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interdigital intertrigo due to fusarium oxysporum.fusariosis is a fungal infection often involving the skin. various species can cause local, focally invasive, or disseminated infections. the routes of entry for fusarium species include the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, toe nails, trauma to the skin, and indwelling central venous catheter.201628681012
role of fusaric acid in the development of 'fusarium wilt' symptoms in tomato: physiological, biochemical and proteomic perspectives.fusarium wilt is one of the most prevalent and damaging diseases of tomato. among various toxins secreted by the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (causal agent of fusarium wilt of tomato), fusaric acid (fa) is suspected to be a potent pathogenicity factor in tomato wilt disease development. with this rationale the present study was carried out with physiological, biochemical and proteomic perspectives. treatment of fa was given to the leaves of tomato directly through infiltration to show t ...201728683401
modulation of inter-kingdom communication by phcbsr quorum sensing system in ralstonia solanacearum phylotype i strain gmi1000.ralstonia solanacearum is a ubiquitous soil-borne plant pathogenic bacterium, which frequently encounters and interacts with other soil cohabitants in competition for environmental niches. ralsolamycin, which is encoded by the rmy genes, has been characterized as a novel inter-kingdom interaction signal that induces chlamydospore development in fungi. in this study, we provide the first genetic evidence that the rmy gene expression is controlled by the phcbsr quorum sensing (qs) system in strain ...201728690607
endophytic fungi harbored in panax notoginseng: diversity and potential as biological control agents against host plant pathogens of root-rot disease.endophytic fungi play an important role in balancing the ecosystem and boosting host growth. in the present study, we investigated the endophytic fungal diversity of healthy panax notoginseng and evaluated its potential antimicrobial activity against five major phytopathogens causing root-rot of p. notoginseng.201728701877
comparative study on antifungal activities of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan silver nano composites against fusarium oxysporum species complex.though the metal nanoparticles (nps) have been shown favorable results against fungal diseases, erratic environmental toxicity of nps have raised serious concerns against their applications. hence, it is vital to modify antifungal compounds into safe substitutes over synthetic chemicals. in this study, antifungal effects of chitosan nanoparticles (cnps) and chitosan silver nanocomposites (cagncs) were compared against fusarium oxysporum species complex. cnps and cagncs were synthesized, characte ...201728709896
coupling the pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by the expression of beta-xylosidases.thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the areas contributing most to the operational costs of second generation ethanol in lignocellulosic biorefineries. the improvement of lignocellulosic enzyme cocktails has been significant in the recent years. although the needs for the reduction of the energy intensity and chemical consumption in the pretreatment step are well known, the reduction of the severity of the process strongly affects the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. to explore t ...201728710860
production of ligninolytic enzymes and some diffusible antifungal compounds by white-rot fungi using potato solid wastes as the sole nutrient source.the aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of ligninolytic enzymes and some diffusible antifungal compounds by white-rot fungi (wrf) using peels or discarded potato as the sole nutrient source.201728718996
the distribution and host range of the banana fusarium wilt fungus, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in asia.fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. the fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the indo-malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. the diversity and distribution of foc in asia was investigated. a total of 594 f. oxysporum isolates collected in ten asian countries were identified by vegetat ...201728719631
the distribution of miniature impala elements and six genes in the fusarium genus is suggestive of horizontal gene transfer.the mimp family of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements was previously found only in genomes of fusarium oxysporum and is contextually associated with virulence genes in this species. through extensive comparative analysis of 83 f. oxysporum and 52 other fusarium genomes, we uncovered the distribution of different mimp families throughout the genus. we show that (i) mimps are not exclusive to f. oxysporum; (ii) pathogenic isolates generally possess more mimps than non-pathogenic strai ...201728744785
fusarium keratitis in germany.fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and which results in poor outcome. in the tropical and subtropical areas the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. however, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. at the german national reference center, we observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. here, we present the first german case series of eye infections wit ...201728747368
elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of cis-jasmone in lasiodiplodia theobromae.in plants, cis-jasmone (cj) is synthesized from α-linolenic acid (la) via two biosynthetic pathways using jasmonic acid (ja) and iso-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (iso-opda) as key intermediates. however, there have been no reports documenting cj production by microorganisms. in the present study, the production of fungal-derived cj by lasiodiplodia theobromae was observed for the first time, although this production was not observed for botrytis cinerea, verticillium longisporum, fusarium oxysporum, ...201728751737
comparative agronomic performance and reaction to fusarium wilt of lens culinaris × l. orientalis and l. culinaris × l. ervoides derivatives.the development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. wild lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. in the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) inter-sub-specific (l. culinaris subsp. orien ...201728751897
mitochondrial molecular markers for resistance to bayoud disease in date palm.bayoud disease, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, is a very serious and destructive disease to date palm. screening of date palm germplasm for resistance to bayoud disease is a crucial step to avoid or alleviate the disease consequences. fortunately, it was discovered that there are two mitochondrial plasmid-like dna molecules associated with susceptibility or resistance to bayoud disease. in this chapter, we present a fast, simple, and reliable technique to screen date palm germpla ...201728755230
