lipolytic enzymes with improved activity and selectivity upon adsorption on polymeric nanoparticles.nanostructured polystyrene (ps) and polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) were used as carriers for the preparation of bioconjugates with lipolytic enzymes, such as candida rugosa lipase (crl) and pseudomonas cepacia lipase (pcl). simple addition of the lipase solution to the polymeric nanoparticles under protein-friendly conditions (ph 7.6) led to the formation of polymer-enzyme bioconjugates. energy filtered-transmission electron microscopy (ef-tem) performed on immuno-gold labeled samples revealed th ...200717803276
covalent attachment of candida rugosa lipase on chemically modified hybrid matrix of polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol with different activating compounds.candida rugosa lipase was immobilized by covalent binding on hybrid matrix of polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol chemically modified with different activating agents as glutaraldehyde, sodium metaperiodate and carbonyldiimidazole. the experimental results suggested that functional activating agents render different interactions between enzyme and support, producing consequently alterations in the optimal reaction conditions. properties of the immobilized systems were assessed and their performance o ...200817889514
high-yield synthesis of wax esters catalysed by modified candida rugosa lipase.candida rugosa lipase (crl) was applied in a non-solvent esterification reaction to yield twelve wax esters. all products were obtained in nearly 100% yield for 10 h at 50 degrees c when immobilized peg(2000)-activated c. rugosa lipase was added to the reaction mixture. the surfactant had also a beneficial effect on the stability of the biocatalytic preparation with 83% of its activity conserved after the seventh run of repeated batch reactions.200817957342
enhancement of lipase activity in non-aqueous media upon immobilization on multi-walled carbon nanotubes.immobilization of biologically active proteins on nanosized surfaces is a key process in bionanofabrication. carbon nanotubes with their high surface areas, as well as useful electronic, thermal and mechanical properties, constitute important building blocks in the fabrication of novel functional materials.200718047656
synthesis and characterization of canola oil-stearic acid-based trans-free structured lipids for possible margarine application.incorporation of stearic acid into canola oil to produce trans-free structured lipid (sl) as a healthy alternative to partially hydrogenated fats for margarine formulation was investigated. response surface methodology was used to study the effects of lipozyme rm im from rhizomucor miehei and candida rugosa lipase isoform 1 (lip1) and two acyl donors, stearic acid and ethyl stearate, on the incorporation. lipozyme rm im and ethyl stearate gave the best result. gram quantities of sls were synthes ...200718052237
lipase specificity towards eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid depends on substrate structure.the fatty acid specificity of five lipases towards eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha) was evaluated in the hydrolysis of fish oil, squid oil and a model system. the model system contained methyl esters of epa, dha and palmitic acid. all the investigated lipases discriminated against both epa and dha more in the model system than in the natural oils. thus both epa and dha were more easily hydrolysed from a glyceride than from a methyl ester. in the model system, the lipase ...200818067872
candida rugosa lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of 2-substituted-aryloxyacetic esters with dimethylsulfoxide and isopropanol as additives.candida rugosa lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of three different 2-substituted-aryloxyacetic esters was performed in aqueous buffer containing dimethyl sulphoxide and isopropanol from 0 to 80% v/v as additives, in order to obtain an enhancement of the enantioselectivity. for 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid and 2-n-butyl-2-(p-chlorophenoxy)acetic acid ethyl esters, dmso enhanced enzyme enantioselectivity more than ipa with an opposite enzymatic enantiopreference. the cosolvents moderately improved ca ...200818074337
scale-up fermentation of recombinant candida rugosa lipase expressed in pichia pastoris using the gap promoter.the high-cell-density fermentation of candida rugosa lipase in the constitutive pichia pastoris expression system was scaled up from 5 to 800 l in series by optimizing the fermentation conditions at both lab scale and pilot scale. the exponential feeding combined with ph-stat strategy succeeded in small scale studies, while a two-stage fermentation strategy, which shifted at 48 h by fine tuning the culture temperature and ph, was assessed effective in pilot-scale fermentation. the two-stage stra ...200818087738
covalent immobilization of lipase from candida rugosa onto poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) electrospun fibrous membranes for potential bioreactor application.a simple way of fabricating enzymatic membrane reactor with high enzyme loading and activity retention from the conjugation between nanofibrous membrane and lipase was devised. poly(acrylonitrile-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (panchema) was electrospun into fibrous membrane and used as support for enzyme immobilization. the hydroxyl groups on the fibrous membrane surface were activated with epichlorohydrin, cyanuric chloride or p-benzoquinone, respectively. lipase from candida rugosa was coval ...200818248984
promoter analysis and differential expression of the candida rugosa lipase gene family in response to culture conditions.five lipase genes have been identified and sequenced from candida rugosa. however, as the sequences of lip multigene family are extremely closely related, it is difficult to characterize the expression spectrum of lip genes. in the present work we have cloned, sequenced, and analyzed the promoters of these five lip isoform genes, and several putative transcriptional elements including oleate response element (ore) and upstream activation sequence 1 (uas1) were identified. a quantitative real-tim ...200818290622
ph memory of immobilized lipase for (+/-)-menthol resolution in ionic liquid.magnetic deae-gma-edma microspheres were prepared via suspension polymerization and used for the immobilization of candida rugosa lipase by ion exchange. the effect of ph values on the immobilization of lipase was investigated. resolution of (+/-)-menthol in the hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was performed by immobilized lipase-catalyzed enantioselective esterification with propionic anhydride as acyl donor. the effects of ph condition at lipase immobili ...200818338863
stable colloidal dispersions of a lipase-perfluoropolyether complex in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide.the technique of hydrophobic ion pairing was used to solubilize the lipase from candida rugosa in a fluorinated solvent, perfluoromethylcyclohexane (pfmc), in complex with a perfluoropolyether (pfpe) surfactant, kdp 4606. the enzyme-surfactant complex was determined to have a hydrodynamic diameter of 6.5 nm at atmospheric pressure by dynamic light scattering (dls), indicating that a single lipase molecule is stabilized by surrounding surfactant molecules. the complex formed a highly stable collo ...200818363394
