efficient formation of heterokaryotic sclerotia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.heterokaryon formation by hyphal fusion occurs during a sexual/parasexual cycle in filamentous fungi, and therefore, it is biotechnologically important for crossbreeding. in the industrial filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae, a parasexual cycle has been reported, and it was recently suggested that sexual reproduction should be possible. however, as a. oryzae enters into hyphal fusion with a much lower frequency than neurospora crassa, the process of heterokaryon formation has not been extensiv ...201424201891
aspergillus oryzae aoso is a novel component of stress granules upon heat stress in filamentous fungi.stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mrnp) granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. for this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in a. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an e ...201323991062
sensitivity of neurospora crassa to a marine-derived aspergillus tubingensis anhydride exhibiting antifungal activity that is mediated by the mas1 protein.the fungus aspergillus tubingensis (strain oy907) was isolated from the mediterranean marine sponge ircinia variabilis. extracellular extracts produced by this strain were found to inhibit the growth of several fungi. among the secreted extract components, a novel anhydride metabolite, tubingenoic anhydride a (1) as well as the known 2-carboxymethyl-3-hexylmaleic acid anhydride, asperic acid, and campyrone a and c were purified and their structure elucidated. compound 1 and 2-carboxymethyl-3-hex ...201425257783
probing c-terminal interactions of the pseudomonas stutzeri cyanide-degrading cynd protein.the cyanide dihydratases from bacillus pumilus and pseudomonas stutzeri share high amino acid sequence similarity throughout except for their highly divergent c-termini. however, deletion or exchange of the c-termini had different effects upon each enzyme. here we extended previous studies and investigated how the c-terminus affects the activity and stability of three nitrilases, the cyanide dihydratases from b. pumilus (cyndpum) and p. stutzeri (cyndstut) and the cyanide hydratase from neurospo ...201525549622
circadian clocks and the regulation of virulence in fungi: getting up to cannot escape time. therefore, it seems wise to learn how to keep track of it and use it to your advantage. circadian clocks are molecular circuits that allow organisms to temporally coordinate a plethora of processes, including gene expression, with a close to 24h rhythm, optimizing cellular function in synchrony with daily environmental cycles. the molecular bases of these clocks have been extensively studied in the fungus neurospora crassa, providing a detailed molecular description. surp ...201627039027
the interaction of fungi with the environment orchestrated by rnai.the fungal kingdom has been key in the investigation of the biogenesis and function of small rnas (srnas). the discovery of phenomena such as quelling in neurospora crassa represents pioneering work in the identification of the main elements of the rna interference (rnai) machinery. recent discoveries in the regulatory mechanisms in some yeast and filamentous fungi are helping us reach a deeper understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanisms involved in ge ...201626932186
a novel zn2 cys6 transcription factor bcgaar regulates d-galacturonic acid utilization in botrytis cinerea.d-galacturonic acid (gala) is the most abundant monosaccharide component of pectin. previous transcriptome analysis in the plant pathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea identified eight gala-inducible genes involved in pectin decomposition, gala transport and utilization. co-expression of these genes indicates that a specific regulatory mechanism occurs in b. cinerea. in this study, promoter regions of these genes were analysed and eight conserved sequence motifs identified. the bclga1 promoter, cont ...201626691528
around the fungal clock: recent advances in the molecular study of circadian clocks in neurospora and other fungi.night follows day and as a consequence, organisms have evolved molecular machineries that allow them to anticipate and respond to the many changes that accompany these transitions. circadian clocks are precise yet plastic pacemakers that allow the temporal organization of a plethora of biological process. circadian clocks are widespread across the tree of life and while their exact molecular components differ among phyla, they tend to share common design principles. in this review, we discuss th ...201526639917
prp8 inteins in species of the genus botrytis and other ascomycetes.the mobile elements termed inteins have a sporadic distribution in microorganisms. it is unclear how these elements are maintained. inteins are intervening protein sequences that autocatalytically excise themselves from a precursor. excision is a post-translational process referred to as 'protein splicing' in which the sequences flanking the intein are ligated, reforming the mature host protein. some inteins contain a homing endonuclease domain (heg) that is proposed to facilitate propagation of ...201222285471
anti-infective assessment of senecio smithioides (asteraceae) and isolation of 9-oxoeuryopsin, a furanoeremophilane-type sesquiterpene with antiplasmodial activity.the search for anti-infective activity in the antipyretic plant senecio smithioides was conducted. petroleum ether (pe), dichloromethane (ch2cl2), ethyl acetate (etoac) and hydroethanolic (96% etoh) extracts, and compounds 9-oxoeuryopsin (1), epoxydecompostin (2) and senecionine (3) were obtained from the aerial parts. all extracts and 1 were tested against chloroquine-resistant strain of plasmodium falciparum (ref. chloroquine), trypanosoma cruzi (ref. nifurtimox), leishmania braziliensis, leis ...201526606687
the n-acetylglucosamine catabolic gene cluster in trichoderma reesei is controlled by the ndt80-like transcription factor ron1.chitin is an important structural constituent of fungal cell walls composed of n-acetylglucosamine (glcnac) monosaccharides, but catabolism of glcnac has not been studied in filamentous fungi so far. in the yeast candida albicans, the genes encoding the three enzymes responsible for stepwise conversion of glcnac to fructose-6-phosphate are clustered. in this work, we analysed glcnac catabolism in ascomycete filamentous fungi and found that the respective genes are also clustered in these fungi. ...201626481444
the n-linked outer chain mannans and the dfg5p and dcw1p endo-α-1,6-mannanases are needed for incorporation of candida albicans glycoproteins into the cell wall.a biochemical pathway for the incorporation of cell wall protein into the cell wall of neurospora crassa was recently proposed. in this pathway, the dfg-5 and dcw-1 endo-α-1,6-mannanases function to covalently cross-link cell wall protein-associated n-linked galactomannans, which are structurally related to the yeast outer chain mannans, into the cell wall glucan-chitin matrix. in this report, we demonstrate that the mannosyltransferase enzyme och1p, which is needed for the synthesis of the n-li ...201526048011
