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fluorescent markers for the spitzenkörper and exocytosis in zymoseptoria tritici.fungal hyphae are highly polarized cells that invade their substrate by tip growth. in plant pathogenic fungi, hyphal growth is essential for host invasion. this makes polarity factors and secretion regulators potential new targets for novel fungicides. polarization requires delivery of secretory vesicles to the apical spitzenkörper, followed by polarized exocytosis at the expanding cell tip. here, we introduce fluorescent markers to visualize the apical spitzenkörper and the apical site of exoc ...201526092802
structure of importin-α from a filamentous fungus in complex with a classical nuclear localization signal.neurospora crassa is a filamentous fungus that has been extensively studied as a model organism for eukaryotic biology, providing fundamental insights into cellular processes such as cell signaling, growth and differentiation. to advance in the study of this multicellular organism, an understanding of the specific mechanisms for protein transport into the cell nucleus is essential. importin-α (imp-α) is the receptor for cargo proteins that contain specific nuclear localization signals (nlss) tha ...201526091498
control of mrna stability in fungi by nmd, ejc and cbc factors through 3'utr introns.in higher eukaryotes the accelerated degradation of mrnas harboring premature termination codons is controlled by nonsense-mediated mrna decay (nmd), exon junction complex (ejc), and nuclear cap-binding complex (cbc) factors, but the mechanistic basis for this quality-control system and the specific roles of the individual factors remain unclear. using neurospora crassa as a model system, we analyzed the mechanisms by which nmd is induced by spliced 3'-utr introns or upstream open reading frames ...201526048019
suppressing the neurospora crassa circadian clock while maintaining light responsiveness in continuous stirred tank reactors.neurospora crassa has been utilized as a model organism for studying biological, regulatory, and circadian rhythms for over 50 years. these circadian cycles are driven at the molecular level by gene transcription events to prepare for environmental changes. n. crassa is typically found on woody biomass and is commonly studied on agar-containing medium which mimics its natural environment. we report a novel method for disrupting circadian gene transcription while maintaining light responsiveness ...201526031221
identification of allorecognition loci in neurospora crassa by genomics and evolutionary approaches.understanding the genetic and molecular bases of the ability to distinguish self from nonself (allorecognition) and mechanisms underlying evolution of allorecognition systems is an important endeavor for understanding cases where it becomes dysfunctional, such as in autoimmune disorders. in filamentous fungi, allorecognition can result in vegetative or heterokaryon incompatibility, which is a type of programmed cell death that occurs following fusion of genetically different cells. allorecogniti ...201526025978
population genomic analyses reveal possible drivers of population divergence.recent advances in sequencing technology and efficiency enable new and improved methods to investigate how populations diverge and species evolve. fungi have relatively small and simple genomes and can often be cultured in the laboratory. fungal populations can thus be sequenced for a relatively low cost, which makes them ideal for population genomic analyses. in several recent population genomic studies, wild populations of fungal model organisms and human pathogens have been analysed, for exam ...201526013991
involvement of mitochondrial proteins in calcium signaling and cell death induced by staurosporine in neurospora crassa.staurosporine-induced cell death in neurospora crassa includes a well defined sequence of alterations in cytosolic calcium levels, comprising extracellular ca(2+) influx and mobilization of ca(2+) from internal stores. here, we show that cells undergoing respiratory stress due to the lack of certain components of the mitochondrial complex i (like the 51kda and 14kda subunits) or the ca(2+)-binding alternative nadph dehydrogenase nde-1 are hypersensitive to staurosporine and incapable of setting ...201526004627
biological significance of photoreceptor photocycle length: vivid photocycle governs the dynamic vivid-white collar complex pool mediating photo-adaptation and response to changes in light intensity.most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa vivid (vvd) is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. de ...201525978382
neurospora heterokaryons with complementary duplications and deficiencies in their constituent nuclei provide an approach to identify nucleus-limited genes.introgression is the transfer of genes or genomic regions from one species into another via hybridization and back-crosses. we have introgressed four translocations (eb4, ibj5, uk14-1, and b362i) from neurospora crassa into n. tetrasperma. this enabled us to construct two general types of heterokaryons with mat-a and mat-a nuclei of different genotypes: one type is [t + n] (with one translocation nucleus and one normal sequence nucleus), and the other is [dp + df] (with one nucleus carrying a du ...201525897010
genome-wide analysis of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response during lignocellulase production in neurospora crassa.lignocellulolytic fungal cells suffer endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress during lignocellulase synthesis; however, an understanding of this integrated process on a genome-wide scale remains poor. here, we undertook a systematic investigation of this process in neurospora crassa (n. crassa) using transcriptomic analysis coupled with genetic screens.201525883682
inferring bona fide transfrags in rna-seq derived-transcriptome assemblies of non-model organisms.de novo transcriptome assembly of short transcribed fragments (transfrags) produced from sequencing-by-synthesis technologies often results in redundant datasets with differing levels of unassembled, partially assembled or mis-assembled transcripts. post-assembly processing intended to reduce redundancy typically involves reassembly or clustering of assembled sequences. however, these approaches are mostly based on common word heuristics and often create clusters of biologically unrelated sequen ...201525880035
mathematical modeling and validation of glucose compensation of the neurospora circadian clock.autonomous circadian oscillations arise from transcriptional-translational feedback loops of core clock components. the period of a circadian oscillator is relatively insensitive to changes in nutrients (e.g., glucose), which is referred to as "nutrient compensation". recently, a transcription repressor, csp-1, was identified as a component of the circadian system in neurospora crassa. the transcription of csp-1 is under the circadian regulation. intriguingly, csp-1 represses the circadian trans ...201525863073
membrane transporters in self resistance of cercospora nicotianae to the photoactivated toxin cercosporin.the goal of this work is to characterize membrane transporter genes in cercospora fungi required for autoresistance to the photoactivated, active-oxygen-generating toxin cercosporin they produce for infection of host plants. previous studies implicated a role for diverse membrane transporters in cercosporin resistance. in this study, transporters identified in a subtractive cdna library between a cercospora nicotianae wild type and a cercosporin-sensitive mutant were characterized, including two ...201525862648
