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antifungal effects of aminosulphoxide and disulphide derivatives.2-benzenesulphinyl-(1,4)-naphtoquinone and 14 derivatives were synthesised and were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity against a human myelomonocyte cell line and their antifungal activity against two yeast, i.e. candida albicans and c. tropicalis and against two filamentous fungi such as aspergillus niger and fusarium oxysporum and against one dermatophyte, namely trichophyton tonsurans. the cytotoxicity and antifungal activities were investigated in comparison with amphotericin b as reference ...200616681806
necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide from fusarium oxysporum induces a complex cascade of transcripts associated with signal transduction and cell death in arabidopsis.treatment of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) with a necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide (nep1) from fusarium oxysporum inhibited both root and cotyledon growth and triggered cell death, thereby generating necrotic spots. nep1-like proteins are produced by divergent microbes, many of which are plant pathogens. nep1 in the plant was localized to the cell wall and cytosol based on immunolocalization results. the ratio of chlorophyll a fluorescence (f685 nm/f730 nm) significantly decreased af ...200616698904
fungicidal properties of two saponins from capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity.two steroidal saponins have been purified from cayenne pepper (capsicum frutescens). both have the same steroidal moiety but differ in the number of glucose moieties: the first saponin has four glucose moieties (molecular mass 1081 da) and the second contains three glucose moieties (molecular mass 919 da). solubility in aqueous solution is less for the saponin containing three glucose moieties than for the one containing four glucose moieties. the larger saponin was slightly fungicidal against t ...200616699584
characterization and complementation of a fus3/kss1 type mapk from tuber borchii, tbmk.mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapk) are used by organisms to transduce extra cellular signals from the environment in cellular events such as proliferation and differentiation. in the present study, we have characterized the first mapk from the ectomycorrhizal fungus tuber borchii (tbmk) which belongs to the yerk1 (yeast extra cellular regulated kinase) subfamily. tbmk is present as a single copy in the genome and the codified protein was phosphorylated during the interaction with the host ...200616705420
production of reactive oxygen species in arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures in response to an elicitor from fusarium oxysporum: implications for basal resistance.the present understanding of ros generation in the defence response of arabidopsis thaliana is reviewed. evidence suggests that the apoplastic oxidative burst generated during basal resistance is peroxidase-dependent. the ros generated during this basal resistance may serve to activate nadph oxidase during the r-gene-mediated hypersensitive response. the processes involved in the production of reactive oxygen species in a. thaliana cell suspension cultures in response to an elicitor from fusariu ...200616720603
major antifungal activity from the bulbs of indian squill urginea indica is a chitinase.we have identified a chitinase with antifungal activity in the bulbs of the plant urginea indica(indian squill) and purified it about 26-fold. the purified preparation contained a mr 29 kda protein that was an active growth inhibitor of the fungal pathogens fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani in an in vitro assay. amino acid sequence analysis of the mr 29 kda protein revealed it to be highly homologous to the family 19 glycoside hydrolases, which are known to possess chitinase activity. th ...200616739943
chemical composition, seasonal variability, and antifungal activity of lavandula stoechas l. ssp. stoechas essential oils from stem/leaves and flowers.essential oils from the stems/leaves (l) and flowers (f) of lavandula stoechas l. ssp. stoechas growing wild in southern sardinia (italy) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector and ion trap mass spectrometry. the major compound was fenchone, accounting for, on average, 52.60% in l and 66.20% in f, followed by camphor (13.13% versus 27.08%, in l and f, respectively). f essential oil yields (volume per dry weight) decreased fro ...200616756368
[the effect of propyl gallate on the activity of various antifungal drugs against filamentous fungi in vitro].the influence of an antioxidant, propyl gallate (pg), on the activity of amphotericin b (amb), terbinafine (tbf), butenafine (btf) and ketoconazole (kcz) against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro was investigated to determine whether pg could increase the antifungal activity.200616762206
an antifungal peptide from passion fruit (passiflora edulis) seeds with similarities to 2s albumin proteins.an actual worldwide problem consists of an expressive increase of economic losses and health problems caused by fungi. in order to solve this problem, several studies have been concentrating on the screening of novel plant defence peptides with antifungal activities. these peptides are commonly characterized by having low molecular masses and cationic charges. this present work reports on the purification and characterization of a novel plant peptide of 5.0 kda, pe-afp1, purified from the seeds ...200616766236
insurgence of fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear.to describe the clinical presentation and course of patients who developed keratitis due to fusarium while wearing nontherapeutic soft contact lenses.200616769827
casar82a, a pathogen-induced pepper sar8.2, exhibits an antifungal activity and its overexpression enhances disease resistance and stress tolerance.pepper sar8.2 gene (casar82a) was previously reported to be locally or systemically induced in pepper plants by biotic and abiotic stresses. in this study, the physiological and molecular functions of the pepper sar8.2 protein in the plant defense responses were investigated by generating arabidopsis transgenic lines overexpressing the casar82a gene. the transgenic arabidopsis plants grew faster than the wild-type plants, indicating that the casar82a gene was involved in plant development. the e ...200616786294
combined use of the biocontrol bacterium pseudomonas fluorescens strain lrb3w1 with reduced fungicide application for the control of tomato fusarium wilt.pseudomonas fluorescens strain lrb3w1 inhibited the mycelial growth of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and suppressed the fusarium wilt of tomato. the chemical fungicide, benomyl, did not suppress the disease incidence at low concentrations. however, the disease incidence was decreased by the combined application of benomyl at low concentrations with strain lrb3w1. combined application of benomyl with the bacterium was more effective than treatment with the bacterium alone. the survival of ...200616789550
antifungal activity and enhancement of plant growth by bacillus cereus grown on shellfish chitin wastes.bacillus cereus qq308 produced antifungal hydrolytic enzymes, comprising chitinase, chitosanase and protease, when grown in a medium containing shrimp and crab shell powder (scsp) produced from marine waste. the growth of the plant-pathogenic fungi fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, and pythium ultimum were considerably affected by the presence of the qq308 culture supernatant. the supernatant inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of f. oxysporum, f. solani, and p. ultimum. the ...200716797180