clerodane type diterpene as a novel antifungal agent from polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.bioactivity-guided chemical examination of methanolic extract of leaves of polyalthia longifolia var. pendula led to the isolation of the active constituent, a diterpene 1 which was identified as 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)z-dien-15,16-olide on the basis of its spectral data. among the tested strains, diterpene 1 was found to exhibit antifungal activities having mic90 values of 50.3, 100.6 and 201.2 μm against candida albicans ncim3557, cryptococcus neoformans ncim3542 (human pathogens) and neur ...201525747495
in vitro production and antifungal activity of peptide abp-dhc-cecropin a.the antimicrobial peptide abp-dhc-cecropin a is a small cationic peptide with potent activity against a wide range of bacterial species. evidence of antifungal activity has also been suggested; however, testing of this peptide has been limited due to the low expression of cecropin proteins in escherichia coli. to improve expression of this peptide in e. coli, abp-dhc-cecropin a was cloned into a psumo vector and transformed into e. coli, resulting in the production of a psumo-abp-dhc-cecropin a ...201525702854
ascomycete fungal actins differentially support plant spatial cell and organ development.actin interacts with a wide variety of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins to support spatial development in nearly all eukaryotes. null mutations in plant vegetative actins produce dramatically altered cell, tissue, and organ morphologies. animal cytoplasmic actins (e.g., human hsactb, hsactg1) and some ancestral protist actins fully suppress these mutant phenotypes suggesting that some animal, plant, and protist actins share functional competence for spatial development. considering that fungi ha ...201525428798
regulation of vectorial supply of vesicles to the hyphal tip determines thigmotropism in neurospora crassa.thigmotropism is the ability of an organism to respond to a topographical stimulus by altering its axis of growth. the thigmotropic response of the model fungus neurospora crassa was quantified using microfabricated glass slides with ridges of defined height. we show that the polarity machinery at the hyphal tip plays a role in the thigmotropic response of n. crassa. deletion of n. crassa genes encoding the formin, bni-1, and the rho-gtpase, cdc-42, an activator of bni-1 in yeast, cdc-24, its gu ...201424607352
eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. the escherichia coli gene crcb was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. there are >8,000 crcb homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed fex (fluoride exporter)] function ...201324173035
the carnitine biosynthetic pathway in arabidopsis thaliana shares similar features with the pathway of mammals and fungi.carnitine is an essential quaternary ammonium amino acid that occurs in the microbial, plant and animal kingdoms. the role and synthesis of this compound are very well documented in bacteria, fungi and mammals. on the contrary, although the presence of carnitine in plant tissue has been reported four decades ago and information about its biological implication are available, nothing is known about its synthesis in plants. we designed experiments to determine if the carnitine biosynthetic pathway ...201222922110
xylitol production by saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing different xylose reductases using non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate of corncob.xylitol production was compared in fed batch fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing xylose reductase (xr) genes from candida tropicalis, pichia stipitis, neurospora crassa, and an endogenous gene gre3. the gene encoding a xylose specific transporter (sut1) from p. stipitis was cloned to improve xylose transport and fed batch fermentation was used with glucose as a cosubstrate to regenerate nadph. xylitol yield was near theoretical for all the strains in fed batch ferment ...201628330197
effect of heterologous xylose transporter expression in candida tropicalis on xylitol production rate.xylose utilization is inhibited by glucose uptake in xylose-assimilating yeasts, including candida tropicalis, resulting in limitation of xylose uptake during the fermentation of glucose/xylose mixtures. in this study, a heterologous xylose transporter gene (at5g17010) from arabidopsis thaliana was selected because of its high affinity for xylose and was codon-optimized for functional expression in c. tropicalis. the codon-optimized gene was placed under the control of the gapdh promoter and was ...201323411871
expression of two novel β-glucosidases from chaetomium atrobrunneum in trichoderma reesei and characterization of the heterologous protein products.two novel gh3 family thermostable β-glucosidases from the filamentous fungus chaetomium atrobrunneum (cel3a and cel3b) were expressed in trichoderma reesei, purified by two-step ion exchange chromatography, and characterized. both enzymes were active over a wide range of ph as compared to neurospora crassa β-glucosidase gh3-3, which was also expressed in t. reesei and purified. the optimum temperature of both c. atrobrunneum enzymes was around 60 °c at ph 5, and both enzymes had better thermal a ...201627714589
the fungus tremella mesenterica encodes the longest metallothionein currently known: gene, protein and metal binding characterization.fungal cu-thioneins, and among them, the paradigmatic neurospora crassa metallothionein (mt) (26 residues), were once considered as the shortest mts--the ubiquitous, versatile metal-binding proteins--among all organisms, and thus representatives of their primeval forms. nowadays, fungal mts of diverse lengths and sequence features are known, following the huge heterogeneity of the kingdom of fungi. at the opposite end of n. crassa mt, the recently reported cryptococcus neoformans cnmt1 and cnmt2 ...201626882011
the neurospora crassa cps-1 polysaccharide synthase functions in cell wall biosynthesis.the neurospora crassa cps-1 gene encodes a polysaccharide synthase with homology to the cryptococcus neoformans hyaluronic acid synthase cps1p. homologs of the cps-1 gene are found in the genomes of many fungi. loss of cps-1 results in a cell wall defect that affects all stages of the n. crassa life cycle, including vegetative growth, protoperithecia (female mating structure) development, and conidia (asexual spore) development. the cell wall of cps-1 deletion mutants is sensitive to cell wall p ...201424953997
rnai function, diversity, and loss in the fungal kingdom.rnai is conserved and has been studied in a broad cross-section of the fungal kingdom, including neurospora crassa, schizosaccharomyces pombe, cryptococcus neoformans, and mucor circinelloides. and yet well known species, including the model yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant pathogen ustilago maydis, have lost rnai, providing insights and opportunities to illuminate benefits conferred both by the presence of rnai and its loss. some of the earliest studies of rnai were conducted in neu ...201324173579