reconstruction of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway from neurospora crassa in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae.industrial synthesis of l-carnitine is currently performed by whole-cell biotransformation of industrial waste products, mostly d-carnitine and cronobetaine, through specific bacterial species. no comparable system has been established using eukaryotic microorganisms, even though there is a significant and growing international demand for either the pure compound or carnitine-enriched consumables. in eukaryotes, including the fungus neurospora crassa, l-carnitine is biosynthesized through a four ...201525851717
production of cellobionate from cellulose using an engineered neurospora crassa strain with laccase and redox mediator addition.we report a novel production process for cellobionic acid from cellulose using an engineered fungal strain with the exogenous addition of laccase and a redox mediator. a previously engineered strain of neurospora crassa (f5∆ace-1∆cre-1∆ndvb) was shown to produce cellobionate directly from cellulose without the addition of exogenous cellulases. specifically, n. crassa produces cellulases, which hydrolyze cellulose to cellobiose, and cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh), which oxidizes cellobiose to cel ...201525849253
draft genome sequence of neurospora crassa strain fgsc 73.we report the elucidation of the complete genome of the neurospora crassa (shear and dodge) strain fgsc 73, a mat-a, trp-3 mutant strain. the genome sequence around the idiotypic mating type locus represents the only publicly available sequence for a mat-a strain. 40.42 megabases are assembled into 358 scaffolds carrying 11,978 gene models.201525838471
combinatorial control of light induced chromatin remodeling and gene activation in neurospora.light is an important environmental cue that affects physiology and development of neurospora crassa. the light-sensing transcription factor (tf) wcc, which consists of the gata-family tfs wc1 and wc2, is required for light-dependent transcription. sub1, another gata-family tf, is not a photoreceptor but has also been implicated in light-inducible gene expression. to assess regulation and organization of the network of light-inducible genes, we analyzed the roles of wcc and sub1 in light-induced ...201525822411
neurospora importin α is required for normal heterochromatic formation and dna methylation.heterochromatin and associated gene silencing processes play roles in development, genome defense, and chromosome function. in many species, constitutive heterochromatin is decorated with histone h3 tri-methylated at lysine 9 (h3k9me3) and cytosine methylation. in neurospora crassa, a five-protein complex, dcdc, catalyzes h3k9 methylation, which then directs dna methylation. here, we identify and characterize a gene important for dcdc function, dim-3 (defective in methylation-3), which encodes t ...201525793375
dawn- and dusk-phased circadian transcription rhythms coordinate anabolic and catabolic functions in neurospora.circadian clocks control rhythmic expression of a large number of genes in coordination with the 24 hour day-night cycle. the mechanisms generating circadian rhythms, their amplitude and circadian phase are dependent on a transcriptional network of immense complexity. moreover, the contribution of post-transcriptional mechanisms in generating rhythms in rna abundance is not known.201525762222
fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.the genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. the genome sequence of the budding yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. the subsequent completion of fission yeast, schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal ...201625721271
functional characterization and low-resolution structure of an endoglucanase cel45a from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa or74a: thermostable enzyme with high activity toward lichenan and β-glucan.biomass is the most abundant and short-term renewable natural resource on earth whose recalcitrance toward enzymatic degradation represents significant challenge for a number of biotechnological applications. the not so abundant but critically necessary class of gh45 endoglucanases constitutes an essential component of tailored industrial enzyme cocktails because they randomly and internally cleave cellulose molecules. moreover, gh45 glucanases are core constituents of major-brand detergent form ...201525711741
heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted microbial nitrilase enzymes increases cyanide tolerance in arabidopsis.anthropogenic activities have resulted in cyanide (cn) contamination of both soil and water in many areas of the globe. while plants possess a detoxification pathway that serves to degrade endogenously generated cn, this system is readily overwhelmed, limiting the use of plants in bioremediation. genetic engineering of additional cn degradation pathways in plants is one potential strategy to increase their tolerance to cn. here we show that heterologous expression of microbial nitrilase enzymes ...201525711239
a transcriptomic analysis of neurospora crassa using five major crop residues and the novel role of the sporulation regulator rca-1 in lignocellulase production.crop residue is an abundant, low-cost plant biomass material available worldwide for use in the microbial production of enzymes, biofuels, and valuable chemicals. however, the diverse chemical composition and complex structure of crop residues are more challenging for efficient degradation by microbes than are homogeneous polysaccharides. in this study, the transcriptional responses of neurospora crassa to various plant straws were analyzed using rna-seq, and novel beneficial factors for biomass ...201525691917
experimental demonstration of the benefits of somatic fusion and the consequences for allorecognition.allorecognition, the ability to distinguish "self" from "nonself" based on allelic differences at allorecognition loci, is common in all domains of life. allorecognition restricts the opportunities for social parasitism, and is therefore crucial for the evolution of cooperation. however, the maintenance of allorecognition diversity provides a paradox. if allorecognition is costly relative to cooperation, common alleles will be favored. thus, the cost of allorecognition may reduce the genetic var ...201525688421
the role of cercospora zeae-maydis homologs of rhodobacter sphaeroides 1o2-resistance genes in resistance to the photoactivated toxin cercosporin.the photosynthetic bacterium rhodobacter sphaeroides and plant pathogenic fungus cercospora nicotianae have been used as models for understanding resistance to singlet oxygen ((1)o(2)), a highly toxic reactive oxygen species. in rhodobacter and cercospora, (1)o(2) is derived, respectively, from photosynthesis and from the (1)o(2)-generating toxin cercosporin which the fungus produces to parasitize plants. we identified common genes recovered in transcriptome studies of putative (1)o(2)-resistanc ...201525670706
