magnetically modified spent grain as a low-cost, biocompatible and smart carrier for enzyme and feed technology and biotechnology benefit from the use of immobilised enzymes. new low-cost enzyme carriers exhibiting high biocompatibility and response to external magnetic field can substantially improve the application potential of immobilised enzyme systems.201323108838
evaluation of structure and hydrolysis activity of candida rugosa lip7 in presence of sub-/super-critical co₂.this work aimed to assess the effect of sub-/super-critical co₂ on the structure and activity of candida rugosa lip7 (crl7) in its solution form. the structure was examined by sds-page gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (cd) and fluorescence spectra photometry. results revealed that the primary structure remained intact after sub-/super-critical co₂ treatment, and the secondary structure altered at the pressure of 10 mpa and temperature 40°c for 30 min incubation, but it was reflex to its n ...201223040391
effect of poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres properties and steric hindrance on the immobilization of candida rugosa lipase.poly(vinyl acetate-acrylamide) microspheres were synthesized in the absence or presence of isooctane via suspension polymerization and utilized as carriers to immobilize candida rugosa lipase. when the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characteristics of the microspheres were modified by changing the ratio of vinyl acetate (hydrophobic monomer) to acrylamide (hydrophilic monomer) from 50:50 to 86:24, the immobilization ratio changed from 45% to 92% and the activity of the immobilized lipase increa ...201222989650
preparation of superparamagnetic fe3o4@alginate/chitosan nanospheres for candida rugosa lipase immobilization and utilization of layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the stability of immobilized lipase.superparamagnetic alginate nanospheres with diameter of 50 nm were prepared by self-assembly of alginate in the ca(2+) solution; and then superparamagnetic alginate/chitosan nanospheres, which have positive charge and could adsorb lipase directly, were obtained with a following assembly of chitosan based on the electrostatic interaction between alginate and chitosan. subsequently, oxidic poly (ethylene glycol) was used to functionalize the magnetic alginate/chitosan nanospheres. thus, the magnet ...201222985256
isoamylacetate production by entrapped and covalently bound candida rugosa and porcine pancreatic lipases.candida rugosa lipase (crl) and porcine pancreatic lipase (ppl) were immobilised by entrapping and also by covalent binding for use in synthesis of isoamyl acetate (iaac), which has a typical banana flavour. lipase entrapment was carried out by dripping sodium alginate (na-alg)-chitosan (chi)-lipase mixture into cacl(2)-glutaraldehyde (gal) solution to obtain ca-alg/chi(crl/ppl). immobilisation conditions were optimised as 1.5% na-alg, 1.5% chitosan and 0.15% gal. ca-alg/chi(crl/ppl) samples sho ...201222980809
immobilization of candida rugosa lipase on mcm-41 for the transesterification of cotton seed oil.present study demonstrated the preparation of mcm-41 as a support for the immobilization of candida rugosa lipase by the physical adsorption technique. the lipase immobilized mcm-41 has been characterized by scanning electron microscopic and ftir techniques. at ph 6, maximum lipase immobilization (250 mg/g) on mcm support has been observed and the immobilized lipase was employed as biocatalyst for the transesterification of the cotton seed oil with methanol. the ph of the reaction medium, reacti ...201222975780
immobilization of lipases on alkyl silane modified magnetic nanoparticles: effect of alkyl chain length on enzyme activity.biocatalytic processes often require a full recycling of biocatalysts to optimize economic benefits and minimize waste disposal. immobilization of biocatalysts onto particulate carriers has been widely explored as an option to meet these requirements. however, surface properties often affect the amount of biocatalysts immobilized, their bioactivity and stability, hampering their wide applications. the aim of this work is to explore how immobilization of lipases onto magnetite nanoparticles affec ...201222952688
candida mesorugosa sp. nov., a novel yeast species similar to candida rugosa, isolated from a tertiary hospital in brazil.candida rugosa is a yeast species that is emerging as a causative agent of invasive infection, particularly in latin america. recently, c. pseudorugosa was proposed as a new species closely related to c. rugosa. we evaluated in this investigation the genetic heterogeneity within the c. rugosa species complex. all clinical isolates used in this study were identified phenotypically as c. rugosa but were genotypically different from the c. rugosa type, atcc 10571. rapd marker analysis revealed less ...201322928924