transgene induced co-suppression during vegetative growth in cryptococcus neoformans.introduction of dna sequences into the genome often results in homology-dependent gene silencing in organisms as diverse as plants, fungi, flies, nematodes, and mammals. we previously showed in cryptococcus neoformans that a repeat transgene array can induce gene silencing at a high frequency during mating (∼50%), but at a much lower frequency during vegetative growth (∼0.2%). here we report a robust asexual co-suppression phenomenon triggered by the introduction of a cpa1::ade2 transgene. multi ...201222916030
deoxycholic acid transformations catalyzed by selected filamentous fungi.more than 100 filamentous fungi strains, mostly ascomycetes and zygomycetes from different phyla, were screened for the ability to convert deoxycholic acid (dca) to valuable bile acid derivatives. along with 11 molds which fully degraded dca, several strains were revealed capable of producing cholic acid, ursocholic acid, 12-keto-lithocholic acid (12-keto-lca), 3-keto-dca, 15β-hydroxy-dca and 15β-hydroxy-12-oxo-lca as major products from dca. the last metabolite was found to be a new compound. t ...201626718089
amino acid biosynthesis in torulopsis utilis and neurospora crassa. 195514353934
biological activities of extracts from chenopodium ambrosioides lineu and kielmeyera neglecta saddi.chenopodium ambrosioides and kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in brazil to treat various infectious diseases. the study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds.201222839690
in vitro antifungal evaluation and studies on mode of action of eight selected species from the argentine flora.twenty nine extracts belonging to eight species of the argentine flora reported as antifungal in folk medicine, were assayed for antifungal properties by using the agar dilution method, against a panel of yeasts, filamentous fungi as well as dermatophytes. nine extracts belonging to six species, exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against microsporum cants, microsporum gypseum, trichophyton mentagrophytes, trichophyton rubrum and epidermophyton floccosum, with mics ranging from 25 to 900 μg/m ...199823195989
selective enzymatic transformation to aldehydes in vivo by fungal carboxylate reductase from neurospora crassa.the enzymatic reduction of carboxylic acids is in its infancy with only a handful of biocatalysts available to this end. we have increased the spectrum of carboxylate-reducing enzymes (cars) with the sequence of a fungal car from neurospora crassa or74a (nccar). nccar was efficiently expressed in e. coli using an autoinduction protocol at low temperature. it was purified and characterized in vitro, revealing a broad substrate acceptance, a ph optimum at ph 5.5-6.0, a tm of 45 °c and inhibition b ...201627917101
analysis of the association between codon optimality and mrna stability in schizosaccharomyces pombe.recent experiments have shown that codon optimality is a major determinant of mrna stability in saccharomyces cerevisiae and that this phenomenon may be conserved in escherichia coli and some metazoans, although work in neurospora crassa is not consistent with this model.201627825301
neurospora crassa tox-1 gene encodes a ph- and temperature-tolerant mini-cellulase.cellulases that endure extreme conditions are essential in various industrial sectors. this study reports a mini-cellulase gene tox-1 from neurospora crassa. the gene tox-1 was cloned in escherichia coli after chimerization with the yebf gene and substitutions of certain isoleucine and valine with leucine residues. the yeast transformants could grow on rice straw-agar medium. the 44-amino acid peptide and its two mutant variants displayed potent cellulase activities in congo red assay and enzyma ...201627229865
expression, purification, refolding, and enzymatic characterization of two secretory phospholipases a₂ from neurospora crassa.secretory phospholipase a2 (spla2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of sn-2 linkage in the glycerophospholipid, thereby releasing fatty acid and 1-acyl lysophospholipid. among spla2s from various organisms and tissues, group xiv fungal/bacterial spla2s are relatively less characterized compared to their mammalian counterparts. here we report cloning, recombinant expression, refolding, and enzymatic characterization of two spla2s, ncu06650 and ncu09423, from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. the ...201526272369
toward bioactive yet antibacterial surfaces.the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces is a challenge that biological and biomedical community has faced for many years, while no "dream material" has been developed so far. the primary goal of this study was to establish an optimal range of ag concentration and its state of agglomeration in bioactive nanocomposite ticapcon films which would provide a strong bactericidal effect without compromising the material biocompatibility and bioactivity. to obtain sample ...201526255161
efficient production of xylitol from hemicellulosic hydrolysate using engineered escherichia coli.a metabolically engineered escherichia coli has been constructed for the production of xylitol, one of the top 12 platform chemicals from agricultural sources identified by the us department of energy. an optimal plasmid was constructed to express xylose reductase from neurospora crassa with almost no inclusion bodies at relatively high temperature. the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent glucose phosphotransferase system (ptsg) was disrupted to eliminate catabolite repression and allow simultaneous u ...201526197036
enzymatic characterization of recombinant nitrate reductase expressed and purified from neurospora crassa.we established an expression and purification procedure for recombinant protein production in neurospora crassa (n. crassa). this strep-tag® based system was successfully used for purifying recombinant n. crassa nitrate reductase (nr), whose enzymatic activity was compared to recombinant n. crassa nr purified from escherichia coli. the purity of the two different nr preparations was similar but nr purified from n. crassa showed a significantly higher nitrate turnover rate. two phosphorylation si ...201525914160
isobutanol production from cellobionic acid in escherichia coli.liquid fuels needed for the global transportation industry can be produced from sugars derived from plant-based lignocellulosics. lignocellulosics contain a range of sugars, only some of which (such as cellulose) have been shown to be utilizable by microorganisms capable of producing biofuels. cellobionic acid makes up a small but significant portion of lignocellulosic degradation products, and had not previously been investigated as an utilizable substrate. however, aldonic acids such as cellob ...201525889729
expanding xylose metabolism in yeast for plant cell wall conversion to biofuels.sustainable biofuel production from renewable biomass will require the efficient and complete use of all abundant sugars in the plant cell wall. using the cellulolytic fungus neurospora crassa as a model, we identified a xylodextrin transport and consumption pathway required for its growth on hemicellulose. reconstitution of this xylodextrin utilization pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that fungal xylose reductases act as xylodextrin reductases, producing xylosyl-xylitol oligomers as ...201525647728
