mechanism of choline o-sulphate utilization in fungi.1. the position of the enzyme blocks in a number of parathiotrophic mutants of aspergillus nidulans a 69 and mutants a and c of a biotinless mutant of aspergillus nidulans were examined by nutritional and heterokaryosis experiments and by assay in vitro of enzyme systems and specific enzymes. 2. the mutants were in five groups: a and c blocked at sulphate transport; gamma at atp sulphurylase; iota at adenosine 5'-sulphatophosphate kinase; eta at the adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate re ...19685637353
induced mutation in uv-sensitive mutants of aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa. 19685672966
an acetohydroxy acid synthetase from neurospora crassa. 19685677177
the metabolism of aromatic acids by micro-organisms. metabolic pathways in the fungi.1. the metabolic pathways of aromatic-ring fission were examined in a range of fungal genera that utilize several compounds related to lignin. 2. most of the genera, after growth on p-hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate or compounds that are degraded to the latter (e.g. caffeate, ferulate or vanillate), rapidly oxidized these compounds, but not catechol. 3. such genera possessed a protocatechuate 3,4-oxygenase and accumulated beta-carboxymuconate as the product of protocatechuate oxidation. this en ...19685691754
the metabolism of aromatic acids by micro-organisms. a reassessment of the role of o-benzoquinone as a product of protocatechuate metabolism by fungi.1. the addition of aniline to cultures of several yeasts, fusarium oxysporum and neurospora crassa growing with protocatechuate as sole carbon source resulted in the precipitation of dianilino-o-benzoquinone (anil). this product was also formed, however, if the medium was uninoculated. 2. the physical presence of yeast cells (living or dead) increased the anil yields in debaryomyces subglobosus cultures. 3. no anil was formed if p-hydroxybenzoate was the growth substrate. 4. o-benzoquinone was a ...19685691755
thymidine kinase: evidence for its absence from neurospora crassa and some other micro-organisms, and the relevance of this to the specific labelling of deoxyribonucleic acid. 19685729618
mutagen specificity at the ad-3a and inositol loci in neurospora crassa. 19695796512
organization of enzymes in the common aromatic synthetic pathway: evidence for aggregation in fungi.centrifugation in sucrose density gradients of partially purified extracts from six species of fungi, i.e., rhizopus stolonifer, phycomyces nitens, absidia glauca (phycomycetes), aspergillus nidulans (ascomycetes), coprinus lagopus, and ustilago maydis (basidiomycetes), indicate that the five enzymes catalyzing steps two to six in the prechorismic acid part of the polyaromatic synthetic pathway sediment together. the sedimentation coefficients for these enzymes are very similar in the six specie ...19695802608
electrical properties of neurospora crassa. respiration and the intracellular potential.the internal potential of neurospora appears to have two components, one (a) which is reduced by anoxia or abolished by respiratory inhibitors such as azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol, and (b) a fraction that remains in the presence of respiratory inhibitors and is sensitive to the external potassium concentration. under standard conditions 1 mm azide or dinitrophenol diminishes internal potentials from near -200 mv to about -30 mv within 1 minute and at a maximal rate of 20 mv/second. the internal p ...19655862508
[investigations on the biosynthesis of glycine in neurospora crassa, wild type and mutants]. 19655881618
susceptibility and resistance of several fungi to microbial lysis.potgieter, h. j. (cornell university, ithaca, n.y.), and m. alexander. susceptibility and resistance of several fungi to microbial lysis. j. bacteriol. 91:1526-1532. 1966.-strains of streptomyces, nocardia, and pseudomonas capable of lysing hyphae of fusarium solani or neurospora crassa were obtained by selective culture, but attempts to isolate an organism lysing rhizoctonia solani failed. when provided with f. solani or n. crassa as carbon sources, the actinomycetes tested produced beta-(1 --> ...19665929777
regulation of glutamine synthetase. ii. patterns of feedback inhibition in microorganisms.the feedback inhibition of glutamine synthetase was investigated by use of partially purified enzyme preparations from salmonella typhimurium, micrococcus sodonensis, pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus cereus, bacillus licheniformis, clostridium pasteurianum, rhodospirillum rubrum, neurospora crassa, candida utilis, and chlorella pyrenoidosa. inhibition analyses indicated that the enzyme of each organism can be effectively regulated with mixtures of end products from the diverse pathways of gluta ...19676025412
thiamine-dependent accumulation of tetramethylpyrazine accompanying a mutation in the isoleucine-valine pathway.a mutant of corynebacterium glutamicum was found to accumulate high concentrations of a material which crystallized upon cooling of the broth. the compound was identified as tetramethylpyrazine. the mutant was found to require isoleucine, valine, leucine, and pantothenate for growth. all four requirements probably result from the loss of a single enzyme of the isoleucine-valine pathway. since similar mutants of neurospora crassa accumulate acetoin, the present mutant probably forms tetramethylpy ...19676039355
a repressible acid phosphatase in neurospora crassa. 19676040372
localization of structural polymers in the cell wall of neurospora crassa.the distribution and localization of structural polymers in the cell wall of neurospora crassa has been studied by selective removal and light and electron microscope examination. observations with the light microscope indicated that each polymer by itself can provide structural integrity to the cell wall. examination by electron microscopy showed that the cell wall consists of an outer layer of thick fibrils, identified chemically as a glucan-peptide-galactosamine complex, and an inner layer ma ...19676055990
inhibition of superoxide dismutase by nitroprusside and electron spin resonance observations on the formation of a superoxide-mediated nitroprusside nitroxyl free radical.nitroprusside appears to inhibit the known types of superoxide dismutases irrespective of their metal prosthetic group and regardless of the source from which the enzymes were isolated. thus the copper-zinc enzyme from bovine erythrocyte or neurospora crassa behaved identically as did the manganese enzymes from escherichia coli or red alga and the iron enzyme from e. coli and a blue-green alga. the inhibition was dose dependent with a ki = 2.5 x 10(-5) for nitroprusside. nitroprusside does not b ...19846092342
analysis of the structure and transcription of the aro3 cluster gene in schizosaccharomyces selecting activities to complement escherichia coli aro mutations, a gene responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in schizosaccharomyces pombe (aro3) was cloned into pbr322. three independent clones named pfna1, pfna2 and pfna3 were obtained. pfna1 could complement e. coli arod only, whereas the other two plasmids were able to complement both arod and aroe. the aro3 locus of s. pombe was found to be a gene cluster which can be subdivided into five complons, a through e (strau ...19846092844