engineering of the redox imbalance of fusarium oxysporum enables anaerobic growth on xylose.dissimilatory nitrate reduction metabolism, of the natural xylose-fermenting fungus fusarium oxysporum, was used as a strategy to achieve anaerobic growth and ethanol production from xylose. beneficial alterations of the redox fluxes and thereby of the xylose metabolism were obtained by taking advantage of the regeneration of the cofactor nad(+) during the denitrification process. in batch cultivations, nitrate sustained growth under anaerobic conditions (1.21 g l(-1) biomass) and simultaneously ...200616797196
fusarium oxysporum pneumonia in an immunocompetent host.a case of symptomatic pulmonary infection caused by fusarium oxysporum occurred in a woman after she had cleaned out bird droppings from a boat house. she was also a gardener who had mild, chronic obstructive lung disease, but who had no evidence of systemic immunosuppression. she was treated with oral voriconazole for four months and had marked clinical improvement and mycological cure. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolated pulmonary fusariosis in an apparent ...200616800418
a pathogenesis related protein, ahpr10 from peanut: an insight of its mode of antifungal activity.a pathogenesis related protein (ahpr10) is identified from a clone of 6-day old arachis hypogaea l. (peanut) cdna library. the clone expressed as a approximately 20 kda protein in e. coli. nucleotide sequence derived amino acid sequence of the coding region shows its homology with pr10 proteins having betv1 domain and p loop motif. recombinant ahpr10 has ribonuclease activity, and antifungal activity against the peanut pathogens fusarium oxysporum and rhizoctonia solani. mutant protein ahpr10-k5 ...200616832688
an antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.a 6-kda antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum, mycosphaerella arachidicola, and physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. the peptide suppressed growth in m. arachidicola with an ic(50) of 0.87 mum and inhibited activity of hiv-1 reverse transcriptase with an ic(50) of 4 mum. the peptide exhibited an n-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. the isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography o ...200616850300
oxygen consumption-based evaluation of fungal activity.a novel oxygen-based microplate assay for studying fungal activity is described. fungal activity results in a change of oxygen concentration in cvc-96 plates and thus produces a signal that enables continuous monitoring of fungal activity. in this study the oxygen consumption was different for three tested fungi, fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, verticillium dahliae and trichoderma longibrachiatum. the assay described is a highly sensitive and reliable method for monitoring fungal activity ...200616876696
peroxidase-dependent apoplastic oxidative burst in arabidopsis required for pathogen resistance.the oxidative burst is an early response to pathogen attack leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) including hydrogen peroxide. two major mechanisms involving either nadph oxidases or peroxidases that may exist singly or in combination in different plant species have been proposed for the generation of ros. we identified an arabidopsis thaliana azide-sensitive but diphenylene iodonium-insensitive apoplastic oxidative burst that generates h(2)o(2) in response to a fusarium oxy ...200616889645
in vitro evaluation of antagonistic properties of pseudomonas corrugata.pseudomonas corrugata, a soil bacterium originally isolated from a temperate site of indian himalayan region (ihr) is examined for its antagonistic activities against two phytopathogenic fungi, alternaria alternata and fusarium oxysporum. although the bacterium did not show inhibition zones due to production of diffusible antifungal metabolites, a reduction in growth between 58% and 49% in both test fungi, a. alternata and f. oxysporum, was observed in sealed petri plates after 120 h of incubati ...200816890413
identification and characterization of non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum capable of increasing and decreasing fusarium wilt severity.fusarium wilt of banana is a potentially devastating disease throughout the world. options for control of the causal organism, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (foc) are limited. suppressive soil sites have previously been identified where, despite the presence of foc, fusarium wilt does not develop. in order to understand some aspects of this disease suppression, endophytic fusarium oxysporum isolates were obtained from banana roots. these isolates were genetically characterized and compared wi ...200616891106
substrate and positional specificity of feruloyl esterases for monoferuloylated and monoacetylated 4-nitrophenyl glycosides.4-nitrophenyl glycosides of 2-, 3-, and 5-o-(e)-feruloyl- and 2- and 5-o-acetyl-alpha-l-arabinofuranosides and of 2-, 3-, and 4-o-(e)-feruloyl- and 2-, 3- and 4-o-acetyl-beta-d-xylopyranosides, compounds mimicking natural substrates, were used to investigate substrate and positional specificity of type-a, -b, and -c feruloyl esterases. all the feruloyl esterases behave as true feruloyl esterases showing negligible activity on sugar acetates. type-a enzymes, represented by anfaea from aspergillus ...200716901567
xyloglucanases in the interaction between saprobe fungi and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus glomus mosseae.we studied the production of xyloglucanase enzymes of pea and lettuce roots in the presence of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi. the am fungus glomus mosseae and the saprobe fungi fusarium graminearum, fusarium oxysporum-126, trichoderma harzianum, penicillium chrysogenum, pleurotus ostreatus and aspergillus niger were used. g. mosseae increased the shoot and root dry weight of pea but not of lettuce. most of the saprobe fungi increased the level of mycorrhization of pea and lettuce ...200716904235
hyperinduction of nitrilases in filamentous fungi.2-cyanopyridine proved to act as a powerful nitrilase inducer in aspergillus niger k10, fusarium solani o1, fusarium oxysporum ccf 1414, fusarium oxysporum ccf 483 and penicillium multicolor ccf 2244. valeronitrile also enhanced the nitrilase activity in most of the strains. the highest nitrilase activities were produced by fungi cultivated in a czapek-dox medium with both 2-cyanopyridine and valeronitrile. the specific nitrilase activities of these cultures were two to three orders of magnitude ...200616909267
fcd1 encoding protein homologous to cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase in fusarium oxysporum.we had cloned and characterized a gene from fusarium oxysporum designated fcd1, encoding a putative cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase (cbq) which is a member of the extracellular redox enzyme family and also a member of glucose-methanol-choline (gmc) oxidoreductases. cbq is known to be a free flavin domain of a cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh) generated by proteolysis, but fcd1 gene encodes cbq directly. in a phylogenetic tree of amino acid sequences of fcd1, gmc oxidoreductases and hypothetical ...200616919403