blue native electrophoresis study on lipases.we have developed a modified blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) protocol that can overcome aggregation of lipases seen in native page. we have shown that two lipases, pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase and candida rugosa lipase, which aggregate in the native gel, can be resolved using our protocol. activity staining was done to test for the functionality of the two lipases.200818381198
production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrate from sardine oil by immobilized candida rugosa lipase.this study was conducted to develop an immobilized-enzyme system to entrap lipase in chitosan-alginate-cacl(2) beads for the purpose of concentrating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 pufas) from sardine oil. lipase was immobilized by an ionotropic gelatin method analyzed for characteristics. optimum ph of immobilized lipase shifted from ph 7.0 to 6.0 and immobilized lipase showed higher stability against ph and temperature changes. original sardine oil contained 38.1% n-3 pufas (25.2% 20:5n3 ...200818387091
monoglycerides and diglycerides synthesis in a solvent-free system by lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis.five lipases were screened (thermomyces lanuginosus free and immobilized forms, candida antarctica b, candida rugosa, aspergillus niger, and rhizomucor miehei) to study their ability to produce monoglycerides (mg) and diglycerides (dg) through enzymatic glycerolysis of soybean oil. lipase from c. antarctica was further studied to verify the enzyme load (wt% of oil mass), the molar ratio glycerol/oil, and the water content (wt% of glycerol) on the glycerolysis reaction. the best dg and mg product ...200818421596
conversion of sunflower oil to biodiesel by alcoholysis using immobilized lipase.transesterification reaction was performed using sunflower oil and short-chain alcohol by immobilized lipases in organic solvents. the fatty acid ester, which is the product of this reaction, can be used as a diesel fuel that does not produce sulfur oxide and minimize the soot particulate. immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (ppl) and candida rugosa lipase (crl) showed the satisfactory activity in these reactions. immobilization of lipases was carried out using inorganic absorbance celit 545 p ...200818437590
a chemoenzymatic approach to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (s)-3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone.optically pure (s)-3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone, an important chiral building block in the pharmaceutical industry, was synthesized from l: -malic acid by combining a selective hydrogenation and a lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis. lipase from candida rugosa was found to be the most efficient enzyme for the hydrolysis of (s)-beta-benzoyloxy-gamma-butyrolactone. the use of organic solvent-aqueous two-phase system was employed to extract benzoic acid generated from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate ...200818446525
reusability of surfactant-coated candida rugosa lipase immobilized in gelatin microemulsion-based organogels for ethyl isovalerate our previous study, a surfactant-coated candida rugosa lipase immobilized in microemulsion-based organogels was exploited for the synthesis of ethyl isovalerate. in the present study, we are focusing on the effective reuse of lipase immobilized in microemulsion-based organogels (mbgs) in terms of retainment of the catalytic activity. as water is one of the co-products in esterification reactions, the removal of water becomes a priority to allow the reaction to work in the forward direction an ...200818467869
amphotericin b-metronidazole combination against candida spp.oropharyngeal candidiasis (opc) remains a common opportunistic infection in hiv-infected patients. candida albicans is the most frequent causative agent of opc. however, non-albicans spp. are being increasingly isolated. candidal cell wall proteins and mannoproteins play important roles in the biology and patogenesis of candidiasis. in the present study, we have analyzed the proteinaceous components associated with cell wall extracts from c. albicans, candida tropicalis, candida pseudotropicalis ...199818473531
[inhibition of lipase activity by low-molecular-weight chitosan].inhibition of enzymatic activity of lipase (ec from the fungus candida rugosa and wheat (triticum aestivum l.) germ by low-molecular-weight chitosan with an average molecular weight of 5.7 kda in reactions of p-nitrophenyl palmitate cleavage was studied. preincubation of lipases with chitosan, prior to addition of the substrate to solution, showed that equilibrium during the lipase-inhibitor complex formation was reached within 30 min. the inhibition constants for c. rugosa lipase and w ...200818491595
preparation and characterization of chitosan membranes by using a combined freeze gelation and mild crosslinking method.when gelification is performed by freezing-thawing repeated cycles, the resultant gel-like polymer systems are called cryogels. this work aims to assess the effect of the addition of glutaraldehyde and 18 crown ether-6 on surface properties and protein loading of dried chitosan cryogel films. residual water content of treated chitosan membranes ranged between 11.93 and 13.86%, while their water activities vary from 0.5 to 0.7 (measured from 4 to 60 degrees c). based on thermal data, water evapor ...200918546023
characteristics of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil in aot-isooctane reversed micelles.candida rugosa lipase solubilized in organic solvents in the presence of both surfactant and water could catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides, and kinetic analysis of the lipase-catalyzed reaction was found to be possible in this system. among eight organic solvents tested, isooctane was most effective for the hydrolysis of olive oil in reversed micelles. temperature effect, ph profile, k(m,app) and v(max,app) were determined. among various chemical compounds, cu(2+), hg(2+), and fe(3+) inhi ...198618555453
the hydrolysis of triglycerides by immobilized lipase in a hydrophilic membrane the present article a method is described to immobilize lipase from candida rugosa on a hollow fiber membrane, and the use of such a system for the hydrolysis of lipids is reported. the membranes were enka hydrophilic cuprophan-type hollow fibers, having a large specific surface area. the immobilized lipase exhibited a high stability: the half-life time was 43 days at a temperature of 30 degrees c. furthermore, it is proved that kinetic studies can be carried out with this system, operated in ...198818587749
characteristics of immobilized lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of olive oil of high concentration in reverse phase system.candida rugosa lipase immobilized by adsorption on swollen sephadex lh-20 could almost completely hydrolyze 60% (v/v) olive oil in isooctane. kinetic analysis of the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction was found to be possible in this system. amount of fatty acids produced was linearly proportional to the enzyme concentration of 720 microg/g wet gel. the specific enzyme activity was 217 units/mg protein at 60% (v/v) olive oil concentration. when the initial rate is plotted versus concentration ...198918587887