lipase incorporated ionic liquid polymers as active, stable and reusable biocatalysts.the aim of this study was to develop ionic liquid (il) polymer materials incorporating enzymes that can be used as active, stable and reusable biocatalysts. to this goal, candida rugosa lipase has been microencapsulated in surfactant aggregates formed in an il monomer or the solution of an il monomer/il and then incorporated into polymer frameworks through the free radical polymerization of an il (1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) amide) ([veim][tf(2)n]). the activity, sta ...201222903458
preparation and characterization of gelatin hydrogel support for immobilization of candida rugosa lipase.a series of gelatin hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (ga). the hydrogels were characterized by gel formation, swelling/degradation tests, and ftir analysis. the variations of swelling percentages (s%) with time, temperature, and ph were determined. it is found that the increasing amount of ga causes the decreasing in s% values from 366 to 213% and g-1 was found to be the most swollen hydrogel at ph 7.4 and 37 °c. degradation tests of hydrogel samples were carri ...201322812721
controlled release of lipase from candida rugosa loaded into hydrogels of n-isopropylacrylamide and itaconic acid.the series of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels, with lipase from candida rugosa as a model protein, were synthesized by free radical copolymerization. the composition of hydrogels was varied by monomers ratio, crosslinking agent concentration and amounts of lipase, which was loaded by in situ polymerization. all samples were characterized regarding morphology. the investigation of hydrogel swelling properties revealed their ph and temperature sensitive character. protein lo ...201222759642
resonance energy transfer between protein and rhamnolipid capped zns quantum dots: application in in-gel staining of proteins.the interaction of proteins with quantum dots is an interesting field of research. these interactions occur at the nanoscale. we have probed the interaction of bovine serum albumin (bsa) and candida rugosa lipase (crl) with rhamnolipid capped zns (rhlznsqds) using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. optical studies on mixtures of rhlznsqds and proteins resulted in förster's resonance energy transfer (fret) from proteins to qds. this phenomenon has been exploited to detect proteins in agaro ...201222580141
molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of the candida rugosa species complex and proposal of the new species candida neorugosa.candida rugosa is a poorly known fungal species occasionally involved in human infections. a molecular analysis of the sequences of the d1/d2 domains and the internal transcribed spacer (its) region of the ribosomal genes of 24 clinical isolates phenotypically identified as c. rugosa demonstrated that only 10 (41.6%) isolates belonged to that species. the other isolates were identified as candida pararugosa (41.6%) and candida pseudorugosa (8.3%). the remaining two isolates, from human and equin ...201222553236
enzyme catalysis in organic solvents: influence of water content, solvent composition and temperature on candida rugosa lipase catalyzed the present study the influence of water content, solvent composition and reaction temperature on the transesterification of 1-phenylpropan-2-ol catalyzed by candida rugosa lipase was examined. reactions were carried out in different mixtures of hexane and tetrahydrofurane. the studies showed that an increasing water content of the organic solvent results in an increasing enzyme activity and a decreasing enantiomeric excess. furthermore, a significant influence of the solvent hydrophilicity b ...201222465292
first case report of bloodstream infection due to a candida species closely related to the novel species candida pseudorugosa.candida pseudorugosa is a novel species closely related to candida rugosa for which only one case has been reported. we report the first case of a bloodstream infection in humans caused by a candida sp. closely related to c. pseudorugosa. we contribute evidence to show this organism as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified by conventional methods, also pointing out its lower sensitivity to azoles and other antifungal agents.201222461681
heterologous expression systems for lipases: a review.the production of heterologous lipases is one of the most promising strategies to increase the productivity of the bioprocesses and to reduce costs, with the final objective that more industrial lipase applications could be implemented. in this chapter, an overview of the most common microbial expression systems for the overproduction of microbial lipases is presented. prokaryotic system as escherichia coli and eukaryotic systems as saccharomyces cerevisiae and pichia pastoris are analyzed and c ...201222426719