bioconversion of shellfish chitin wastes for the production of bacillus subtilis w-118 chitinase.bacillus subtilis w-118, a strain that produces antifungal materials, excreted a chitinase when cultured in a medium containing shrimp- and crab-shell powder as the major carbon source. this chitinase, purified by sequential chromatography, had a molecular mass of 20,600 da and a pi of 6. the optimum ph, optimum temperature, and ph stability of the chitinase were ph 6, 37 degrees c, and ph 5-7, respectively. the unique characteristics of the purified chitinase include low molecular mass and acid ...200616920090
native kenyan plants as possible alternatives to methyl bromide in soil fumigation.methyl bromide (ch3br) is a biocidal fumigant used widely in crop production and commodity preservation worldwide. ch3br escapes to the stratosphere and releases bromine atom (br), which contributes to significant destruction of the ozone (o3). it is therefore necessary to explore alternatives to ch3br that are environmentally safe and suitable for resource-poor african farmers. we present here the results of a study on the inhibitory activity of crude extracts from kenyan medicinal plants again ...200616920513
biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt) by the fungus fusarium oxysporum.the fungus fusarium oxysporum was isolated and identified from the aquatic plant m. aquaticum. the capability of this fungus to transform 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (tnt) in liquid cultures was investigated tnt was added to shake flask cultures and transformed into 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-a-dnt), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-a-dnt), and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-dat) via 2- and 4-hydroxylamino-dinitrotoluene derivatives, which could be detected as intermediate metabolites. transformation ...200616924959
positive selection in phytotoxic protein-encoding genes of botrytis species.evolutionary patterns of sequence divergence were analyzed in genes from the fungal genus botrytis (ascomycota), encoding phytotoxic proteins homologous to a necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein from fusarium oxysporum. fragments of two paralogous genes (designated nep1 and nep2) were amplified from all known botrytis species and sequenced. nep1 sequences of two botrytis species contain premature stop codons, indicating that they may be non-functional. both paralogs of all species encode prote ...200716935013
early responses in the arabidopsis-verticillium longisporum pathosystem are dependent on ndr1, ja- and et-associated signals via cytosolic npr1 and rfo1.the responses of arabidopsis accessions and characterized genotypes were used to explore components in the early defense responses to the soilborne fungus verticillium longisporum. v. longisporum susceptibility was found to be a complex trait, in which different disease phenotypes, such as stunting, altered flowering time, weight loss, and chlorosis were perceived differently across genotypes. a bay-0 x shahdara recombinant inbred line population was used to identify two loci on chromosomes 2 an ...200616941900
a hemagglutinin with mitogenic activity from dark red kidney beans.a 67-kda hemagglutinin composed of two identical subunits was purified from phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'dark red kidney bean'. it was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose but adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel. the hemagglutinin was highly purified after the two aforementioned chromatographic steps as revealed by a single peak in gel filtration on superdex 75 and a single band in sds-page. the hemagglutinating activity was stable between 25 degrees c and 70 degrees c, and between ph 4 and ph 11, and in the prese ...200616945595
enzymatic characteristics of ligninperoxidases from penicillium citrinum, fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus terreus using n-propanol as substrate.the activities of ligninperoxidases from penicillium citrinum mtcc 3565, fusarium oxysporum mtcc 3379 and aspergillus terreus mtcc 3374 have been assayed and the enzymatic characteristics like km, ph and temperature optima using n-propanol as the substrate have been reported. the results suggest that n-propanol can substitute veratryl alcohol as substrate for assaying ligninperoxidase activities from different fungal strains, without affecting the enzymatic characteristics. the above strains wer ...200616955752
isolation and characterization of a novel mung bean protease inhibitor with antipathogenic and anti-proliferative activities.a novel protease inhibitor, designated mungoin, with both antifungal and antibacterial activities, and exhibiting a molecular mass of 10kda in sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was isolated from mung bean (phaseolus mungo) seeds. the isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sephadex, and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) on sp-toyopearl. its isoelectric point was estimated to be 9.8 by isoelectri ...200616971020
dependence of synergistic fungicidal activity of cu2+ and allicin, an allyl sulfur compound from garlic, on selective accumulation of the ion in the plasma membrane fraction via allicin-mediated phospholipid peroxidation.allicin was effective in decreasing the lethal concentration of cu (2+) against various fungal strains including a plant pathogen, fusarium oxysporum, so that the minimum fungicidal concentration (mfc) of the ion for the fungus could be reduced to 2 % of that detected without allicin. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, cu (2+) was not apparently taken up by cells when added alone at a non-lethal concentration, whereas the ion was efficiently incorporated into cells in the presence of allicin, as in th ...200616972197
caryophyllene-rich rhizome oil of zingiber nimmonii from south india: chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity.volatile oil from the rhizomes of zingiber nimmonii (j. graham) dalzell was isolated, characterized by analytical gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. sixty-five constituents accounting for 97.5% of the oil were identified. z. nimmonii rhizome oil is a unique caryophyllene-rich natural source with isomeric caryophyllenes, beta-caryophyllene (42.2%) and alpha-humulene (alpha-caryophyllene, 27.7%), as its major constituents along with traces of isocaryophyllene. the rhizome ...200616973189
isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable non-specific lipid transfer protein-like antimicrobial protein from motherwort (leonurus japonicus houtt) seeds.in screening for potent antimicrobial proteins from plant seeds, a novel heat-stable antimicrobial protein, designated ljamp2, was purified from seeds of the motherwort (leonurus japonicus houtt), a medicine herb, with a procedure involving cation exchange chromatography on a cm ff column, and reverse phase hplcs on c8 column and c18 column. ljamp2 exhibited a molecular mass of 6.2 kda determined. automated edman degradation determined the partial n-terminal sequence of ljamp2 to be nh2-aigcntva ...200616979797