neurospora crassa: looking back and looking forward at a model microbe.investigation of the red bread mold that contaminated french bakeries nearly two centuries ago has led to a wealth of discoveries that have impacted our understanding of genetic, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms in microbes, from mendelian genetics and the gene-enzyme relationship to circadian rhythm and plant cell wall degradation. early neurospora research focused on elucidating mechanisms of genetic recombination and gene action and later progressed to addressing complex biological quest ...201425480699
long-read, whole-genome shotgun sequence data for five model organisms.single molecule, real-time (smrt) sequencing from pacific biosciences is increasingly used in many areas of biological research including de novo genome assembly, structural-variant identification, haplotype phasing, mrna isoform discovery, and base-modification analyses. high-quality, public datasets of smrt sequences can spur development of analytic tools that can accommodate unique characteristics of smrt data (long read lengths, lack of gc or amplification bias, and a random error profile le ...201425977796
fungal catalases: function, phylogenetic origin and structure.most fungi have several monofunctional heme-catalases. filamentous ascomycetes (pezizomycotina) have two types of large-size subunit catalases (l1 and l2). l2-type are usually induced by different stressors and are extracellular enzymes; those from the l1-type are not inducible and accumulate in asexual spores. l2 catalases are important for growth and the start of cell differentiation, while l1 are required for spore germination. in addition, pezizomycetes have one to four small-size subunit ca ...201222698962
a novel activity for fungal nitronate monooxygenase: detoxification of the metabolic inhibitor propionate-3-nitronate.nitronate monooxygenase (nmo; e.c. oxidizes alkyl nitronates to aldehydes and nitrite. although the biochemistry of the enzyme from fungal sources has been studied extensively, the physiological role is unknown. the ability of nmo to detoxify propionate-3-nitronate was tested by measuring growth of recombinant escherichia coli containing the gene encoding for the enzyme in either the absence or presence of the nitronate and its conjugate acid 3-nitropropionate. the mixture propionate ...201222464989
a novel biochemical route for fuels and chemicals production from cellulosic biomass.the conventional biochemical platform featuring enzymatic hydrolysis involves five key steps: pretreatment, cellulase production, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and product recovery. sugars are produced as reactive intermediates for subsequent fermentation to fuels and chemicals. herein, an alternative biochemical route is proposed. pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and cellulase production is consolidated into one single step, referred to as consolidated aerobic processing, and sugar aldo ...201222384058
metal transportome of neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa has been the model filamentous fungus for the study of many fundamental cellular mechanisms of transport and metabolism. the recently completed genome sequence of n. crassa has over 10,000 genes without significant matches for a large number of genes (41%) in the sequence databases, indeed presents many challenges for new discoveries. using transporter database and blast searches a total of 65 open reading frames for putative cation transporter genes have been identified in n. ...200616922681
functional dissection and site-directed mutagenesis of the structural gene for nad(p)h-nitrite reductase in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa nad(p)h-nitrite reductase, encoded by the nit-6 gene, is a soluble, alpha2-type homodimeric protein composed of 127-kda polypeptide subunits. this multicenter oxidation-reduction enzyme utilizes either nadh or nadph as electron donor and possesses as prosthetic groups two iron-sulfur (fe4s4) clusters, two siroheme groups, and two fad molecules. the native activity of the enzyme is the nad(p)h-dependent reduction of nitrite to ammonia. in addition, n. crassa nitrite reductase di ...19968798648
identification of the native nit2 major nitrogen regulatory protein in nuclear extracts of neurospora crassa.the nit-2 gene of neurospora crassa encodes the major nitrogen regulatory protein which acts in a positive fashion to activate the expression of many different structural genes during conditions of nitrogen limitation. an e. coli-expressed nit2/beta-gal fusion protein binds specifically to dna in vitro by recognizing gata core elements. nuclear extracts prepared from a wild-type n. crassa strain contain a protein factor which displays all of the properties expected for the native nit2 protein. t ...19968901135
molecular cloning of a cdna encoding calmodulin from neurospora crassa.a full-length cdna encoding neurospora crassa calmodulin was isolated from a lambda zap ii cdna expression library. the open reading frame encodes a protein of 148 amino acid residues with a calculated m(r) of 16,865 da. using site-directed mutagenesis, the complete cdna was ligated into a trc promoter-regulated bacterial expression vector to allow expression of n. crassa calmodulin in e. coli. the expressed protein was found to be identical to the native protein on the basis of some of its bioc ...19938467912
isolation and characterization of a new acetate-requiring mutant strain, ace-9, of neurospora crassa.a new acetate-requiring mutant strain of neurospora crassa, ace-9, has been isolated. the mutant gene was mapped between nuc-2 and arg-12 on the right arm of the second linkage group. the ace-9 mutant strain shows very weak activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pdhc). three strains that show no activity of pdhc had already been found, i.e., ace-2, ace-3, and ace-4. thus the ace-9 is the fourth gene that causes the deficiency in pdhc activity by a mutation. deficiency of pdhc activity in ac ...19921388033
cloning of the pyr4 gene encoding orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase in cephalosporium acremonium.we have cloned the cephalosporium acremonium pyr4 gene by cross-hybridization with the equivalent gene from neurospora crassa, the closest relative from which this gene is available. the c. acremonium pyr4 gene complements an e. coli pyrf mutant lacking orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (ompdecase), and most probably does not contain introns. maxicell analysis in e. coli shows that it encodes a 46 kda polypeptide. the c. acremonium ompdecase contains a highly conserved pentadecapeptide charac ...19902140299
genetic analysis of transformation in a microconidiating strain of neurospora crassa.we have characterized neurospora crassa transformants obtained with plasmid pdv1001 bearing the cloned catabolic dehydroquinase (qa-2+) gene (hughes et al. 1983a) and fluffy 268 host strain producing only uninucleate microconidia allowing to isolate individual transformation products. the percentage of transformed nuclei in the mycelium and their stability were determined by genetic analysis of microconidia produced on selective or non-selective medium. about half of the transformants originatin ...19852970312