chemical composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of zhumeria majdae, heracleum persicum and eucalyptus sp. against some important phytopathogenic fungi.application of essential oils of medicinal plants is considered a safe and acceptable method for plant disease management to protect plants from pathogenic microorganisms. thus, in recent study, essential oils (eos) from zhumeria majdae, heracleum persicum (two iranian endemic plants) and eucalyptus sp. were assayed for their antifungal potential against ten phytopathogenic fungi, including fusarium graminearum, fusarium asiaticum, fusarium redolens f.sp. dianthus, fusarium verticillioides, fusa ...201728757068
disease resistance to multiple fungal and oomycete pathogens evaluated using a recombinant inbred line population in pepper.incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. sites of multiple disease resistance (mdr) are regions or "hotspots" of the genome with closely linked genes for resistance to different pathogens that could enable rapid incorporation of resistance. an f2-derived f6 recombinant inbred line population from a cross ...201728762287
identification and functionality prediction of pathogenesis-related protein 1 from legume family.the production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins in plants is one of the important responses to biotic and abiotic stress. large number of identified pr proteins has been categorized into 17 functional families based on their structure, phylogenetics, and biological activities. however, they are not widely studied in legume crops. using 29 pr1 proteins from arabidopsis thaliana, as query, here we have predicted 92 candidate pr1 proteins through the psi-blast and hmmer progra ...201728762578
evaluation of multifarious plant growth promoting traits, antagonistic potential and phylogenetic affiliation of rhizobacteria associated with commercial tea plants grown in darjeeling, india.plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) are studied in different agricultural crops but the interaction of pgpr of tea crop is not yet studied well. in the present study, the indigenous tea rhizobacteria were isolated from seven tea estates of darjeeling located in west bengal, india. a total of 150 rhizobacterial isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against six different fungal pathogens i.e. nigrospora sphaerica (kj767520), pestalotiopsis theae (itcc 6599), curvularia eragostid ...201728771547
synthesis of cdse quantum dots using fusarium oxysporum.cdse quantum dots are often used in industry as fluorescent materials. in this study, cdse quantum dots were synthesized using fusarium oxysporum. the cadmium and selenium concentration, ph, and temperature for the culture of f. oxysporum (fusarium oxysporum) were optimized for the synthesis, and the cdse quantum dots obtained from the mycelial cells of f. oxysporum were observed by transmission electron microscopy. ultra-thin sections of f. oxysporum showed that the cdse quantum dots were preci ...201628773975
c-coordinated o-carboxymethyl chitosan metal complexes: synthesis, characterization and antifungal efficacy.a novel type of o-carboxymethyl chitosan schiff bases (o-cspx) was synthesized via a condensation reaction. after the coordination reaction of cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions, metal complexes (o-cspx-m) were achieved. the theoretical structure of o-cspx-m calculated by gaussian 09 reveals that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp(2) hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp(3) hybridization, and they all coordinated by the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group. then, the structu ...201728774807
bacterial diseases of bananas and enset: current state of knowledge and integrated approaches toward sustainable management.bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (mycosphaerella fijiensis) and fusarium wilt (fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). however, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) ...201728785275
rna sequencing reveals that endoplasmic reticulum stress and disruption of membrane integrity underlie dimethyl trisulfide toxicity against fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.fusarium wilt of banana, a destructive disease that affects banana production, is caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (foc tr4). in a previous study, we confirmed the strong inhibitory effects of chinese leek (allium tuberosum) on the incidence of this disease. sulfur compounds are the primary antifungal constituents of chinese leek. among these, dimethyl trisulfide (dt) was the most abundant and exhibited the strongest inhibition of foc tr4 growth and development. in the ...201728790985
in vitro antimicrobial activities and mechanism of 1-octen-3-ol against food-related bacteria and pathogenic fungi.1-octen-3-ol, known as mushroom alcohol, is a natural product extracted from fungi and plants. its antimicrobial activities against five common food-related bacteria and two pathogenic fungi were evaluated in this paper, including staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus epidermidis, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, fusarium tricinctum and fusarium oxysporum. the results showed that 1-octen-3-ol had a strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, especially ...201728794307
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) inhibit the growth and reproduction of chaetomium globosum and other fungi associated with water-damaged buildings.indoor mold due to water damage causes serious human respiratory disorders, and the remediation to homes, schools, and businesses is a major expense. prevention of mold infestation of building materials would reduce health problems and building remediation costs. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) inhibit yeasts and a limited number of filamentous fungi. the purpose of this research was to determine the possible inhibitory activity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) on g ...201728795317
synthesis, characterization and antifungal activity of coumarin-functionalized chitosan derivatives.four novel coumarin-functionalized chitosan derivatives 4a-4d were synthesized via condensation reactions of thiosemicarbazide chitosan with coumarin derivatives. their structures were confirmed by ft-ir, (13)c nmr, xrd and elemental analysis. their antifungal activities against three kinds of phytopathogens, alternaria solani sorauer (a. solani), fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (f. oxysporum) and fusarium moniliforme (f. moniliforme), were tested using the mycelial growth rate in vitro at ...201728797818