methods to study molecular mechanisms of the neurospora circadian clock.eukaryotic circadian clocks are comprised of interlocked autoregulatory feedback loops that control gene expression at the levels of transcription and translation. the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is an excellent model for the complex molecular network of regulatory mechanisms that are common to all eukaryotes. at the heart of the network, posttranslational regulation and functions of the core clock elements are of major interest. this chapter discusses the methods used currently to stud ...201525662455
dissecting the mechanisms of the clock in neurospora.the circadian clock exists to synchronize inner physiology with the external world, allowing life to anticipate and adapt to the continual changes that occur in an organism's environment. the clock architecture is highly conserved, present in almost all major branches of life. within eukaryotes, the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa has consistently been used as an excellent model organism to uncover the basic circadian physiology and molecular biology. the neurospora model has elucidated our ...201525662450
synthesis of a new glycosphingolipid, neurosporaside, from neurospora crassa.the glycosphingolipid neurosporaside (α-d-glcp-(1 → 2)-β-d-galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-galp-(1 →)-cer) occurs in neurospora crassa. we attempted to synthesize neurosporaside by block synthesis (route a) and linear synthesis (route b). oligosaccharide derivatives were synthesized using trimethylsilyltrifluoromethanesulfonate and n-iodosuccinimide/trifluoromethane sulfonic acid as promoters. the target tetrasaccharide could not be attained via route a, but route b showed potential: glycosidi ...201525659120
complex formation of rna silencing proteins in the perinuclear region of neurospora crassa.in neurospora, genes not paired during meiosis are targeted by meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud). here, our bimolecular fluorescence complementation (bifc) study suggests that rna-directed rna polymerase, dicer, argonaute, and others form a silencing complex in the perinuclear region, with intimate interactions among the majority of them. we have also shown that sad-2 is likely the anchor for this assembly.201525644701
multiple cellular roles of neurospora crassa plc-1, spla2, and cpe-1 in regulation of cytosolic free calcium, carotenoid accumulation, stress responses, and acquisition of thermotolerance.phospholipase c1 (plc1), secretory phospholipase a2 (spla2) and ca(2+)/h(+) exchanger proteins regulate calcium signaling and homeostasis in eukaryotes. in this study, we investigate functions for phospholipase c1 (plc-1), spla2 (spla2) and a ca(2+)/h(+) exchanger (cpe-1) in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. the δplc-1, δspla2, and δcpe-1 mutants exhibited a growth defect on medium supplemented with the divalent ionophore a23187, suggesting that these genes might play a role in regulatio ...201525636422
circadian rhythms. decoupling circadian clock protein turnover from circadian period determination.the mechanistic basis of eukaryotic circadian oscillators in model systems as diverse as neurospora, drosophila, and mammalian cells is thought to be a transcription-and-translation-based negative feedback loop, wherein progressive and controlled phosphorylation of one or more negative elements ultimately elicits their own proteasome-mediated degradation, thereby releasing negative feedback and determining circadian period length. the neurospora crassa circadian negative element frequency (frq) ...201525635104
prevalent and distinct spliceosomal 3'-end processing mechanisms for fungal telomerase rna.telomerase rna (ter) is an essential component of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex. the mechanism for ter 3'-end processing is highly divergent among different organisms. here we report a unique spliceosome-mediated ter 3'-end cleavage mechanism in neurospora crassa that is distinct from that found specifically in the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe. while the s. pombe ter intron contains the canonical 5'-splice site guaugu, the n. crassa ter intron contains a non-canonical 5'-sp ...201525598218
identification and characterization of lfd-2, a predicted fringe protein required for membrane integrity during cell fusion in neurospora crassa.the molecular mechanisms of membrane merger during somatic cell fusion in eukaryotic species are poorly understood. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, somatic cell fusion occurs between genetically identical germinated asexual spores (germlings) and between hyphae to form the interconnected network characteristic of a filamentous fungal colony. in n. crassa, two proteins have been identified to function at the step of membrane fusion during somatic cell fusion: prm1 and lfd-1. the abse ...201525595444
hypotonic stress-induced calcium signaling in saccharomyces cerevisiae involves trp-like transporters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.saccharomyces cerevisiae cells respond to hypotonic stress (hts) by a cytosolic calcium rise, either generated by an influx of calcium from extracellular medium, when calcium is available, or by a release from intracellular stores in scarcity of extracellular calcium. calcium release from intracellular compartments is peculiarly inhibited by external calcium in a calcineurin-independent and cch1-, but not mid1-, driven manner. hts-induced calcium release is also negatively regulated by the er pr ...201525573187
evolution of rna-protein interactions: non-specific binding led to rna splicing activity of fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases.the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (mttyrrs; cyt-18 protein) evolved a new function as a group i intron splicing factor by acquiring the ability to bind group i intron rnas and stabilize their catalytically active rna structure. previous studies showed: (i) cyt-18 binds group i introns by using both its n-terminal catalytic domain and flexibly attached c-terminal anticodon-binding domain (ctd); and (ii) the catalytic domain binds group i introns specifically via multiple ...201425536042
the aging biological clock in neurospora crassa.the biological clock affects aging through ras-1 (bd) and lag-1, and these two longevity genes together affect a clock phenotype and the clock oscillator in neurospora crassa. using an automated cell-counting technique for measuring conidial longevity, we show that the clock-associated genes lag-1 and ras-1 (bd) are true chronological longevity genes. for example, wild type (wt) has an estimated median life span of 24 days, while the double mutant lag-1, ras-1 (bd) has an estimated median life s ...201425535564
[lah-3, a transcriptional factor involved in osmotic regulation in neurospora crassa].[objective] in order to identify the function of lah-3 in osmotic regulation, we generated lah-3 deletion strain and analyzed its phenotype by osmostress treatment. [methods] we used homologous recombination to replace lah-3gene by hph gene and treated these cells with 4% nacl and 1 m sorbitol to analyze the phenotype. northern blot was used to detect the expressions of osmoresponsing genes. western blot was used to examine the phosphorylation level of lah-3 and os-2 and the expression of os-2. ...201425522587
selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative pcr in the model fungus neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. however, in order to optimize n. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. reverse-transcription quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the ex ...201425474155
the chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.the chestnut blight fungus, cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. the fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. this is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. molecular tools include sub-cellu ...201525454384
endogenous ergothioneine is required for wild type levels of conidiogenesis and conidial survival but does not protect against 254 nm uv-induced mutagenesis or kill.ergothioneine, a histidine derivative, is concentrated in conidia of ascomycetous fungi. to investigate the function of ergothioneine, we crossed the wild type neurospora crassa (egt(+)) and an ergothioneine non-producer (egt(-), δegt-1, a knockout in ncu04343.5) and used the egt(+) and egt(-) progeny strains for phenotypic analyses. compared to the egt(+) strains, egt(-) strains had a 59% reduction in the number of conidia produced on vogel's agar. after storage of egt(+) and egt(-) conidia at ...201425446508
the histone h3 lysine 9 methyltransferase dim-5 modifies chromatin at frequency and represses light-activated gene expression.the transcriptional program controlling the circadian rhythm requires coordinated regulation of chromatin. characterization of the chromodomain helicase dna-binding enzyme chd1 revealed dna methylation in the promoter of the central clock gene frequency (frq) in neurospora crassa. in this report, we show that the dna methylation at frq is not only dependent on the dna methyltransferase dim-2 but also on the h3k9 methyltransferase dim-5 and hp1. histone h3 lysine 9 trimethylation (h3k9me3) occurs ...201425429045
the rab gtpase ypt-1 associates with golgi cisternae and spitzenkörper microvesicles in neurospora crassa.vesicle traffic involves budding, transport, tethering and fusion of vesicles with acceptor membranes. gtp-bound small rab gtpases interact with the membrane of vesicles, promoting their association with other factors before their subsequent fusion. filamentous fungi contain at their hyphal apex the spitzenkörper (spk), a multivesicular structure to which vesicles concentrate before being redirected to specific cell sites. the regulatory mechanisms ensuring the directionality of the vesicles tha ...201525425138
biomineralization of metal carbonates by neurospora crassa.in this research, the urease-positive fungus neurospora crassa was investigated for the biomineralization of calcium carbonate and its potential application in metal biorecovery and/or bioremediation. after 12 d incubation at 25 °c in urea and calcium-containing medium, extensive biomineralization of fungal filaments was observed. energy dispersive x-ray analysis of crystalline precipitates on the hyphae of n. crassa showed that the main elements present in the crystals were ca, c, and o. x-ray ...201425423300
development and physiological characterization of cellobiose-consuming yarrowia lipolytica.yarrowia lipolytica is a promising production host for a wide range of molecules, but limited sugar consumption abilities prevent utilization of an abundant source of renewable feedstocks. in this study we created a y. lipolytica strain capable of utilizing cellobiose as a sole carbon source by using endogenous promoters to express the cellodextrin transporter cdt-1 and intracellular β-glucosidase gh1-1 from neurospora crassa. the engineered strain was also capable of simultaneous co-consumption ...201525421388
ham-5 functions as a map kinase scaffold during cell fusion in neurospora crassa.cell fusion in genetically identical neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved map kinase cascade that includes nrc-1, mek-2 and mak-2. during chemotrophic growth in germlings, the map kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (cat) tips every ∼8 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: soft, a recently identified scaffold for the mak-1 map kinase pathway in sordaria ...201425412208
fungal communication requires the mak-2 pathway elements ste-20 and ras-2, the nrc-1 adapter ste-50 and the map kinase scaffold ham-5.intercellular communication is critical for the survival of unicellular organisms as well as for the development and function of multicellular tissues. cell-to-cell signaling is also required to develop the interconnected mycelial network characteristic of filamentous fungi and is a prerequisite for symbiotic and pathogenic host colonization achieved by molds. somatic cell-cell communication and subsequent cell fusion is governed by the mak-2 mitogen activated protein kinase (mapk) cascade in th ...201425411845
the putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein clp1 is involved in cellulase induction in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, cellodextrin transporter-like protein 1 (clp1; ncu05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in n. crassa. although clp1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and avicel. the co-disruption of the c ...201525398875
isolation, characterization and application of a cellulose-degrading strain neurospora crassa s1 from oil palm empty fruit bunch.oil palm empty fruit bunch (efb) is a lignocellulosic waste produced in palm oil industry. efb mainly consists of cellulose, hemicellulose (mainly xylan) and lignin and has a great potential to be reused. converting efb to fermentable sugars and value-added chemicals is a much better choice than treating efb as waste.201425384340
engineering neurospora crassa for improved cellobiose and cellobionate production.we report engineering neurospora crassa to improve the yield of cellobiose and cellobionate from cellulose. a previously engineered strain of n. crassa (f5) with six of seven β-glucosidase (bgl) genes knocked out was shown to produce cellobiose and cellobionate directly from cellulose without the addition of exogenous cellulases. in this study, the f5 strain was further modified to improve the yield of cellobiose and cellobionate from cellulose by increasing cellulase production and decreasing p ...201525381238
the cullin-4 complex dcdc does not require e3 ubiquitin ligase elements to control heterochromatin in neurospora crassa.the cullin-4 (cul4) complex dcdc (dim-5/-7/-9/cul4/ddb1 complex) is essential for dna methylation and heterochromatin formation in neurospora crassa. cullins form the scaffold of cullin-ring e3 ubiquitin ligases (crls) and are modified by the covalent attachment of nedd8, a ubiquitin-like protein that regulates the stability and activity of crls. we report that neddylation is not required for cul4-dependent dna methylation or heterochromatin formation but is required for the dna repair functions ...201525362134
analysis of clock-regulated genes in neurospora reveals widespread posttranscriptional control of metabolic potential.neurospora crassa has been for decades a principal model for filamentous fungal genetics and physiology as well as for understanding the mechanism of circadian clocks. eukaryotic fungal and animal clocks comprise transcription-translation-based feedback loops that control rhythmic transcription of a substantial fraction of these transcriptomes, yielding the changes in protein abundance that mediate circadian regulation of physiology and metabolism: understanding circadian control of gene express ...201425362047
