[development of pythium ultimum var. ultimum trow on different cultural media depending on temperature].pythium ultimum var. ultimum 175 was isolated for the first time from root system of rape. influences of two kinds of temperature (10 and 25 degrees c) and 8 different cultural media on the strain growth and development was investigated. using the growth-rate criterion the author has determined linear velocity of growth, which varied from 0.43 to 0.68 mm/h at 10 degrees c and from 0.78 to 1.11 mm/h at 25 degrees c. as to the velocity of growth the culture p. ultimum var. ultimum 175 is comparabl ...200516396111
the presence of gc-ag introns in neurospora crassa and other euascomycetes determined from analyses of complete genomes: implications for automated gene prediction.a combination of experimental and computational approaches was employed to identify introns with noncanonical gc-ag splice sites (gc-ag introns) within euascomycete genomes. evaluation of 2335 cdna-confirmed introns from neurospora crassa revealed 27 such introns (1.2%). a similar frequency (1.0%) of gc-ag introns was identified in fusarium graminearum, in which 3 of 292 cdna-confirmed introns contained gc-ag splice sites. computational analyses of the n. crassa genome using a gc-ag intron conse ...200616406724
genomics reveals traces of fungal phenylpropanoid-flavonoid metabolic pathway in the f ilamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.fungal secondary metabolites constitute a wide variety of compounds which either play a vital role in agricultural, pharmaceutical and industrial contexts, or have devastating effects on agriculture, animal and human affairs by virtue of their toxigenicity. owing to their beneficial and deleterious characteristics, these complex compounds and the genes responsible for their synthesis have been the subjects of extensive investigation by microbiologists and pharmacologists. a majority of the funga ...200516410762
fungal heat-shock proteins in human disease.heat-shock proteins (hsps) have been identified as molecular chaperones conserved between microbes and man and grouped by their molecular mass and high degree of amino acid homology. this article reviews the major hsps of saccharomyces cerevisiae, their interactions with trehalose, the effect of fermentation and the role of the heat-shock factor. information derived from this model, as well as from neurospora crassa and achlya ambisexualis, helps in understanding the importance of hsps in the pa ...200616438680
identification and comparative analysis of the large subunit mitochondrial ribosomal proteins of neurospora crassa.the mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) has highly evolved from its putative prokaryotic ancestor and varies considerably from one organism to another. to gain further insights into its structural and evolutionary characteristics, we have purified and identified individual mitochondrial ribosomal proteins of neurospora crassa by mass spectrometry and compared them with those of the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. most of the mitochondrial ribosomal proteins of the two fungi are well co ...200616451194
[cloning and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from chaetomium globosum].the amino acid sequence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) gene from neurospora crassa (xp-327967) and colletotrichum lindemuthianu (p35143) were subjected to local tblastn searching against the ests local datebase of chaetomium globosum. the full length cdna sequence of 1240bp encoding gapdh gene with an open reading frame of 1014bp and encoding 337 amino acids was obtained. the protein molecular weight was 36.1kd. the dna sequence of gapdh gene was obtained through pcr amplifi ...200516496697
nonribosomal peptide synthesis in schizosaccharomyces pombe and the architectures of ferrichrome-type siderophore synthetases in fungi.a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) in schizosaccharomyces pombe, which possesses an unusual structure incorporating three adenylation domains, six thiolation domains and six condensation domains, has been shown to produce the cyclohexapeptide siderophore ferrichrome. one of the adenylation domains is truncated and contains a distorted key motif. substrate-binding specificities of the remaining two domains were assigned by molecular modelling to glycine and to n-acetyl-n-hydroxy-l-ornithine ...200616502473
depletion of aspergillus nidulans cota causes a severe polarity defect which is not suppressed by the nuclear migration mutation nuda2.the aspergillus nidulans homologue of neurospora crassa cot-1, cota, encoding a member of the ndr protein kinase family, has been cloned and expressed under the control of the conditional alca promoter. depletion of cota by repression of the alca promoter led to a severe growth defect accompanied by loss of polarity. germlings show greatly enlarged volume of the spores and hyphae, accompanied by an increase in number of nuclei per compartment, though the nucleus/volume ratio is not significantly ...200616506053
evidence of rip (repeat-induced point mutation) in transposase sequences of aspergillus oryzae.a dna methyl-binding column was used to isolate genomic fragments enriched for dna-methylation from aspergillus parasiticus. one of the isolated sequences presented 67% identity at the protein level with the transposase from the transposable element tan1 of aspergillus niger var. awamori, and was found to be present in at least 20 copies in the aspergillus oryzae database. analysis of four copies showed evidence of c:g to t:a transitions in at least 98.2% of the mutations found over a 1,032-1,18 ...200616531081
