nitric oxide reductase gene (cyp55) in the fungal denitrifier fusarium oxysporum.fungal denitrification is a dissimilating metabolic mechanism for nitrate and was first described in fusarium oxysporum. here we investigated regulatory systems of expression of cyp55, which encodes cytochrome p450 (p450nor) and is essential for the fungal denitrification. promoter-reporter analysis of f. oxysporum cyp55 using escherichia coli beta-galactosidase showed that the region between nucleotides -526 and -515 was critical for induction by nitrate. it contained a nucleotide sequence simi ...200212092813
immunoglobulin g antibodies against indoor dampness-related microbes and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.immunoglobulin g (igg) antibodies against microbes related to indoor dampness problems have been used as potential biomarkers of fungal exposure in clinical investigations. there is limited information on their relation to asthma. we conducted a population-based incident case-control study to assess the risk of asthma in relation to specific igg antibodies to eight dampness-related microbes: aspergillus fumigatus, a. versicolor, cladosporium cladosporioides, fusarium oxysporum, sporobolomyces sa ...200212100029
a new antifungal peptide from rice beans.a peptide, possessing a molecular mass of 5 kda and demonstrating remarkable sequence homology to the cowpea 10 kda protein precursor and garden pea disease resistance response protein, was isolated from rice bean seeds. the peptide was adsorbed on cm-sepharose and affi-gel blue gel. it inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi botrytis cinerea, fusarium oxysporum, rhizoctonia solani and mycosphaerella arachidicola. it stimulated incorporation of methyl [3h] thymidine into mouse splenocytes, inhibi ...200212102720
the b' helix determines cytochrome p450nor specificity for the electron donors nadh and nadph.nitric oxide reductase (nor) cytochrome p450nor (p450nor) is unique because it is catalytically self-sufficient, receiving electrons directly from nadh or nadph. however, little is known about the direct binding of nadh to cytochrome. here, we report that oxidized pyridine nucleotides (nad(+) and nadp(+)) and an analogue induce a spectral perturbation in bound heme when mixed with p450nor. the p450nor isoforms are classified according to electron donor specificity for nadh or nadph. one type (fn ...200212105197
demonstration of antifungal and anti-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase activities of 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone and antibacterial activity of the pineal indole 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid.6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (6-mboa), a naturally occurring progonadal compound present in grasses with structural resemblance to melatonin, was tested for antifungal activity against fusarium oxysporum, rhizoctonia solani and coprinus comatus. a variety of pineal products was also examined for the sake of comparison, including 5-methoxytryptamine, melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-methoxyindole-3-acetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptophol. the assay for antifungal activity was car ...200212106902
diversity of antifungal actinomycetes in various vegetative soils of korea.diversity of actinomycetes and their antifungal activities against some plant pathogenic fungi were examined in various vegetative soils from 14 different sites in the western part of korea. actinomycete counts ranged from 1.17 x 10(6) to 4.20 x 10(6) cfu x g(-1) dried soil. a total of 1510 actinomycetes were isolated from the soil samples. streptomyces was predominant in soils with a ph range of 5.1-6.5, 9.1-13.0% moisture, and 9.1-11.0% organic matter. most micromonospora, dactylosporangium, a ...200212109880
isolation and characterization of luffacylin, a ribosome inactivating peptide with anti-fungal activity from sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica) seeds.a purification scheme involving ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, and ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose and mono s was employed to isolate a peptide with a molecular weight of 7.8kda from sponge gourd seeds. the peptide, which was designated luffacylin, exhibited an n-terminal sequence with pronounced resemblance to that of the 6.5kda arginine-glutamate rich polypeptide previously isolated from sponge gourd seeds. luffacylin in ...200212126727
ascalin, a new anti-fungal peptide with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase-inhibiting activity from shallot bulbs.an isolation procedure comprising ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose and gel filtration on superdex 75 was used to isolate an anti-fungal peptide from the bulbs of the shallot allium ascalonicum. the peptide demonstrated a molecular weight of 9.5kda, and possessed an n-terminal sequence yqcgqgg somewhat similar to chitinases from other allium species which are however much larger in molecular we ...200212126728