influence of glyphosate on rhizoctonia and fusarium root rot in sugar beet.this study tests the effect of glyphosate application on disease severity in glyphosate-resistant sugar beet, and examines whether the increase in disease is fungal or plant mediated. in greenhouse studies of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet, increased disease severity was observed following glyphosate application and inoculation with certain isolates of rhizoctonia solani kuhn and fusarium oxysporum schlecht. f. sp. betae snyd. & hans. significant increases in disease severity were noted for r. ...200616988927
antimicrobial activity of extracts of chemical races of the lichen pseudevernia furfuracea and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents.the antimicrobial activity and the mic values of the ethanol, chloroform, diethyl ether, and acetone extracts of the chemical races of pseudevernia furfuracea (var. furfuracea and var. ceratea) and their physodic acid, chloroatranorin, atranorin, and olivetoric acid constituents have been investigated against some microorganisms. nearly all extracts of both chemical races showed antimicrobial activity against aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, listeria monocytogenes, prote ...200616989308
pip, a novel activator of phenazine biosynthesis in pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391.secondary metabolites are important factors for interactions between bacteria and other organisms. pseudomonas chlororaphis pcl1391 produces the antifungal secondary metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (pcn) that inhibits growth of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radius lycopersici the causative agent of tomato foot and root rot. our previous work unraveled a cascade of genes regulating the pcn biosynthesis operon, phzabcdefgh. via a genetic screen, we identify in this study a novel tetr/acrr regulator ...200616997957
phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: scoparia dulcis l.the antimicrobial and antifungal effects of different concentrations of chloroform/methanol fractions of scoparia dulcis were investigated. the isolated fractions were tested against different bacteria like salmonella typhii, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and proteus vulgaris and fungal strains such as alternaria macrospora, candida albicans, aspergillus niger, and fusarium oxysporum. the isolated fractions exhibited significant antimicrobial ...200617004904
antimicrobial properties of a non-toxic glycoprotein (wsg) from withania somnifera (ashwagandha).a monomeric glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 28 kda in sds-page was isolated from the withania somnifera root tubers. the protein designated wsg (withania somnifera glycoprotein) demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria tested. antifungal effect has been demonstrated in that wsg exerts a fungistastic effect by inhibiting spore germination and hyphal growth in the tested fungi. wsg showed potent antifungal activity against aspergillus flavus, ...200617009292
screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the mauritians flora.several plants of the mauritian flora alleged to possess anti-infective properties were studied against different strains of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. the grounded dried plant materials were extracted with different extractants and screened for anti-microbial activity using the disk diffusion and the micro-dilution techniques. preliminary screening revealed that the methanol extracts were most active. salmonella enteritidis, enterobacter cloacae and bacillus subtilis were the three test org ...200717011733
effects of the tomato pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate.the effects of the pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the bacterial biocontrol strain pseudomonas fluorescens wcs365, and of both microbes, on the amounts and composition of root exudate components of tomato plants grown in a gnotobiotic stonewool substrate system were studied. conditions were selected under which introduction of f. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici caused severe foot and root rot, whereas inoculation of the seed with p. fluorescens wcs365 ...200617022176
bacterial expression of a trichosanthes kirilowii defensin (tdef1) and its antifungal activity on fusarium oxysporum.the gene encoding trichosanthes kirilowii defensin (tdef1) was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). the newly discovered tdef1 cdna contains 231 bp (genbank accession number dq526373) and encodes a 76-amino acid protein, which consists of a 29-amino acid signal peptide and a 47-amino acid mature peptide. the partial cdna, corresponding to the mature peptide coding region of tdef1, was inserted into bacterial expression vector pet32a(+). subsequent expression showed ...200717024471
filamentous fungi (magnaporthe grisea and fusarium oxysporum).a better understanding of fungal biology will facilitate judicious use of beneficial fungi and will also advance our efforts to control pathogenic fungi. molecular studies of fungal biology have been greatly aided by transformation-mediated mutagenesis techniques. transformation via nonhomologous integration of plasmid dna bearing a selectable marker (e.g., antibiotic resistance gene) has been widely used for the random insertional mutagenesis of fungi - as an alternative to chemical and radiati ...200617033082
fungus-mediated biotransformation of amorphous silica in rice husk to nanocrystalline silica.rice husk is a cheap agro-based waste material, which harbors a substantial amount of silica in the form of amorphous hydrated silica grains. however, there have been no attempts at harnessing the enormous amount of amorphous silica present in rice husk and its room-temperature biotransformation into crystalline silica nanoparticles. in this study, we address this issue and describe how naturally deposited amorphous biosilica in rice husk can be bioleached and simultaneously biotransformed into ...200617061888
rhizobium etli usda9032 engineered to produce a phenazine antibiotic inhibits the growth of fungal pathogens but is impaired in symbiotic performance.phenazine production was engineered in rhizobium etli usda9032 by the introduction of the phz locus of pseudomonas chlororaphis o6. phenazine-producing r. etli was able to inhibit the growth of botrytis cinerea and fusarium oxysporum in vitro. black bean inoculated with phenazine-producing r. etli produced brownish fix(-) nodules.200717085692
biologic control ability of plant growth-promoting paenibacillus lentimorbus nrrl b-30488 isolated from milk.a plant growth-promoting paenibacillus lentimorbus nrrl b-30488 (b-30488) was isolated from cows' milk. bacterial colonization and growth responses of different plant species after inoculation with b-30488 were evaluated in a controlled environment and in microplot assays. survival and colonization of b-30488 in the phytosphere of plants and soil was monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant b-30488 (b-30488r). the strain showed variable ability to invade plants. the inter ...200617089220
distinct signalling pathways coordinately contribute to virulence of fusarium oxysporum on mammalian hosts.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum causes vascular wilt on a wide range of plant species and is an emerging pathogen of humans. a mitogen-activated protein kinase, fmk1, and a g protein beta subunit, fgb1, control pathogenicity of f. oxysporum on plants through distinct signalling pathways. in the present report, we studied the genetic interaction between fmk1 and fgb1 and their role in virulence on a mammalian host. the delta fmk1 or delta fgb1 single mutants exhibited similar virulence ...200617095278