the mitochondrial genome of the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe. 2. localization of genes by interspecific hybridization in strain ade7-50h- and cloning of the genome in small fragments.a series of 18 small overlapping restriction fragments has been cloned, covering the complete mitochondrial genome of schizosaccharomyces pombe. by hybridizing mitochondrial gene probes from saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa with restriction fragments of schizosaccharomyces pombe mitochondrial dna, the following homologous genes were localized on the mitochondrial genome of s. pombe: cob, cox1, cox2 and cox3, atpase subunit 6 and 9 genes, the large rrna gene and both types of open r ...19846094974
transformation of neurospora crassa with recombinant plasmids containing the cloned glutamate dehydrogenase (am) gene: evidence for autonomous replication of the transforming plasmid.we have characterized neurospora crassa transformants obtained with plasmid pjr2, which consists of the neurospora glutamate dehydrogenase (am) gene cloned in puc8 and an am132 host strain which contains a deletion encompassing the cloned fragment. every one of 33 transformants tested showed extreme meiotic instability: less than 1 or 2% am+ progeny were obtained in initial or successive backcrosses between am+ transformants and am132 or in intercrosses between am+ progeny. furthermore, am+ prog ...19846095037
[the mechanism of action of the herbicide n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine: its effect on the growth and the enzymes of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in escherichia coli (author's transl)].n-(phosphonomethyl) glycine prolongates the lag-phase and inhibits the growth rate of escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium and pseudomonas aureofaciens. the eucaryotes saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa are not inhibited. the effect of growth inhibition in an e. coli culture depends on the time of the herbicide addition and no cells showing resistance against it are observed. the inhibitory effect can be overcome completely by a mixture of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. ...19806105996
mutagenesis at the ad-3a and ad-3b loci in haploid uv-sensitive strains of neurospora crassa. iv. comparison of dose-response curves for mnng, 4nqo and icr-170 induced inactivation and mutation-induction.the genetic effects of mnng, 4nqo and icr-170 have been compared on 5 different uv-sensitive strains and a standard wild-type strain of neurospora crassa with regard to inactivation and the induction of forward-mutations at the ad-3a and ad-3b loci. whereas all uv-sensitive strains (upr-1, uvs-2, uvs-3, uvs-5 and uvs-6) are more sensitive to inactivation by mnng and icr-170 than wild-type, only uvs-5 shows survival comparable to wild-type after 4nqo treatment, all other strains are more sensitiv ...19816163076
different transport pathways of individual precursor proteins in mitochondria.transport of mitochondrial precursor proteins into mitochondria of neurospora crassa was studied in a cell-free reconstituted system. precursors were synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate programmed with neurospora mrna and transported into isolated mitochondria in the absence of protein synthesis. uptake of the following precursors was investigated: apocytochrome c, adp/atp carrier and subunit 9 of the oligomycin-sensitive atpase. addition of high concentrations of unlabelled chemically prepared ...19816167439
mutagenesis at the ad-3a and ad-3b loci in haploid uv-sensitive strains of neurospora crassa. vi. genetic characterization of ad-3 mutants provides evidence for qualitative differences in the spectrum of genetic alterations between wild-type and nucleotide excision-repair-deficient strains.genetic characterization of ad-3b mutants induced in wild-type and uv-sensitive strains has revealed qualitative differences between the spectra of genetic alterations at the molecular level. ad-3b mutants induced in the two nucleotide excision-repair-deficient strains upr-1 and uvs-2 (worthy and epler, 1973) had significantly lower frequencies of nonpolarized complementation patterns and higher frequencies of noncomplementing mutants than ad-3b mutants induced in the wild-type strain in samples ...19836188039
interactions between avian myeloblastosis reverse transcriptase and trnatrp. mapping of complexed trna with chemicals and nucleases.the interactions between beef trnatrp with avian myeloblastosis reverse transcriptase have been studied by statistical chemical modifications of phosphate (ethylnitrosourea) and cytidine (dimethyl sulfate) residues, as well as by digestion of complexed trna by cobra venom nuclease and neurospora crassa endonuclease. results with nucleases and chemicals show that reverse transcriptase interacts preferentially with the d arm, the anticodon stem and the t psi stem. all these regions are located in ...19846200830
preparative-scale isolation and purification of procaryotic and eucaryotic ribosomal 5 s rna: bacillus subtilis, neurospora crassa, and wheat germ.ribosomal 5 s rna from three different organisms has been isolated in high yield and purity. without prior isolation of ribosomes, a presoak in buffer followed by phenol extraction, de-32 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex g-75 gel-permeation chromatography yields at least 5-10 mg of electrophoretically homogeneous 5 s rna from 100 g of cells. ribonuclease activity is eliminated by various combinations of low temperature, sodium dodecyl sulfate, phenol, and bentonite. high-molecular-weigh ...19846204554
ultrastructural aspects of cytoplasmic ribosomes from histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis as revealed by heavy metal staining.cytoplasmic ribosomes were isolated and purified from sonicates of the mycelial and yeastlike growth forms of the pathogenic dimorphic fungi, histoplasma capsulatum and blastomyces dermatitidis. similar ribosomal fractions were prepared from neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae. these latter organisms were selected as typical filamentous and yeastlike monophasic fungi, and their ribosomes were used as reference standards. high resolution electron microscopy permitted a comparison of bo ...19846206396
extracellular acid proteases from neurospora crassa.three electrophoretically distinct acid proteases appear in culture filtrates of neurospora crassa. like the previously investigated alkaline and neutral proteases, these enzymes require induction by an exogenous protein. but in contrast to alkaline and neutral proteases, which are synthesized and secreted in response to limitation of any one of three nutrilites (carbon, nitrogen or sulfur), extracellular elaboration of the acidic proteases is more specifically a function of the missing nutrilit ...19826210687