enhancement of the activity and enantioselectivity of lipase by sol-gel encapsulation immobilization onto β-cyclodextrin-based polymer.candida rugosa lipase was encapsulated within a chemically inert sol-gel support prepared by polycondensation with tetraethoxysilane and octyltriethoxysilane in the presence of β-cyclodextrin-based polymer. the catalytic activity of the encapsulated lipases was evaluated both in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylpalmitate and the enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic naproxen methyl ester. it has been observed that the percent activity yield of the encapsulated lipase was 65 u/g, which is 7.5 time ...201222383051
high performance liquid chromatography determination of fatty acids in drying oils following lipase action.this paper describes a quantitative analytical procedure to determine the fatty acid composition in drying oils like linseed, walnut and poppy seed. the procedure required the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oil triacylglycerol families by the action of candida rugosa lipase. the fatty acids (ffas) produced (linolenic, myristic, linoleic, palmitic, oleic and stearic) were extracted with n-heptane and derivatized with α-bromoacetophenone. their separation and quantitative determination were performed ...201222368115
lipase immobilization on differently functionalized vinyl-based amphiphilic polymers: influence of phase segregation on the enzyme hydrolytic activity.microbial lipase from candida rugosa was immobilized by physical adsorption onto an ethylene-vinyl alcohol polymer (eval) functionalized with acyl chlorides. to evaluate the influence of the reagent chain-length on the amount and activity of immobilized lipase, three differently long aliphatic fatty acids were employed (c8, c12, c18), obtaining eval functionalization degrees ranging from 5% to 65%. the enzyme-polymer affinity increased with both the length of the alkyl chain and the matrix hydro ...201222295868
enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean oil using lipase from different sources to yield concentrated of polyunsaturated fatty acids.the ability of three commercially available lipases to mediate the hydrolysis of the soybean oil to yield concentrated of essential fatty acids was evaluated. the tested lipases were from microbial (candida rugosa and thermomyces lanuginosa) and animal cells (porcine pancreatic lipase). in terms of free fatty acids, microbial lipases were more effective to promote the enzymatic hydrolysis of the soybean oil (over 70%) than the porcine pancreatic lipase (24%). in spite of this, porcine pancreatic ...200727517828
molecular identification of uncommon clinical yeast species in using advanced detection/identification methods, the list of emerging uncommon opportunistic yeast infections is rapidly expanding worldwide. our aim in the present study was sequence-based species delineation of previously unidentified yeasts obtained from a clinically yeast collection.201528680981
pigeons and their droppings as reservoirs of candida and other zoonotic yeasts.the importance of pigeons as reservoirs and carriers of cryptococcus neoformans and other species of this genus is well-known; however, less is known about their role as reservoirs and carriers of other yeasts that impact public health.201728720316
denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of bacteria from the saliva of twenty four different individuals form clusters that showed no relationship to the yeasts present.the aim was to investigate the relationship between groups of bacteria identified by cluster analysis of the dgge fingerprints and the amounts and diversity of yeast present.201728577425
a reverse micelle strategy for fabricating magnetic lipase-immobilized nanoparticles with robust enzymatic activity.enzyme-immobilized nanoparticles that are both catalysis effective and recyclable would have wide applications ranging from bioengineering and food industry to environmental fields; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. herein, we present a scalable methodology to create candida rugosa lipase-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles (l-mnps) by the combination of nonionic reverse micelle method and fe3o4 nanoparticles. our approach causes the naturally abundant and sustain ...201728852219
new heterofunctional supports based on glutaraldehyde-activation: a tool for enzyme immobilization at neutral ph.immobilization is an exciting alternative to improve the stability of enzymatic processes. however, part of the applied covalent strategies for immobilization uses specific conditions, generally alkaline ph, where some enzymes are not stable. here, a new generation of heterofunctional supports with application at neutral ph conditions was proposed. new supports were developed with different bifunctional groups (i.e., hydrophobic or carboxylic/metal) capable of adsorbing biocatalysts at different ...201728788435