structural and functional diversity within the cystatin gene family of hordeum vulgare.phytocystatins are inhibitors of cysteine proteinases from plants putatively involved in defence and as endogenous regulators of protein turnover. seven genes encoding cystatins (hvcpi-1 to hvcpi-7), identified from est collections and from an endosperm cdna library, have been characterized. the intron-exon structure of their corresponding orfs has been determined and the predicted three-dimensional models for the seven barley cystatins have been established, based on the known crystal structure ...200617099080
a novel antiproliferative and antifungal lectin from amaranthus viridis linn seeds.a lectin from the seeds of amaranthus viridis linn has been purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica. amaranthus viridis lectin (avl) has a native molecular mass of 67 kda. it is a homodimer composed of two 36.6 kda subunits. the lectin gave a single band in non-denaturing page at ph 4.5 and ph 8.3 and a single peak on hplc size exclusion and cation exchange columns. the purified lectin was specific for both t-antigen and n-acetyl-d-lactosamine, markers f ...200617100645
a mannose-specific tetrameric lectin with mitogenic and antibacterial activities from the ovary of a teleost, the cobia (rachycentron canadum).a tetrameric lectin, with hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes and with specificity toward d-mannosamine and d(+)-mannose, was isolated from the ovaries of a teleost, the cobia rachycentron canadum. the isolation protocol comprised ion exchange chromatography on cm-cellulose and q-sepharose, ion exchange chromatography by fast protein liquid chromatography (fplc) on mono q, and finally gel filtration by fplc on superose 12. the lectin was adsorbed on all ion exchangers used. it e ...200717109173
effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.acidic electrolyzed water (aew), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. freshly prepared aew (ph 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mv, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. foliar sprays of aew were tested against bacterial spot ...200617110959
activities and survival of endophytic bacteria in white clover (trifolium repens l.).in this study, the genera, abundance, and activities of endophytic bacteria in field-grown white clover (trifolium repens) and the fate of introduced antibiotic-tolerant bacteria in white clover tissues were investigated. pseudomonas, pantoea, and corynebacterium were the most frequently isolated endophytic bacteria genera, whereas xanthomonas, microbacterium, and cellulomonas occurred less frequently. the average bacterial populations in stolons and roots were approximately 100,000 colony-formi ...200617110977
aterf14, a member of the erf family of transcription factors, plays a nonredundant role in plant defense.we had previously shown that several transcription factors of the ethylene (et) response factor (erf) family were induced with different but overlapping kinetics following challenge of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) with pseudomonas syringae pv tomato dc3000 (avrrpt2). one of these genes, a transcriptional activator, aterf14, was induced at the same time as erf-target genes (chib, basic chitinase). to unravel the potential function of aterf14 in regulating the plant defense response, we have ...200717114278
an antifungal peptide from red lentil seeds.an antifungal peptide, with a molecular mass of 11 kda, was isolated from dry seeds of the red lentil (lens culinaris) using a procedure that involved four chromatographic steps. the antifungal peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose, and adsorbed on affi-gel blue gel and s-sepharose. the final chromatographic step involved gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the antifungal peptide inhibited mycelial growth in mycosphaerella arachidicola with an ic50 of 36 micro ...200717123664
comparison of the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate fibers by a hydrolase from fusarium oxysporum lch i and fusarium solani f. sp. pisi.the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (pet) fibers by two fungal hydrolases was investigated. the hydrolase from a newly isolated fusarium oxysporum strain (lch 1) was more efficient in releasing terephthalic acid from pet fibers compared to the enzyme from f. solani f. sp. pisi dsm 62420 when equal amounts of p-nitrophenyl butyrate-hydrolyzing activity were employed. pet fabrics treated under the same conditions with the enzyme from f. oxysporum lch 1 also showed a considerably higher in ...200717136729
antimicrobial activity of catechol and pyrogallol as allelochemicals.catechol and pyrogallol are allelochemicals which belong to phenolic compounds synthesized in plants. their antimicrobial activities were investigated on three bacteria (pseudomonas putida, pseudomonas pyocyanea, corynebacterium xerosis) and two fungi (fusarium oxysporum, penicillium italicum) phytopathogenic species as test organisms using the disc diffusion method. both catechol and pyrogallol were found to have antibacterial effects on all the bacteria used in the study at 5 and 10 mm concent ...200617137106
alteration of substrate specificity of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase from fusarium oxysporum.fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (fod-f) from fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (nbrc 9972) is the enzyme catalyzing the oxidative deglycation of fructosyl-amino acids such as n(epsilon)-fructosyl n(alpha)-benzyloxycarbonyl-lysine (fzk) and fructosyl valine (fv), which are model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood. wild-type fod-f has high activities toward both substrates. we obtained a mutant fod-f, which reacts with fzk but not with fv by random mutagenesis. one amino-acid substitution (k ...200717160532
evaluation of chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.essential oil extracted from the leaves of chenopodium ambrosioides linn. (chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus aspergillus flavus link. the oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. the oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium oxysporum, sclerotium rolfsii, macrophomina phaseolina, cladosporium cladosporioides, helminthosporium oryzae and pythium debary ...200717174000
isolation and characterization of an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative activity from seeds of phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'spotted bean'.a 7.3-kda antifungal peptide with an n-terminal sequence exhibiting remarkable homology to defensins from other leguminous plants was isolated from phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'spotted bean'. the isolation procedure involved ion exchange chromatography on o-diethylaminoethyl (deae) cellulose, affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on sp-sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on superdex 75. the peptide was unadsorbed on deae-cellulose an ...200717177050
transposition of a fungal miniature inverted-repeat transposable element through the action of a tc1-like transposase.the mimp1 element previously identified in the ascomycete fungus fusarium oxysporum has hallmarks of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (mites): short size, terminal inverted repeats (tirs), structural homogeneity, and a stable secondary structure. since mimp1 has no coding capacity, its mobilization requires a transposase-encoding element. on the basis of the similarity of tirs and target-site preference with the autonomous tc1-like element impala, together with a correlated distri ...200717179071