evaluation of medium components by plackett-burman statistical design for lipase production by candida rugosa and kinetic modeling.lipase production by candida rugosa was carried out in submerged fermentation. plackett-burman statistical experimental design was applied to evaluate the fermentation medium components. the effect of twelve medium components was studied in sixteen experimental trials. glucose, olive oil, peptone and fecl3.6h2o were found to have more significance on lipase production by candida rugosa. maximum lipase activity of 3.8 u ml(-1) was obtained at 50 h of fermentation period. the fermentation was carr ...200818589820
kinetics, mechanism, and time course analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of high concentration olive oil in aot-isooctane reversed micelles.candida rugosa lipase has been used to investigate the hydrolysis of high concentration olive oil in the aot-isooctane reversed micellar system at w(o) = 10, ph 7.1, and 37 degrees c. results from this work show the hydrolytic reaction obeys michaelis-menten kinetics up to the initial substrate concentration of 1.37m, with turnover number k(cat) and michaelis constant k(m) of 67.1 mumol/min mg enzyme and 0.717m, respectively. a competitive inhibition by the main product, oleic acid, has been fou ...199118600751
continuous hydrolysis of olive oil by immobilized lipase in organic solvent.lipase (ec from candida rugosa was immobilized with deae-sephadex a50, sephadex g50, sephadex lh-20, amberlite ira94, and amberlite xad-7. the enzyme immobilized with deae-sephadex a50 was found to be most effective for continuous hydrolysis of olive oil in isooctane. for the continuous reaction, 0.2 g of dry immobilized enzyme was swollen with predetermined amount of water, and packed in a glass column reactor. when the organic solvent (isooctane) containing olive oil substrate was co- ...199218601176
modeling lipolysis in a reversed micellar system: part i. conventional batch reactor.triglyceride hydrolysis using chromobacterium viscosum lipase b in a reversed micellar media was investigated in a batch-type reactor. the dynamic evolution of the product concentration was analyzed using several mechanistic models, both from the literature and developed in this work. a kinetic model with nonlinear product inhibition was found to be the most adequate for the description of batch hydrolysis data over an extensive range of time and substrate concentration. the obtained rate equati ...199318613109
lipase immobilized on hydrophobic porous polymer supports prepared by concentrated emulsion polymerization and their activity in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides.microporous polymer supports for the immobilization of lipase have been prepared by the polymerization of a concentrated emulsion precursor. the concentrated emulsion consists of a mixture of styrene and divinyl-benzene containing a suitable surfactant and an initiator as the continuous phase and water as the dispersed phase. the volume fraction of the latter phase was greater than 0.74, which is the volume fraction of the dispersed phase for the most compact arrangement of spheres of equal radi ...199318613129
surfactant-induced breakthrough effects during the operation of two-phase biocatalytic membrane reactors.surface-active components, both reactants and products, are frequently encountered in two-phase, aqueous-organic, biocatalytic reactions, when such reaction are carried out in a membrane reactor, employing a membrane selectively wetted by one of the two reactants, changes in the content of these surfactants--as a consequence of the progress of the reaction--can lead to wetting transitions at the two membrane-liquid interfaces as a result of adsorption of the tenside. this can lead to a decrease ...199418618837
effects of sorbitol addition on the action of free and immobilized hydrolytic enzymes in organic media.the effect of the addition of sorbitol on the activity and stability of enzymes was examined by monitoring transesterification reactions performed in organic media at various water activities (a(w) = 0.08 to 0.97). lipases from chromobacterium viscosum and candida rugosa immobilized on celite, and chymotrypsin, free or immobilized on celite, were used. when the sorbitol-containing enzymes were employed, higher reaction rates and less hydrolysis were observed. immobilization of chymotrypsin resul ...199518623233
a comparison of lipase-catalyzed ester hydrolysis in reverse micelles, organic solvents, and biphasic systems.the performance of lipases from candida rugosa and wheat germ have been investigated in three reaction media using three acetate hydrolyses as model reactions (ethyl acetate, allyl acetate, and prenyl acetate). the effect of substrate properties and water content were studied for each system (organic solvent, biphasic system, and reverse micelles). not unexpectedly, the effect of water content is distinct for each system, and the optimal water content for enzyme activity is not always the same a ...199518623367
structured modeling and state estimation in a fermentation process: lipase production by candida rugosa.a simple structured mathematical model coupled with a methodology of state and parameter estimation is developed for lipase production by candida rugosa in batch fermentation. the model describes the system according to the following qualitative observations and hypothesis: lipase production is induced by extracellular oleic acid present in the medium. the acid is transported into the cell where it is consumed, transformed, and stored. lipase is excreted to the medium where it is distributed bet ...199518623525
continuous in situ water activity control for organic phase biocatalysis in a packed bed hollow fiber reactor.packed bed hollow fiber membrane reactors were used to carry out organic phase biocatalysis at constant water activity. the performance of the device was tested by carrying out the esterification of dodecanol and decanoic acid in hexane. lipase from candida rugosa, immobilized on microporous polypropylene and packed in the shell space of the reactor, was used to catalyze the reaction. in situ water activity control was accomplished by pumping appropriate saturated salt solutions through the micr ...199618623579
immobilization of candida rugosa lipase to nylon fibers using its carbohydrate groups as the chemical link.the aim of this study was to evaluate the immobilization of lipase from candida rugosa on a nylon support by methods used to attach biomolecules to solid supports through their carbohydrate moieties. the carbohydrate groups were converted to dialdehydes by treatment with sodium periodate. the length of exposure and the periodate amount were optimized to the point where almost total activity retention was obtained. tests of the immobilized enzyme showed the expressed activity to be significantly ...199618624365
