the neurospora transcription factor adv-1 transduces light signals and temporal information to control rhythmic expression of genes involved in cell fusion.light and the circadian clock have a profound effect on the biology of organisms through the regulation of large sets of genes. toward understanding how light and the circadian clock regulate gene expression, we used genome-wide approaches to identify the direct and indirect targets of the light-responsive and clock-controlled transcription factor adv-1 in neurospora crassa a large proportion of adv-1 targets were found to be light- and/or clock-controlled, and enriched for genes involved in dev ...201727856696
antisense transcription licenses nascent transcripts to mediate transcriptional gene eukaryotes, antisense transcription can regulate sense transcription by induction of epigenetic modifications. we showed previously that antisense transcription triggers dicer-independent sirna (disirna) production and disirna locus dna methylation (dldm) in neurospora crassa here we show that the conserved exonuclease eri-1 (enhanced rnai-1) is a critical component in this process. antisense transcription and eri-1 binding to target rnas are necessary and sufficient to trigger dldm. converge ...201627856616
short communication: conversion of lactose and whey into lactic acid by engineered yeast.lactose is often considered an unwanted and wasted byproduct, particularly lactose trapped in acid whey from yogurt production. but using specialized microbial fermentation, the surplus wasted acid whey could be converted into value-added chemicals. the baker's yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used for industrial fermentation, cannot natively ferment lactose. the present study describes how an engineered s. cerevisiae yeast was constructed to produce lactic acid from purified la ...201727837988
reorganization of plasma membrane lipid domains during conidial germination.neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus, in the unicellular conidial stage has ideal features to study sphingolipid (sl)-enriched domains, which are implicated in fundamental cellular processes ranging from antifungal resistance to apoptosis. several changes in lipid metabolism and in the membrane composition of n. crassa occur during spore germination. however, the biophysical impact of those changes is unknown. thus, a biophysical study of n. crassa plasma membrane, particularly sl-enriched do ...201727815222
identification of critical amino acid residues and functional conservation of the neurospora crassa and rattus norvegicus orthologues of neuronal calcium sensor-1.neuronal calcium sensor-1 (ncs-1) is a member of neuronal calcium sensor family of proteins consisting of an amino terminal myristoylation domain and four conserved calcium (ca(2+)) binding ef-hand domains. we performed site-directed mutational analysis of three key amino acid residues that are glycine in the conserved site for the n-terminal myristoylation, a conserved glutamic acid residue responsible for ca(2+) binding in the third ef-hand (ef3), and an unusual non-conserved amino acid argini ...201627796528
accumulation of specific sterol precursors targets a map kinase cascade mediating cell-cell recognition and fusion.sterols are vital components of eukaryotic cell membranes. defects in sterol biosynthesis, which result in the accumulation of precursor molecules, are commonly associated with cellular disorders and disease. however, the effects of these sterol precursors on the metabolism, signaling, and behavior of cells are only poorly understood. in this study, we show that the accumulation of only ergosterol precursors with a conjugated double bond in their aliphatic side chain specifically disrupts cell-c ...201627708165
a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase with broad xyloglucan specificity from the brown-rot fungus gloeophyllum trabeum and its action on cellulose-xyloglucan complexes.fungi secrete a set of glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) to degrade plant polysaccharides. brown-rot fungi, such as gloeophyllum trabeum, tend to have few lpmos, and information on these enzymes is scarce. the genome of g. trabeum encodes four auxiliary activity 9 (aa9) lpmos (gtlpmo9s), whose coding sequences were amplified from cdna. due to alternative splicing, two variants of gtlpmo9a seem to be produced, a single-domain variant, gtlpmo9a-1, and a longer va ...201627590806
synchronizing stochastic circadian oscillators in single cells of neurospora crassa.the synchronization of stochastic coupled oscillators is a central problem in physics and an emerging problem in biology, particularly in the context of circadian rhythms. most measurements on the biological clock are made at the macroscopic level of millions of cells. here measurements are made on the oscillators in single cells of the model fungal system, neurospora crassa, with droplet microfluidics and the use of a fluorescent recorder hooked up to a promoter on a clock controlled gene-2 (cc ...201627786253
regulation of neurospora catalase-3 by global heterochromatin formation and its proximal heterochromatin region.catalase-3 (cat-3) constitutes the main catalase activity in growing hyphae of neurospora crassa, and its activity increases during exponential growth or is induced under different stress conditions. although extensive progress has been made to identify catalase regulators, the regulation mechanism of cat-3 at the chromatin level still remains unclear. here, we aim at investigating the molecular regulation mechanisms of cat-3 at the chromatin level. we found that cat-3 protein levels increased i ...201627458122
the q-system: a versatile expression system for drosophila.binary expression systems are flexible and versatile genetic tools in drosophila. the q-system is a recently developed repressible binary expression system that offers new possibilities for transgene expression and genetic manipulations. in this review chapter, we focus on current state-of-the-art q-system tools and reagents. we also discuss in vivo applications of the q-system, together with gal4/uas and lexa/lexaop systems, for simultaneous expression of multiple effectors, intersectional labe ...201627730575
internalization of heterologous sugar transporters by endogenous α-arrestins in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae.when expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae using either of two constitutive yeast promoters (pgk1prom and ccw12prom), the transporters cdt-1 and cdt-2 from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa are able to catalyze, respectively, active transport and facilitated diffusion of cellobiose (and, for cdt-2, also xylan and its derivatives). in s. cerevisiae, endogenous permeases are removed from the plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and are marked for internalization through ubiquiti ...201627694235
epigenetic control of phenotypic plasticity in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce different phenotypes under different environmental or developmental conditions. phenotypic plasticity is a ubiquitous feature of living organisms, and is typically based on variable patterns of gene expression. however, the mechanisms by which gene expression is influenced and regulated during plastic responses are poorly understood in most organisms. while modifications to dna and histone proteins have been implicated as likely candi ...201627694114
dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex hchc is required for proper dna methylation in neurospora crassa.dna methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (hp1), histone h3 lysine 9 (h3k9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. prior work showed that h3k9 methylation directs dna methylation and histone deacetylation via hp1 in neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex hchc is required for proper dna methylation. the complex consists of the chromodomain proteins hp1 ...201627681634
controlled growth of nanostructured biotemplates with cobalt and nitrogen codoping as a binderless lithium-ion battery anode.biomass can serve as a sustainable template for the synthesis of carbon materials but is limited by the intrinsic properties of the precursor organism. in this study we demonstrate that the properties of a fungal biotemplate can be tuned during cultivation, establishing a new electrode manufacturing process and ultimately improving the electrochemical performance of the biomass-derived electrode. more specifically, the carbon/nitrogen ratio of neurospora crassa mycelia mats was shifted by 5-fold ...201627636014
recombination-independent recognition of dna homology for repeat-induced point mutation.numerous cytogenetic observations have shown that homologous chromosomes (or individual chromosomal loci) can engage in specific pairing interactions in the apparent absence of dna breakage and recombination, suggesting that canonical recombination-mediated mechanisms may not be the only option for sensing dna/dna homology. one proposed mechanism for such recombination-independent homology recognition involves direct contacts between intact double-stranded dna molecules. the strongest in vivo ev ...201627628707
functional expression and characterization of a glucuronoyl esterase from the fungus neurospora crassa: identification of novel consensus sequences containing the catalytic triad.the complete hydrolysis of lignocellulose requires the actions of a variety of enzymes, including those that cleave the linkage between lignin and hemicellulose. the enzyme glucuronoyl esterase (ge) that constitutes a novel family of carbohydrate esterases, ce15, has been shown to display a unique ability to cleave the ester linkage between lignin alcohols and xylan-bound 4-o-methyl-d-glucuronic acid of hemicellulose. we herein report identification, expression, and functional characterization o ...201627600355
deep sequencing of mycovirus-derived small rnas from botrytis species.rna silencing is an ancient regulatory mechanism operating in all eukaryotic cells. in fungi, it was first discovered in neurospora crassa, although its potential as a defence mechanism against mycoviruses was first reported in cryphonectria parasitica and, later, in several fungal species. there is little evidence of the antiviral potential of rna silencing in the phytopathogenic species of the fungal genus botrytis. moreover, little is known about the rna silencing components in these fungi, a ...201627578449
circadian clock regulation of mrna translation through eukaryotic elongation factor eef-2.the circadian clock has a profound effect on gene regulation, controlling rhythmic transcript accumulation for up to half of expressed genes in eukaryotes. evidence also exists for clock control of mrna translation, but the extent and mechanisms for this regulation are not known. in neurospora crassa, the circadian clock generates daily rhythms in the activation of conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathways when cells are grown in constant conditions, including rhythmic activatio ...201627506798
modulation of circadian gene expression and metabolic compensation by the rco-1 corepressor of neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa is a model organism for the study of circadian clocks, molecular machineries that confer ∼24-hr rhythms to different processes at the cellular and organismal levels. the frequency (frq) protein is a central component of the neurospora core clock, a transcription/translation negative feedback loop that controls genome-wide rhythmic gene expression. a genetic screen aimed at determining new components involved in the latter process identified regulation of conidiation 1 (rco-1), ...201627449058
transcriptional regulation using the q system in transgenic zebrafish.methods to label cell populations selectively or to modify their gene expression are critical tools in the study of developmental or physiological processes in vivo. a variety of approaches have been applied to the zebrafish model, capitalizing on tol2 transposition to generate transgenic lines with high efficiency. here we describe the adoption of the q system of neurospora crassa, which includes the qf transcription factor and the upstream activating sequence (quas) to which it binds. these co ...201627443927
qirnapredictor: a novel computational program for the prediction of qirnas in neurospora crassa.recently, a new type of small interfering rnas (qirnas) of typically 20~21 nucleotides was found in neurospora crassa and rice and has been shown to regulate gene silencing in the dna damage response. identification of qirnas is fundamental for dissecting regulatory functions and molecular mechanisms. in contrast to other expensive and time-consuming experimental methods, the computational prediction of qirnas is a conveniently rapid method for gaining valuable information for a subsequent exper ...201627428111
identification and functional analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in a filamentous spite of its prevalence in animals and plants, endogenous nitric oxide (no) has been rarely reported in fungi. we present here our observations on production of intracellular no and its possible roles during development of neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus. intracellular no was detected in hypha 8-16 hours after incubation in vogel's minimal liquid media and conidiophores during conidiation using a fluorescent indicator (daf-fm diacetate). treatment with cptio, an no scavenger, si ...201627425220
structure and function of the yeast listerin (ltn1) conserved n-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60s ribosomal subunits.the ltn1 e3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. ltn1 binds to 60s ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among ltn1's substrates are aberrant products of mrna lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (nsps)]. here, we report the reconstitution of nsp ubiquitylation in neurospora crassa cell extracts. upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled nsps were ubiquit ...201627385828
a proteomic and genetic analysis of the neurospora crassa conidia cell wall proteins identifies two glycosyl hydrolases involved in cell wall remodeling.a proteomic analysis of the conidial cell wall identified 35 cell wall proteins. a comparison with the proteome of the vegetative hyphae showed that 16 cell wall proteins were shared, and that these shared cell wall proteins were cell wall biosynthetic proteins or cell wall structural proteins. deletion mutants for 34 of the genes were analyzed for phenotypes indicative of conidial cell wall defects. mutants for two cell wall glycosyl hydrolases, the cgl-1 β-1,3-glucanase (ncu07523) and the nag- ...201627381444