primary structure of tyrosinase from neurospora crassa. i. purification and amino acid sequence of the cyanogen bromide fragments.cyanogen bromide (cb) cleavage of neurospora tyrosinase resulted in four major fragments, cb1 (222 residues), cb2 (82 residues), cb3 (68 residues), and cb4 (35 residues), and one minor overlap peptide cb2-4 (117 residues) due to incomplete cleavage of a methionylthreonyl bond. the sum of the amino acid residues of the four major fragments matches the total number of amino acid residues of the native protein. the amino acid sequences of the cyanogen bromide fragments cb2, cb3, and cb4 were determ ...19826210695
5'-untranslated sequences of two structural genes in the qa gene cluster of neurospora crassa.the coding regions of two genes (qa-2 and qa-3) in the qa gene cluster of neurospora crassa have been localized by nucleotide sequence analysis combined with data on previously determined nh2-terminal amino acid sequences for the proteins that these genes encode. the start point of transcription for each of these genes has been determined by nuclease s1 mapping experiments with poly(a)+rna isolated from quinic acid-induced cultures of n. crassa. the sequences of approximately 200 nucleotides 5' ...19826210913
the role of pyrimidine dimers in postreplication repair in neurospora.using the micrococcus luteus dimer specific endonuclease assay of wilkins (1973), and photoreactivation we have examined the induction and fate of ultraviolet induced pyrimidine dimers in the excision defective strain, uvs-2, of neurospora crassa. dimer induction was fluence dependent from 0 to 800 ergs/mm2 uv. an interdimer distance of 19.6 x 10(6) dna molecular weight was found after a fluence of 220 ergs/mm2. we confirm the earlier report that this mutant is completely excision defective (wor ...19826213836
comparison of the induction of specific locus mutations in wild-type and repair-deficient strains of neurospora crassa.a comparison of mutation induction between wild-type and excision repair-deficient strains has shown that, after treatment with four of the five mutagens tested, an enhanced recovery of induced mutants was found in the excision repair-deficient strains. in this sense we have confirmed for neurospora ames' (1977) observations with salmonella. furthermore, genetic analysis of the mutants induced in neurospora in both wild-type and excision repair-deficient strains has shown that in some cases the ...19826214249
characterization of neurospora crassa catabolic dehydroquinase purified from n. crassa and escherichia coli.1. neurospora crassa catabolic dehydroquinase has been purified from n. crassa and escherichia coli. 2. protein-sequence and gel-electrophoretic data show that apparently pure, homogeneous native dehydroquinase is a mixture of intact and proteinase-cleaved enzyme monomers. 3. protein-sequence data and steady-state kinetics show that the catabolic dehydroquinase gene of n. crassa is expressed with fidelity in e. coli.19826214255
an immunological study of the interaction of ligands with pyruvate kinase of neurospora crassa.antibodies against pyruvate kinase of neurospora crassa, induced in rabbits, were used to monitor the interaction of ligands with this enzyme. the technique of microcomplement fixation was employed to probe for conformational alterations elicited by binding of substrates (phosphoenolpyruvate (pep) and adenosine diphosphate), the allosteric activator (fructose 1,6-diphosphate), and the inhibitor (valine). on binding of pep and valine to pyruvate kinase a pronounced reduction in the extent of comp ...19826215112
the nucleotide sequence at the 3'-end of neurospora crassa 18s-rrna and studies on the interaction with 5s-rrna.the sequence of more than 100 nucleotides at the 3'-end of neurospora crassa 18s-rrna was determined by chemical sequencing techniques. extensive homologies with 18s-rrna from other eukaryotes were found. inspection of the nucleotide sequence at the 3'-end of n. crassa 5s-rrna revealed the presence of sequences complementary to a region near the 3'-terminus of 18s-rrna. under the appropriate conditions a complex was formed between 18s-rrna and 5s-rrna (tm 53 degrees c). interaction was detected ...19826217449
molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate. quantitative comparison of the mutagenic potency in neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae.extending previous work with e. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (ems) were quantitatively compared in neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. concomitantly, the actual dose to dna was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to dna after treatment with tritium-labeled ems. after exposure to ems (2.5-50 mm), alkylation levels in n. crassa and s. cerevisiae were similar to tho ...19836218404
intron within the large rrna gene of n. crassa mitochondria: a long open reading frame and a consensus sequence possibly important in splicing.we describe the sequence of the 2295 nucleotide long intron and 245 nucleotides of the flanking exon sequences within the large (24s) rrna gene of neurospora crassa mitochondria. the intron contains a long open reading frame, which could correspond to ribosomal protein s5. comparison with the corresponding intron of the large rrna gene of yeast mitochondria reveals a single highly homologous 57 nucleotide long sequence, including the sequence (formula; see text), which is present in virtually al ...19826218884
peptide utilization by nitrogen-starved neurospora crassa.peptides ranging in size from a mean number of 30 residues down to dipeptides supported growth of a leucine auxotroph when used as both a nitrogen and leucine source. under nitrogen-limiting conditions, the peptides induced extracellular peptidohydrolytic activity, hydrolyzing peptides to monomer amino acids. growth of a leu-2 mutant of neurospora crassa on those peptides transportable by the oligopeptide transport system did not result in induction of hydrolytic activity, whereas growth of a le ...19836219099
cell wall degradation in the autolysis of filamentous fungi.a systematic study on autolysis of the cell walls of fungi has been made on neurospora crassa, botrytis cinerea, polystictus versicolor, aspergillus nidulans, schizophyllum commune, aspergillus niger, and mucor mucedo. during autolysis each fungus produces the necessary lytic enzymes for its autodegradation. from autolyzed cultures of each fungus enzymatic precipitates were obtained. the degree of lysis of the cell walls, obtained from non-autolyzed mycelia, was studied by incubating these cell ...19826219290
transformation of aspergillus nidulans by the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene of neurospora crassa.relief of an auxotrophic requirement for uridine in aspergillus nidulans strain g191 has been achieved by transformation with a segment of neurospora crassa dna containing the corresponding gene coding for orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase. the mitotic stability of such transformants suggests that the dna has integrated into the genome. southern hybridisation analysis of dna isolated from transformants revealed the presence of pbr322 sequences which have integrated into the host genome along ...19836220717