primer sets developed to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes are useful in differentiating fusarium species associated with conifers.we examined the usefulness of primer sets designed to amplify introns within conserved genes in filamentous ascomycetes to differentiate 35 isolates representing six different species of fusarium commonly found in association with conifer seedlings. we analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflp) in five amplified pcr products from each fusarium isolate. the primers used in this study were constructed on the basis of sequence information from the h3, h4, and (beta)-tubulin genes in ...199516534991
inhibition of growth, synthesis, and permeability in neurospora crassa by phenethyl alcohol.lester, gabriel (reed college, portland, ore.). inhibition of growth, synthesis, and permeability in neurospora crassa by phenethyl alcohol. j. bacteriol. 90: 29-37. 1965.-inhibition of the growth of neurospora crassa in still culture was detected at 0.05% and was complete at a level of 0.2% phenethyl alcohol (pea). benzyl alcohol was less inhibitory, and 3-phenyl-1-propanol and phenol were more inhibitory, than pea; benzylamine and phenethylamine were less inhibitory than the analogous hydroxyl ...196516562036
[the changes of rare codon and mrna structure accelerate expression of qa-3 in escherichia coli].the key and crucial step of metabolic engineering during quinic acid biosynthesize using shikimic acid pathway is high expression of quinate 5-dehydrogenase. the gene qa-3 which code quinate 5-dehydrogenase from neurospora crassa doesn't express in escherichia coli. by contrast with codon usage in escherichia coli, there are 27 rare codons in qa-3, including eight agg/aga (arg) and nine ggg (gly). two agg are joined together (called box r) and some ggg codons are relative concentrate (called box ...200616607943
nucleotide excision repair and photoreactivation in the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana, beauveria brongniartii, beauveria nivea, metarhizium anisopliae, paecilomyces farinosus and verticillium compare the dna repair capabilities of the entomopathogenic fungus (epf) bassiana to the epf beauveria brongniartii, beauveria nivea, metarhizium anisopliae, paecilomyces farinosus, verticillium lecanii, and the fungi aspergillus niger and neurospora crassa.200616629997
transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria and neurospora.circadian clocks are self-sustained oscillators modulating rhythmic transcription of large numbers of genes. clock-controlled gene expression manifests in circadian rhythmicity of many physiological and behavioral functions. in eukaryotes, expression of core clock components is organized in a network of interconnected positive and negative feedback loops. this network is thought to constitute the pacemaker that generates circadian rhythmicity. the network of interconnected loops is embedded in a ...200616651653
nonessentiality of boron in fungi and the nature of its investigation was undertaken to determine whether any of the following fungi had a requirement for boron (b): saccharomyces cerevisiae, aspergillus niger, neurospora crassa, and penicillium chrysogenum. boron was unessential, and hence a study was made of the concentrations of b that reduced the growth of s. cerevisiae and p. chrysogenum and the mode of action of the b toxicity. fifty and 4000 mg b/liter, respectively, significantly (5% level) reduced the growth of the latter 2 bot ...196616656256
immunological approach to structural comparisons of assimilatory nitrate reductases.homogeneous squash cotyledon reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (nadh):nitrate reductase (nr) was isolated using blue-sepharose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. gel slices containing nr were pulverized and injected into a previously unimmunized rabbit. this process was repeated weekly and antiserum to nr was obtained after four weeks. analysis of the antiserum by ouchterlony double diffusion using a blue-sepharose preparation of nr resulted in a single precipitin band while immunoe ...198116662083
voltage-dependent channels found in the membrane fraction of corn mitochondria.transmembrane channels have been found in the membrane fraction of corn (zea mays w64an) mitochondria that exhibit a remarkable resemblance to the voltage dependent anion-selective channels (vdac) located in the outer membrane of animal (rattus norvegicus), protist (paramecium aurelia), and fungal (neurospora crassa) mitochondria. the channels in corn were demonstrated to be essentially identical to vdac channels in three characteristic properties: (a) single channel conductance magnitude, (b) w ...198516664537
immunochemical analysis shows that an atp/adp-translocator is associated with the inner-envelope membranes of amyloplasts from acer pseudoplatanus l.pure preparations of intact amyloplasts and chloroplasts, free from mitochondrial contamination, were isolated from cultured cells of the white-wild and green-mutant lines of sycamore (acer pseudoplatanus l.), respectively. a specific rabbit antiserum against yeast mitochondrial cytochrome c(1) only cross-reacted with mitochondrial membranes from the white-wild sycamore cells. the outer and inner envelope-membranes of the two plastid-types were isolated and subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecy ...198916666656