cloning and preliminary characterization of a molybdenum cofactor gene of neurospora crassa.a neurospora crassa library, constructed in a derivative of the plasmid pbr322 (prk9), was used to transform two e. coli ch1d molybdenum cofactor mutants (ch1d, ch1d::mu). subsequently, one transformant from each of three independent transformation experiments was restriction mapped. all three transformants had an identical n. crassa dna insert (4.2 kb). southern blot analysis with one of the plasmids (pmoco, 1:4) showed hybridization to a single band of n. crassa genomic dna. when pmoco plasmid ...198424177998
biochemical characterization of the molybdenum cofactor mutants of neurospora crassa: in vivo and in vitro reconstitution of nadph-nitrate reductase activity.molybdenum cofactor (moco) mutants of neurospora crassa lack both nadph-nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase activity. in vivo and in vitro studies to further characterize these mutants are now reported. the moco mutants nit-9a and nit-9b are capable of growing, albeit poorly, with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, provided high levels of molybdate are present. the moco mutants nit-9a, nit-9b and nit-9c, but not nit-1, nit-7 or nit-8, have significant levels of nadph-nitrate reductase ...198424177997
structure and function of the trp3 gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of transcription, promoter sequence, and sequence coding for a glutamine amidotransferase.the structure and function of the trp3 gene of saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed. subcloning of an original 4.8 kb bamhi dna fragment, carrying the yeast trp3 gene, allowed for a localization of the gene on a 2.5 kb clai/bamhi fragment. transcription was found to proceed from the clai site towards the bamhi site. three major transcription start sites were determined at positions -92, -87, and -81 by s1-mapping. the synthesis of the trp3 gene is regulated by the general control, and was foun ...198424177735
mitochondrial peptide chain elongation factors from neurospora crassa.two complementary peptide chain elongation factors (g and t) have been isolated from a mitochondrial 100,000 g supernatant. both factors are specific for 70 s ribosomes and can be crossed with t and g factors from e. coli.197011945348
wheat germ agglutinin in wheat seedling roots: induction by elicitors and fungi.treatment of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) seedlings with elicitors originating from either plant or fungal cell walls induces about a 2-fold increase of wheat germ agglutinin (wga) in the roots. while the wga content in roots of healthy plants normally decreases as a function of germination time, a transient accumulation of wga could be observed in plants challenged with different fungi, including rhizoctonia solani, fusarium culmorum, pythium ultimum and neurospora crassa. peak levels in challe ...199024226823
suppressor of fusion, a fusarium oxysporum homolog of ndt80, is required for nutrient-dependent regulation of anastomosis.heterokaryon formation is an essential step in asexual recombination in fusarium oxysporum. filamentous fungi have an elaborate nonself recognition machinery to prevent formation and proliferation of heterokaryotic cells, called heterokaryon incompatibility (hi). in f. oxysporum the regulation of this machinery is not well understood. in neurospora crassa, vib-1, a putative transcription factor of the p53-like ndt80 family of transcription factors, has been identified as global regulator of hi. ...201627531696
hyphal chemotropism in fungal pathogenicity.the ability to grow as filamentous hyphae defines the lifestyle of fungi. hyphae are exposed to a variety of chemical stimuli such as nutrients or signal molecules from mating partners and host organisms. how fungi sense and process this chemical information to steer hyphal growth is poorly understood. saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa have served as genetic models for the identification of cellular components functioning in chemotropism. a recent study in the pathogen fusarium oxys ...201627150623
chemotropic sensing in fungus-plant interactions.growth of fungal hyphae is guided by a variety of chemical gradients, including nutrients, mating pheromones or host compounds. over 100 years after chemotropism was first reported in fungus-plant interactions, our knowledge on the host signals, fungal receptors and cellular pathways is still rudimentary. genetic analysis in the model organisms saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa has provided valuable insights into the chemotropic machinery of the fungal hypha. moreover, recent studie ...201526247120
exploring microrna-like small rnas in the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum.rna silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud) and several other classes of special small rnas have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. more than four different mechanisms of microrna-like rnas (milrnas) production have been illustrated in the model fungus neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. to date, very little work focusing on small rnas in fungi has been reported and no universal or particular characteristic of milrnas were defined ...201425141304
small rna isolation and library construction for expression profiling of small rnas from neurospora and fusarium using illumina high-throughput deep sequencing.due to crucial roles in gene regulation, noncoding small rnas (smrnas) of 20-30 nucleotides (nt) have been intensively studied in mammals and plants, and are known to be implicated in significant diseases and metabolic disorders. elucidation of biogenesis mechanisms and functional characterization of smrnas are often achieved using tools, such as separation of small-sized rna and high-throughput sequencing. although rna interference pathways such as quelling and meiotic silencing have been well ...201222589132
carbon and nitrogen limitation increase chitosan antifungal activity in neurospora crassa and fungal human pathogens.chitosan permeabilizes plasma membrane and kills sensitive filamentous fungi and yeast. membrane fluidity and cell energy determine chitosan sensitivity in fungi. a five-fold reduction of both glucose (main carbon (c) source) and nitrogen (n) increased 2-fold neurospora crassa sensitivity to chitosan. we linked this increase with production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ros) and plasma membrane permeabilization. releasing n. crassa from nutrient limitation reduced chitosan antifungal ...201525749367
the hsp90 co-chaperones sti1, aha1, and p23 regulate adaptive responses to antifungal azoles.heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is essential for tumor progression in humans and drug resistance in fungi. however, the roles of its many co-chaperones in antifungal resistance are unknown. in this study, by susceptibility test of neurospora crassa mutants lacking each of 18 hsp90/calcineurin system member genes (including 8 hsp90 co-chaperone genes) to antifungal drugs and other stresses, we demonstrate that the hsp90 co-chaperones sti1 (hop1 in yeast), aha1, and p23 (sba1 in yeast) were required ...201627761133