structure of the trifunctional trp-1 gene from neurospora crassa and its aberrant expression in escherichia coli.the trifunctional trp-1 gene from neurospora crassa was cloned by complementation of a phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase-deficient mutant of e. coli. a 2.7-kb dna sequence containing trp-1 was determined. homology of the deduced trp-1 polypeptide sequence to the corresponding e. coli proteins is striking; the order of functional domains within trp-1 is nh2-glutamine amidotransferase-indoleglycerolphosphate synthase-phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase-cooh (nh2-trpg-trpc-trpf-cooh). whereas t ...19836221060
control of the ornithine cycle in neurospora crassa by the mitochondrial neurospora crassa, the mitochondrial membrane separates ornithine used in arginine biosynthesis from ornithine used in the arginine degradative pathway in the cytosol. ornithine easily exchanges across the mitochondrial membrane under conditions appropriate for synthesis of the immediate biosynthetic product, citrulline. neither of the two mitochondrial enzymes required for the ornithine-to-citrulline conversion is feedback inhibitable in vitro. nevertheless, when arginine is added to cells a ...19836222031
ribosomal rna genes of neurospora crassa: multiple copies and specificities.ribosomal rna genes were isolated from the germinated conidial and mycelial cells of n. crassa by repeated cycles of 3h-dna:rrna reactions followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography. specificity of multiple copies of those rdnas with respect to n. crassa cell types was studied. the fraction of n. crassa germinated conidial in vitro labelled 3h-dna recovered in the presence of rrna isolated from the same cell type was about 2.2%, when compared with approximately 1.2% rdnas obtained in mycelial cel ...19836222241
[microbiological short-time tests for the evaluation of mutagenic potential of chemical substances].during the last 20 years it became much more interesting to test new chemicals as fast as possible for their carcinogenic potency. therefore new test models were developed. mutagenicity seems to be one sign for carcinogenicity. therefore test systems using microorganisms were studied which are influenced by mutagenic substances. these systems are described, first of all the ames-test, using revertants of salmonella typhimurium, secondly the escherichia coli system deficient of dna-polymerase a ( ...19836222262
purification and characterization of an extracellular acid protease from neurospora extracellular acid protease was purified 1420-fold from sulfur-starved protein-induced cultures of neurospora crassa. the enzyme was homogeneous as determined by polyacrylamide electrophoresis. the purification procedure consisted of an ultrafiltration step, cation-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography on sepharose-linked pepstatin. the enzyme is homologous to aspartyl proteases that are characterized by pepstatin inhibition and trypsinogen activation. it is extremely autolytic ...19836222698
evolutionary aspects of accuracy of phenylalanyl-trna synthetase. a comparative study with enzymes from escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, and turkey liver using phenylalanine analogues.the phenylalanyl-trna synthetases from escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, and turkey liver activate a number of phenylalanine analogues (tyrosine, leucine, methionine, p-fluorophenylalanine, beta-phenylserine, beta-thien-2-ylalanine, 2-amino-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid, mimosine, n-benzyl-l- or n-benzyl-d-phenylalanine, and ochratoxin a), as demonstrated by km and kcat of the atp/ppi pyrophosphate exchange. upon complexation with trna, the enzyme-trnaphe complexes show a ...19836222761
a study of the heat-shock response in neurospora crassa.1. neurospora crassa was grown at 28 degrees c for 12 hr and transferred to higher temperatures for 2 hr. 2. cultures labelled with [35s]methionine showed the synthesis of several new proteins in response to heat-shock at 46 to 48 degrees c. 3. major polypeptides of approximate mr 105,000, 99,000, 78,000, 43,000 and 23,000 were detectable in one-dimensional sds-polyacrylamide slab gel electropherograms. 4. 2-d analysis using isoelectric-focussing in the first dimension and electrophoresis in sds ...19836222926
[isolation and characteristics of the nucleosomes from the mold neurospora crassa]. 19836227467
biosynthesis and assembly of nuclear-coded mitochondrial membrane proteins in neurospora crassa. 19836228709
a colony filter-hybridization procedure for the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.a colony filter-hybridization procedure for the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa has been developed. the procedure is sensitive enough to detect escherichia coli plasmid pbr322 dna integrated into chromosomal dna in a neurospora transformant. thus, it should facilitate the isolation of nuclear genes by plasmid-rescue procedures.19836229196
radioassay of the folate-hydrolyzing enzyme activity, and the distribution of the enzyme in biological cells and tissues.a sensitive radioassay method has been developed to quantitate the activity of the folate-hydrolyzing enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of folic acid to pteroic acid and glutamic acid. the method is based on analyzing [2-14c]pteroic acid separated by a thin-layer chromatography on an avicel sf cellulose plate using 0.1 m potassium phosphate buffer, ph 7.0, as a solvent. this method was found to be more sensitive than a conventional photometric method to determine the activity of the folate-h ...19836229614
isolation and characterization of mms-sensitive mutants of neurospora different mutants that show high sensitivity to mms killing were isolated and mapped at different loci. one group, mms-(sa1), mms-(sa2) and mms-(sa6), showed high sensitivity to mms but not to uv or gamma-rays. another group, mms-(sa4) and mms-(sa5), showed extremely high sensitivity to uv and mms. and mms-(sa3) and mms-(sa7) were moderately sensitive to both uv and mms. mms-(sa4) and mms-(sa1) were identified as alleles of uvs-2 and mus-7, respectively, which had been previously isolated. ...19846230534
the complete nucleotide sequence of the neurospora crassa am (nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase) gene.the complete nucleotide sequence of a 2.7-kb genomic fragment, containing the neurospora crassa am [nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)] gene, has been determined. the transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites have been defined by s1 mapping. there are at least four initiation sites between 35 and 60 bases downstream of a tataaa sequence. the single polyadenylation site is immediately downstream of a six-nucleotide sequence which is present in the corresponding position in the n ...19836231215