regulation of neurospora crassa cell wall remodeling via the cot-1 pathway is mediated by gul-1.impairment of the neurospora crassa nuclear dbf2-related kinase-encoding gene cot-1 results in pleiotropic effects, including abnormally thick hyphal cell walls and septa. an increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding chitin and glucan synthases and the chitinase gh18-5, but not the cell wall integrity pathway transcription factor rlm-1, accompany the phenotypic changes observed. deletion of chs-5 or chs-7 in a cot-1 background results in a reduction of hyperbranching frequency chara ...201727363849
homology directed repair is unaffected by the absence of sirnas in drosophila melanogaster.small interfering rnas (sirnas) defend the organism against harmful transcripts from exogenous (e.g. viral) or endogenous (e.g. transposons) sources. recent publications describe the production of sirnas induced by dna double-strand breaks (dsb) in neurospora crassa, arabidopsis thaliana, drosophila melanogaster and human cells, which suggests a conserved function. a current hypothesis is that break-induced small rnas ensure efficient homologous recombination (hr). however, biogenesis of sirnas ...201627353331
spiral-based microfluidic device for long-term time course imaging of neurospora crassa with single nucleus resolution.real-time imaging of fluorescent reporters plays a critical role in elucidating fundamental molecular mechanisms including circadian rhythms in the model filamentous fungus, neurospora crassa. however, monitoring n. crassa for an extended period of time with single nucleus resolution is a technically challenging task due to hyphal growth that rapidly moves beyond a region of interest during microscopy experiments. in this report, we have proposed a two-dimensional spiral-based microfluidic platf ...201627345439
structure of the frequency-interacting rna helicase: a protein interaction hub for the circadian the neurospora crassa circadian clock, a protein complex of frequency (frq), casein kinase 1a (ck1a), and the frq-interacting rna helicase (frh) rhythmically represses gene expression by the white-collar complex (wcc). frh crystal structures in several conformations and bound to adp/rna reveal differences between frh and the yeast homolog mtr4 that clarify the distinct role of frh in the clock. the frq-interacting region at the frh n-terminus has variable structure in the absence of frq a kno ...201627340124
crosses heterozygous for hybrid neurospora translocation strains show transmission ratio distortion disfavoring homokaryotic ascospores made following alternate introgressing neurospora crassa translocations into n. tetrasperma, we constructed heterokaryons bearing haploid nuclei of opposite mating types, and either the translocation and normal sequence chromosomes (i.e., [t + n]) or a duplication and its complementary deficiency (i.e., [dp + df]). the [t + n] heterokaryons result from alternate segregation of homologous centromeres, whereas adjacent-1 segregation generates [dp + df]. self-cross of either heterokaryon produces [t + n] and [dp + df] p ...201627317785
an epichloë festucae homologue of mob3, a component of the stripak complex, is required for the establishment of a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with lolium both sordaria macrospora and neurospora crassa, components of the conserved stripak (striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase) complex regulate cell-cell fusion, hyphal network development and fruiting body formation. interestingly, a number of epichloë festucae genes that are required for hyphal cell-cell fusion, such as noxa, noxr, proa, mpka and mkka, are also required for the establishment of a mutualistic symbiotic interaction with lolium perenne. to determine whether mobc, a homologu ...201627277141
involvement of mak-1 and mak-2 map kinases in cell wall integrity in neurospora crassa.among three mapk disruptants of neurospora crassa, δmak-1 was sensitive and δmak-2 was hypersensitive to micafungin, a beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, than the wild-type or δos-2 strains. we identified six micafungin-inducible genes that are involved in cell wall integrity (cwi) and found that mak-1 regulated the transcription of non-anchored cell wall protein gene, ncw-1, and the beta-1,3-endoglucanase gene, bgt-2, whereas mak-2 controlled the expression of the glycosylhydrolase-like protei ...201627268441
neurospora chromosomes are organized by blocks of importin alpha-dependent heterochromatin that are largely independent of h3k9me3.eukaryotic genomes are organized into chromatin domains with three-dimensional arrangements that presumably result from interactions between the chromatin constituents-proteins, dna, and rna-within the physical constraints of the nucleus. we used chromosome conformation capture (3c) followed by high-throughput sequencing (hi-c) with wild-type and mutant strains of neurospora crassa to gain insight into the role of heterochromatin in the organization and function of the genome. we tested the role ...201627260477
cell wall composition plays a key role on sensitivity of filamentous fungi to chitosan.chitosan antifungal activity has been reported for both filamentous fungi and yeast. previous studies have shown fungal plasma membrane as main chitosan target. however, the role of the fungal cell wall (cw) in their response to chitosan is unknown. we show that cell wall regeneration in neurospora crassa (chitosan sensitive) protoplasts protects them from chitosan damage. caspofungin, a β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, showed a synergistic antifungal effect with chitosan for n. crassa but not f ...201627259000
pre-mrna splicing is modulated by antifungal drugs in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.for this study, we sought to identify pre-mrna processing events modulated by changes in extracellular ph, inorganic phosphate, and antifungal drugs. we examined genes with at least four putative introns whose transcriptional level responded to these effectors. we showed that the intron retention levels of genes encoding asparagine synthetase 2, c6-zinc finger regulator (fluffy), and a farnesyltransferase respond to amphotericin b, ketoconazole, and other effectors. in general, the assayed antif ...201627239448
salt-responsive lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases from the mangrove fungus pestalotiopsis sp. nci6.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) belong to the "auxiliary activities (aa)" enzyme class of the cazy database. they are known to strongly improve the saccharification process and boost soluble sugar yields from lignocellulosic biomass, which is a key step in the efficient production of sustainable economic biofuels. to date, most lpmos have been characterized from terrestrial fungi, but novel fungal lpmos isolated from more extreme environments such as an estuary mangrove ecosystem cou ...201627213015
histone h1 limits dna methylation in neurospora crassa.histone h1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa encodes a single h1 protein that is not essential for viability. to investigate the role of n. crassa h1, we constructed a functional flag-tagged h1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. cell fractionation experiments showed that h1-3xflag ...201627172195
recombination-independent recognition of dna homology for repeat-induced point mutation (rip) is modulated by the underlying nucleotide sequence.haploid germline nuclei of many filamentous fungi have the capacity to detect homologous nucleotide sequences present on the same or different chromosomes. once recognized, such sequences can undergo cytosine methylation or cytosine-to-thymine mutation specifically over the extent of shared homology. in neurospora crassa this process is known as repeat-induced point mutation (rip). previously, we showed that rip did not require mei-3, the only reca homolog in neurospora, and that it could detect ...201627148882