chickpea-fusarium oxysporum interaction transcriptome reveals differential modulation of plant defense strategies.fusarium wilt is one of the major biotic stresses reducing chickpea productivity. the use of wilt-resistant cultivars is the most appropriate means to combat the disease and secure productivity. as a step towards understanding the molecular basis of wilt resistance in chickpea, we investigated the transcriptomes of wilt-susceptible and wilt-resistant cultivars under both fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (foc) challenged and unchallenged conditions. transcriptome profiling using longsage provided ...201728798320
rnai-mediated silencing of map kinase signalling genes (fmk1, hog1, and pbs2) in fusarium oxysporum reduces pathogenesis on tomato plants.fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne plant fungal pathogen, and causes colossal losses in several crop plants including tomato. effective control measures include the use of harmful fungicides and resistant cultivars, but these methods have shown limited success. conventional methods to validate fungal pathogenic genes are labour intensive. therefore, an alternative strategy is required to efficiently characterize unknown pathogenic genes. rna interference (rnai) has emerged as a potential tool to ...201728800849
investigating the diversity of effector genes in the banana pathogen, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, reveals evidence of horizontal gene transfer.it is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. in fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (six) genes, have been identified. we sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the six genes in the banana-infecting lineages of f. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc). whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineage ...201728802020
pathological interrelations of soil-borne diseases in cucurbits caused by fusarium species and meloidogyne incognita.pathological interrelations of two soil-borne diseases in cucurbits (watermelon, oriental melon, shintosa and cucumber) caused by fusarium isolates (fi) and the root-knot nematode (rkn), meloidogyne incognita were characterized by the fusarium disease severity index (di), rkn gall index (gi) and eggmass index (ei) in inoculation tests using fi and rkn. virulence of fi as determined by di at 4 weeks after inoculation was mostly in the higher order of fusarium proliferatum f6, f5 and fusarium oxys ...201728811758
comparison of transcriptome profiles by fusarium oxysporum inoculation between fusarium yellows resistant and susceptible lines in brassica rapa l.resistant and susceptible lines in brassica rapa have different immune responses against fusarium oxysporum inoculation. fusarium yellows caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (foc) is an important disease of brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to foc is still unknown. by comparing with and without foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of chinese cabbage (brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (degs) b ...201728819684
identification and antifungal activity of compounds from the mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus clavatus r7.two new coumarin derivatives, 4,4'-dimethoxy-5,5'-dimethyl-7,7'-oxydicoumarin (1), 7-(γ,γ-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin (2), a new chromone derivative, (s)-5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-4h-furo[3,4-g]benzopyran-4,8(6h)-dione (5), and a new sterone derivative, 24-hydroxylergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (6), along with two known bicoumarins, kotanin (3) and orlandin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus aspergillusclavatus (collection no. r7), isolated from the root of myoporum b ...201728825634
a mobile pathogenicity chromosome in fusarium oxysporum for infection of multiple cucurbit species.the genome of fusarium oxysporum (fo) consists of a set of eleven 'core' chromosomes, shared by most strains and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several accessory chromosomes. we sequenced a strain of fo f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum (forc) using pacbio smrt sequencing. all but one of the core chromosomes were assembled into single contigs, and a chromosome that shows all the hallmarks of a pathogenicity chromosome comprised two contigs. a central part of this chromosome contains all identi ...201728831051
the powdery mildew-resistant arabidopsis mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant displays altered infection phenotypes with diverse types of phytopathogens.arabidopsis thaliana mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant plants exhibit complete immunity against infection by otherwise virulent obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungi such as golovinomyces orontii. while this phenotype is well documented, the interaction profile of the triple mutant with other microbes is underexplored and incomplete. here, we thoroughly assessed and quantified the infection phenotypes of two independent powdery mildew-resistant triple mutant lines with a range of microbes. these ...201728839137
antioxidant and antifungal activity of selected medicinal plant extracts against phytopathogenic fungi.medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. these plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective.201628852739
structure-function analysis of the fusarium oxysporum avr2 effector allows uncoupling of its immune-suppressing activity from recognition.plant pathogens employ effector proteins to manipulate their hosts. fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fol), the causal agent of tomato wilt disease, produces effector protein avr2. besides being a virulence factor, avr2 triggers immunity in i-2 carrying tomato (solanum lycopersicum). fol strains that evade i-2 recognition carry point mutations in avr2 (e.g. avr2(r45h) ), but retain full virulence. here we investigate the virulence function of avr2 and determine its crystal structure. transg ...201728857169
preparation and characterization of novel cationic chitosan derivatives bearing quaternary ammonium and phosphonium salts and assessment of their antifungal properties.chitosan is an abundant and renewable polysaccharide, its derivatives exhibit attractive bioactivities and the wide applications in various biomedical fields. in this paper, two novel cationic chitosan derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were successfully synthesized via trimethylation, chloride acetylation, and quaternization with tricyclohexylphosphine and triphenylphosphine. the structures and properties of synthesized products in the reactions were characterized by ftir sp ...201728858241
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