optimized enzymatic synthesis of geranyl butyrate with lipase ay from candida rugosa.response surface methodology (rsm) and five-level, five-variable central composite rotatable design (ccrd) were used to evaluate the effects of synthetic variables, such as reaction time (1-9 h), temperature (25-65 degrees c), enzyme amount (10-50%), substrate molar ratio of geraniol to tributyrin (1:0.33-1:1), and added water amount (0-20%) on molar percent yield of geranyl butyrate, using lipase ay from candida rugosa. reaction time and temperature were the most important variables and substra ...199618624369
extraordinary enantiospecificity of lipase catalysis in organic media induced by purification and catalyst engineering.a purified lipase preparation from candida rugosa was compared to its crude counterpart in anhydrous and slightly hydrated hydrophobic organic solvents. the purified lipase preparation was less active than the crude enzyme in dry n-heptane, whereas the presence of small concentrations of added water dramatically activated the purified enzyme but not the crude enzyme. thus, in the presence of as little as 0.25 microl/ml of added water in n-heptane, the purified enzyme is over 230-fold more active ...199618629896
influence of the nature of modifier in the enzymatic activity of chemical modified semipurified lipase from candida rugosa.semipurified lipase of candida rugosa (crsl) was subjected to chemical modification, and the activities of the modified lipase, in hydrolysis and esterification reactions, were examined. the esterification reactions were carried out in the absence and presence of isooctane. when the enzyme was modified with polyethylene glycol (peg), two methodologies were studied. the activation of peg with p-no(2)-phenylchloroformate gives better biocatalysts than those obtained with cyanuric chloride-peg. the ...199718636483
synthesis of lovastatin with immobilized candida rugosa lipase in organic solvents: effects of reaction conditions on initial rates.lipase from candida rugosa immobilized on a nylon support has been used to synthesize lovastatin, a drug which lowers serum cholesterol levels, by the regioselective acylation of a diol lactone precursor with 2-methylbutyric acid in mixtures of organic solvents. analogs of lovastatin having a different side chain were also obtained through this method by reacting the diol substrate with different carboxylic acids. the selection of reaction conditions that maximize the initial reaction rate is in ...199718642339
immobilization of lipases on hydrophobilized zirconia nanoparticles: highly enantioselective and reusable biocatalysts.our study has demonstrated for the first time that zirconia nanoparticles modified by a simple carboxylic surfactant of a very long alkyl chain can significantly enhance the activity of the immobilized lipases for asymmetric synthesis in organic media. zirconia nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm diameter were grafted with carboxylic surfactant modifiers from tween 85 and erucic acid. the surface of nanoparticles was successfully changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. lipases from candida rugosa and ps ...200818656972
microbial spoilage of date rutab collected from the markets of al-hofuf city in the kingdom of saudi arabia.microbial spoilage was monitored in 520 samples of dates in the rutab stage purchased from retail outlets in al-hofuf city, saudi arabia, and incubated in the laboratory under different conditions. no spoilage was observed in 130 samples incubated in open containers at 5 or 30 degrees c for up to 60 days. spoilage occurred in 42 of 130 samples incubated in covered containers at 5 degrees c after about 80 days and was caused mainly by penicillium spp. and cladosporium spp. mixed populations of la ...200818680940
langmuir-blodgett based lipase nanofilms of unique structure-function relationship.proteins represent versatile building blocks for realization of nanostructured materials of unique structure-function relationship to be applied in nanobiotechnology. following a recent work [bruzzese, d., pastorino, l., pechkova, e., sivozhelezov, nicolini, c., increase of catalytic activity of lipase towards olive oil by langmuir-film immobilization of lipase, enzyme and microbial technology, submitted for publication.], the langmuir-blodgett technique was utilized to develop nanostructured cr ...200818721850
preparation of nucleoside-carbohydrate phosphodiester prodrug analogues by chemoenzymatic efficient synthesis protocol for the glucosyl-nucleoside phosphodiester derivatives has been developed. these mononucleotides were designed to act as pronucleotides with potential to deliver the parent compound as its monophosphate. key step of the synthesis is the regioselective hydrolysis of peracetylated alpha-d-glucose catalyzed by candida rugosa lipase.200818776273
evaluation of new colorimetric vitek 2 yeast identification card by use of different source media.the new colorimetric vitek 2 yst card was evaluated for identification of yeasts (136 strains) with respect to the influence of different source media. the vitek 2 yst card achieved satisfactory results for all yeast species tested, with the exception of candida guilliermondii, candida norvegensis, candida parapsilosis, candida rugosa, and candida tropicalis. after simple additional tests, 93.7% of all the strains tested were correctly identified. a significant influence of the isolation medium ...200818799700
antimicrobial effects of turkish propolis, pollen, and laurel on spoilage and pathogenic food-related microorganisms.the antimicrobial activities of propolis extract, pollen extract, and essential oil of laurel (laurus nobilis l.) at concentrations from 0.02% to 2.5% (vol/vol) were investigated on bacteria (bacillus cereus, bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, staphylococcus aureus, yersinia enterocolitica, enterococcus faecalis, and listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida rugosa), and molds (aspergillus niger and rhizopus oryzae). pollen has no antimicrobi ...200818800911
esterification and hydrolytic activities of candida rugosa lipase isoform 1 (lip1) immobilized on celite 545, duolite a7, and sephadex g-25.the esterification and hydrolytic activities of free and immobilized candida rugosa lipase isoform 1 (lip1) were investigated. esterification activity was determined by reacting caprylic acid with glycerol in the presence of molecular sieves (30%, w/w), and the volume of 1.0 m naoh consumed by the reaction products upon titration was used to calculate esterification activity. caprylic acid was also reacted with cottonseed oil, and the amount of caprylic acid incorporated after 12 h of reaction w ...200818850711
[in vitro amphotericin b susceptibility of korean bloodstream yeast isolates assessed by the clsi broth microdilution method, etest, and minimum fungicidal concentration test].although amphotericin b (amb) has a wide spectrum of activity that encompasses the majority of yeast isolates, there have been recent reports suggesting that some yeast isolates exhibit decreased susceptibility to amb. however, in vitro amb susceptibility of yeast species isolates from blood cultures in korea has not been fully surveyed.200818971615
pretreatment of candida rugosa lipase with soybean oil before immobilization on beta-cyclodextrin-based this study, candida rugosa lipase was pretreated with soybean oil in order to allow fatty acids to bond to the active site before immobilization. the pretreated c. rugosa lipase was immobilized on beta-cyclodextrin-based polymer by crosslinking with hexamethylene diisocyanate (hmdi). this pretreated lipase exhibited steric hindrance around the active site such that during immobilization, covalent bonds were formed between the carrier and the lipase region far from the active site. the pretrea ...200919091527