enhanced degradation and toxicity reduction of dihexyl phthalate by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi cutinase.this research aims to investigate the efficiency of two lipolytic enzymes--fungal cutinase and yeast esterase--upon the biodegradation of dihexyl phthalate (dhp).200717184338
extracellular biosynthesis of magnetite using fungi.the development of synthetic processes for oxide nanomaterials is an issue of considerable topical interest. while a number of chemical methods are available and are extensively used, the collaborations are often energy intensive and employ toxic chemicals. on the other hand, the synthesis of inorganic materials by biological systems is characterized by processes that occur at close to ambient temperatures and pressures, and at neutral ph (examples include magnetotactic bacteria, diatoms, and s- ...200617193569
[evaluation of cellular response in engorged females of boophilus microplus (canestrini, 1887) inoculated with metarhizium anisopliae, beauveria bassiana, penicillium corylophilum or fusarium oxysporum].the effect of beauveria bassiana, metarhizium anisopliae, penicillium corylophilum or fusarium oxysporum on the dynamic of hemocytes presented in the haemolymph of engorged females of boophilus microplus was studied. the inoculation was carried out with conidia suspension of different fungi in the concentration of 10(8) conidia/ml. a negative control group was inoculated with 0.1% tween 80 water solution and a testimony group was comprised of non inoculated ticks. the haemolymph samples were col ...200617196118
comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.the chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds ...200617201644
solid-state cultures of fusarium oxysporum transform aromatic components of olive-mill dry residue and reduce its phytotoxicity.the present study mainly investigated the ability of solid-state cultures of the non-pathogenic fusarium oxysporum strain bafc 738 to transform aromatic components to reduce the phytotoxicity in olive-mill dry residue (dor), the waste from the two-phase manufacturing process. lignin, hemicellulose, fats and water-soluble extractives contents of dor colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks were reduced by 16%, 25%, 71% and 13%, respectively, while the cellulose content increased by 25%. in addition, ...200717207620
modeling competition for infection sites on roots by nonpathogenic strains of fusarium oxysporum.by use of plane and solid geometry and probability models, efficiencies of infection and competition for nutrients and infection sites by a nonpathogenic strain of fusarium oxysporum (c14) with f. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum on the rhizoplane of cucumber were calculated. the model is derived from previously published data. efficiencies for successful infection were 0.04 chlamydospores per infection site for both pathogen and nonpathogen. observed successful infections by the pathogen in competi ...200717216327
partial silencing of a hydroxy-methylglutaryl-coa reductase-encoding gene in trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 results in a lower level of resistance to lovastatin and lower antifungal activity.in the present article, we describe the cloning and characterization of the trichoderma harzianum hmgr gene encoding a hydroxymethylglutaryl coa reductase (hmgr), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of terpene compounds. in t. harzianum, partial silencing of the hmgr gene gave rise to transformants with a higher level of sensitivity to lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of the hmgr enzyme. in addition, these hmgr-silenced transformants produced lower levels of ergosterol than the wild-type strain ...200717218128
in vitro antimycotic activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from curcuma xanthorrhiza roxb. against opportunistic filamentous fungi.xanthorrhizol was isolated from the rhizome of curcuma xanthorrhiza (zingiberaceae) and its in vitro activity against opportunistic filamentous fungi was evaluated using the nccls (m38-a) standard method. xanthorrhizol was found to be active against all the species tested, namely aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, fusarium oxysporum, rhizopus oryzae and trichophyton mentagrophytes: the mics being 2.0, 2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 1.0 and 1.0 microg/ml, while the mfcs were 4.0, 4.0, ...200717236167
voriconazole and fungal keratitis: a report of two treatment failures.two cases of fungal keratitis, one caused by fusarium oxysporum and the other by colletotrichum dematium, that failed treatment with topical voriconazole 1% are presented. these cases are noteworthy in that topical voriconazole was unable to eradicate the corneal infection in both cases, despite relatively low mic90 tested for each species of 8 and 1 microg/ml, respectively.200617238810
selection of bacteria able to control fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in stonewool substrate.tomato foot and root rot (tfrr), caused by fusariumoxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl), is an economically important disease of tomato. the aim of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for the isolation of bacteria, which controls tfrr based on selection of enhanced competitive root-colonizing bacteria from total rhizosphere soil samples.200717241352
the antifungal protein afp from aspergillus giganteus inhibits chitin synthesis in sensitive fungi.the antifungal protein afp from aspergillus giganteus is highly effective in restricting the growth of major human- and plant-pathogenic filamentous fungi. however, a fundamental prerequisite for the use of afp as an antifungal drug is a complete understanding of its mode of action. in this study, we performed several analyses focusing on the assumption that the chitin biosynthesis of sensitive fungi is targeted by afp. here we show that the n-terminal domain of afp (amino acids 1 to 33) is suff ...200717277210
lignin deficiency in transgenic flax resulted in plants with improved mechanical properties.flax (linum usitatissimum l.) is a very important source of natural fibres used by the textile industry. flax fibres are called lignocellulosic, because they contain mainly cellulose (about 70%), with hemicellulose, pectin and lignin. lignin is a three-dimensional polymer with a high molecular weight, and it gives rigidity and mechanical resistance to the fibre and plant. its presence means the fibres have worse elastic properties than non-lignocellulosic fibres, e.g. cotton fibres, which contai ...200717280732
search for cell motility and angiogenesis inhibitors with potential anticancer activity: beauvericin and other constituents of two endophytic strains of fusarium oxysporum.wound-healing assay-guided fractionation of an etoac extract of the fungal strain fusarium oxysporum eph2raa endophytic in ephedra fasciculata afforded beauvericin (1), (-)-oxysporidinone (2), and two new n-methyl-2-pyridones, (-)-4,6'-anhydrooxysporidinone (3) and (-)-6-deoxyoxysporidinone (4). beauvericin (1) inhibited migration of the metastatic prostate cancer (pc-3m) and breast cancer (mda-mb-231) cells and showed antiangiogenic activity in huvec-2 cells at sublethal concentrations. cytotox ...200717286429