cytochrome b gene of neurospora crassa mitochondria. partial sequence and location of introns at sites different from those in saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans.we have sequenced a 2614-base pair fragment of the neurospora crassa mitochondrial dna which contains part of the structural gene for apocytochrome b. this gene is split by at least two introns. the sequence reported here begins within one intron, extends through the next exon, another intron 1276 base pairs long, and the last exon which encodes the cooh terminus of cytochrome b. within the 254 amino acids encoded by the two exons, there is a high degree of sequence conservation, 81%, with cytoc ...19846231283
mutation tests in neurospora crassa. a report of the u.s. environmental protection agency gene-tox program.many mutation tests have been developed in neurospora crassa during the almost 40 years of its use in mutation research. these tests detect two major classes of mutation: gene mutation and meiotic nondisjunction. within the first class, forward- and reverse-mutation tests have been used. the forward-mutation tests include those that detect mutations at many loci and at specific loci. both kinds of forward-mutation tests have been done in homokaryons (n) and heterokaryons (n + n'). from the publi ...19846231482
a chicken repetitive dna sequence that is highly sensitive to single-strand specific endonucleases.a dna sequence consisting of the 5-mer agagg repeated tandemly 32 times has been detected in a chicken genomic clone and found to be present in about 2000 copies per chicken genome. this sequence was highly susceptible to single-strand specific endonucleases isolated from aspergillus oryzae (s1) and mung bean, but cleavage by a single-strand specific endonuclease isolated from neurospora crassa occurred only at a ph below 5.5. endonucleolytic cutting of the agagg sequence by the single-strand sp ...19836231528
the relationship of mo, molybdopterin, and the cyanolyzable sulfur in the mo cofactor.reconstitution of the apoprotein of the molybdoenzyme nitrate reductase in extracts of the neurospora crassa mutant nit-1 with molybdenum cofactor released by denaturation of purified molybdoenzymes is efficient in the absence of exogenous moo2-4 under defined conditions. evidence is presented that this molybdate-independent reconstitution is due to transfer of intact mo cofactor, a complex of mo and molybdopterin (mpt), the organic constituent of the cofactor. this complex can be separated from ...19846231887
acidic ribosomal proteins of neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa acidic ribosomal proteins from the high salt-ethanol extract of 80 s ribosomes have been fractionated by deae-cellulose chromatography. six acidic ribosomal proteins were purified. all resemble escherichia coli l7 and l12 in amino acid composition and molecular weight but each has a slightly different net charge at ph 3.2. four have an apparent molecular weight of approx. 14 000, and two have a molecular weight of approx. 14 800. the amino acid compositions and circular dichroi ...19846231958
activation of nit-1 nitrate reductase by w-formate dehydrogenase.formate dehydrogenase ( fdh ) from clostridium thermoaceticum is a known tungsten enzyme. fdh was tested for the presence of nitrogenase-type cofactor and nitrate reductase-type cofactor by the azotobacter vinelandii uw-45 and neurospora crassa nit-1 reconstitution assays, respectively. tungsten formate dehydrogenase (w- fdh ), containing only a small mo impurity, activated the nit-1 nitrate reductase extracts when molybdate was also added, but not when tungstate was added. these results show w- ...19846234890
accurate transcription of homologous 5s rrna and trna genes and splicing of trna in vitro by soluble extracts of neurospora.we have developed soluble extracts from neurospora crassa capable of accurately and efficiently transcribing homologous 5s rrna and trna genes. the extracts also appear to quantitatively end-process and splice the primary trna transcripts. although the extracts could not transcribe a heterologous (yeast) 5s rrna gene, they did transcribe a yeast trnaleu gene and slowly process the transcripts. in addition, we have developed a novel strategy for rapidly sequencing uniformly labelled rnas using ba ...19846235482
a leucine trna gene adjacent to the qa gene cluster of neurospora crassa.a single trnaleu gene has been localized and sequenced from neurospora crassa. it is located only 375 bp from the qa gene cluster and it is the only trna or 5s rrna gene within this cloned 37 kb region. the gene encodes a trnaleu with the anti-codon aag, and unlike the other nuclear eukaryotic trnaleu (aag) gene sequenced (from c. elegans), contains an intervening sequence of 27 bp. the neurospora trnaleu (aag) is 84% and 73% homologous respectively to the c. elegans and bovine trnaleu (aag), an ...19846235483
mutagenicity of neocarzinostatin in neurospora crassa.neocarzinostatin (ncs) is an acidic, single-chain polypeptide of 109 amino acids that has shown some antitumor activity in clinical trials. ncs is mutagenic in reca+ strains of escherichia coli, but not in reca strains; on the other hand, a defect in the nucleotide-excision-repair pathway has no effect on the mutagenicity of ncs in e. coli. similar results are seen in mammalian cells. excision-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (xp) cells repair ncs-induced dna damage at the same rate as rep ...19846236365
in vitro reconstitution of nitrate reductase activity of the neurospora crassa mutant nit-1: specific incorporation of molybdopterin.the reduced, metal-free pterin of the molybdenum cofactor has been termed molybdopterin. oxidation of any molybdopterin-containing protein in the presence or absence of iodine yields oxidized molybdopterin derivatives termed form a and form b, respectively. application of these procedures to whole cells and cell extracts has demonstrated the presence of molybdopterin in wild-type neurospora crassa, and its absence in the cofactor-deficient mutant nit-1. in order to demonstrate that the reconstit ...19846237611
a two-dimensional immunoelectrophoretic analysis of the heat-shock response exhibited by neurospora crassa cells.the heat-shock (hs) response of neurospora crassa was studied by two-dimensional (2-d) immunoelectrophoresis, in conjunction with in vivo labelling of proteins with [35s]methionine. antisera against extracts of normally grown and shocked cells were tested with both extracts as antigens. the resolution of normal cell proteins by interaction with homologous antisera yielded at least 35 immunoprecipitates. using antisera to shocked cells with normal and shocked cell extracts resolved four heat-shoc ...19846238661