a novel cryptochrome-dependent oscillator in neurospora crassa.several lines of evidence suggest that the circadian clock is constructed of multiple molecular feedback oscillators that function to generate robust rhythms in organisms. however, while core oscillator mechanisms driving specific behaviors are well described in several model systems, the nature of other potential circadian oscillators is not understood. using genetic approaches in the fungus neurospora crassa, we uncovered an oscillator mechanism that drives rhythmic spore development in the ab ...201525361899
cellulose surface degradation by a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase and its effect on cellulase hydrolytic efficiency.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (lpmo) represents a unique principle of oxidative degradation of recalcitrant insoluble polysaccharides. used in combination with hydrolytic enzymes, lpmo appears to constitute a significant factor of the efficiency of enzymatic biomass depolymerization. lpmo activity on different cellulose substrates has been shown from the slow release of oxidized oligosaccharides into solution, but an immediate and direct demonstration of the enzyme action on the cellulose s ...201425361767
the transcription factor ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the tmk1 map kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride.mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. an essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. the trichoderma atroviride map kinase tmk1, a homolog of yeast fus3/kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and c ...201425356841
gene expression differences among three neurospora species reveal genes required for sexual reproduction in neurospora crassa.many fungi form complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies, within which the meiotic machinery for sexual spore production has been considered to be largely conserved over evolutionary time. indeed, much of what we know about meiosis in plant and animal taxa has been deeply informed by studies of meiosis in saccharomyces and neurospora. nevertheless, the genetic basis of fruiting body development and its regulation in relation to meiosis in fungi is barely known, even within the best studied mult ...201425329823
mechanism of the neurospora circadian clock, a frequency-centric view.circadian clocks are self-sustaining timekeepers found in almost all organisms on earth. the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is a preeminent model for eukaryotic circadian clocks. investigations of the neurospora circadian clock system have led to elucidation of circadian clock regulatory mechanisms that are common to all eukaryotes. in this work, we will focus on the neurospora circadian oscillator mechanism with an emphasis on the regulation of the core clock component frequency.201525302868
nothing special in the specialist? draft genome sequence of cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from antarctica.the draft genome of the antarctic endemic fungus cryomyces antarcticus is presented. this rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in eukaryots. since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. a comparison with neurospora crassa as well as with o ...201425296285
role of a remote leucine residue in the catalytic function of polyol dehydrogenase.studies on the protein-metal binding sites have mainly focused on the residues immediately surrounding the reacting substrate, cofactors, and metal ions. the contribution of residues in remote layers to the highly optimized microenvironments of catalytic active sites is not well understood. to improve our understanding, the present study examined the role of remote residues on the structure and function of zinc-dependent polyol dehydrogenases. we used an integrated computational and biochemical ...201425292207
phylogenetics and gene structure dynamics of polygalacturonase genes in aspergillus and neurospora crassa.polygalacturonase (pg) gene is a typical gene family present in eukaryotes. forty-nine pgs were mined from the genomes of neurospora crassa and five aspergillus species. the pgs were classified into 3 clades such as clade 1 for rhamno-pgs, clade 2 for exo-pgs and clade 3 for exo- and endo-pgs, which were further grouped into 13 sub-clades based on the polypeptide sequence similarity. in gene structure analysis, a total of 124 introns were present in 44 genes and five genes lacked introns to give ...201325288950
characterization of the neurospora crassa cell fusion proteins, ham-6, ham-7, ham-8, ham-9, ham-10, amph-1 and whi-2.intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an established colony. approximately 50 proteins have been shown to be important for somatic cell-cell communication and fusion in the mo ...201425279949
bioinformatic and biochemical characterizations of c-s bond formation and cleavage enzymes in the fungus neurospora crassa ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway.ergothioneine is a histidine thiol derivative. its mycobacterial biosynthetic pathway has five steps (egta-e catalysis) with two novel reactions: a mononuclear nonheme iron enzyme (egtb) catalyzed oxidative c-s bond formation and a plp-mediated c-s lyase (egte) reaction. our bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicate that the fungus neurospora crassa has a more concise ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway because its nonheme iron enzyme, egt1, makes use of cysteine instead of γ-glu-cys as the ...201425275953
characterizing the roles of cryphonectria parasitica rna-dependent rna polymerase-like genes in antiviral defense, viral recombination and transposon transcript accumulation.an inducible rna-silencing pathway, involving a single dicer protein, dcl2, and a single argonaute protein, agl2, was recently shown to serve as an effective antiviral defense response in the chestnut blight fungus cryphonectria parasitica. eukaryotic rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) are frequently involved in transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing and antiviral defense. we report here the identification and characterization of four rdrp genes (rdr1-4) in the c. parasitica g ...201425268858
a protein kinase screen of neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the snf1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. the activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. to identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. we identified mu ...201425253091
neurospora crassa as a model organism to explore the interconnected network of the cell cycle and the circadian clock.budding and fission yeast pioneered uncovering molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic cell division cycles. however, they do not possess canonical circadian clock machinery that regulates physiological processes with a period of about 24h. on the other hand, neurospora crassa played a critical role in elucidating molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms, but have not been utilized frequently for cell cycle studies. recent findings demonstrate that there exists a conserved coupling between the cell ...201425239547