optimization of the process for biodiesel production using a mixture of immobilized rhizopus oryzae and candida rugosa this study, the enzymatic process for biodiesel production was optimized using a mixture of immobilized rhizopus oryzae and candida rugosa lipases. the optimal temperature and agitation speed for biodiesel production were 45oc and 300 rpm, respectively. the optimal ratio of r. oryzae and c. rugosa lipases in the mixture was 3:1 (w:w). when 3mmol of methanol was the initial reaction medium and 3mmol of methanol was added every 1.5 h during biodiesel production, biodiesel conversion was over 98 ...200819131695
stepwise esterification of phytosterols with conjugated linoleic acid catalyzed by candida rugosa lipase in solvent-free medium.we conducted a near quantitative esterification of phytosterols from soybean oil deodorizer distillate with conjugated linoleic acid. we used a 1:1 molar ratio of sterols to conjugated linoleic acid. for that matter, stepwise addition of sterols was investigated. total sterols were divided into several portions and added sequentially to the reaction mixture. using this methodology, purities of up to 80% steryl esters were obtained that consumed more than 90% of the total conjugated linoleic acid ...200819134551
biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by non-conventional yeasts.the ability of lipolytic yeasts to grow on olive mill wastewater (omw)-based medium and to produce high-value compounds while degrading this waste, was tested. omw collected from three-phase olive mills from the north region of portugal were characterized and used. omw with cod ranging from 100 g l(-1) to 200 g l(-1) were supplemented with yeast extract and ammonium chloride. studies of omw consumption were carried out in batch cultures of candida rugosa, candida cylindracea and yarrowia lipolyt ...200919231162
screening of food grade lipases to be used in esterification and interesterification reactions of industrial food grade commercially available lipases were immobilized by covalent binding on polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol (pos-pva) hybrid composite and screened to mediate reactions of industrial interest. the synthesis of butyl butyrate and the interesterification of tripalmitin with triolein were chosen as model reactions. the highest esterification activity (240.63 microm/g min) was achieved by candida rugosa lipase, while the highest interesterification yield (31%, in 72 h) was achieved by lip ...201019263247
study of a sterol esterase secreted by ophiostoma piceae: sequence, model and biochemical extracellular sterol esterase from ophiostoma piceae efficiently hydrolyzes sterol esters, triglycerides and p-nitrophenol esters. cdna was screened with a probe obtained by pcr using as primers oligonucleotides corresponding to the n-terminal and internal mature enzyme sequences and complete sequence was obtained by 3' rapid amplification of cdna end (race) and inverse pcr. the o. piceae esterase gene had a length of 1.8 kbp and lacked introns. a search for proteins with related amino acid s ...200919281875
effects of alcohol and buffer treatments on the activity and enantioselectivity of candida rugosa lipase.several treatments were employed on candida rugosa lipase (crl) to improve its biocatalytic performance. besides conventional alcohol treatment conditions, the effects of ph of the buffer solution used in the treatment as well as the changes in stirring, dialysis, and centrifugation steps of the treatment procedure were investigated for the first time for the resolution of racemic naproxen methyl ester. the highest enantioselectivity and conversion in s-naproxen production were achieved by crl t ...200919291575
production of ricinoleic acid from castor oil by immobilised lipases.porcine pancreatic lipase (ppl), candida rugosa lipase (crl), and castor bean lipase (cbl) were immobilized on celite by deposition from aqueous solution by the addition of hexane. lipolytic performance of free and immobilized lipases were compared and optimizations of lipolytic enzymatic reactions conditions were performed by free and immobilized derivatives using olive oil as substrate. afterwards, the influence on lipolysis of castor oil of free lipases and immobilized lipase derivatives have ...200919291579
reversible immobilization of candida rugosa lipase on fibrous polymer grafted and sulfonated p(hema/egdma) beads.poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/ethylenglycol dimethacrylate) beads were grafted with poly(glycidylmethacrylate) via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. epoxy groups of the grafted polymer were modified in to sulfone groups. sulfonated beads were characterized by swelling studies, ft-ir, sem and elemental analysis, and were used for reversible immobilization of lipase. under given experimental conditions, the beads had an adsorption capacity of 44.7 mg protein/g beads. the a ...201019350276
lipase nanogel catalyzed transesterification in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide.the present work showed that candida rugosa lipase, which is inactive in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso), has been granted its original catalytic activity and greatly enhanced stability when encapsulated into a polyacrylamide nanogel. the molecular simulation and structural analysis suggested that the polyacrylamide nanogel shielded the extraction of essential water and maintained the native configuration of encapsulated lipase in anhydrous dmso at an elevated temperature. the electron and f ...200919361213
effect of a buffer mixture system on the activity of lipases during immobilization this study, the effects of various buffers and ionic strengths on the immobilization of candida rugosa and rhizopus oryzae lipases were investigated to enhance the activities of the immobilized lipases. among the various buffers, the optimal buffers and ionic strength for the immobilization of c. rugosa and r. oryzae lipases were determined to be a mixture of 0.25m mops and sodium phosphate buffer (ph 6.5). moreover, the activities of immobilized c. rugosa and r. oryzae lipases under their op ...201019361984
impact of inoculation strategy on the progress of candida rugosa cultivation.batch cultivation of candida rugosa for the production of lipase and esterase enzymes was carried out by employing two different inoculation strategies. the effects of triolein (2, 3 and 5 g/l) and oleic acid (3 g/l) as carbon sources of the enzyme production medium on the activity, productivity, and yield of enzymes were also compared for both strategies. inoculation of the cells into the enzyme production medium either directly or after cultivation in a pre-culture medium rich in glucose affec ...200919412822
maximization of bioconversion of castor oil into ricinoleic acid by response surface this study, response surface methodology was applied to optimize process variables like temperature, ph, enzyme concentration (mg/g oil), and buffer concentration (g/g oil) for hydrolysis of castor oil using candida rugosa lipase. a 2(4) full factorial central composite design was used to develop the quadratic model that was subsequently optimized and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 40 degrees c, ph 7.72, enzyme concentration 5.28 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 1g/g oil an ...200919419859