structure of the cell wall proteogalactomannan from neurospora crassa. i. purification of the proteoheteroglycan and characterization of alkali-labile oligosaccharides.proteoheteroglycan (phg) was prepared from neurospora crassa cells by extraction with hot water followed by cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide fractionation. the polymer was purified by deae-cellulose chromatography followed by gel filtrations. the phg was fractionated into five subfractions containing carbohydrate (65-88%), protein (19-36%), and a trace amount of phosphate (0.3-1.9%). the sugar compositions of the fractions were similar to each other (d-mannose, 47-60%, d-galactose, 35-50%, d-glucos ...19846240490
studies on the induction of aryl hydrocarbon(benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase in neurospora crassa, and its suppression by sodium selenite.six fungal species were grown in the presence of benzo[a]pyrene (bp); four showed benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, ahh) activity. penicillium sp. and neurospora crassa metabolized bp to a limited extent. n. crassa ahh activity was induced by bp, the major product of metabolism being 3-hydroxy-bp. both induction of ahh activity and metabolism of bp were suppressed by sodium selenite in the growth medium. two polypeptides, unique to bp-grown cells, were revealed by two-dim ...19846241764
cellular and extracellular siderophores of aspergillus nidulans and penicillium chrysogenum.aspergillus nidulans and penicillium chrysogenum produce specific cellular siderophores in addition to the well-known siderophores of the culture medium. since this was found previously in neurospora crassa, it is probably generally true for filamentous ascomycetes. the cellular siderophore of a. nidulans is ferricrocin; that of p. chrysogenum is ferrichrome. a. nidulans also contains triacetylfusigen, a siderophore without apparent biological activity. conidia of both species lose siderophores ...19816242827
enzymatic trimethylation of residue-72 lysine in cytochrome c. effect on the total structure.a highly purified protein methylase iii from neurospora crassa or saccharomyces cerevisiae specifically methylates a single lysine residue of position 72 of horse heart cytochrome c. the enzymatically methylated cytochrome c has been separated from the unmethylated counterpart species by isoelectric focusing. simultaneously, the pi values of these two species were found to be 9.49 and 10.03, respectively. since methyl substitution increases the basicity associated with the epsilon-amino group of ...19806244857
physical map of aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genes coding for ribosomal rna: an intervening sequence in the large rrna cistron.a detailed map of the 32 kb mitochondrial genome of aspergillus nidulans has been obtained by locating the cleavage sites for restriction endonucleases pst i, bam h i, hha i, pvu ii, hpa ii and hae iii relative to the previously determined sites for eco r i, hind ii and hind iii. the genes for the small and large ribosomal subunit rnas were mapped by gel transfer hybridization of in vitro labelled rrna to restriction fragments of mitochondrial dna and its cloned eco r i fragment e3, and by elect ...19806246396
distribution of sequences common to the 25--28s-ribonucleic acid genes of xenopus laevis and neurospora crassa.the extent of homology between the nucleotide sequence of l-rrna (the major rna component of the larger ribosomal subparticle) of a lower eukaryote (neurospora crassa) and an amphibian (xenopus laevis) was investigated by utilizing rdna (dna coding for rrna) of x. laevis cloned in plasmids pmb9 and pml2, and rdna of n. crassa cloned in bacteriophage lambda. hybridization studies revealed that sequences common to both n. crassa and x. laevis l-rrna comprise a total of approx. 1050 /+- 200 nucleot ...19806250536
inhibition of udp-n-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase by uridine.udp-n-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylases (utp: 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, ec from baker's yeast and neurospora crassa ifo 6178 were inhibited by uridine which is the nucleoside moiety of udp-glcnac. the inhibition was shown in both directions of pyrophosphorolysis and of synthesis of udp-glcnac. kinetic analysis revealed that uridine demonstrated a noncompetitive type of inhibition with udp-glcnac and competitive inhibition with ppi. the ki v ...19806250624
assembly of the mitochondrial membrane system. sequences of yeast mitochondrial trna genes.two cytoplasmic "petite" (rho-) clones of saccharomyces cerevisiae have been selected for the retention of the aspartic acid trna gene. the two clones, designated ds200/a102 and ds200/a5, have tandemly repeated segments of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) with unit lengths of 1,000 and 6,400 base pairs, respectively. the ds200/a102 genome has a single trna gene with a 3'-cug-5' anticodon capable of recognizing the 5'-gac-3' and 5'-gau-3' codons for aspartic acid. the mtdna segment of ds200/a102 has bee ...19806251074
mapping of mitochondrial structural genes in neurospora crassa.a hybridization method has been employed to study the organization of the mitochondrial genome of neurospora crassa. the method involves the use of 5' end-labeled single-stranded restriction fragments obtained from cytoplasmic "petite" strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae known to contain single mitochondrial genes. the presence and localization of genes homologous to subunits 1, 2, and 3 of cytochrome oxidase, cytochrome b and subunit 6 of the atpase is thus established for the mitochondrial gen ...19806253481
cloning the quinic acid (aq) gene cluster from neurospora crassa: identification of recombinant plasmids containing both qa-2+ and qa-3+.a 22.2-kb insert of neurospora crassa dna containing at least two of the genes from the inducible catabolic quinic acid pathway has been cloned into the cosmid vehicle phc79 resulting in a recombinant plasmid, pmsk308. the qa-2+ locus (which encodes catabolic dehydroquinase) is functionally expressed in both escherichia coli and qa-2 mutants of n. crassa transformed with pmsk308 plasmid dna. expression of the qa-3 gene (which encodes quinate dehydrogenase) is only detected upon reintroduction in ...19816266928
purification and identification of calmodulin from neurospora crassa. 19816273221
isolation and properties of a cyclic amp-binding protein from neurospora. evidence for its role as the regulatory subunit of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase.a cyclic amp-binding protein with a native molecular weight calculated to be 82,000 was purified 2,000-fold from neurospora crassa. the apparent subunit molecular weight was 47,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, suggesting that the native protein exists as a dimer of identically sized subunits. the 8-n3-cyclic [32p]amp-labeled protein appeared as a doublet upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, with pi = 5.4 and 5.5. binding studies with both noncyclic and cycli ...19826277955
cytochrome oxidase subunit iii gene in neurospora crassa mitochondria. location and sequence.we have located and sequenced the gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit iii (coiii) in neurospora crassa mitochondria. the coiii gene is located downstream from the small rrna gene within a cluster of trna genes and is coded by the same strand as the trna and the rrna genes. like the trna and the rrna genes, the coiii gene is also flanked by the gc-rich palindromic dna sequences which are highly conserved in n. crassa mitochondria. the coiii coding sequence predicts a protein 269 amino acids long ...19826279664