backbone and side-chain (1)h, (13)c, and (15)n chemical shift assignments for the apo-form of the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase nclpmo9c.the apo-form of the 23.3 kda catalytic domain of the aa9 family lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase nclpmo9c from neurospora crassa has been isotopically labeled and recombinantly expressed in pichia pastoris. in this paper, we report the (1)h, (13)c, and (15)n chemical shift assignments of this lpmo.201627147444
experimental evolution reveals that high relatedness protects multicellular cooperation from multicellular organisms, there is a potential risk that cheating mutants gain access to the germline. development from a single-celled zygote resets relatedness among cells to its maximum value each generation, which should accomplish segregation of cheating mutants from non-cheaters and thereby protect multicellular cooperation. here we provide the crucial direct comparison between high- and low-relatedness conditions to test this hypothesis. we allow two variants of the fungus neurospora cr ...201627139112
new anti-inflammatory metabolites by microbial transformation of medrysone.microbial transformation of the anti-inflammatory steroid medrysone (1) was carried out for the first time with the filamentous fungi cunninghamella blakesleeana (atcc 8688a), neurospora crassa (atcc 18419), and rhizopus stolonifer (tsy 0471). the objective was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of the substrate (1) and its metabolites. this yielded seven new metabolites, 14α-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (2), 6β-hydroxy-6α-methylpregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione (3), 15β-hydroxy ...201627104348
characterization of greenbeard genes involved in long-distance kind discrimination in a microbial eukaryote.microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. recognition an ...201627077707
beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus neurospora crassa.maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. a principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal vs. paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates and red algae. evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. in ...201627062053
direct electrochemistry of nitrate reductase from the fungus neurospora crassa.we report the first direct (unmediated) catalytic electrochemistry of a eukaryotic nitrate reductase (nr). nr from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, is a member of the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme family and contains a mo, heme and fad cofactor which are involved in electron transfer from nad(p)h to the (mo) active site where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. nr was adsorbed on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite (epg) working electrode. non-turnover redox responses were observe ...201627060250
signal exchange and integration during self-fusion in filamentous fungi.growth and propagation of filamentous ascomycete fungi commonly involves vegetative cell fusion. in the red bread mold neurospora crassa and many other ascomycete species, fusion occurs between germinating spores during colony formation and between hyphal branches in established mycelia. both fusion processes promote the development and behavior of the fungal colony as a supra-cellular network. germling and hyphal fusion in n. crassa rely on an unusual mode of cellular communication, in which th ...201627032478
chemotropism and cell fusion in neurospora crassa relies on the formation of distinct protein complexes by ham-5 and a novel protein filamentous fungi, communication is essential for the formation of an interconnected, multinucleate, syncytial network, which is constructed via hyphal fusion or fusion of germinated asexual spores (germlings). anastomosis in filamentous fungi is comparable to other somatic cell fusion events resulting in syncytia, including myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation, macrophage fusion, and fusion of trophoblasts during placental development. in neurospora crassa, fusion of genetically ide ...201627029735
prd-1, a component of the circadian system of neurospora crassa, is a member of the dead-box rna helicase family.the circadian rhythms found in almost all organisms are driven by molecular oscillators, including transcription/translation feedback loops (ttfls). however, ttfl-independent oscillators can drive rhythms in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. the fungus neurospora crassa is a model organism for studying the molecular mechanism of the circadian clock. although a circadian ttfl involving the proteins frq, wc-1, and wc-2 is well-characterized in n. crassa, rhythms can still be observed in the absence ...201627029286
calcineurin subunits a and b interact to regulate growth and asexual and sexual development in neurospora crassa.calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase in eukaryotes that consists of a catalytic subunit a and a regulatory subunit b. previous studies in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa had suggested that the catalytic subunit of calcineurin might be an essential protein. we generated n. crassa strains expressing the a (cna-1) and b (cnb-1) subunit genes under the regulation of ptcu-1, a copper-responsive promoter. in these strains, addition of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid ...201627019426
the seb-1 transcription factor binds to the stre motif in neurospora crassa and regulates a variety of cellular processes including the stress response and reserve carbohydrate metabolism.when exposed to stress conditions, all cells induce mechanisms resulting in an attempt to adapt to stress that involve proteins which, once activated, trigger cell responses by modulating specific signaling pathways. in this work, using a combination of pulldown assays and mass spectrometry analyses, we identified the neurospora crassa seb-1 transcription factor that binds to the stress response element (stre) under heat stress. orthologs of seb-1 have been functionally characterized in a few fi ...201626994287
defining individual size in the model filamentous fungus neurospora is challenging to apply the tenets of individuality to filamentous fungi: a fungal mycelium can contain millions of genetically diverse but totipotent nuclei, each capable of founding new mycelia. moreover, a single mycelium can potentially stretch over kilometres, and it is unlikely that its distant parts share resources or have the same fitness. here, we directly measure how a single mycelium of the model ascomycete neurospora crassa is patterned into reproductive units (rus), meaning subpo ...201626962146
the fast-evolving phy-2 gene modulates sexual development in response to light in the model fungus neurospora crassa.rapid responses to changes in incident light are critical to the guidance of behavior and development in most species. phytochrome light receptors in particular play key roles in bacterial physiology and plant development, but their functions and regulation are less well understood in fungi. nevertheless, genome-wide expression measurements provide key information that can guide experiments that reveal how genes respond to environmental signals and clarify their role in development. we performed ...201626956589