purification and characterization of chorismate synthase from euglena gracilis: comparison with chorismate synthases of plant and microbial origin.chorismate synthase was purified 1200-fold from euglena gracilis. the molecular mass of the native enzyme is in the range of 110 to 138 kilodaltons as judged by gel filtration. the molecular mass of the subunit was determined to be 41.7 kilodaltons by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. purified chorismate synthase is associated with an nadph-dependent flavin mononucleotide reductase that provides in vivo the reduced flavin necessary for catalytic activity. in vitro, flavi ...199116668543
direct measurement of vdac-actin interaction by surface plasmon resonance.vdac--a mitochondrial channel involved in the control of aerobic metabolism and apoptosis--interacts in vitro and in vivo with a wide repertoire of proteins including cytoskeletal elements. a functional interaction between actin and neurospora crassa vdac was reported, excluding other vdac isoforms. from a recent genome-wide screen of the vdac interactome, we found that human actin is a putative ligand of yeast vdac. since such interaction may have broader implications for various mitochondrial ...200616678788
crystal structure of 2-nitropropane dioxygenase complexed with fmn and substrate. identification of the catalytic base.nitroalkane compounds are widely used in chemical industry and are also produced by microorganisms and plants. some nitroalkanes have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic, and enzymatic oxidation of nitroalkanes is of considerable interest. 2-nitropropane dioxygenases from neurospora crassa and williopsis mrakii (hansenula mrakii), members of one family of the nitroalkane-oxidizing enzymes, contain fmn and fad, respectively. the enzymatic oxidation of nitroalkanes by 2-nitropropane dioxygenase o ...200616682407
the transition metal chelator nicotianamine is synthesized by filamentous fungi.nicotianamine is an important metal ligand in plants. surprisingly, recent genome sequencing revealed that ascomycetes encode proteins with similarity to plant nicotianamine synthases (nas). by expression in a zn2+-hypersensitive fission yeast mutant we show for a protein from neurospora crassa that it indeed possesses nas activity. using electrospray-ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry we prove the formation of nicotianamine in n. crassa. transcript level is strongly upregula ...200616684531
interaction of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and catalases for stress and light responses in neurospora crassa.nucleoside diphosphate kinase (ndk) is an ubiquitous enzyme with the function of a signal transducer. in neurospora crassa, an ndk-1(p72h) mutant carrying the point mutation pro72his was isolated. we found that ndk-1(p72h) showed hypersensitivity to oxidative and heat stress and a decrease in the levels of catalase (cat)-1 and -3 induced by oxidative, heat stress and illumination compared with wild type (wt). we found, by conducting a yeast two-hybrid assay, that cat-1 interacted with ndk-1. ndk ...200616697373
cloning and sequencing of the genes for a and b subunits of the v-type na(+)-atpase of a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile.the structural genes for a and b subunits of the v-type na(+)-atpase from a facultatively anaerobic alkaliphile (amphibacillus sp.), strain m-12, were cloned and sequenced. transformation of escherichia coli with the genes overexpressed two proteins, which crossreacted with an antiserum against a and b subunits of the v-type na(+)-atpase from enterococcus hirae. the deduced amino acid sequence (594 amino acids; mr, 66,144) of a subunit of the m-12 enzyme exhibited 73%, 51%, 49% and 53% identitie ...200516701541
isolation, characterization, and disruption of dnr1, the area/nit-2-like nitrogen regulatory gene of the zoophilic dermatophyte, microsporum canis.a homolog of the major nitrogen regulatory genes area from aspergillus nidulans and nit-2 from neurospora crassa was isolated from the zoophilic dermatophyte, microsporum canis. this gene, dnr1, encodes a polypeptide of 761 amino acid residues containing a single zinc-finger dna-binding domain, which is almost identical in amino acid sequence to the zinc-finger domains of area and nit-2. the functional equivalence of dnr1 to area was demonstrated by complementation of an area loss-of-function mu ...200616702104
identification of a new human mtdna polymorphism (a14290g) in the nadh dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene.leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (lhon) is a maternally inherited form of retinal ganglion cell degeneration leading to optic atrophy in young adults. several mutations in different genes can cause lhon (heterogeneity). the nd6 gene is one of the mitochondrial genes that encodes subunit 6 of complex i of the respiratory chain. this gene is a hot spot gene. fourteen persian lhon patients were analyzed with single-strand conformational polymorphism and dna sequencing techniques. none of these p ...200616751977
effect of mutations in tom40 on stability of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (tom) complex, assembly of tom40, and import of mitochondrial preproteins.mitochondrial preproteins synthesized in the cytosol are imported through the mitochondrial outer membrane by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (tom) complex. tom40 is the major component of the complex and is essential for cell viability. we generated 21 different mutations in conserved regions of the neurospora crassa tom40 protein. the mutant genes were transformed into a tom40 null nucleus maintained in a sheltered heterokaryon, and 17 of the mutant genes gave rise to viabl ...200616757481