media formulation using complex organic nutrients for improved activity, productivity, and yield of candida rugosa lipase and esterase enzymes.candida rugosa is an excellent source of multiple lipase and esterase enzymes; therefore, it is of technological importance to formulate the medium that provides high activity for each enzyme. in this work, the cultivation medium comprising complex nutrients that provided the highest activity, productivity, and yield of c. rugosa enzymes individually was formulated. time courses of the extracellular and intracellular lipase and esterase activities of c. rugosa were represented and the role of pr ...200919431047
commercially viable resolution of ibuprofen.ibuprofen belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsaid) family known as profens. studies demonstrate that (s-ibuprofen is 160 times more potent than (r-ibuprofen in vitro, while the accumulation of (r-ibuprofen can cause serious side effects such as gastrointestinal pain. candida rugosa lipase was used to enantioselectively esterify racemic ibuprofen with decan-1-ol and butan-1-ol in cyclohexane with an enantiomeric ratio (e) of 130 and 46, respectively, in up to 46% conversion. se ...200919455529
modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking.previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. two main issues were discussed. first, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions.200919493341
production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from acrylic acid by newly isolated rhodococcus erythropolis lg12.a novel microorganism, designated as lg12, was isolated from soil based on its ability to use acrylic acid as the sole carbon source. an electron microscopic analysis of its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic classification by 16s rrna homology showed that the lg12 strain belongs to rhodococcus erythropolis. r. erythropolis lg12 was able to metabolize a high concentration of acrylic acid (up to 40 g/l). in addition, r. erythropolis lg12 exhibited the highest acrylic acid-degrading ac ...200919494695
immobilization of candida rugosa lipase on sporopollenin from lycopodium clavatum.sporopollenin is a natural polymer obtained from lycopodium clavatum, which is highly stable with constant chemical structure and has high resistant capacity to chemical attack. in this study, immobilization of lipase from candida rugosa (crl) on sporopollenin by adsorption method is reported for the first time. besides this, the enzyme adsorption capacity, activity and thermal stability of immobilized enzyme have also been investigated. it has been observed that under the optimum conditions (sp ...200919583977
evaluation of chrom-pal medium for the isolation and direct identification of candida dubliniensis in primary cultures from the oral cavity.candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from oral specimens, but the recovery of other candida species such as candida dubliniensis is increasing. differentiation of c. dubliniensis from c. albicans requires special tests and both species are misidentified in some studies. chrom-pal (ch-p) is a novel chromogenic medium used in our laboratory for differentiation between c. albicans and c. dubliniensis on the basis of colony colour and morphology, and chlamydospore production. the ...200919608690
understanding structural features of microbial lipases--an overview.the structural elucidations of microbial lipases have been of prime interest since the 1980s. knowledge of structural features plays an important role in designing and engineering lipases for specific purposes. significant structural data have been presented for few microbial lipases, while, there is still a structure-deficit, that is, most lipase structures are yet to be resolved. a search for 'lipase structure' in the rcsb protein data bank ( returns only 93 hits (as o ...200819609386
surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using candida rugosa this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using candida rugosa lipase. the most effective surfactant was span 80. employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees c and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas ph, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. a 2(4) full factorial central composite ...201019717301
hydrogels of n-isopropylacrylamide copolymers with controlled release of a model protein.temperature- and ph-sensitive hydrogels, based on n-isopropylacrylamide (nipaam) and itaconic acid (ia), were synthesized by free radical crosslinking copolymerization in the presence of lipase from candida rugosa. the samples were characterized for their sensitivity to the changes of external conditions and the ability to control the release of a hydrophilic model protein, lipase. these hydrogels were highly responsive to temperature and ph, at constant ionic strength. parameters, such as the c ...201019747965
minor enantiomer recycling: metal catalyst, organocatalyst and biocatalyst working in concert.a minor enantiomer recycling one-pot procedure employing two reinforcing chiral catalysts has been developed. continuous regeneration of the achiral starting material is effected via selective enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the minor product enantiomer from lewis acid-lewis base catalyzed addition of acyl cyanides to prochiral aldehydes in a two-phase solvent system. the process provides o-acylated cyanohydrins in close to perfect enantioselectivities, higher than those obtained in the direct pr ...200919768712
dual response surface-optimized synthesis of l-menthyl conjugated linoleate in solvent-free system by candida rugosa lipase.lipase-catalyzed synthesis of l-menthyl conjugated linoleate in solvent-free system was studied in this paper. duel response surface methodology was employed to explore the factors which would influence the reaction conversion by a range of independent experiments. the conditions of reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme amount, substrate molar ratio and water content were symmetrically investigated. when the substrates were 1 mmol cla and 1 mmol l-menthol, the maximum conversion (79.1+/-0. ...201019833506
cloning of a novel lipase gene, lipj08, from candida rugosa and expression in pichia pastoris by codon optimization.a novel lipase gene, lipj08, was cloned from candida rugosa atcc14830, along with the already reported five lipase genes (lip1-lip5). nucleotide sequencing indicated that the lipj08 gene contains a 1650 bp open reading frame (orf) without introns. the deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to 534 amino acid residues, including a putative signal sequence of 15 amino acid residues. seventeen of the non-universal serine codons (ctg) of lipj08 were converted into universal serine codons (tct) by pc ...201019841868