fvso regulates vegetative hyphal fusion, asexual growth, fumonisin b1 production, and virulence in fusarium verticillioides.hyphal anastomosis is a hallmark of filamentous fungi and plays vital roles including cellular homoeostasis, interhyphal communication and nutrient translocation. here we identify a gene, fvso, in fusarium verticillioides, a filamentous ascomycete causing maize ear and stalk rot and producing fumonisin mycotoxins. fvso, like its neurospora crassa homologue so, is required for vegetative hyphal fusion. it is also essential for normal vegetative growth, sporulation, and pathogenesis. fvso encodes ...201526615739
transcription factor ccg-8 as a new regulator in the adaptation to antifungal azole stress.antifungal azoles are widely used for controlling fungal infections. fungi are able to change the expression of many genes when they adapt to azole stress, and increased expression of some of these genes can elevate resistance to azoles. however, the regulatory mechanisms behind transcriptional adaption to azoles in filamentous fungi are poorly understood. in this study, we found that deletion of the transcription factor gene ccg-8, which is known to be a clock-controlled gene, made neurospora c ...201424342650
sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 mediates the sensitivity to antifungal azoles in neurospora crassa and fusarium verticillioides.antifungal azoles inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis by interfering with lanosterol 14α-demethylase. in this study, seven upregulated and four downregulated ergosterol biosynthesis genes in response to ketoconazole treatment were identified in neurospora crassa. azole sensitivity test of knockout mutants for six ketoconazole-upregulated genes in ergosterol biosynthesis revealed that deletion of only sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 altered sensitivity to azoles: the erg5 mutant was hypersensitive to azo ...201323755044
rapid ethanol production at elevated temperatures by engineered thermotolerant kluyveromyces marxianus via the nadp(h)-preferring xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway.conversion of xylose to ethanol by yeasts is a challenge because of the redox imbalances under oxygen-limited conditions. the thermotolerant yeast kluyveromyces marxianus grows well with xylose as a carbon source at elevated temperatures, but its xylose fermentation ability is weak. in this study, a combination of the nadph-preferring xylose reductase (xr) from neurospora crassa and the nadp(+)-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh) mutant from scheffersomyces stipitis (pichia stipitis) was cons ...201526253204
xylitol production at high temperature by engineered kluyveromyces marxianus.several recombinant kluyveromyces marxianus strains were constructed through overexpressing the neurospora crassa xylose reductase genes. yzj015, which maintained the original xylitol dehydrogenase gene, produced xylitol with the highest productivity (1.49 g l(-1) h(-1)) from 100 g l(-1) xylose at 42 °c. even at 45 °c, yzj015 was still able to produce 60.03 g l(-1) xylitol from 100 g l(-1) xylose with a productivity of 1.25 g l(-1)h(-1). in addition, for 20 rounds of cell recycling at 42 °c, yzj ...201424291795
bio-transformation of agri-food wastes by newly isolated neurospora crassa and lactobacillus plantarum for egg production.using bio-transferred feedstuff was a cost-effective approach to improve egg quality and production; particularly, the nutritive diet came from agri-food wastes. in this study, optimization of fermentation conditions and co-cultivation of neurospora crassa with lactobacillus plantarum was performed in a simple bioreactor. the optimized fermentation of beer lees substrates through n. crassa led to the hydrolysis rates of crude fiber increasing to 43.27%. compared to that of using n. crassa alone, ...201626740129
inorganic phosphate uptake in unicellular eukaryotes.inorganic phosphate (pi) is an essential nutrient for all organisms. the route of pi utilization begins with pi transport across the plasma membrane.201424674820
rna interference in fungi: retention and loss.rna interference (rnai) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding rnas (srnas) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. initially described and characterized in neurospora crassa, the rnai is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal k ...201628087943
functional evolution in orthologous cell-encoded rna-dependent rna polymerases.many eukaryotic organisms encode more than one rna-dependent rna polymerase (rdrp) that probably emerged as a result of gene duplication. such rdrp paralogs often participate in distinct rna silencing pathways and show characteristic repertoires of enzymatic activities in vitro however, to what extent members of individual paralogous groups can undergo functional changes during speciation remains an open question. we show that orthologs of qde-1, an rdrp component of the quelling pathway in neur ...201626907693
functional analysis of two l-arabinose transporters from filamentous fungi reveals promising characteristics for improved pentose utilization in saccharomyces uptake is one of the bottlenecks for l-arabinose fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae. this study characterized two novel l-arabinose transporters, lat-1 from neurospora crassa and mtlat-1 from myceliophthora thermophila. although the two proteins share high identity (about 83%), they display different substrate specificities. sugar transport assays using the s. cerevisiae strain eby.vw4000 indicated that lat-1 accepts a broad substrate sp ...201525841015
genetic and metabolomic dissection of the ergothioneine and selenoneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, s. pombe, and construction of an overproduction system.ergothioneine is a small, sulfur-containing metabolite (229 da) synthesized by various species of bacteria and fungi, which can accumulate to millimolar levels in tissues or cells (e.g. erythrocytes) of higher eukaryotes. it is commonly marketed as a dietary supplement due to its proposed protective and antioxidative functions. in this study we report the genes forming the two-step ergothioneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, schizosaccharomyces pombe. we identified the first gene, e ...201424828577
a new proteinaceous pathogen-associated molecular pattern (pamp) identified in ascomycete fungi induces cell death in solanaceae.pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps) are detected by plant pattern recognition receptors (prrs), which gives rise to pamp-triggered immunity (pti). we characterized a novel fungal pamp, cell death inducing 1 (rccdi1), identified in the rhynchosporium commune transcriptome sampled at an early stage of barley (hordeum vulgare) infection. the ability of rccdi1 and its homologues from different fungal species to induce cell death in nicotiana benthamiana was tested following agroinfiltrati ...201728386988