consecutive gene deletions in aspergillus nidulans: application of the cre/loxp system.the ability to perform multiple gene deletions is an important tool for conducting functional genomics. we report the development of a sequential gene deletion protocol for the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans using the cre/loxp recombinase system of bacteriophage p1. a recyclable genetic marker has been constructed by incorporating loxp direct repeats either side of the neurospora crassa pyr-4 gene (encodes orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase) which is able to complement the a. nidu ...200616783565
comparative est analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus blastocladiella emersonii.blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. in this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. to identify in b. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1) a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene ...200616836762
interactions between iron availability, aluminium toxicity and fungal siderophores.the influence of iron, aluminium and of the combined application of both metals on microbial biomass and production of siderophores by three fungi (aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa and hymenoscyphus ericae) were investigated. all three species showed a strong iron regulation and al-sensitivity of siderophore biosynthesis although several differences remained species dependent. inhibitory effects of fe and al on siderophore-production were additive and the higher binding capacity of sidero ...200616841246
development and application of a suite of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes for analyzing plant cell facilitate analysis of plant cell wall polysaccharide structure and composition, we cloned 74 genes encoding polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus fumigatus, and neurospora crassa and expressed the genes as secreted proteins with c-terminal myc and 6x his tags. most of the recombinant enzymes were active in enzyme assays, and optima for ph and temperature were established. a subset of the enzymes was used to fragment polysaccharides from the irregular xylem 9 ...200616844780
analysis of strains with mutations in six genes encoding subunits of the v-atpase: eukaryotes differ in the composition of the v0 sector of the address questions about the structure of the vacuolar atpase, we have generated mutant strains of neurospora crassa defective in six subunits, c, h, a, c, c', and c''. except for strains lacking subunit c', the mutant strains were indistinguishable from each other in most phenotypic characteristics. they did not accumulate arginine in the vacuoles, grew poorly at ph 5.8 with altered morphology, and failed to grow at alkaline ph. consistent with findings from saccharomyces cerevisiae, the data ...200616857684
generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea is a filamentous plant pathogen of a wide range of plant species, and its infection may cause enormous damage both during plant growth and in the post-harvest phase. we have constructed a cdna library from an isolate of b. cinerea and have sequenced 11,482 expressed sequence tags that were assembled into 1,003 contigs sequences and 3,032 singletons. approximately 81% of the unigenes showed significant similarity to genes coding for proteins with known functions: more than 50% of ...200616874411
circadian time keeping: the daily ups and downs of genes, cells, and organisms.light-sensitive organisms - from cyanobacteria to humans - contain circadian clocks that produce approximately 24-h cycles in the absence of external time cues. in various systems, clock genes have been identified and their functions examined. negative feedback loops in clock gene expression were initially believed to control circadian rhythms in all organisms. however, recent experiments with cyanobacteria and the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa tend to favour protein phosphorylation cycle ...200616876581
distinct white collar-1 genes control specific light responses in mucor circinelloides.light regulates many developmental and physiological processes in a large number of organisms. the best-known light response in the fungus mucor circinelloides is the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. here, we show that m. circinelloides sporangiophores also respond to light, exhibiting a positive phototropism. analysis of both responses to different light wavelengths within the visible spectrum demonstrated that phototropism is induced by green and blue light, whereas carotenogenesis is only induc ...200616879651
gpr-4 is a predicted g-protein-coupled receptor required for carbon source-dependent asexual growth and development in neurospora crassa.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is able to utilize a wide variety of carbon sources. here, we examine the involvement of a predicted g-protein-coupled receptor (gpcr), gpr-4, during growth and development in the presence of different carbon sources in n. crassa. deltagpr-4 mutants have reduced mass accumulation compared to the wild type when cultured on high levels of glycerol, mannitol, or arabinose. the defect is most severe on glycerol and is cell density dependent. the genetic and p ...200616896213
epigenetic regulation in drosophila.epigenetic regulation of gene transcription relies on molecular marks like dna methylation or histone modifications. here we review recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic regulation in the fruit fly drosophila melanogaster. in the past, dna methylation research has primarily utilized mammalian model systems. however, several recent landmark discoveries have been made in other organisms. for example, the interaction between dna methylation and histone methylation was first described i ...200616909905