candida rugosa lipase lip1-polyethyleneglycol interaction and the relation with its partition in aqueous two-phase systems.the interaction between a lipase from candida rugosa (lip1) and polyethyleneglycols of different molecular masses was studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism approaches in order to be applied to the analysis of the enzyme partition mechanism in aqueous two-phase systems of polyethyleneglycol-potassium phosphate. the decrease of the partition coefficients with the polyethyleneglycol molecular mass showed that the enzyme partition is driven by the excluded volume effect and not by the en ...201019846284
stabilization of candida rugosa lipase during transacetylation with vinyl optimally prepared candida rugosa lipase aggregate cross-linked with bovine serum albumin, was found to overcome acetaldehyde deactivation during transacetylation of a series of benzyl alcohols with vinyl acetate. the formulation, under the same reaction conditions, exhibited 4-30x enhancement in the reaction rate as compared to the celite immobilized lyophilized formulation and 25-133x enhancement as compared to the free lyophilized enzyme depending upon the alcohol chosen. the racemic 1-phe ...201019854046
development of batch and continuous processes on biodiesel production in a packed-bed reactor by a mixture of immobilized candida rugosa and rhizopus oryzae this study, transesterification and esterification were investigated in batch and continuous process using immobilized candida rugosa and rhizopus oryzae lipases. in the case of batch process, stepwise reaction method was investigated to prevent the lipase deactivation. reaction conditions were as follows: temperature, 45 degrees c; agitation speed, 250 rpm; enzyme concentration, 20%; and water contents 10%. and then, conversion yield was 98.33% at 4 h. in the case of continuous process, circ ...201019898962
identification of candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in western this study, identification of 207 candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using api 20 c aux system. the most frequently isolated species were candida krusei (34.8%), followed by candida rugosa (16.4%), candida kefyr (12.6%), candida albicans (10.1%), and candida tropicalis (9.2%). less common isolates were candida zeylanoides (5.8%), candida parapsilosis (4.3%), candida guilliermondii (3.4%), candida famata (1.9%), and c ...201019921462
candida rugosa: a distinctive emerging cause of candidaemia. a case report and review of the literature.candida rugosa is a rare cause of candidaemia, but important to recognize because of frequent azole-resistance and its association with catheters and total parenteral nutrition. recommended therapy is an echinocandin or amphotericin, and catheter discontinuation. fluconazole might be substituted based on susceptibility testing and a clinical response to initial therapy.200919922077
rigorous kinetic model considering positional specificity of lipase for enzymatic stepwise hydrolysis of triolein in biphasic oil-water system.a rigorous kinetic model describing the stepwise triglyceride hydrolysis at the oil-water interface, based on the ping pong bi bi mechanism using suspended lipase having positional specificity, was constructed. the preference of the enzyme to cleave to the ester bonds at the edge and the center of the glycerol backbone of the substrates (tri-, di- or monoglyceride) was incorporated in the model. this model was applied to the experimental results for triolein hydrolysis using suspended porcine pa ...201020024663
synthesis of terpinyl acetate by lipase-catalyzed esterification in supercritical carbon dioxide.terpinyl acetate was successfully synthesized from alpha-terpineol and acetic anhydride in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-co(2)) by enzymatic catalysis. five different lipases (candida rugosa type vii, amano ps, amano ap-6, amano g and lipozyme rm im) as biocatalysts for the terpinyl acetate synthesis were compared. an esterification extent of 53.0% was obtained in continuous operation using acetic anhydride as acyl donor and c. rugosa lipase as enzyme at 10mpa and 50 degrees c for 1.5h. tempe ...201020096575
cloning of the zygosaccharomyces bailii gas1 homologue and effect of cell wall engineering on protein secretory phenotype.zygosaccharomyces bailii is a diploid budding yeast still poorly characterized, but widely recognised as tolerant to several stresses, most of which related to industrial processes of production. because of that, it would be very interesting to develop its ability as a cell factory. gas1p is a beta-1,3-glucanosyltransglycosylase which plays an important role in cell wall construction and in determining its permeability. cell wall defective mutants of saccharomyces cerevisiae and pichia pastoris, ...201020102600
effect of pore diameter and cross-linking method on the immobilization efficiency of candida rugosa lipase in sba-15.the influences of pore diameter and cross-linking method on the immobilization efficiency of candida rugosa lipase (crl) in a mesoporous material have been investigated. five kinds of sba-15 with different pore-sizes (6.8nm, 9.1nm, 13.2nm, 15.6nm and 22.4nm) were chosen as the carrier. the one with pore diameter of 15.6nm was proved to be a more suitable immobilization support than the others, and the loading amount reached 343.6mg/g. to solve the leaching problem of the adsorbed enzyme, chitosa ...201020116998
[candida rugosa fungemia: new emergent infection case]. 201020140322
structural classification by the lipase engineering database: a case study of candida antarctica lipase a.the lipase engineering database (led) integrates information on sequence, structure and function of lipases, esterases and related proteins with the alpha/beta hydrolase fold. a new superfamily for candida antarctica lipase a (cala) was introduced including the recently published crystal structure of cala. since cala has a highly divergent sequence in comparison to other alpha/beta hydrolases, the lipase engineering database was used to classify cala in the frame of the already established class ...201020170513
effect of oxidation level of n(+)-type mesoporous silicon surface on the adsorption and the catalytic activity of candida rugosa this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of n(+)-type porous silicon (psi) layers. our final aim is the fabrication of a biosensor that exploits the semiconductive properties of this material. psi wafers were used as a matrix for enzyme adsorption. these wafers, as a result of their porous nanostructure, had a high surface area (360m(2)/g) and pore size in the range 5-20nm. the freshly prepared psi was stabilized through controlled anodic oxidation. two classes of samples diff ...201020188377
lipase-catalyzed production of a bioactive terpene ester in supercritical carbon esterification of alpha-terpineol and acetic anhydride catalyzed by candida rugosa lipase was performed in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-co(2)) with organic solvent serving as co-solvents. the highest yield of terpinyl acetate after 1.5h of reaction performance (95.1%) was obtained in sc-co(2) with n-heptane serving as a co-solvent and immobilized candida rugosa lipase as an enzyme at 50 degrees c. the optimal pressure for terpinyl acetate synthesis in sc-co(2) medium was 10 mpa. aceti ...201020219605
multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds.the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the bangsar suburb of kuala lumpur.201020307325