a high-throughput gene disruption methodology for the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium robertsii.systematic gene disruption is a direct way to interrogate a fungal genome to functionally characterize the full suite of genes involved in various biological processes. metarhizium robertsii is extraordinarily versatile, and it is a pathogen of arthropods, a saprophyte and a beneficial colonizer of rhizospheres. thus, m. robertsii can be used as a representative to simultaneously study several major lifestyles that are not shared by the "model" fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crass ...201425222118
reaction-diffusion systems for spatio-temporal intracellular protein networks: a beginner's guide with two examples.spatio-temporal dynamics of a variety of proteins is, among other things, regulated by post-translational modifications of these proteins. such modifications can thus influence stability and biochemical activities of the proteins, activity and stability of their upstream targets within specific signalling pathways. commonly used mathematical tools for such protein-protein (and/or protein-mrna) interactions in single cells, namely, michaelis-menten and hill kinetics, yielding a system of ordinary ...201425210594
efficient gene targeting in ligase iv-deficient monascus ruber m7 by perturbing the non-homologous end joining pathway.inactivating the non-homologous end joining (nhej) pathway is a well established method to increase gene replacement frequency (grf) in filamentous fungi because nhej is predominant for the repair of dna double strand breaks (dsbs), while gene targeting is based on homologous recombination (hr). dna ligase iv, a component of the nhej system, is strictly required for the nhej in saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa. to enhance the grf in monascus ruber m7, we deleted the mrlig4 gene enc ...201425209642
a family of starch-active polysaccharide monooxygenases.the recently discovered fungal and bacterial polysaccharide monooxygenases (pmos) are capable of oxidatively cleaving chitin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses that contain β(1→4) linkages between glucose or substituted glucose units. they are also known collectively as lytic pmos, or lpmos, and individually as aa9 (formerly gh61), aa10 (formerly cbm33), and aa11 enzymes. pmos share several conserved features, including a monocopper center coordinated by a bidentate n-terminal histidine residue and ...201425201969
regulated dna methylation and the circadian clock: implications in cancer.since the cloning and discovery of dna methyltransferases (dnmt), there has been a growing interest in dna methylation, its role as an epigenetic modification, how it is established and removed, along with the implications in development and disease. in recent years, it has become evident that dynamic dna methylation accompanies the circadian clock and is found at clock genes in neurospora, mice and cancer cells. the relationship among the circadian clock, cancer and dna methylation at clock gen ...201425198253
light-mediated participation of the vivid-like protein of fusarium fujikuroi vvda in pigmentation and development.the phytopathogen fusarium fujikuroi is a model fungus for the production of different secondary metabolites. these include the acidic xanthophyll neurosporaxanthin, produced through the activity of the enzymes encoded by the car genes, of which carra and carb play a major role. expression of these genes is induced by light but, in contrast to other fungi, the induction is not impaired under continuous illumination in null mutants of the f. fujikuroi wc-1-like gene, wcoa. therefore, we investiga ...201425154020
efficient detection of unpaired dna requires a member of the rad54-like family of homologous recombination proteins.meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud) is a process that detects unpaired regions between homologous chromosomes and silences them for the duration of sexual development. while the phenomenon of msud is well recognized, the process that detects unpaired dna is poorly understood. in this report, we provide two lines of evidence linking unpaired dna detection to a physical search for dna homology. first, we have found that a putative snf2-family protein (sad-6) is required for efficient msud in ...201425146971
vib1, a link between glucose signaling and carbon catabolite repression, is essential for plant cell wall degradation by neurospora crassa.filamentous fungi that thrive on plant biomass are the major producers of hydrolytic enzymes used to decompose lignocellulose for biofuel production. although induction of cellulases is regulated at the transcriptional level, how filamentous fungi sense and signal carbon-limited conditions to coordinate cell metabolism and regulate cellulolytic enzyme production is not well characterized. by screening a transcription factor deletion set in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa for mutants una ...201425144221
deciphering the uniqueness of mucoromycotina cell walls by combining biochemical and phylogenomic approaches.most fungi from the mucoromycotina lineage occur in ecosystems as saprobes, although some species are phytopathogens or may induce human mycosis. mucoromycotina represent early diverging models that are most valuable for understanding fungal evolution. here we reveal the uniqueness of the cell wall structure of the mucoromycotina rhizopus oryzae and phycomyces blakesleeanus compared with the better characterized cell wall of the ascomycete neurospora crassa. we have analysed the corresponding po ...201525143134
two pentatricopeptide repeat domain proteins are required for the synthesis of respiratory complex i.in this study pentatricopeptide repeat (ppr) proteins in filamentous ascomycetes are identified and functionally characterized. ppr proteins, which have in common a degenerated 35 amino acid motif often arranged in multiple tandems, are known to be implicated in various steps of rna metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. in filamentous ascomycetes we identified a common set of nine ppr proteins. for seven of these proteins, which were not yet characterized, knockout mutants of neurospora c ...201525108509
structural and functional organization of growing tips of neurospora crassa hyphae.data are presented on a variety of intracellular structures of the vegetative hyphae of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa and the involvement of these structures in the tip growth of the hyphae. current ideas on the molecular and genetic mechanisms of tip growth and regulation of this process are considered. on the basis of comparison of data on behaviors of mitochondria and microtubules and data on the electrical heterogeneity of the hyphal apex, a hypothesis is proposed about a possible ...201425108323
extracellular calcium triggers unique transcriptional programs and modulates staurosporine-induced cell death in neurospora crassa.alterations in the intracellular levels of calcium are a common response to cell death stimuli in animals and fungi and, particularly, in the neurospora crassa response to staurosporine. we highlight the importance of the extracellular availability of ca(2+) for this response. limitation of the ion in the culture medium further sensitizes cells to the drug and results in increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros). conversely, an approximately 30-fold excess of external ca(2+) leads ...201428357255