a model for the proteolipid ring and bafilomycin/concanamycin-binding site in the vacuolar atpase of neurospora crassa.the vacuolar atpase has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. bafilomycin and concanamycin, highly potent and specific inhibitors of the vacuolar atpase, have been widely used to investigate the enzyme. derivatives have been developed as possible therapeutic drugs. we have used random mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis to identify 23 residues in the c subunit involved in binding these drugs. we generated a model for the structure of the ring of c sub ...200616912037
the neurospora crassa white collar-1 dependent blue light response requires acetylation of histone h3 lysine 14 by light-induced transcription in neurospora crassa is regulated by the white collar-1 (wc-1) photoreceptor. we report that residue k14 of histone h3 associated with the light-inducible albino-3 (al-3) promoter becomes transiently acetylated after photoinduction. this acetylation depends on wc-1. the relevance of this chromatin modification was directly evaluated in vivo by construction of a neurospora strain with a mutated histone h3 gene (hh3(k14q)). this strain phenocopies a wc-1 blind muta ...200616914525
purification and characterization of a novel thermostable extracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase from metarhizium anisopliae strain extracellular phosphatase was purified to homogeneity from the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae with a 41.0% yield. the molecular mass and isoelectric point of the purified enzyme were about 82.5 kda and 9.5 respectively. the optimum ph and temperature were about 5.5 and 75 degrees c when using o-phospho-l-tyrosine as substrate. the protein displayed high stability in a ph range 3.0-9.5 at 30 degrees c and was remarkably thermostable at 70 degrees c. the purified enzyme showed h ...200616926509
the biotechnological potential of the al-2 gene from neurospora [correction of neurospra] crassa for the production of monocyclic keto hydroxy carotenoids.the al-2 cdna from neurospora crassa was cloned, expressed and functionally characterized. the enzyme comprised the two catalytic activities of a phytoene synthase and a lycopene cyclase. in contrast to most other lycopene cyclases, single cyclizations were preferentially catalyzed. this n. crassa enzyme is the first crtyb-type monocyclic-acting lycopene cyclase. therefore, this cdna has been evaluated for the heterologous synthesis of monocyclic hydroxy-keto carotenoids by combination with othe ...200616928467
biotransformations of ent-18-acetoxy-6-ketomanoyl oxides epimers at c-13 with filamentous fungi.two ent-18-acetoxy-6-oxomanoyl oxides, epimers at c-13, have been prepared from ent-6alpha,8alpha,18-trihydroxylabda-13(16),14-diene (andalusol), isolated from sideritis foetens, by means of several chemical pathways and a regioselective acylation with candida cylindracea lipase (ccl). biotransformation of these 13-epimeric ent-manoyl oxides by fusarium moniliforme and neurospora crassa produced mainly ent-1beta- or ent-11alpha-hydroxylations, as well as their deacetylated derivatives, in both e ...200616956632
a eukaryote without catalase-containing microbodies: neurospora crassa exhibits a unique cellular distribution of its four catalases.microbodies usually house catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide generated within the organelle by the action of various oxidases. here we have analyzed whether peroxisomes (i.e., catalase-containing microbodies) exist in neurospora crassa. three distinct catalase isoforms were identified by native catalase activity gels under various peroxisome-inducing conditions. subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation revealed that most of the spectrophotometrically measured activity wa ...200616963632
the predicted g-protein-coupled receptor gpr-1 is required for female sexual development in the multicellular fungus neurospora crassa.g-protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) control important aspects of asexual and sexual development in eukaryotic organisms. we have identified a predicted gpcr in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa with similarity to cyclic amp-receptor like gpcrs from dictyostelium discoideum and gcr1 from arabidopsis thaliana. expression of gpr-1 is highest in female reproductive structures, and deletion of gpr-1 leads to defects during sexual development. unfertilized female structures (protoperithecia) fr ...200616963633
evolutionary changes in the fungal carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase small subunit gene and its associated upstream open reading frame.the neurospora crassa arg-2 and the saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog cpa1 encode the arginine-specific carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (cps-a) small subunit. arginine decreases synthesis of this subunit through the action of a 5' upstream open reading frame in the mrna that encodes a cis-regulatory element, the arginine attenuator peptide (aap), which stalls ribosomes in response to arginine. we performed a comparative analysis of the genomic structure and predicted peptide sequence of the aap a ...200716979358
identification of os-2 map kinase-dependent genes induced in response to osmotic stress, antifungal agent fludioxonil, and heat shock in neurospora crassa.two-component signal transduction comprising of os-1 (histidine kinase), os-4 (mapkk kinase), os-5 (mapk kinase), and os-2 (map kinase) plays an important role in osmotic regulation in neurospora crassa. to identify the genes regulated downstream of os-2 map kinase, quantitative real-time rt-pcr analysis was conducted in selected genes based on hog1 map kinase regulated genes in yeast. in response to osmotic stress and fludioxonil, expression of six genes that for glycerol synthesis (gcy-1, gcy- ...200716990038