identification and isolation of actin from neurospora crassa.crude cell extracts of neurospora crassa contained an abundant protein that was identified as actin by a number of criteria. the protein, either in cell extracts or in pure form, co-migrated with rabbit skeletal muscle actin in polyacrylamide gels. the n. crassa actin was purified by deae-cellulose and dnaase i-sepharose chromatography and had the expected property of inhibiting dnaase i activity. although n. crassa actin could polymerize and depolymerize, purification based entirely on this cha ...19826281363
similar genes for a mitochondrial atpase subunit in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of neurospora crassa. 19826283377
1h nmr studies of eukaryotic cytochrome c. resonance assignments and iron-hexacyanide-mediated electron exchange.1h nmr resonance assignments in the spectra of horse, tuna, neurospora crassa and candida krusei cytochromes c are described. assignments have been made using nmr double-resonance techniques in conjunction with electron-exchange experiments, spectral comparison of related proteins, and consideration of the x-ray structure of tuna cytochrome c. resonances arising from 11 residues of horse cytochrome c have been assigned.19826284503
biogenesis of mitochondrial ubiquinol:cytochrome c reductase (cytochrome bc1 complex). precursor proteins and their transfer into mitochondria.the precursor proteins to the subunits of ubiquinol:cytochrome c reductase (cytochrome bc1 complex) of neurospora crassa were synthesized in a reticulocyte lysate. these precursors were immunoprecipitated with antibodies prepared against the individual subunits and compared to the mature subunits immunoprecipitated or isolated from mitochondria. most subunits were synthesized as precursors with larger apparent molecular weights (subunits i, 51,500 versus 50,000; subunit ii, 47,500 versus 45,000; ...19826286652
structural role of the tyrosine residues of cytochrome c.the tertiary structures of horse, tuna, neurospora crassa, horse [hse65,leu67]- and horse [hse65,leu74]-cytochromes c were studied with high-resolution 1h n.m.r. spectroscopy. the amino acid sequences of these proteins differ at position 46, which is occupied by phenylalanine in the horse proteins but by tyrosine in the remaining two, and at positions 67, 74 and 97, which are all occupied by tyrosine residues in horse and tuna cytochrome c but in the other proteins are substituted by phenylalani ...19826289807
cloning of the trp-1 gene from neurospora crassa by complementation of a trpc mutation in escherichia coli.studies with a hybrid plasmid containing 4.0 kilobase pairs of neurospora crassa dna cloned into plasmid pbr322 indicated that the plasmid restored to prototrophy a trpc mutant of escherichia coli which lacked phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase but not a trpc mutant which lacked indole glycerol phosphate synthetase, that the relevant transcription was initiated at a promoter within the n. crassa dna, and that the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase could be specified by a subcloned segment ...19826290461
the mitochondrially made subunit 2 of neurospora crassa cytochrome aa3 is synthesized as a precursor protein. 19826291999
a family of repetitive palindromic sequences found in neurospora mitochondrial dna is also found in a mitochondrial plasmid dna.neurospora mtdna contains a repetitive, 18 nucleotide palindromic sequence (5'-ccctgcagtactgcaggg-3') that contains two closely spaced psti sites (ctgcag) in the arms of the palindrome (yin, s., heckman, j., and rajbhandary, u. l. (1981) cell 26, 325-332). in the present study, dna sequence analysis was carried out to determine whether psti palindromes are present in an apparently distinct genetic element, the 3.6-kilobase mitochondrial plasmid from neurospora crassa strain mauriceville-1c (fgsc ...19836300080
structural variations and optional introns in the mitochondrial dnas of neurospora strains isolated from nature.mitochondrial dnas from ten wild-type neurospora crassa, neurospora intermedia, and neurospora sitophila strains collected from different geographical areas were screened for structural variations by restriction enzyme analysis. the different mtdnas show much greater structural diversity, both within and among species, than had been apparent from previous studies of mtdna from laboratory n. crassa strains. the mtdnas range in size from 60 to 73 kb, and both the smallest and largest mtdnas are fo ...19836300945
release of high molecular weight dna from neurospora crassa using enzymic digestions.methods are described that allow extraction of high molecular weight dna from germinated conidia of neurospora crassa. by labelling dna with ribonucleosides, early conidia were shown to be active in dna synthesis. these cells when treated with the enzyme zymolyase became fragile and could be readily lysed with ionic detergents to release high molecular weight dna. the dna extracted from zymolyase treated cells on to alkaline sucrose gradients sedimented as a heterogeneous species of up to 150 x ...19836302203
chimeric plasmid that replicates autonomously in both escherichia coli and neurospora crassa.a hybrid pbr322 plasmid (designated pdv1001) containing two functional escherichia coli antibiotic resistance genes (kanr and camr) and a qa-2+ gene from neurospora crassa transforms n. crassa qa-2- mutants to qa-2+ with a frequency of ca. 5 x 10(-5) per regenerated spheroplast (ca. 100 transformants per microgram of plasmid dna). this plasmid can replicate autonomously without integrating into the n. crassa genome. the autonomously replicating hybrid plasmid was detected in n. crassa transforma ...19836302666
construction of a shuttle vector for the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.we have constructed a recombinant plasmid, pals-1, that replicates autonomously in both neurospora and escherichia coli. pals-1 consists of the mitochondrial plasmid from neurospora strain p405-labelle, the neurospora qa-2+ gene, and e. coli plasmid pbr325. pals-1 transforms the neurospora qa-2+ gene at frequencies 5- to 10-fold higher than those for plasmids that transform mainly by integration. when e. coli was transformed with dna from neurospora transformants, we recovered not only pals-1 bu ...19836302667
molybdenum cofactor in chlorate-resistant and nitrate reductase-deficient insertion mutants of escherichia coli.we examined molybdenum cofactor activity in chlorate-resistant (chl) and nitrate reductase-deficient (nar) insertion mutants and wild-type strains of escherichia coli k-12. the bacterial molybdenum cofactor was assayed by its ability to restore activity to the cofactor-deficient nitrate reductase found in the nit-1 strain of neurospora crassa. in the wild-type e. coli strains, molybdenum cofactor was synthesized constitutively and found in both cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. cofactor was fo ...19836307982