the evolutionary history of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the antioxidant ergothioneine.ergothioneine (egt) is a histidine betaine derivative that exhibits antioxidant action in humans. egt is primarily synthesized by fungal species and a number of bacterial species. a five-gene cluster (egta, egtb, egtc, egtd &egte) responsible for egt production in mycobacteria smegmatis has recently been identified. the first fungal biosynthetic egt gene (ncegt-1) has also been identified in neurospora crassa. ncegt-1 contains domains similar to those found in m. smegmatis egtb and egtd. egt is ...201425068406
genetic control of anastomosis in podospora anserina.we developed a new microscopy procedure to study anastomoses in the model ascomycete podospora anserina and compared it with the previous method involving the formation of balanced heterokaryons. both methods showed a good correlation. heterokaryon formation was less quantifiable, but enabled to observe very rare events. microscopic analysis evidenced that anastomoses were greatly influence by growth conditions and were severely impaired in the idc mutants of the pampk1, pampk2, idc1 and panox1 ...201425064063
genome-wide characterization of light-regulated genes in neurospora crassa.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa responds to light in complex ways. to thoroughly study the transcriptional response of this organism to light, rna-seq was used to analyze capped and polyadenylated mrna prepared from mycelium grown for 24 hr in the dark and then exposed to light for 0 (control) 15, 60, 120, and 240 min. more than three-quarters of all defined protein coding genes (79%) were expressed in these cells. the increased sensitivity of rna-seq compared with previous microarray s ...201425053707
activation of a trp-like channel and intracellular ca2+ dynamics during phospholipase-c-mediated cell death.the model organism neurospora crassa undergoes programmed cell death when exposed to staurosporine. here, we show that staurosporine causes defined changes in cytosolic free ca(2+) ([ca(2+)]c) dynamics and a distinct ca(2+) signature that involves ca(2+) influx from the external medium and internal ca(2+) stores. we investigated the molecular basis of this ca(2+) response by using [ca(2+)]c measurements combined with pharmacological and genetic approaches. phospholipase c was identified as a piv ...201425037570
the combined structural and kinetic characterization of a bacterial nitronate monooxygenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa pao1 establishes nmo class i and ii.nitronate monooxygenase (nmo) oxidizes the mitochondrial toxin propionate 3-nitronate (p3n) to malonate semialdehyde. the enzyme has been previously characterized biochemically in fungi, but no structural information is available. based on amino acid similarity 4,985 genes are annotated in the genbank(tm) as nmo. of these, 4,424 (i.e. 89%) are bacterial genes, including several pseudomonads that have been shown to use p3n as growth substrate. here, we have cloned and expressed the gene pa4202 of ...201425002579
dead-box protein cyt-19 is activated by exposed helices in a group i intron rna.dead-box proteins are nonprocessive rna helicases and can function as rna chaperones, but the mechanisms of their chaperone activity remain incompletely understood. the neurospora crassa dead-box protein cyt-19 is a mitochondrial rna chaperone that promotes group i intron splicing and has been shown to resolve misfolded group i intron structures, allowing them to refold. building on previous results, here we use a series of tertiary contact mutants of the tetrahymena group i intron ribozyme to d ...201425002474
snowyowl: accurate prediction of fungal genes by using rna-seq and homology information to select among ab initio models.locating the protein-coding genes in novel genomes is essential to understanding and exploiting the genomic information but it is still difficult to accurately predict all the genes. the recent availability of detailed information about transcript structure from high-throughput sequencing of messenger rna (rna-seq) delineates many expressed genes and promises increased accuracy in gene prediction. computational gene predictors have been intensively developed for and tested in well-studied animal ...201424980894
viba, a homologue of a transcription factor for fungal heterokaryon incompatibility, is involved in antifungal compound production in the plant-symbiotic fungus epichloë festucae.symbiotic association of epichloae endophytes (epichloë/neotyphodium species) with cool-season grasses of the subfamily pooideae confers bioprotective benefits to the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. while the production of fungal bioprotective metabolites is a well-studied mechanism of host protection from insect herbivory, little is known about the antibiosis mechanism against grass pathogens by the mutualistic endophyte. in this study, an epichloë festucae mutant defective in ...201524906411
the proteome and phosphoproteome of neurospora crassa in response to cellulose, sucrose and carbon starvation.improving cellulolytic enzyme production by plant biomass degrading fungi holds great potential in reducing costs associated with production of next-generation biofuels generated from lignocellulose. how fungi sense cellulosic materials and respond by secreting enzymes has mainly been examined by assessing function of transcriptional regulators and via transcriptional profiling. here, we obtained global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of the plant biomass degrading filamentous fungus neu ...201424881580
an asymmetric pan3 dimer recruits a single pan2 exonuclease to mediate mrna deadenylation and decay.the pan2-pan3 complex functions in general and microrna-mediated mrna deadenylation. however, mechanistic insight into pan2 and its complex with the asymmetric pan3 dimer is lacking. here, we describe crystal structures that show that neurospora crassa pan2 comprises two independent structural units: a c-terminal catalytic unit and an n-terminal assembly unit that engages in a bipartite interaction with pan3 dimers. the catalytic unit contains the exonuclease domain in an intimate complex with a ...201424880343
heterochromatin controls γh2a localization in neurospora crassa.in response to genotoxic stress, atr and atm kinases phosphorylate h2a in fungi and h2ax in animals on a c-terminal serine. the resulting modified histone, called γh2a, recruits chromatin-binding proteins that stabilize stalled replication forks or promote dna double-strand-break repair. to identify genomic loci that might be prone to replication fork stalling or dna breakage in neurospora crassa, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (chip) of γh2a followed by next-generation sequencing (c ...201424879124
secret lifestyles of neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa has a long history as an excellent model for genetic, cellular, and biochemical research. although this fungus is known as a saprotroph, it normally appears on burned vegetations or trees after forest fires. however, due to a lack of experimental evidence, the nature of its association with living plants remains enigmatic. here we report that scots pine (pinus sylvestris) is a host plant for n. crassa. the endophytic lifestyle of n. crassa was found in its interaction with scot ...201424875794