a ste12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete sordaria macrospora interacts with the mads box protein mcm1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.the mads box protein mcm1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete sordaria macrospora. mads box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. we have recently shown that the s. macrospora mcm1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein smta-1. to further evaluate the functional roles of mcm1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify mcm1-inte ...200616999832
vib-1 is required for expression of genes necessary for programmed cell death in neurospora crassa.nonself recognition during somatic growth is an essential and ubiquitous phenomenon in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. in filamentous fungi, nonself recognition is also important during vegetative growth. hyphal fusion between genetically dissimilar individuals results in rejection of heterokaryon formation and in programmed cell death of the fusion compartment. in filamentous fungi, such as neurospora crassa, nonself recognition and heterokaryon incompatibility (hi) are regulated by ge ...200617012538
the homologue of het-c of neurospora crassa lacks vegetative compatibility function in fusarium proliferatum.for two fungal strains to be vegetatively compatible and capable of forming a stable vegetative heterokaryon they must carry matching alleles at a series of loci variously termed het or vic genes. cloned het/vic genes from neurospora crassa and podospora anserina have no obvious functional similarity and have various cellular functions. our objective was to identify the homologue of the neurospora het-c gene in fusarium proliferatum and to determine if this gene has a vegetative compatibility fu ...200617021201
her-2 upstream open reading frame effects on the use of downstream initiation codons.the her-2 (neu, erbb-2) oncogene encodes a 185-kda transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. her2 overexpression occurs in numerous primary human tumors and contributes to 25-30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas. synthesis of her2 is controlled in part by an upstream open reading frame (uorf) present in the transcript. we used synthetic capped and polyadenylated mrnas containing sequences derived from the 5' region of the her-2 transcript fused to a firefly luciferase (luc) reporter to examine thi ...200617045969
nps6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase involved in siderophore-mediated iron metabolism, is a conserved virulence determinant of plant pathogenic ascomycetes.nps6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (zea mays) pathogen cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to h(2)o(2). deletion of nps6 orthologs in the rice (oryza sativa) pathogen, cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (triticum aestivum) pathogen, fusarium graminearum, and the arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to h(2)o(2). introduction of the nps6 ortholog from th ...200617056706
loss of catalase-1 (cat-1) results in decreased conidial viability enhanced by exposure to light in neurospora crassa.light is one of the most important factors inducing morphogenesis in neurospora crassa. the reception of light triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ros) including hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)). catalase-1 (cat-1) is one of three catalases known to detoxify h(2)o(2) into water and oxygen. we reported that the photomorphogenetic characteristics of mutants in nucleoside diphosphate kinase-1 (ndk-1), a light signal transducer, are severely affected, and ndk-1 interacted with cat-1 in a ...200717077971
involvement of dead-box proteins in group i and group ii intron splicing. biochemical characterization of mss116p, atp hydrolysis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and general rna chaperone activity.the rna-catalyzed splicing of group i and group ii introns is facilitated by proteins that stabilize the active rna structure or act as rna chaperones to disrupt stable inactive structures that are kinetic traps in rna folding. in neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae, the latter function is fulfilled by specific dead-box proteins, denoted cyt-19 and mss116p, respectively. previous studies showed that purified cyt-19 stimulates the in vitro splicing of structurally diverse group i and g ...200717081564
cloning and characterization of a thioredoxin gene, cptrx1, from the chestnut blight fungus cryphonectria parasitica.a differential display for the expression profiles of wild-type cryphonectria parasitica and its virally-infected isogenic hypovirulent strain revealed several transcripts of interest, which evidenced significant matches with fungal genes of known function. among which, we have further analyzed an amplified pcr product with significant sequence similarity to the known fungal stress-responsive thioredoxin gene from neurospora crassa. the product of the cloned thioredoxin gene, cptrx1, consists of ...200617082750
substrate-inducible versions of internal alternative nadh: ubiquinone oxidoreductase from yarrowia standard laboratory strains of the obligate aerobic yeast yarrowia lipolytica, respiratory chain complex i (proton-translocating nadh : ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential enzyme, since alternative nadh dehydrogenase activity is located exclusively at the external face of the mitochondrial inner membrane. deletions and other loss-of-function mutations in genes for nuclear coded subunits of complex i can be obtained only when an internal version of the latter enzyme, termed ndh2i, is in ...200617133620