microtubules and associated molecular motors in neurospora crassa.the cytoskeleton provides structure, shape and movement to various cells. microtubules (mts) are tubular structures made of α and β-tubulin heterodimers organized in 13 protofilaments, forming a hollow cylinder. a vast group of mt-associated proteins determines the function, behavior and interaction of the mts with other cellular components. among these proteins, molecular motors such as the dynein-dynactin complex and kinesin superfamily play roles in mt organization and organelle transport. th ...201626951369
optimization of the hyper sensor for robust real-time detection of hydrogen peroxide in the rice blast fungus.reactive oxygen species (ros) production and breakdown have been studied in detail in plant-pathogenic fungi, including the rice blast fungus, magnaporthe oryzae; however, the examination of the dynamic process of ros production in real time has proven to be challenging. we resynthesized an existing ros sensor, called hyper, to exhibit optimized codon bias for fungi, specifically neurospora crassa, and used a combination of microscopy and plate reader assays to determine whether this construct c ...201726950262
genome-wide a-to-i rna editing in fungi independent of adar enzymes.yeasts and filamentous fungi do not have adenosine deaminase acting on rna (adar) orthologs and are believed to lack a-to-i rna editing, which is the most prevalent editing of mrna in animals. however, during this study with the puk1(fgrres_01058) pseudokinase gene important for sexual reproduction in fusarium graminearum, we found that two tandem stop codons, ua(1831)gua(1834)g, in its kinase domain were changed to ug(1831)gug(1834)g by rna editing in perithecia. to confirm a-to-i editing of pu ...201626934920
the tetraspanin tsp3 of neurospora crassa is a vacuolar membrane protein and shares characteristics with idi proteins.the fungal vacuole is an organelle, which adopts pleiotropic morphologies and functions. in aging and starving hyphae it is the compartment of degradation and recycling of cellular constituents. here we identified tsp3, one of three tetraspanins present in the filamentous ascomycete fungus neurospora crassa, as a vacuolar membrane protein. the protein is detected only in aging and starving cultures and under other conditions, which induce autophagy, such as vegetative incompatibility or the pres ...201626908649
the kinetochore interaction network (kin) of ascomycetes.chromosome segregation relies on coordinated activity of a large assembly of proteins, the kinetochore interaction network (kin). how conserved the underlying mechanisms driving the epigenetic phenomenon of centromere and kinetochore assembly and maintenance are remains unclear, even though various eukaryotic models have been studied. more than 50 different proteins, many in multiple copies, comprise the kin or are associated with fungal centromeres and kinetochores. proteins isolated from immun ...201726908646
[influence of oxygenated derivatives of linoleic and linolenic acids on the formation of conidia and protoperithecia in wild-type and photoreceptor complex mutants of neurospora crassa].the regulatory effect of two oxyderivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (oxylipins), 18-hydroxy-(9z,12z)-octadecadienoic acid (18-hode) and 18-(9z,12z,15z)-octadecatrienoic acid (18-hotre), on the sexual and asexual sporulation of wild-type neurospora crassa strains and wc-1 and wc-1 mutants was studied. in the wild-type strain, 18-hode, unlike 18-hotre, stimulated protoperithecia formation in the dark and in the light. in the same strain, the studied oxylipins influenced conidiagenesis only unde ...201626859959
de novo rna synthesis by rna-dependent rna polymerase activity of telomerase reverse transcriptase.rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) plays key roles in rna silencing to generate double-stranded rnas. in model organisms, such as caenorhabditis elegans and neurospora crassa, two types of small interfering rnas (sirnas), primary sirnas and secondary sirnas, are expressed; rdrp produces secondary sirnas de novo, without using either dicer or primers, while primary sirnas are processed by dicer. we reported that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (tert) has rdrp activity and produces endogen ...201626830230
meiotic recombination in neurospora crassa proceeds by two pathways with extensive holliday junction migration.analysis of thousands of δmsh-2 octads using our fluorescent recombination system indicates that, as in other filamentous fungi, symmetric heteroduplex is common in the his-3 region of neurospora crassa. symmetric heteroduplex arises from holliday junction migration, and we suggest this mechanism explains the high frequency of his+ spores in heteroallelic crosses in which recombination is initiated cis to the his-3 allele further from the initiator, cog+. in contrast, when recombination is initi ...201626812651
localization and role of myo-1, an endocytic protein in hyphae of neurospora crassa.the subapical endocytic collar is a prominent feature of hyphae of neurospora crassa. it comprises a dynamic collection of actin patches associated with a number of proteins required for endocytosis, namely, arp-2/3 complex, fimbrin, coronin, etc. we presently show that myo-1 is another key component of this endocytic collar. a myo-1 sequence was identified in the genome of n. crassa and used it to generate a strain with a myo-1-sgfp allele under the ccg1 promoter. examination of living hyphae b ...201626805950
antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin mtdef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi neurospora crassa and fusarium graminearum.defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. the plant defensin, mtdef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, neurospora crassa and fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. we have reported that mtdef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of mtdef4 are conserved in these fungi. we show that n. crassa and f. graminearum ...201626801962
the lsh/ddm1 homolog mus-30 is required for genome stability, but not for dna methylation in neurospora crassa.lsh/ddm1 enzymes are required for dna methylation in higher eukaryotes and have poorly defined roles in genome maintenance in yeast, plants, and animals. the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is a tractable system that encodes a single lsh/ddm1 homolog (ncu06306). we report that the neurospora lsh/ddm1 enzyme is encoded by mutagen sensitive-30 (mus-30), a locus identified in a genetic screen over 25 years ago. we show that mus-30-deficient cells have normal dna methylation, but are hypersensi ...201626771905
o-glycan analysis of cellobiohydrolase i from neurospora crassa.we describe here the composition of the o-linked glycans on the neurospora crassa cellobiohydrolase i (cbhi), which accounts for approximately 40% of the protein secreted by cells growing in the presence of cellulose. cbhi is o-glycosylated with six types of linear, and three types of branched, o-glycans containing approximately equal amounts of mannose and galactose. in addition to the classic fungal o-glycans with reducing end mannoses, we also identified reducing end galactoses which suggest ...201626762173