experimental evolution of bet hedging under manipulated environmental uncertainty in neurospora crassa.all organisms are faced with environmental uncertainty. bet-hedging theory expects unpredictable selection to result in the evolution of traits that maximize the geometric-mean fitness even though such traits appear to be detrimental over the shorter term. despite the centrality of fitness measures to evolutionary analysis, no direct test of the geometric-mean fitness principle exists. here, we directly distinguish between predictions of competing fitness maximization principles by testing cohen ...201424870047
dynamics of transcriptome evolution in the model eukaryote neurospora.mounting evidence indicates that changes in the transcriptome contribute significantly to the phenotypic differentiation of closely related species. nonetheless, further genome-wide studies, spanning a broad range of organisms, are needed to decipher the factors driving transcriptome evolution. the model neurospora (ascomycota) comprises a simple system for empirically studying the evolutionary dynamics of the transcriptome. here, we studied the evolution of gene expression in neurospora crassa ...201424848562
neurospora crassa 1,3-α-glucan synthase, ags-1, is required for cell wall biosynthesis during macroconidia development.the neurospora crassa genome encodes two 1,3-α-glucan synthases. one of these 1,3-α-glucan synthase genes, ags-1, was shown to be required for the synthesis of 1,3-α-glucan in the aerial hyphae and macroconidia cell walls. 1,3-α-glucan was found in the conidia cell wall, but was absent from the vegetative hyphae cell wall. deletion of ags-1 affected conidial development. δags-1 produced only 5 % as many conidia as the wt and most of the conidia produced by δags-1 were not viable. the ags-1 upstr ...201424847001
[improving cellulases production with neurospora crassa by morphology mutants screening].filamentous fungi are widely used for large-scale production of cellulases. morphological characteristics of mycelia under submerged condition are closely correlated with cellulases productivity. in order to find out the critical genes involved in the mycelial morphology development and cellulases production in liquid fermentation, 95 neurospora crassa morphological mutants (named as szy1-95) were screened for cellulases production. compared with the wild type, cellulases production in four muta ...201424818479
septum development in neurospora crassa: the septal actomyosin tangle.septum formation in neurospora crassa was studied by fluorescent tagging of actin, myosin, tropomyosin, formin, fimbrin, bud-4, and chs-1. in chronological order, we recognized three septum development stages: 1) septal actomyosin tangle (sat) assembly, 2) contractile actomyosin ring (car) formation, 3) car constriction together with plasma membrane ingrowth and cell wall construction. septation began with the assembly of a conspicuous tangle of cortical actin cables (sat) in the septation site ...201424800890
analysis of the antimicrobial effects of nonthermal plasma on fungal spores in ionic solutions.the antimicrobial efficiency of reactive species-based control strategies is significantly affected by the dynamics of reactive species in the biological environment. atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma is an ionized gas in which various reactive species are produced. the various levels of antimicrobial activity may result from the dynamic interaction of the plasma-generated reactive species with the environment. however, the nature of the interaction between plasma and environments is poorly ...201424794411
cdc-42 and rac-1 regulate opposite chemotropisms in neurospora crassa.cell polarization and fusion are crucial developmental processes that occur in response to intracellular and extracellular signals. asexual spores (conidia) of the mold neurospora crassa differentiate two types of polarized cell protrusions, germ tubes and conidial anastomosis tubes (cats), which exhibit negative and positive chemotropism, respectively. we provide the first evidence that shared and separate functions of the rho-type gtpases cdc-42 and rac-1 regulate these opposite chemotropisms. ...201424790223
specific domains of plant defensins differentially disrupt colony initiation, cell fusion and calcium homeostasis in neurospora crassa.msdef1 and mtdef4 from medicago spp. are small cysteine-rich defensins with potent antifungal activity against a broad range of filamentous fungi. each defensin has a hallmark γ-core motif (gxcx(3-9) c), which contains major determinants of its antifungal activity. in this study, the antifungal activities of msdef1, mtdef4, and peptides derived from their γ-core motifs, were characterized during colony initiation in the fungal model, neurospora crassa. these defensins and their cognate peptides ...201424773060
proper actin ring formation and septum constriction requires coordinated regulation of sin and mor pathways through the germinal centre kinase mst-1.nuclear dbf2p-related (ndr) kinases constitute a functionally conserved protein family of eukaryotic regulators that control cell division and polarity. in fungi, they function as effector kinases of the morphogenesis (mor) and septation initiation (sin) networks and are activated by pathway-specific germinal centre (gc) kinases. we characterized a third gc kinase, mst-1, that connects both kinase cascades. genetic and biochemical interactions with sin components and life cell imaging identify m ...201424762679
alteration of light-dependent gene regulation by the absence of the rco-1/rcm-1 repressor complex in the fungus neurospora crassa.the activation of transcription by light in the fungus neurospora crassa requires the white collar complex (wcc), a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex. after light reception two wccs interact and bind the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. this process is regulated by vvd, a small photoreceptor that disrupts the interaction between wccs and leads to a reduction in transcription after long exposures to light. the n. crassa rco-1/rcm-1 repressor complex is th ...201424747913
discovery of lpmo activity on hemicelluloses shows the importance of oxidative processes in plant cell wall degradation.the recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of lpmos, and considering the complexity and copolymeric nature of the plant cell wall, it has been speculated that some lpmos may act on other substrates, in particular the hemicelluloses that tether t ...201424733907
the highly expressed methionine synthase gene of neurospora crassa is positively regulated by its proximal heterochromatic region.in neurospora crassa, the methionine synthase gene met-8 plays a key role in methionine synthesis. in this study, we found that met-8 protein levels were compromised in several mutants defective in proper heterochromatin formation. bioinformatics analysis revealed a 50-kb at-rich region adjacent to the met-8 promoter. chip assays confirmed that trimethylated h3k9 was enriched in this region, indicating that heterochromatin may form upstream of met-8. in an h3k9r mutant strain, the output of met- ...201424711369
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