functional expression of a drosophila antifungal peptide in escherichia coli.drosomycin is a key effector molecule involved in drosophila innate immunity against fungal infection. this peptide is composed of 44 residues stabilized by four disulfide bridges. as the first step towards the understanding of the molecular basis for its specific antifungal activity, rapid and efficient production of the wild-type peptide and its mutants is needed. here, we report a pgex system for high-level expression of recombinant drosomycin. the fusion drosomycin protein with a carrier of ...200717169573
roles of putative his-to-asp signaling modules hpt-1 and rrg-2, on viability and sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa has a putative histidine phosphotransfer protein (hpt-1) that transfers signals from 11 histidine kinases to two putative response regulators (rrg-1 and rrg-2) in its histidine-to-aspartate phosphorelay system. the hpt-1 gene was successfully disrupted in the os-2 (map kinase gene) mutant, but not in the wild-type strain in this study. crossing the resultant hpt-1; os-2 mutants with the wild-type or os-1 (histidine kinase gene) mutant strains produced no progeny with hpt-1 or o ...200717211673
characterization of the blr1 gene encoding a putative blue-light regulator in the phytopathogenic fungus bipolaris oryzae.bipolaris oryzae is a filamentous ascomycetous fungus that causes brown leaf spot disease in rice. we isolated and characterized blr1, a gene that encodes a putative blue-light regulator similar to neurospora crassa white-collar 1 (wc-1). the deduced amino acid sequence of blr1 showed high degrees of similarity to other fungal blue-light regulator protein. disruption of the blr1 gene demonstrated that this gene is essential for conidial development after conidiophore formation and for near-uv ra ...200717233721
antifungal pisum sativum defensin 1 interacts with neurospora crassa cyclin f related to the cell cycle.plant defensins, components of the plant innate immune system, are cationic cysteine-rich antifungal peptides. evidence from the literature [thevissen, k., et al. (2003) peptides 24, 1705-1712] has demonstrated that patches of fungi membrane containing mannosyldiinositolphosphorylceramide and glucosylceramides are selective binding sites for the plant defensins isolated from dahlia merckii and raphanus sativus, respectively. whether plant defensins interact directly or indirectly with fungus int ...200717240982
studies with purple adenine mutants in neurospora crassa. ii. tetrad analyses from a cross of an ad-3a mutant with an ad-3b mutant. 195717247720
studies with purple adenine mutants in neurospora crassa. iv. lack of complementation between different ad-3a mutants in heterokaryons and pseudowild types. 196017247943
biochemical characterization of an l-xylulose reductase from neurospora l-xylulose reductase identified from the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was heterologously expressed in escherichia coli as a his(6) tag fusion protein, purified, and characterized. the enzyme may be used in the production of xylitol from the major pentose components of hemicellulosic waste, d-xylose and l-arabinose.200717261518
cloning and sequence analysis of ornithine decarboxylase gene fragments from the ascomycota.ornithine decarboxylase (odc; ec catalyzes the initial step in the biosynthesis of polyamines, the conversion of ornithine to putrescine. based on the most conserved regions of fungal odcs, we designed and synthesized oligonucleotides to amplify homologous fragments of three important plant pathogenic pyrenomycete fungi (ascomycota), magnaporthe grisea, colletotrichum lindemuthianum and fusarium solani, and one insect pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae. cloning and sequencing of ...200617286052
translesion dna polymerases pol zeta, pol eta, pol iota, pol kappa and rev1 are not essential for repeat-induced point mutation in neurospora crassa.pol zeta, pol eta, pol iota, pol kappa and rev1 are specialized dna polymerases that are able to synthesize dna across a damaged template. dna synthesis by such translesion polymerases can be mutagenic due to the miscoding nature of most damaged nucleotides. in fact, many mutational and hypermutational processes in systems ranging from yeast to mammals have been traced to the activity of such polymerases. we show however, that the translesion polymerases are dispensable for repeat-induced point ...200617301493
the evolutionary history of cytochrome p450 genes in four filamentous ascomycetes.the cytochrome p450 system is important in fungal evolution for adapting to novel ecological niches. to elucidate the evolutionary process of cytochrome p450 genes in fungi with different life styles, we studied the patterns of gene gains and losses in the genomes of four filamentous ascomycetes, including two saprotrophs (aspergillus nidulans (an) and neurospora crassa (nc)) and two plant pathogens (fusarium graminearum (fg) and magnaporthe grisea (mg)).200717324274
genomics of aspergillus oryzae.the genome sequence of aspergillus oryzae, a fungus used in the production of the traditional japanese fermentation foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste), has revealed prominent features in its gene composition as compared to those of saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa. the a. oryzae genome is extremely enriched with genes involved in biomass degradation, primary and secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and cell signaling. even compared to t ...200717341818