development and optimization of a new chemoenzymatic approach for the synthesis of peracetylated lactosamine (intermediate for the synthesis of pharmacologically active compounds) monitored by rp- hplc method.purpose: to describe a chemoenzymatic approach joining an enzymatic regioselective hydrolysis of peracetylated n-acetyl-α-d-glucosamine (a) with a mild controlled acyl relocation which resulted 2-acetamido-2 deoxy-1,3,6-tri-o-acetyl-α-d-glucopyranose (1b). methods: immobilization of lipase on decaoctyl (dseod) and octyl-agarose (oscl) was carried out as reported by the work of bastida et al. the newly developed rp-hplc method for examining the enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out isocratically u ...201728761834
preparation of glutaraldehyde-treated lipase-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers and their catalytic performance as immobilized enzymes.the use of protein-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers for the immobilization of enzymes has received a significant degree of attention owing to their capability to retain high enzymatic activity and stability. however, the relative lack of reusability due to the weakness of the flower-like structure has limited their practical applications. herein, we have developed a simple but efficient method to synthesize highly robust enzyme-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, which relies on further crosslinking of th ...201728756857
preparation of carriers based on zno nanoparticles decorated on graphene oxide (go) nanosheets for efficient immobilization of lipase from candida rugosa.herein, a promising carrier, graphene oxide (go) decorated with zno nanoparticles, denoted as go/zno composite, has been designed and constructed. this carrier was characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. then, candida rugosa lipase (crl) was immobilized onto the go-based materials via physical adsorption. our results indicated that the lipase loading amount on the go/zno composites was about 73.52 mg o ...201728753931
chemoenzymatic synthesis of optically active phenolic 3,4-dihydropyridin-2-ones: a way to access enantioenriched 1,4-dihydropyridine and benzodiazepine derivatives.a chemoenzymatic approach for the synthesis of optically active 4-(3-acetoxyphenyl)-5-(alkoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridin-2-ones (3,4-dhp-2-ones) and their hydroxyphenyl derivatives has been developed, the key step being a candida rugosa lipase (crl)-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction. as a result, different optically active 3,4-dhp-2-ones have been prepared with very high enantiomeric excesses (ee = 94-99%) and good yields. the enantioenriched 3,4-dhp-2-ones have easily been converted into ...201728590004
synthesis of fibrous and non-fibrous mesoporous silica magnetic yolk-shell microspheres as recyclable supports for immobilization of candida rugosa lipase.the mesoporous yolk-shell nanoparticles (mysns), with a movable fe3o4 core inside the hollow capsules, with two different morphologies (1) fe3o4@sio2@hollow@fibrous sio2 (yolk shell-1) (2) fe3o4@sio2@hollow@mesoporoussio2 (yolk shell-2) were fabricated as carriers for candida rugosa lipase (crl) immobilization, through a template-assistant selectively etching method. firstly the hydrophilic fe3o4 nanoparticles were synthesized according to the solvothermal method. then, sio2 shell was coated on ...201728554384
comparison of enzymatic hydrolysis in a centrifugal partition chromatograph and stirred tank reactor.recently the centrifugal partition chromatography (cpc) device is investigated as a reactor for biocatalytic reactions, as it enables biocatalyst immobilization without solid support and continuous operation of biphasic reaction systems. however, a detailed determination of the enzymes behavior in the cpc reactor and comparison to a classical stirred tank reactor (str) for biphasic enzyme catalysis is not shown yet. in this study, the performance of an enzymatic biphasic hydrolysis reaction usin ...201728506497
enantioselective resolution of racemic flurbiprofen methyl ester by lipase encapsulated mercapto calix[4]arenes capped fe3o4 nanoparticles.this work presents the synthesis of new mercapto calix[4]arenes derivatives (4 and 5). these derivatives were capped on fe3o4 magnetic nanoparticles and subsequently encapsulated with candida rugosa through sol-gel method to furnish enc-4 and enc-5, respectively, to enhance catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of lipase for hydrolysis reaction of racemic flurbiprofen methyl ester. catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of enc-4 and enc-5 were assayed at different ph and temperature condi ...201728488138
convenient enzymatic resolution of (r,s)-2-methylbutyric acid catalyzed by immobilized lipases.the application of several immobilized lipases has been explored in the enantioselective esterification of (r,s)-2-methylbutyric acid, an insect pheromone precursor. with the use of candida antarctica b, using hexane as solvent, (r)-pentyl 2-methylbutyrate was prepared in 2 h with c 40%, eep 90%, and e = 35, while thermomyces lanuginosus leads to c 18%, eep 91%, and e = 26. the (s)-enantiomer was obtained by the use of candida rugosa or rhizopus oryzae (2-h reaction, c 34% and 35%, eep 75 and 49 ...201829083057