neurospora crassa transcriptomics reveals oxidative stress and plasma membrane homeostasis biology genes as key targets in response to chitosan.chitosan is a natural polymer with antimicrobial activity. chitosan causes plasma membrane permeabilization and induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ros) in neurospora crassa. we have determined the transcriptional profile of n. crassa to chitosan and identified the main gene targets involved in the cellular response to this compound. global network analyses showed membrane, transport and oxidoreductase activity as key nodes affected by chitosan. activation of oxidative metabolism ...201626694141
vdnuc-2, the key regulator of phosphate responsive signaling pathway, is required for verticillium dahliae fungal cells, a phosphate (pi) responsive signaling and metabolism (pho) pathway regulates pi-homeostasis. nuc-2/pho81 and its homologs are one of the most important components in the regulation pathway. in soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus verticillium dahliae, we identified a neurospora crassa nuc-2 homolog gene vdnuc-2. vdnuc-2 is composed of 1,018 amino acids, and is highly conserved in tested filamentous fungi. under conditions of pi-starvation, compared with the wild-type strain and ect ...201526670613
fungal cobalamin-independent methionine synthase: insights from the model organism, neurospora crassa.two families of methionine synthases, distinct in catalytic and structural features, have been encountered: meth, the cobalamin-dependent enzyme and mete, the cobalamin-independent form. the mete family is of mechanistic interest due to the chemically challenging nature of the reaction and is a potential target for antifungal therapeutics since the human genome encodes only meth. here we report the identification, purification, and crystal structure of mete from the filamentous fungus neurospora ...201626657067
heterologous expression of a gh3 β-glucosidase from neurospora crassa in pichia pastoris with high purity and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides.previous studies have shown isoflavone aglycones to have more biological effects than their counterparts, isoflavone glycones. some β-glucosidases can hydrolyze isoflavone glucosides to release aglycones, and discovery of these has attracted great interest. a glycoside hydrolase (gh) family 3 β-glucosidase (bgl2) gene from neurospora crassa was heterologously expressed in pichia pastoris with high purity. the recombinant bgl2 enzyme displayed its highest activity at ph 5.0 and 60 °c, and had its ...201626596358
genome-wide redistribution of h3k27me3 is linked to genotoxic stress and defective growth.h3k9 methylation directs heterochromatin formation by recruiting multiple heterochromatin protein 1 (hp1)-containing complexes that deacetylate histones and methylate cytosine bases in dna. in neurospora crassa, a single h3k9 methyltransferase complex, called the dim-5,-7,-9, cul4, ddb1 complex (dcdc), is required for normal growth and development. dcdc-deficient mutants are hypersensitive to the genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (mms), but the molecular basis of genotoxic stress is unclea ...201526578794
identification of ttaggg-binding proteins in neurospora crassa, a fungus with vertebrate-like telomere date, telomere research in fungi has mainly focused on saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe, despite the fact that both yeasts have degenerated telomeric repeats in contrast to the canonical ttaggg motif found in vertebrates and also several other fungi.201526577093
repositioning of drugs using open-access data portal dtome: a test case with probenecid (review).the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, first introduced by beadle and tatum in the 1940s and based on their genetic analysis and observation of phenotype changes in neurospora crassa challenged by various experimental conditions, has witnessed significant advances in recent decades. much of our understanding of the association between genes and their phenotype expression has benefited from the completion of the human genome project, and has shown continual transformation guided by the effort direct ...201626572802
role of bgt-1 and bgt-2, two predicted gpi-anchored glycoside hydrolases/glycosyltransferases, in cell wall remodeling in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa bgt-1 (ncu06381) and bgt-2 (ncu09175) are two putative glycoside hydrolases (ghs) with additional predicted glycosyltransferase activity and binding sites for a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (gpi) anchor that would facilitate their attachment to the plasma membrane (pm). to discern their role in key morphogenetic events during vegetative development of n. crassa, bgt-1 and bgt-2 were labeled with the green fluorescent protein (gfp). the gfp was inserted immediately after the s ...201526541633
loss of hp1 causes depletion of h3k27me3 from facultative heterochromatin and gain of h3k27me2 at constitutive heterochromatin.methylated lysine 27 on histone h3 (h3k27me) marks repressed "facultative heterochromatin," including developmentally regulated genes in plants and animals. the mechanisms responsible for localization of h3k27me are largely unknown, perhaps in part because of the complexity of epigenetic regulatory networks. we used a relatively simple model organism bearing both facultative and constitutive heterochromatin, neurospora crassa, to explore possible interactions between elements of heterochromatin. ...201626537359
compartmentalized microchannel array for high-throughput analysis of single cell polarized growth and dynamics.interrogating polarized growth is technologically challenging due to extensive cellular branching and uncontrollable environmental conditions in conventional assays. here we present a robust and high-performance microfluidic system that enables observations of polarized growth with enhanced temporal and spatial control over prolonged periods. the system has built-in tunability and versatility to accommodate a variety of scientific applications requiring precisely controlled environments. using t ...201526530004
transcription profiling of the neurospora crassa response to a group of synthetic (thio)xanthones and a natural acetophenone.xanthones are a class of heterocyclic compounds characterized by a dibenzo-γ-pyrone nucleus. analysis of their mode of action in cells, namely uncovering alterations in gene expression, is important because these compounds have potential therapeutic applications. thus, we studied the transcriptional response of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa to a group of synthetic (thio)xanthone derivatives with antitumor activity using high throughput rna sequencing. the induction of abc transporters ...201526484172
the blue-light receptor cmwc-1 mediates fruit body development and secondary metabolism in cordyceps militaris.light is an essential factor for pigment formation and fruit body development in cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus. cmwc-1, a homolog of the blue-light receptor gene white collar-1 (wc-1) in neurospora crassa, was cloned from the c. militaris genome in our previous study. here, cmwc-1 gene inactivation results in thicker aerial hyphae, disordered fruit body development, a significant reduction in conidial formation, and carotenoid and cordycepin production. these char ...201626476643
global analysis of predicted g protein-coupled receptor genes in the filamentous fungus, neurospora crassa.g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) regulate facets of growth, development, and environmental sensing in eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi. the largest predicted gpcr class in these organisms is the pth11-related, with members similar to a protein required for disease in the plant pathogen magnaporthe oryzae. however, the pth11-related class has not been functionally studied in any filamentous fungal species. here, we analyze phenotypes in available mutants for 36 gpcr genes, including 20 ...201526464358