characterization of a lectin from gonatanthus pumilus d. don having anti-proliferative effect against human cancer cell lines.a monocot araceous lectin from tubers of gonatanthus pumilus (gpl) wa earlier purified in our laboratory and reported as t-cell mitogen having homotetrameric structure with subunit molecular mass of 13 kda. besides asialofetuin as reported earlier, in the present study it was also inhibited by n-acetyl-d-lactosamine but was non-reactive towards mannose or its derivatives. the lectin is rich in acidic amino acids and cysteine is completely absent. chemical modification of gpl revealed requirement ...200717288049
fow2, a zn(ii)2cys6-type transcription regulator, controls plant infection of the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne parasite that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of crops by directly penetrating roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. in previous work, we generated the non-pathogenic mutant b137 of the melon wilt pathogen f. oxysporum f. sp. melonis by using restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) mutagenesis. molecular characterization of b137 revealed that this mutant has a single-copy plasmid insertion in a gene, designated fow2, wh ...200717302801
a thaumatin-like antifungal protein from the emperor banana.a 20-kda protein with substantial n-terminal sequence homology to thaumatin-like proteins was isolated from ripe fruits of the emperor banana, musa basjoo cv. 'emperor banana'. the isolation procedure entailed (nh(4))(2)so(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose, and affinity chromatography on affi-gel blue gel. the thaumatin-like protein inhibited mycelial growth in fusarium oxysporum and mycosphaerella arachidicola. however, it did not affect the mitogenic response of m ...200717306420
some fungal endophytes from vegetable crops and their anti-oomycete activities against tomato late blight.to isolate endophytic fungi from vegetable plants and examine their in vivo anti-oomycete activity against phytophthora infestans in tomato plants.200717309513
biocontrol and other beneficial activities of bacillus subtilis isolated from cowdung microflora.bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cowdung (cd) had several beneficial attributes, which included biocontrol, plant growth promotion, sulphur (s) oxidation, phosphorus (p) solubilization and production of industrially important enzymes (amylase and cellulase). the b. subtilis strains from cd inhibited the in vitro growth of fungi, fusarium oxysporum (25-34%) and botryodiplodia theobromae (100%), isolated from the postharvest rots of yam (dioscorea rotundata) tubers. other than biocontrol, b ...200917320363
antifungal activity of aloe vera leaves.aloe vera fresh leaves hydroalcoholic plant extract was tested against the mycelial growth of botrytis gladiolorum, fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli, heterosporium pruneti and penicillium gladioli on czapek-agar medium. the minimum fungicidal concentration (mfc) varied between 80 and 100 microl/ml, depending on the fungal species.200717336466
purification, characterization, and molecular gene cloning of an antifungal protein from ginkgo biloba seeds.a novel basic protein with antifungal activity was isolated from the seeds of ginkgo biloba and purified to homogeneity. the protein inhibited the growth of some fungi (fusarium oxysporum, trichoderma reesei, and candida albicans) but did not exhibit antibacterial action against escherichia coli. furthermore, this protein showed weak inhibitory activity against the aspartic protease pepsin. to design primers for gene amplification, the nh(2)-terminal and partial internal amino acid sequences wer ...200717338634
insecticidal and antifungal activity of a protein from pouteria torta seeds with lectin-like properties.this paper describes the purification and characterization of a novel protein from the seeds of pouteria torta (family sapotaceae). the protein was purified by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange, and reverse phase chromatographies. sds-page of the purified protein resulted in a single protein band of 14 kda in the presence and absence of dtt. the lectin-like activity of pouterin was best inhibited by glycoproteins such as fetuin, asialofetuin, heparin, orosomucoid, and ovoalbumin. pou ...200717348680
characterization of fusarium oxysporum beta-1,6-galactanase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes larch wood arabinogalactan.a type ii arabinogalactan-degrading enzyme (fogal1) was purified from fusarium oxysporum 12s, and the corresponding cdna was isolated. fogal1 had high similarity to enzymes of glycoside hydrolase family 5. treatment of larch wood arabinogalactan with the recombinant enzyme indicated that fogal1 is a beta-1,6-galactanase that preferentially debranches beta-1,6-galactobiose from the substrate.200717351093
zirconia enrichment in zircon sand by selective fungus-mediated bioleaching of silica.one of the important routes for the production of zirconia is by chemical treatment and removal of silica from zircon sand (zrsixoy). we present here a completely green chemistry approach toward enrichment of zirconia in zircon sand; this is based on the reaction of the fungus fusarium oxysporum with zircon sand by a process of selective extracellular bioleaching of silica nanoparticles. since this reaction does not result in zirconia being simultaneously leached out from the sand, there is a co ...200717375939
in vivo time-lapse documentation using confocal and multi-photon microscopy reveals the mechanisms of invasion into the arabidopsis root vascular system by fusarium oxysporum.fusarium oxysporum, a major soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes vascular wilt, damping-off, and root rot diseases on over 100 cultivated plant species. mechanisms of root colonization by f. oxysporum in arabidopsis thaliana were studied through in planta 3-dimensional time-lapse documentation using confocal and multi-photon microscopy. data from individual encounter sites were acquired repeatedly over a several day period without physical manipulation or retrieval from the growth chamber. in vivo ...200717379550
antifungal activity of cymbopogon parkeri stapf. essential oil on some important phytopathogenic fungi.the genus cymbopogon that belongs to the poaceae (graminae) has some important aromatic species whit remarkable commercial value. essential oils from different species of the cymbopogon are used in the perfumery, cosmetic and soap industries and some of them have antifungal and insecticide activity. in this study, antifungal activity of c. parkeri essential oil on the growth of rhizoctonia solani, pyricularia orizea and fusarium oxysporum, three important phytopathogenic fungi, was investigated. ...200617390842
induced resistance in melon plants against fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis caused by a nonpathogenic isolate of the same formae specialis.melon 'charentais t' susceptible to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (fom) race 1.2 was pre-inoculated, as a resistance inducer agent, with a nonpathogenic isolate of fom. the biocontrol agent was only effective when it was applied one or two days before a challenge inoculation with the pathogen. simultaneous inoculation did not provide any durable protection. melon cv 'charentais fom 1' carries a single dominant gene conferring resistance against fom races 0 and 2, whereas 'charentais fom 2' c ...200617390848