isolation of a novel peroxidase from french bean legumes and first demonstration of antifungal activity of a non-milk peroxidase.a novel antifungal protein with its n-terminal sequence bearing similarity to the c-terminal sequences of peroxidases was isolated from french bean legumes. the protein, which possessed a molecular weight of 37 kda, was adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and cm-sepharose. the protein exhibited peroxidase activity with a km of 58 microm and a vmax of 3.36 u/nmol. optimal peroxidase activity was found at 22 degrees c and ph 4. it exerted antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species including ...200212137913
ability of nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 to induce resistance against pythium ultimum infection in cucumber.the influence exerted by nonpathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. cytochemical labeling of cellulos ...200212147506
analysis of phylogenetic relationship of cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme to the fusarium solani species complex and a review of similarities in the spectrum of opportunistic infections caused by these fungi.an emerging pattern of similarity in medical case reports led to a project to compare the phylogenetic affinities of two well-known tropical fungal opportunistic pathogens, cylindrocarpon lichenicola and acremonium falciforme, to members of the fusarium solani species complex. c. lichenicola and a. falciforme, despite their deviating conidial morphologies, were shown via sequencing of the ribosomal large subunit to be well instituted within a clade mainly consisting of typical f. solani strains ...200212149344
plant colonization by the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum requires fow1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial protein.the soil-borne fungus fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilts of a wide variety of plant species by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. the pathogenicity mutant b60 of the melon wilt pathogen f. oxysporum f. sp. melonis was isolated previously by restriction enzyme-mediated dna integration mutagenesis. molecular analysis of b60 identified the affected gene, designated fow1, which encodes a protein with strong similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins of yeast. alth ...200212172028
enhanced degradation of an endocrine-disrupting chemical, butyl benzyl phthalate, by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.compared to yeast esterase, fungal cutinase degraded butyl benzyl phthalate (bbp) far more efficiently; i.e., almost 60% of the bbp disappeared within 7.5 h. also, the final chemical composition significantly depended on the enzyme used. toxicity monitoring using bioluminescent bacteria showed that butyl methyl phthalate, a major product of degradation by esterase, was an oxidative toxic hazard.200212200333
vibrational, 1h-nmr spectroscopic, and thermal characterization of gladiolus root exudates in relation to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli resistance.fourier transform raman (ft raman) and ir (ftir) and (1)h-nmr spectroscopies coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (dsc) were applied to the characterization of root exudates from two cultivars of gladiolus (spic span and white prosperity) with different degrees of resistance and susceptibility to fusarium oxysporum gladioli, the main pathogen of gladiolus. this work was aimed at correlating the composition of root exudates with the varietal resistance to the pathogen. spectroscopic ana ...200212209451
[allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean].allelopathic effect of root exudates on pathogenic fungi of root rot in continuous cropping soybean was studied by sand culture, water culture, and indoor culture experiments. the results showed that allelopathic promotion of root exudates on the growth of fusarium semitectum, gliocladium roseum and fusarium oxysporum, especially fusarium semitectum reached significant level or especially significant level in continuous cropping soybean compared with the control. allelopathic promotion of root e ...200212216402
survival of the rhizosphere-competent biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 in the soil and phytosphere.pseudomonas fluorescens nbri2650 was isolated after screening 360 bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) grown in fungal-disease-suppressive field soil. the strain was selected because of its high rhizosphere competence and ability to inhibit the growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri, rhizoctonia bataticola, and pythium sp. under in vitro conditions. survival and colonization of nbri2650 in the phytosphere of chickpea, cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.), cucumber ...200212224558