direct target network of the neurospora crassa plant cell wall deconstruction regulators clr-1, clr-2, and xlr-1.fungal deconstruction of the plant cell requires a complex orchestration of a wide array of intracellular and extracellular enzymes. in neurospora crassa, clr-1, clr-2, and xlr-1 have been identified as key transcription factors regulating plant cell wall degradation in response to soluble sugars. the xlr-1 regulon was defined using a constitutively active mutant allele, resulting in hemicellulase gene expression and secretion under noninducing conditions. to define genes directly regulated by c ...201526463163
characterization of a novel prevacuolar compartment in neurospora crassa.using confocal microscopy, we observed ring-like organelles, similar in size to nuclei, in the hyphal tip of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. these organelles contained a subset of vacuolar proteins. we hypothesize that they are novel prevacuolar compartments (pvcs). we examined the locations of several vacuolar enzymes and of fluorescent compounds that target the vacuole. vacuolar membrane proteins, such as the vacuolar atpase (vma-1) and the polyphosphate polymerase (vtc-4), were obse ...201526453652
molecular basis for the substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of thymine-7-hydroxylase in fungi.tet proteins play a vital role in active dna demethylation in mammals and thus have important functions in many essential cellular processes. the chemistry for the conversion of 5mc to 5hmc, 5fc and 5cac catalysed by tet proteins is similar to that of t to 5hmu, 5fu and 5cau catalysed by thymine-7-hydroxylase (t7h) in the nucleotide anabolism in fungi. here, we report the crystal structures and biochemical properties of neurospora crassa t7h. t7h can bind the substrates only in the presence of c ...201526429971
selection of pairings reaching evenly across the data (spread): a simple algorithm to design maximally informative fully crossed mating experiments.we present a novel algorithm for the design of crossing experiments. the algorithm identifies a set of individuals (a 'crossing-set') from a larger pool of potential crossing-sets by maximizing the diversity of traits of interest, for example, maximizing the range of genetic and geographic distances between individuals included in the crossing-set. to calculate diversity, we use the mean nearest neighbor distance of crosses plotted in trait space. we implement our algorithm on a real dataset of ...201626419337
cell fusion in neurospora recent years, the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa has advanced as a model organism for studying eukaryotic cell-cell communication and fusion. cell merger in this fungus employs an unusual mode of communication, in which the fusion partners appear to switch between signal sending and receiving. many molecular factors mediating this intriguing mechanism and the subsequent membrane merger have been identified. it has become apparent that conserved factors, such as map kinases, nadph oxidas ...201526340439
paramutation phenomena in plants.paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in zea mays by alexander brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. brink coined the term paramutation (from the greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. the peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other alle ...201526335267
don't go with the cytoplasmic flow.cytoplasmic streaming occurs in a variety of organisms, but its biological function is often unclear. in this issue of developmental cell, pieuchot et al. (2015) report that streaming creates subcellular compartments in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. nuclei immobilized within these compartments differentiate and may drive a compartment-specific genetic program.201526305589
involvement of the adaptor protein 3 complex in lignocellulase secretion in neurospora crassa revealed by comparative genomic screening.lignocellulase hypersecretion has been achieved in industrial fungal workhorses such as trichoderma reesei, but the underlying mechanism associated with this process is not well understood. although previous comparative genomic studies have revealed that the mutagenic t. reesei strain rut-c30 harbors hundreds of mutations compared with its parental strain qm6a, how these mutations actually contribute to the hypersecretion phenotype remains to be elucidated.201526300971
deletion of homologs of the srebp pathway results in hyper-production of cellulases in neurospora crassa and trichoderma reesei.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa efficiently utilizes plant biomass and is a model organism for genetic, molecular and cellular biology studies. here, a set of 567 single-gene deletion strains was assessed for cellulolytic activity as compared to the wild-type parental strain. mutant strains included were those carrying a deletion in: (1) genes encoding proteins homologous to those implicated in the saccharomyces cerevisiae secretion apparatus; (2) genes that are homologous to those know ...201526288653
directed evolution of xylose specific transporters to facilitate glucose-xylose co-utilization.a highly active xylose specific transporter without glucose inhibition is highly desirable in cost-effective production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. however, currently available xylose specific transporters suffer from low overall activity and most are inhibited by glucose. in this study, we applied a directed evolution strategy to engineer the xylose specific transporter an25 from neurospora crassa with improved xylose transportation capacity. after four rounds of directed evolutio ...201626284760
cellobionic acid utilization: from neurospora crassa to saccharomyces cerevisiae.economical production of fuels and chemicals from plant biomass requires the efficient use of sugars derived from the plant cell wall. neurospora crassa, a model lignocellulosic degrading fungus, is capable of breaking down the complex structure of the plant cell wall. in addition to cellulases and hemicellulases, n. crassa secretes lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos), which cleave cellulose by generating oxidized sugars-particularly aldonic acids. however, the strategies n. crassa emplo ...201526279678
analysis of circadian rhythms in the basal filamentous ascomycete pyronema confluens.many organisms use circadian clocks to adapt to daily changes in the environment. major insights into the molecular mechanisms of circadian oscillators have been gained through studies of the model organism neurospora crassa; however, little is known about molecular components of circadian clocks in other fungi. an important part of the n. crassa circadian clock is the frequency (frq) gene, homologs of which can be found in sordariomycetes, dothideomycetes, and leotiomycetes, but not eurotiomyce ...201526254031
optimal codons in tremella fuciformis end in c/g, a strong difference with known tremella species.tremella fuciformis is a popular edible fungus with fruiting bodies that can be produced in large quantities at low costs, while it is easy to transform and cultivate as yeast. this makes it an attractive potential bioreactor. enhanced heterologous gene expression through codon optimization would be useful, but until now codon usage preferences in t. fuciformis remain unknown. to precisely determine the preferred codon usage of t. fuciformis we sequenced the genome of strain tr26 resulting in a ...201526253954