[yeasts in domestic animals: species identification and susceptibility to antifungals].yeasts frequently colonize various kinds of domestic animals, but may also cause serious diseases. the aim of this study was to identify yeast isolates collected from dogs, cows and pigs, and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. fifty-six yeast isolates from dogs (n = 24), cows (n = 20), and pigs (n = 12) were investigated. appearance of colonies grown on sabouraud agar, micromorphology on rice agar, as well as assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen source ...201020401831
staphylococcal lipases stereoselectively hydrolyse the sn-2 position of monomolecular films of diglyceride analogs. application to sn-2 hydrolysis of triolein.using the monomolecular film technique, a kinetic study on the stereoselectivity of nine staphylococcal lipase forms was carried out with three pairs of enantiomers from diglyceride analogs (didecanoyl-deoxyamino-o-methyl glycerol, ddg) containing a single hydrolysable decanoyl ester group and two lipase-resistant groups. our results show that the kinetic profiles of the wild type, the recombinant untagged and the recombinant tagged forms of staphylococcal lipases are significantly different. as ...201020403605
immobilization of cross-linked lipase aggregates onto magnetic beads for enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone.candida rugosa lipase was immobilized on amino-functionalized magnetic supports via cross-linked enzyme aggregates (clea) and used to enhance the enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone (pcl). the maximum amounts of lipase immobilized on the magnetic beads using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent were determined to be 33.7 mg/g of beads with an 81% recovery of activity after immobilization. compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized lipase showed the optimum ph at 1 unit higher (ph 8.0) and ...201020473952
miniemulsion as efficient system for enzymatic synthesis of acid alkyl esters.the aim of this work is to devise an efficient enzymatic process for the production of linear alkyl esters in aqueous miniemulsion systems. the esterification reactions of linear alcohols and carboxylic acids were performed with three different enzymes, commercial amano lipase ps from pseudomonas cepacia, lipase type vii from candida rugosa, and lyophilized fusarium solani pisi cutinase expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae su50. the miniemulsion system shows a high potential for the synthesis o ...201020503297
fungal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: an analysis of 21 cases.fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (pd). we aimed to analyze the predisposing factors, clinical aspects, etiological agents, and treatment of fungal peritonitis in patients with pd in our hospital.201120526810
influence of alcohol treatments on the activity of lipases immobilized on methyl-modified silica aerogels.the effects of alcohol treatment on the activity and loading amount of candida rugosa lipase (crl), candida antarctica lipase b (calb) and porcine pancreas lipase (ppl) immobilized on methyl-modified silica aerogels were investigated, and the fluorescent analysis was used to explore the change of lipase hydrophobicity in aqueous solution caused by alcohols. it is found that alcohol types and the stages at which alcohol was added significantly influenced the performance of immobilized lipases thr ...201020576560
determination of total glutathione in yeasts by high-performance liquid chromatography with dansylation.a method to determine the content of total glutathione (gsht) was introduced based on high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) with dansylation. the minimum detection concentration of gsht was 0.5 microg/ml and the measurable range 1.0-300 microg/ml. gsht in yeasts was obtained by hot-water extraction, gsh complete autoxidation to oxidized glutathione (gssg) in alkaline solution and purification by thin-layer chromatography (tlc). the quantitative determination of gssg was derived by dansyl ...201020653242
candida rugosa: a possible emerging cause of candidaemia in trauma patients.candida rugosa appears to be emerging as a distinctive cause of candidaemia in recent years. candidaemia due to this species is important to recognise because of its decreased susceptibility to azoles.201020658166
determination of microbial diversity in meju, fermented cooked soya beans, using nested pcr-denaturing gradient gel identify the microbiota in meju, fermented cooked soya beans, that may directly affect the microbial communities of korean fermented soya bean foods.201020704651
solvent-induced lid opening in lipases: a molecular dynamics most lipases, a mobile lid covers the substrate binding site. in this closed structure, the lipase is assumed to be inactive. upon activation of the lipase by contact with a hydrophobic solvent or at a hydrophobic interface, the lid opens. in its open structure, the substrate binding site is accessible and the lipase is active. the molecular mechanism of this interfacial activation was studied for three lipases (from candida rugosa, rhizomucor miehei, and thermomyces lanuginosa) by multiple m ...201020812327
biodiesel production by a mixture of candida rugosa and rhizopus oryzae lipases using a supercritical carbon dioxide this study, various factors, such as temperature, pressure, agitation speed, water content, and the concentration and ratio of immobilized rol and crl were investigated for the efficient enzymatic production of biodiesel using a supercritical carbon dioxide process. furthermore, a stepwise reaction method for the maintenance of immobilized lipase activity was optimized. optimal conditions for biodiesel production were determined to be as follows: 130 bar pressure, 45 °c temperature, 250 rpm a ...201120813518
peritonitis due to candida rugosa: the first case report. 201020829554
immobilization of candida rugosa lipase on glass beads for enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic naproxen methyl ester.candida rugosa lipase (crl) was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated aminopropyl glass beads by using covalent binding method or sol-gel encapsulation procedure and improved considerably by fluoride-catalyzed hydrolysis of mixtures of rsi(och3)3 and si(och3)4. the catalytic properties of the immobilized lipases were evaluated into model reactions, i.e. the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylpalmitate (p-npp). it has been observed that the percent activity yield of the encapsulated lipase was 166.9, w ...201120846857
site-specific saturation mutagenesis on residues 132 and 450 of candida rugosa lip2 enhances catalytic efficiency and alters substrate specificity in various chain lengths of triglycerides and esters.the catalytic versatility of recombinant candida rugosa lip2 has been known to have potential applications in industry. in this study, site-specific saturation mutagenesis on residues l132 and g450 of recombinant lip2 has been employed to investigate the impact of both residues on substrate specificity of lip2. point mutations on l132 and g450 were done separately using mutagenic degenerate primer sets containing 32 codons to generate two libraries of mutants in pichia pastoris . replacements of ...201020873770
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