induction of defense-related ultrastructural modifications in pea root tissues inoculated with endophytic bacteria.the stimulation exerted by the endophytic bacterium bacillus pumilus strain se34 in plant defense reactions was investigated at the ultrastructural level using an in vitro system in which root-inducing t-dna pea (pisum sativum l.) roots were infected with the pea root-rotting fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. in nonbacterized roots, the pathogen multiplied abundantly through much of the tissue including the vascular stele, whereas in prebacterized roots, pathogen growth was restricted to th ...199612226427
effects of root-dip treatment with certain phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on the fusarial wilt of tomato.root-dip application of bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas fluorescens, aspergillus awamori, aspergillus niger and penicillium digitatum resulted in significant decline in the rhizosphere population of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. a significant decrease in the severity of wilt occurred with a. awamori (37.1%) and p. digitatum (21.3%) compared to the control. root-dip treatment with the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms tested resulted in significant increase in the yield of tomato, bei ...200212227549
targeted disruption of a g protein alpha subunit gene results in reduced pathogenicity in fusarium oxysporum.the cloning of fga1, the gene encoding a g protein alpha subunit, was performed by standard pcr techniques and by screening a fusarium oxysporum genomic library, using the pcr product as a probe. the full-length open reading frame spanned 1,059 nucleotides and the deduced primary structure of the protein (353 amino acid residues) showed high identity to those of g protein alpha(i) family proteins from other filamentous fungi. disruption of fga1 had no effect on vegetative growth, but reduced the ...200212228810
[new antifungal antibiotics, bacillopeptins and fusaricidins].we isolated four strains of bacteria producing antifungal antibiotics from the rhizosphere of garlic with basal rot caused by the plant pathogenic fungal strain fusarium oxysporum. among them, bacillus subtilis fr-2 was found to produce new antifungal antibiotics, named bacillopeptins a, b, and c. their structures have been determined by 1d and 2d nmr and ms experiments, and amino acid analysis coupled with chiral hplc, to be cyclic lipopeptides each containing a long-chain beta-amino acid. anot ...200212235857
microwave induced diastereoselective synthesis of spiro[indole-oxiranes] and their conversion to spiro[indole-pyrazoles].the microwave induced diastereoselective synthesis of spiro[3h-indole-3,2'-oxiranes]-3'-benzoyl-2 (1h)-one is reported. epoxidation of 3-aroylmethylene indole-2-one 1 with alkaline h2o2 under microwave irradiation in an open vessel under controlled conditions yields a diastereomeric pair of spiro[3h-indole-3,2'-oxiranes]-3'-benzoyl-2 (1h) ones 2 and 3 in 65-85% yield. the stereoselectivity depends upon the reaction time and power output. the spiro[indole-pyrazoles] 4 have been synthesised by the ...200212369445
enzyme mediated extracellular synthesis of cds nanoparticles by the fungus, fusarium oxysporum.the biosynthesis of q-state cds nanoparticles by reaction of aqueous cdso4 solution with the fungus, fusarium oxysporum, is demonstrated. nanoparticle formation proceeds by release of sulfate reductase enzymes by the fungus, conversion of sulfate ions to sulfide ions that subsequently react with aqueous cd2+ ions to yield highly stable cds nanoparticles. elucidation of an enzymatic pathway using fungi opens up the exciting possibility of developing a rational, biosynthesis strategy for nanomater ...200212371846
mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of pr proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato.the protein content of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum. peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during compatible or incompatible interactions. a new member of the pr-5 family was identified that accumulated early in both types of interaction. other pathogenesis-related proteins appeared in compatible interact ...200212376655
pathogenesis of streptoverticillium albireticuli on caenorhabditis elegans and its antagonism to soil-borne fungal pathogens.to examine the biological activity of streptoverticillium albireticuli.200212390481
genomic location of the fw gene for resistance to fusarium wilt race 1 in peas.resistance to fusarium wilt in peas (pisumsativum l.) caused by fusarium oxysporum schlect. f. sp. pisi race 1 (van hall) snyd. & hans. is conferred by a single dominant gene, fw. the gene was located in the pea genome by analyzing progenies from crosses involving genetic markers across all pea linkage groups. phenotyping of the progenies for reaction to race 1 of the fusarium wilt pathogen was determined by field screening in a "wilt-sick" plot in pullman, washington. fw was shown to be located ...200212407219
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