fluorescent protein as a tool for investigating meiotic recombination in neurospora.we have built a series of neurospora crassa strains containing alleles of green fluorescent protein (gfp) to provide a visual phenotype for investigating meiotic recombination. these strains provide a convenient means of screening the neurospora knockout library for genes involved in genetic recombination. they permit rapid analysis of recombination outcomes by allowing visualization of segregation patterns in a large number of octads from crosses heterozygous for gfp. using this system the effe ...201728349393
a ras gtpase associated protein is involved in the phototropic and circadian photobiology responses in fungi.light is an environmental signal perceived by most eukaryotic organisms and that can have major impacts on their growth and development. the madc protein in the fungus phycomyces blakesleeanus (mucoromycotina) has been postulated to form part of the photosensory input for phototropism of the fruiting body sporangiophores, but the madc gene has remained unidentified since the 1960s when madc mutants were first isolated. in this study the madc gene was identified by positional cloning. all madc mu ...201728322269
structural studies of neurospora crassa lpmo9d and redox partner cdhiia using neutron crystallography and small-angle scattering.sensitivity to hydrogen/deuterium and lack of observable radiation damage makes cold neutrons an ideal probe the structural studies of proteins with highly photosensitive groups such as the copper center of lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad) and heme redox cofactors of cellobiose dehydrogenases (cdhs). here, neutron crystallography and small-angle neutron scattering are used to investigate neurospora crassa lpmo9d (nclpmo9d) and cdhiia (nccdhiia), r ...201728291519
genetic and biochemical characterization of the gh72 family of cell wall transglycosylases in neurospora crassa.the neurospora crassa genome encodes five gh72 family transglycosylases, and four of these enzymes (gel-1, gel-2, gel-3 and gel-5) have been found to be present in the cell wall proteome. we carried out an extensive genetic analysis on the role of these four transglycosylases in cell wall biogenesis and demonstrated that the transglycosylases are required for the formation of a normal cell wall. as suggested by the proteomic analysis, we found that multiple transglycosylases were being expressed ...201728285007
the pleiotropic vegetative and sexual development phenotypes of neurospora crassa arise from double mutants of the calcium signaling genes plc-1, spla2, and cpe-1.we investigated phenotypes of the double mutants of the calcium (ca(2+)) signaling genes plc-1, spla2, and cpe-1 encoding for a phospholipase c1 (plc-1), a secretory phospholipase a2 (spla2), and a ca(2+)/h(+) exchanger (cpe-1), respectively, to understand the cell functions regulated by their genetic interactions. mutants lacking plc-1 and either spla2 or cpe-1 exhibited numerous defects including reduced colonial growth, stunted aerial hyphae, premature conidiation on plates with delayed germi ...201728265741
neurospora tetrasperma crosses heterozygous for hybrid translocation strains produce rare eight-spored asci-bearing heterokaryotic ascospores.during ascogenesis in neurospora, the ascospores are partitioned at the eight-nucleus stage that follows meiosis and a post-meiotic mitosis, and the ascospores that form in eight-spored asci are usually homokaryotic. we had previously created novel tnt strains by introgressing four neurospora crassa insertional translocations (eb4, ibj5, uk14-1, and b362i) into n. tetrasperma. we now show that crosses of all the tnt strains with single-mating-type derivatives of the standard n. tetrasperma pseud ...201728229961
the dynamics of signal complex formation mediating germling fusion in neurospora crassa.colony initiation of filamentous fungi commonly involves fusion of germinating vegetative spores. studies in neurospora crassa revealed an unusual cell-cell communication mechanism mediating this process, in which the fusion partners coordinately alternate between two physiological stages, probably related to signal sending and receiving. this "cell dialog" involves the alternating, oscillatory recruitment of the so protein and the mak-2 map kinase module to the apical plasma membrane of growing ...201728216441
the inhibition of mating in phycomyces blakesleeanus by light is dependent on the mada-madb complex that acts in a sex-specific manner.light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. mating in phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. in this analysis, the role of the light-sensing mada-madb complex in mating was tested. the mada-madb complex is homologous to the neurospora crassa white collar complex. three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus o ...201728214601
engineering neurospora crassa for cellobionate production directly from cellulose without any enzyme a cellulosic biorefinery, the cellulase enzymes needed for hydrolysis are one of the major contributors to high processing costs, while the hydrolysis product, cellobiose, has strong inhibition to the cellulases. in this study, we report engineering recombinant neurospora crassa strains which are able to produce cellobionate, an organic acid, from cellulose without any enzyme addition. recombinant strains were constructed by heterologously expressing laccase genes from different sources under ...201728193328
the nuclear cap-binding complex mediates meiotic silencing by unpaired the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, cross walls between individual cells are normally incomplete, making the entire fungal network vulnerable to attack by viruses and selfish dnas. accordingly, several genome surveillance mechanisms are maintained to help the fungus combat these repetitive elements. one of these defense mechanisms is called meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud), which identifies and silences unpaired genes during meiosis. utilizing common rna interference (rnai) prot ...201728179391
a deletion variant partially complements a porin-less strain of neurospora crassa.mitochondrial porin, the voltage-dependent anion channel, plays an important role in metabolism and other cellular functions within eukaryotic cells. to further the understanding of porin structure and function, neurospora crassa wild-type porin was replaced with a deletion variant lacking residues 238-242 (238porin). 238porin was assembled in the mitochondrial outer membrane, but the steady state levels were only about 3% of those of the wild-type protein. the strain harbouring 238porin display ...201728177769
crystallization of a fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase expressed from glycoengineered pichia pastoris for x-ray and neutron diffraction.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos) are carbohydrate-disrupting enzymes secreted by bacteria and fungi that break glycosidic bonds via an oxidative mechanism. fungal lpmos typically act on cellulose and can enhance the efficiency of cellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes that release soluble sugars for bioethanol production or other industrial uses. the enzyme pmo-2 from neurospora crassa (ncpmo-2) was heterologously expressed in pichia pastoris to facilitate crystallographic studies of the funga ...201728177316
correction for honda et al., dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex hchc is required for proper dna methylation in neurospora crassa. 201728137865