scalable fabrication of sulfated silk fibroin nanofibrous membranes for efficient lipase adsorption and recovery.fabricating adsorptive materials for fast and high efficient adsorption of enzymes is critical to match the great demands for separation and recovery of enzymes used as biocatalysts. however, it has proven extremely challenging. here, we report a cost-effective strategy to construct the sulfated group surface-functionalized silk fibroin nanofibrous membranes (ss-sfnm) under mild conditions for positively charged candida rugosa lipase adsorption. the naturally abundant silk is thus reconstructed ...201829339287
immobilization of enzymes on a phospholipid bionically modified polysulfone gradient-pore membrane for the enhanced performance of enzymatic membrane bioreactors.enzymatic membrane bioreactors (embrs), with synergistic catalysis-separation performance, have increasingly been used for practical applications. generally, the membrane properties, particularly the pore structures and interface interactions, have a significant impact on the catalytic efficiency of the embr. therefore, a biomimetic interface based on a phospholipid assembled onto a polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane with perfect radial gradient pores (rgm-psf) has been prepared in this work to c ...201829324678
enhancement of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid glycerides in sardine oil by a bioimprinted cross-linked candida rugosa lipase.considering the advantages of bioimprinting and carrier free immobilization, cross-linked enzyme aggregates (clea) were prepared by using bioimprinted candida rugosa lipase (crl) with bovine serum albumin (bsa), polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde. effect of various factors such as crl-oleic acid ratio, crl-bsa ratio, crl- polyethyleneimine ratio, glutaraldehyde loading, cross-linking time etc., on lipase activity recovery and aggregate yield were studied and optimized. this immobilized lipase ...201829310852
effects of triton x-100 and peg on the catalytic properties and thermal stability of lipase from candida rugosa free and immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose.candida rugosa lipase (crl) shows a very low alkaline stability that comprises its immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose, which requires ph above 10. in this way, an adaptation from the original method was used; an enzyme solution at ph 7 was slowly added at a suspension of glyoxyl-agarose prepared in bicarbonate buffer, ph 10. this change of protocol was enough for allowing the preparation of derivatives actives of crl on glyoxyl-agarose and verifying the effect of this modified procedure on the pr ...201729290831
antibacterial activity of free fatty acids from hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil using lipase from candida fatty acids (ffas) were obtained from hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil (vco) by candida rugosa lipase (crl). four factors' influence on hydrolysis degree (hd) was examined. the best hydrolysis conditions in order to get the highest hd value were determined at vco to buffer ratio 1 : 5 (w/w), crl concentration 1.5% (w/w oil), ph 7, and temperature 40°c. after 16 hours' reaction, the hd value achieved 79.64%. ffas and residual hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil (hvco) were isolated from the hydrolysi ...201729259829
interaction of a digestive protease, candida rugosa lipase, with three surfactants investigated by spectroscopy, molecular docking and enzyme activity assay.the extensive use of surfactants in food, laundry products and agriculture has caused concern about their biosafety. however, few studies have been done on their potential effect on the lipase which has always been used with surfactants in food and laundry industry. herein, we investigated the interaction of three surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (sdbs), sodium lauryl sulfonate (sls)) with candida rugosa lipase (crl), which is a popular biocatalyst used ...201729220758
frozen microemulsions for maple immobilization of lipase.candida rugosa lipase (crl) was deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (maple) in order to immobilize the enzyme with a preserved native conformation, which ensures its catalytic functionality. for this purpose, the composition of the maple target was optimized by adding the oil phase pentane to a water solution of the amino acid 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-l-alanine (m-dopa), giving a target formed by a frozen water-lipase-pentane microemulsion. fourier transform infrared (f ...201729206163