cloning of the structural gene for orotidine 5'-phosphate carboxylase of neurospora crassa by expression in escherichia coli.a neurospora gene bank in plasmid prk9 was used to complement pyrimidine auxotrophs in e. coli. two plasmids were obtained that complement a pyrf mutant of e. coli. these plasmids hybridise to neurospora dna and transform a pyr-4 strain of neurospora. the promoter used in expressing the orotidine 5'-monophosphate carboxylase in e. coli is within the neurospora sequence.19836308396
complete nucleotide sequence of the escherichia coli gdha gene.the dna sequence of the gdha gene of escherichia coli k12, which encodes the 447 amino acid polypeptide subunit of nadp-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, is presented. the deduced protein sequence is strongly homologous to the corresponding enzyme of the eukaryotic fungus neurospora crassa. the upstream dna sequence includes several overlapping promoter consensus sequences. the downstream dna sequence contains inverted repeats, predicted as forming long stable stem-loop structures in rna, homolo ...19836308576
receptor sites involved in posttranslational transport of apocytochrome c into mitochondria: specificity, affinity, and number of sites.assembly of cytochrome c involves a series of steps: synthesis of apocytochrome c on free ribosomes, specific binding of apocytochrome c to the mitochondrial surface, transfer across the outer membrane, covalent addition of protoheme, refolding of the polypeptide chain, and association of holocytochrome c with its functional sites at the inner membrane. the binding step of apocytochrome c to neurospora crassa mitochondria was studied by inhibiting the subsequent transfer steps with the heme anal ...19836308663
the genes coding for histone h3 and h4 in neurospora crassa are unique and contain intervening sequences.sequences coding for histone h3 and h4 of neurospora crassa could be identified in genomic digests with the use of the corresponding genes from sea urchin and x. laevis as hybridization probes. a 2.6 kb hindiii-generated n. crassa dna fragment, showing homology with the heterologous histone h3-gene probes was cloned in a charon 21a vector. using dna from this clone as a homologous hybridization probe a 6.9 kb sali-generated dna fragment was isolated which in addition to the histone h3-gene also ...19836310494
purification and properties of single strand dna-binding endo-exonuclease of neurospora crassa.single strand dna-binding endo-exonucleases purified from mitochondria, vacuoles, or a mixture of these organelles had the same high specific single strand dnase activity (910 mumol of nucleotides/min/mg), and each contained a polypeptide of mr = 31,000-33,000 which was found to be active by sodium dodecyl sulfate-dna-gel electrophoresis. the properties of the three preparations were identical in all respects tested. the enzyme showed distributive endonuclease activity with single strand dna, bu ...19836311833
cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene in neurospora crassa mitochondria.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) gene has been obtained from cloned mitochondrial dna segments of neurospora crassa. the coding sequences have been identified on the basis of protein sequence homology with the subunit 2 of cytochrome oxidase from yeast and man. the postulated precursor of the n. crassa subunit 2 protein is 250 amino acids long, with a molecular weight of 28,700. as in the trna and rrna genes, the subunit 2 gene is flanked by g + c-rich palindrom ...19836313689
isolation of dna from filamentous fungi and separation into nuclear, mitochondrial, ribosomal, and plasmid components.a general procedure for purifying and efficiently separating four types of dna from filamentous fungi has been developed. the protocol involves (i) disruption of mycelial cells by blending in liquid nitrogen followed by suspension of cell contents in buffer containing high concentrations of protease and edta; (ii) deproteinization with phenol; (iii) cesium chloride/bisbenzimide density gradient centrifugation to separate nuclear dna, mitochondrial dna, and ribosomal dna; and (iv) agarose gel ele ...19836318603
genetically determined conidial longevity is positively correlated with superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, cytochrome c peroxidase, and ascorbate free radical reductase activities in neurospora crassa.aging of post-mitotic cells, the conidia, of neurospora crassa is defined as the time-dependent loss of viability under a constant laboratory environment which probably resembles the organism's tropical habitat; namely, at 30 degrees c, 85-100% relative humidity under white light. median lifespan is defined as the age at which survival of a conidial population has declined to 50% of that of a fully viable population at birth. a collection of short (age-) and long-lived (age+) mutants were previo ...19846319835
isolation of complex iii from various mitochondria. comparison of the structural and functional properties of the preparations from beef heart, calf liver and neurospora complex iii was isolated by an improved procedure from beef heart mitochondria, from neurospora crassa mitochondria and for the first time from mitochondria originating from mammalian tissue other than heart, i.e. calf liver. the described procedure consists of differential extraction of the respective mitochondria, hydroxyapatite chromatography and, finally, either gel- or affinity chromatography. the preparations contain the well known prosthetic groups, i.e. 6-8 mumol b-type heme, 3-4 ...19836321316
survey, purification, and properties of sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase among microorganisms.sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase was purified approximately 500- to 600-fold to apparent homogeneity from escherichia coli b, escherichia coli c, escherichia coli var. communior, escherichia acidilactici, enterobacter aerogenes, neisseria meningitidis, and saccharomyces cereviseae. the molecular weights of the enzyme as estimated by gel filtration ranged from 97 x 10(3) to 101 x 10(3). the enzyme was composed of two subunits with the same molecular weight which ranged from 50 x 10(3) to 52 x 10( ...19836322944
nucleotide sequence of saccharomyces cerevisiae genes trp2 and trp3 encoding bifunctional anthranilate synthase: indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase.saccharomyces cerevisiae anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase is a multifunctional hetero-oligomeric enzyme encoded by genes trp2 and trp3. trp2, encoding anthranilate synthase component i, was cloned by complementation of a yeast trp2 mutant. the nucleotide sequence of trp2 as well as that of trp3 were determined. the deduced anthranilate synthase component i primary structure from yeast exhibits only limited similarity to that of the corresponding escherichia coli subunit ...19846323449
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