identification and characterization of the glucose dual-affinity transport system in neurospora crassa: pleiotropic roles in nutrient transport, signaling, and carbon catabolite repression.the glucose dual-affinity transport system (low- and high-affinity) is a conserved strategy used by microorganisms to cope with natural fluctuations in nutrient availability in the environment. the glucose-sensing and uptake processes are believed to be tightly associated with cellulase expression regulation in cellulolytic fungi. however, both the identities and functions of the major molecular components of this evolutionarily conserved system in filamentous fungi remain elusive. here, we syst ...201728115989
deletion of ph regulator pac-3 affects cellulase and xylanase activity during sugarcane bagasse degradation by neurospora crassa.microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. the production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental ph; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. in this study, we investigated the role of the ph regulator pac-3 in n. crassa during t ...201728107376
identification of glutaminyl cyclase genes involved in pyroglutamate modification of fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes.the breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. a post-translational n-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when n-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. this modificatio ...201728096492
transcription factor xpp1 is a switch between primary and secondary fungal metabolism.fungi can produce a wide range of chemical compounds via secondary metabolism. these compounds are of major interest because of their (potential) application in medicine and biotechnology and as a potential source for new therapeutic agents and drug leads. however, under laboratory conditions, most secondary metabolism genes remain silent. this circumstance is an obstacle for the production of known metabolites and the discovery of new secondary metabolites. in this study, we describe the dual r ...201728074041
disruption of non-anchored cell wall protein ncw-1 promotes cellulase production by increasing cellobiose uptake in neurospora elucidate the mechanism of cellulase signal transduction in filamentous fungi including the components of the cellulase induction pathway.201728039555
lac-1 and lag-1 with ras-1 affect aging and the biological clock in neurospora crassa.using an automated cell counting technique developed previously (case et al., ecology and evolution 2014; 4: 3494), we explore the lifespan effects of lac-1, a ceramide synthase gene paralogous to lag-1 in neurospora crassa in conjunction with the band bd (ras-1) gene. we find that the replicative lifespan of a lac-1(ko)bd double mutants is short, about one race tube cycle, and this double mutant lacks a strong ~21-hr clock cycle as shown by race tube and fluorometer analysis of fluorescent stra ...201628031787
oxygen activation at the active site of a fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases have attracted vast attention owing to their abilities to disrupt glycosidic bonds via oxidation instead of hydrolysis and to enhance enzymatic digestion of recalcitrant substrates including chitin and cellulose. we have determined high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of an enzyme from neurospora crassa in the resting state and of a copper(ii) dioxo intermediate complex formed in the absence of substrate. x-ray crystal structures also revealed "pre-bound" ...201728004877
hyphal ontogeny in neurospora crassa: a model organism for all seasons.filamentous fungi have proven to be a better-suited model system than unicellular yeasts in analyses of cellular processes such as polarized growth, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton-based organelle traffic. for example, the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa develops a variety of cellular forms. studying the molecular basis of these forms has led to a better, yet incipient, understanding of polarized growth. polarity factors as well as rho gtpases, septins, and a localized delivery of ...201627990280
cations optimization for protein enrichment in rice straw by mixed cultures of neurospora crassa 14-8 and candida utilis using response surface methodology.this study investigated the effect of cation optimization by mixed cultures of neurospora crassa and candida utilis on the true protein (tp) content. firstly, to enhance the nutritional contents of rice straw (rs), two fermentation parameters (effect of inoculation ratio and inoculation time) were optimized. it was found that when c. utilis was inoculated 60 h later than n. crassa with the inoculation ratio of 1:5 (n. crassa to c. utilis), the maximum tp yield was obtained. in order to further o ...201627987187
alternative oxidase transcription factors aod2 and aod5 of neurospora crassa control the expression of genes involved in energy production and neurospora crassa, blocking the function of the standard mitochondrial electron transport chain results in the induction of an alternative oxidase (aox). aox transfers electrons directly from ubiquinol to molecular oxygen. aox serves as a model of retrograde regulation since it is encoded by a nuclear gene that is regulated in response to signals from mitochondria. the n. crassa transcription factors aod2 and aod5 are necessary for the expression of the aox gene. to gain insight into the mech ...201727986792
the calmodulin gene in neurospora crassa is required for normal vegetative growth, ultraviolet survival, and sexual development.we isolated a neurospora crassa mutant of the calmodulin (cmd) gene using repeat-induced point mutation and studied its phenotypes. the cmd (rip) mutant showed a defect in growth, reduced aerial hyphae, decreased carotenoid accumulation, a severe reduction in viability upon ultraviolet (uv) irradiation, and a fertility defect. moreover, meiotic silencing of the cmd gene resulted in a barren phenotype. in addition, we also performed site-directed mutational analysis of the calcium/calmodulin-depe ...201627888323
glucose starvation alters heat shock response, leading to death of wild type cells and survival of map kinase signaling mutant.a moderate heat shock induces neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. however, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. in contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. in order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins ...201627870869
normal chromosome conformation depends on subtelomeric facultative heterochromatin in neurospora crassa.high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (hi-c) analyses revealed that the 3d structure of the neurospora crassa genome is dominated by intra- and interchromosomal links between regions of heterochromatin, especially constitutive heterochromatin. elimination of trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone h3 (h3k9me3) or its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (hp1)-both prominent features of constitutive heterochromatin-have little effect on the hi-c pattern. it remained possible that di- ...201627856763
Displaying items 2201 - 2300 of 5889