production of phytosteryl ester from echium oil in a recirculating packed bed reactor using an immobilized lipase.the synthesis of phytosteryl ester via the lipase-catalyzed esterification of phytosterol with fatty acid from echium oil was performed in a recirculating packed bed reactor. a commercial lipase from candida rugosa was immobilized and then used to optimize the reaction conditions for the synthesis of the phytosteryl ester. the parameters investigated were temperature, molar ratio of phytosterol to fatty acid, retention time, and amount of solvent. the optimum conditions were determined as the te ...201729129897
emerging multidrug-resistant candida describe the epidemiology, strategies for early detection, and clinical management of infections caused by the most commonly found multidrug-resistant (mdr) candida spp.201729095200
immobilization of lipase on carboxylic acid-modified silica nanoparticles for olive oil this study, the silica nanoparticles surface was modified by carboxylic acid with different number of alkyl chain and two different lipases were immobilized on it to increase the glycerolysis activity of the immobilized lipases in organic solvent system. silica nanoparticles of about 15 nm diameter were grafted with various carboxylic acid modifiers from valeric, caprylic, capric, lauric, stearic and oleic acids. lipases from candida antarctica and candida rugosa were immobilized onto the car ...201829043450
lc-pda/apciitms identification of algal carotenoid and oxysterol precursors to fatty acid esters in hydrolyzed extracts of the freshwater mussel dreissena bugensis.carotenyl fatty acid esters (carotenyl-faes) were extracted in acetone from freeze-dried dreissena bugensis (lakes erie and ontario) and hydrolyzed to identify the carotenoid precursors. analysis by liquid chromatography (lc) with photodiode array (pda) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (apciitms) revealed the major hydrolysis products: fucoxanthinol (foh) from fucoxanthin (fx, diatoms); mactraxanthin (mx) from violaxanthin (vx, chlorophytes); 4-fold higher ...201729030666
application of commercial and non-commercial immobilized lipases for biocatalytic production of ethyl lactate in organic solvents.this study explores the potential for enhancing the production of ethyl lactate (el), a green solvent, through enzymatic esterification. different solvents were compared as organic media for conversion of lactate and ethanol into el, catalyzed by novozym 435. chloroform and hexane were the most effective in low acid concentrations (0.01-0.1m) exhibiting maximum el yields of 88% and 75% respectively. the yield of el improved as the solvent's logp increased up to a value of 2. non-commercial immob ...201828968571
enzymatic synthesis of phytosteryl lipoate and its antioxidant this work, an enzymatic route for synthesizing phytosteryl lipoate was successfully set up for the first time. the structure of final product phytosteryl lipoate was determined by fourier transform infrared (ftir), mass spectrometry (ms) and nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr). the maximum conversion of 71.2% was achieved when the following conditions were employed: 150mmol/l phytosterol, 1: 2.5m ratio of phytosterol to lipoic acid, 10g/l of 4å molecular sieves and 60g/l candida rugosa in 2-meth ...201828946336
lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl butyrate synthesis in n-hexane- a kinetic study.kinetics of lipase catalyzed transesterification of ethyl caprate and butyric acid was investigated. the objective of this work was to propose a reaction mechanism and develop a rate equation for the synthesis of ethyl butyrate by transesterification using surfactant coated lipase from candida rugosa. the reaction rate could be described in terms of michaelis-menten equation with a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism and competitive inhibition by both the substrates. the values of kinetic parameters compu ...201728928527
structure and properties of oil palm-based nanocellulose reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for efficient synthesis of butyl this study, nanocellulose (nc) was successfully extracted from oil palm frond leaves (opfl) using a combination of bleaching, alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis. x-ray diffractogram revealed the extracted nc was crystalline with a crystallinity index of 70.2%. this indicates its suitability as nano-fillers for preparing the chitosan/nanocellulose (cs-nc) supports to immobilize candida rugosa lipase (crl) to produce the crl/cs-nc biocatalysts. ftir, fesem and tga characterizations of the c ...201728927609
an improved enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-mcpd esters and glycidyl esters in fish oils.the enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-mcpd-es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (gly-es) make use of lipase from candida cylindracea (previously referred to as c. rugosa). because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa), such as docosahexaenoic acid (dha) and eicosapentaenoic acid (epa), fish oils high in pufas are currently excluded from the range of application of the met ...201728924085
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