the effects of fusarium oxysporum on broomrape (orobanche egyptiaca) seed germination.broomrape (orobanche aegyptiaca l.), one of the most important parasitic weeds in iran, is a root parasitic plant that can attack several crops such as tobacco, sunflower, tomato and etc. several methods were used for orobanche control, however these methods are inefficient and very costly. biological control is an additional recent tool for the control of parasitic weeds. in order to study of the fungus fusarium oxysporum (biocontrol agent) effects on broomrape seed germination, two laboratory ...200617390893
species-specific primers for fusarium redolens and a pcr-rflp technique to distinguish among three clades of fusarium oxysporum.the currently available morphological and molecular diagnostic techniques for fusarium redolens and the three phylogenetic clades of fusarium oxysporum are problematic. aligned translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef-1 alpha) gene sequences from these species and their close relatives were used to design f. redolens-specific primers, and to identify restriction sites that discriminate among the three clades of f. oxysporum. the f. redolens-specific primers distinguished this species from all ...200717391363
[acanthamoeba keratitis: about the first two tunisian cases].acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but severe corneal infection which, despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, still culminates in prolonged morbidity and significant loss of visual acuity. we present the case report of the first identification of acanthamoeba as a causative agent of keratitis in tunisia. case no 1: a 20-year-old girl, nearsighted corrected with soft contact lenses, suffering from a deep corneal inflammation and poor visual acuity the ophthalmological examination showed b ...200717402694
co-inoculation of an antibiotic-producing bacterium and a lytic enzyme-producing bacterium for the biocontrol of tomato wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.the antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing bacterium, pseudomonas fluorescens strain lrb3w1, inhibits the growth of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and controls fusarium wilt of tomato caused by f. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. on the other hand, serratia marcescens strain b2, which produces cell wall-degrading enzyme chitinases, did not inhibit fungal growth and the suppressive effect of strain b2 against tomato fusarium wilt was less than that of strain lrb3w1. combine ...200717408002
synthesis and antifungal activity of novel s-substituted 6-fluoro-4-alkyl(aryl)thioquinazoline derivatives.6-fluoro-4-quinazolinol is prepared by the cyclization reaction of 2-amino-5-fluorobenzoic acid and formamide. the resulting thiol obtained by treatment of hydroxyl group with phosphorus (v) sulfide is converted under phase transfer condition to 4-substituted 4-alkylthio-6-fluoroquinazoline derivatives by reaction with halide. the structures of the compounds are confirmed by elemental analysis, ir, and (1)h nmr. title compounds 3a, 3g, and 3h are found to possess good antifungal activities. usin ...200717412601
[study on the comparison of rdna and its sequence of fumonisin-producing strains].to study the phylogenetic relationships of fumonisin-producing fusarium verticillioides isolates from china and gibberella fujikuroi species complex.200717424850
study on the diversity of endophytic communities from rice (oryza sativa l.) and their antagonistic activities in vitro.endophytic populations were isolated from 2400 segments of oryza sativa collected from bhadra river project area, southern india during december 2005 (winter) and april 2006 (summer). overall colonization rates from surface sterilized tissues were 40.3% in roots and 25.83% in leaves during winter season, 20.15% in roots and 8.66% in leaves during summer season. nineteen different fungal taxa, a streptomyces sp. and bacterial species were isolated. streptomyces sp., chaetomium globosum, penicilli ...200917433644
the gene coding for a new transcription factor (ftf1) of fusarium oxysporum is only expressed during infection of common bean.we report the isolation and analysis of the gene encoding ftf1 (fusarium transcription factor 1), a previously undescribed putative transcription factor from highly virulent strains of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli that is transcribed specifically during early stages of infection of its host common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.). the predicted 1080 amino acid ftf1 protein contains a zn(ii)2-cys6 binuclear cluster dna-binding motif. ftf1 expression during axenic growth in culture was not detect ...200717462924
collimonas fungivorans, an unpredicted in vitro but efficient in vivo biocontrol agent for the suppression of tomato foot and root rot.although bacteria from the genus collimonas have demonstrated in vitro antifungal activity against many different fungi, they appeared inactive against the plant-pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (forl), the causal agent of tomato foot and root rot (tfrr). visualization studies using fluorescently labelled organisms showed that bacterial cells attached extensively to the fungal hyphae under nutrient-poor conditions but not in glucose-rich armstrong medium. collimonas ...200717504497
isoforms of trehalase and invertase of fusarium oxysporum.enzymatic assays and native page were used to study trehalase and invertase activities, depending on culture age and different sugar conditions, in cell-free extracts, culture filtrates and ribosomal wash of fusarium oxysporum. the activity of invertase preceded that of trehalase; in the exponential phase of growth, mainly invertase activity was produced, whereas trehalase activity was high in the stationary phase. in this last phase of growth, the activity of intracellular trehalase was repress ...200717512710
a novel tissue-specific plantain beta-1,3-glucanase gene that is regulated in response to infection by fusarium oxysporum fsp. cubense.a new full-length beta-1,3-glucanase cdna, mpglu, was isolated from a plantain (musa paradisica) by the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) technique. recombinant gst-mpglu protein, expressed in e. coli, hydrolyzed (1-->3),(1-->6)-beta-glucan of laminaria digitata and inhibited the growth of fusarium oxysporum fsp. cubense (race 4) suggesting that it is a beta-1,3-glucanase. southern blot analysis indicated that there is one copy of mpglu in the plantain genome. mpglu gene expression was det ...200717530180
treatment of chickpea with rhizobium isolates enhances the expression of phenylpropanoid defense-related genes in response to infection by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris.differential expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (pal), chalcone synthase (chs) and isoflavone reductase (ifr) genes involved in phenylpropanoids metabolism was investigated using northern blot analyses in chickpea seedlings bacterized with rhizobium isolates (pchdms and pch43) and further challenged with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (foc) race 0. gene activation patterns in the moderately resistant accession inrat87/1 were compared with those exhibited by the susceptible accession il ...200717544286
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