a tool set for the genome-wide analysis of neurospora crassa by rt-pcr.neurospora crassa is an important model organism for filamentous fungi as well as for circadian biology and photobiology. although the community-accumulated tool set for the molecular analysis of neurospora is extensive, two components are missing: (1) dependable reference genes whose level of expression are relatively constant across light/dark cycles and as a function of time of day and (2) a catalog of primers specifically designed for real-time pcr (rt-pcr). to address the first of these we ...201526248984
two microtubule-plus-end binding proteins lis1-1 and lis1-2, homologues of human lis1 in neurospora crassa.lis1 is a microtubule (mt) plus-end binding protein that interacts with the dynein/dynactin complex. in humans, lis1 is required for proper nuclear and organelle migration during cell growth. although gene duplication is absent from neurospora crassa, we found two paralogues of human lis1. we named them lis1-1 and lis1-2 and studied their dynamics and function by fluorescent tagging. at the protein level, lis1-1 and lis1-2 were very similar. although, the characteristic coiled-coil motif was not ...201526231681
linear discriminant analysis identifies mitochondrially localized proteins in neurospora crassa.besides their role as powerhouses, mitochondria play a pivotal role in the spatial organization of numerous enzymatic functions. they are connected to the er, and many pathways are organized through the mitochondrial membranes. thus, the precise definition of mitochondrial proteomes remains a challenging task. here, we have established a proteomic strategy to accurately determine the mitochondrial localization of proteins from the fungal model organism neurospora crassa. this strategy relies on ...201526215788
the phenotype of a phospholipase c (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, neurospora the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, phospholipase c may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. one candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase c is plc-1. we characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (ko plc-1) and a rip mutated strain (rip plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene ...201526212074
[quantitative assessment of the combined effect of the nitrogen status, light and dehydration of mycelium on conidiation in neurospora crassa].we performed a quantitative assessment of the conidia yield in neurospora crassa in response to treatment with different conidiation effectors. depending on nitrogen source and intactness of nitrite reductase (nir) and nitrate reductase (nr), light and dehydration affected the number of viable conidia produced by the ascomycete. in most variants of the nitrogen status, the combined action of light and dehydration synergistically increased the conidia yield. conidiation in wild-type cells cultiva ...201526204777
epigenetic and posttranslational modifications in light signal transduction and the circadian clock in neurospora light, a key abiotic signal, regulates a wide variety of physiological processes in many organisms. one of these phenomena is the circadian rhythm presents in organisms sensitive to the phase-setting effects of blue light and under control of the daily alternation of light and dark. circadian clocks consist of autoregulatory alternating negative and positive feedback loops intimately connected with the cellular metabolism and biochemical processes. neurospora crassa provides an excellent mo ...201526198228
metabolic impacts of using nitrogen and copper-regulated promoters to regulate gene expression in neurospora crassa.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is a long-studied eukaryotic microbial system amenable to heterologous expression of native and foreign proteins. however, relatively few highly tunable promoters have been developed for this species. in this study, we compare the tcu-1 and nit-6 promoters for controlled expression of a gfp reporter gene in n. crassa. although the copper-regulated tcu-1 has been previously characterized, this is the first investigation exploring nitrogen-controlled nit-6 ...201526194204
structural and functional characterization of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase with broad substrate specificity.the recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) carry out oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides and are of major importance for efficient processing of biomass. nclpmo9c from neurospora crassa acts both on cellulose and on non-cellulose β-glucans, including cellodextrins and xyloglucan. the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of nclpmo9c revealed an extended, highly polar substrate-binding surface well suited to interact with a variety of sugar substrates. the ability o ...201526178376
live imaging of β-1,3-glucan synthase fks-1 in neurospora crassa hyphae.the subcellular localization and dynamics of fks-1, the putative catalytic subunit of the β-1,3-glucan synthase complex, was analyzed in growing hyphae of neurospora crassa by live confocal microscopy. gfp-tagged fks-1 accumulated at the outer layer of the spitzenkörper (spk), and at the apical plasma membrane (pm). fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed arrival of fks-1-containing carriers first at the immediate surroundings of the core region of the spk, and thereafter to ...201526150287
tuning the phase of circadian entrainment.the circadian clock coordinates daily physiological, metabolic and behavioural rhythms. these endogenous oscillations are synchronized with external cues ('zeitgebers'), such as daily light and temperature cycles. when the circadian clock is entrained by a zeitgeber, the phase difference ψ between the phase of a clock-controlled rhythm and the phase of the zeitgeber is of fundamental importance for the fitness of the organism. the phase of entrainment ψ depends on the mismatch between the intrin ...201526136227
the bzip transcription factor hac-1 is involved in the unfolded protein response and is necessary for growth on cellulose in neurospora crassa.high protein secretion capacity in filamentous fungi requires an extremely efficient system for protein synthesis, folding and transport. when the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (er) is exceeded, a pathway known as the unfolded protein response (upr) is triggered, allowing cells to mitigate and cope with this stress. in yeast, this pathway relies on the transcription factor hac1, which mediates the up-regulation of several genes required under these stressful conditions. in this w ...201526132395
endogenous small rna mediates meiotic silencing of a novel dna transposon.genome defense likely evolved to curtail the spread of transposable elements and invading viruses. a combination of effective defense mechanisms has been shown to limit colonization of the neurospora crassa genome by transposable elements. a novel dna transposon named sly1-1 was discovered in the genome of the most widely used laboratory "wild-type" strain fgsc 2489 (or74a). meiotic silencing by unpaired dna, also simply called meiotic silencing, prevents the expression of regions of the genome ...201526109355
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