enabling a community to dissect an organism: overview of the neurospora functional genomics project.a consortium of investigators is engaged in a functional genomics project centered on the filamentous fungus neurospora, with an eye to opening up the functional genomic analysis of all the filamentous fungi. the overall goal of the four interdependent projects in this effort is to accomplish functional genomics, annotation, and expression analyses of neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus that is an established model for the assemblage of over 250,000 species of non yeast fungi. building from ...200717352902
molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a cu,zn-superoxide dismutase from scedosporium apiospermum.a cu,zn-superoxide dismutase has been characterized from scedosporium apiospermum, a fungus which often colonizes the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis. enzyme production was stimulated by iron starvation. purification was achieved from mycelial extract from 7-day-old cultures on amberlite xad-16. the purified enzyme presented a relative molecular mass of 16.4 kda under reducing conditions and was inhibited by potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, which are two known inh ...200717395518
detecting microsatellites within genomes: significant variation among algorithms.microsatellites are short, tandemly-repeated dna sequences which are widely distributed among genomes. their structure, role and evolution can be analyzed based on exhaustive extraction from sequenced genomes. several dedicated algorithms have been developed for this purpose. here, we compared the detection efficiency of five of them (trf, mreps, sputnik, star, and repeatmasker).200717442102
transcriptional profiling of cross pathway control in neurospora crassa and comparative analysis of the gcn4 and cpc1 regulons.identifying and characterizing transcriptional regulatory networks is important for guiding experimental tests on gene function. the characterization of regulatory networks allows comparisons among both closely and distantly related species, providing insight into network evolution, which is predicted to correlate with the adaptation of different species to particular environmental niches. one of the most intensely studied regulatory factors in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae is the bzip tran ...200717449655
mutation of msh-2 in neurospora crassa does not reduce the incidence of recombinants with multiple patches of donor chromosome sequence.the neurospora homologue msh-2 of the escherichia coli mismatch repair gene muts was mutated by repeat-induced point mutation (rip) of a 1.9-kb duplication covering 1661bp of the coding sequence and 302 bp 5' of the gene. msh-2(rip-lk1) exhibited a mutator phenotype conferring a 17-fold increase in the frequency of spontaneous mitotic reversion of his-3 allele k458. in msh-2(rip-lk1) homozygotes, recombination frequency at the his-3 locus increased up to 2.9-fold over that in msh-2(+) diploids. ...200717475521
characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and 3 from neurospora crassa fgsc2489.alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) is a key enzyme in the production and utilization of alcohols. some also catalyze the formation of carboxylate esters from alcohols and aldehydes. the adh1 and adh3 genes of neurospora crassa fgsc2489 were cloned and expressed in recombinant escherichia coli to investigate their alcohol dehydrogenation and carboxylate ester formation abilities. homology analysis and sequence alignment of amino acid sequence indicated that adh1 and adh3 of n. crassa contained a zinc-bi ...200717516063
fungal multienzyme production on industrial by-products of the citrus-processing peels is the principal solid by-product of the citrus processing industry and the disposal of the fresh peels is becoming a major problem to many factories. dry citrus peels are rich in pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose and may be used as a fermentation substrate. production of multienzyme preparations containing pectinolytic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by the mesophilic fungi aspergillus niger btl, fusarium oxysporum f3, neurospora crassa dsm 1129 and penicillium decumbens un ...200817604624
fungal photoreceptors: sensory molecules for fungal development and behaviour.light regulates fungal development and behaviour and activates metabolic pathways. in addition, light is one of the many signals that fungi use to perceive and interact with the environment. in the ascomycete neurospora crassa blue light is perceived by the white collar (wc) complex, a protein complex formed by wc-1 and wc-2. wc-1 is a protein with a flavin-binding domain and a zinc-finger domain, and interacts with wc-2, another zinc-finger domain protein. the wc complex operates as a photorece ...200717609765
ability to grow on lipids accounts for the fully virulent phenotype in neutropenic mice of aspergillus fumigatus null mutants in the key glyoxylate cycle enzymes.incidence and mortality rates of invasive aspergillosis clearly indicate the need of novel antifungals to treat patients suffering from this disease. fungal proteins playing a crucial role in pathogenesis and with no orthologue in human cells are considered as primary therapeutic targets for the development of new antifungals with a high therapeutic index, one of the major drawbacks of the standard antifungal therapy, so far. in this work, we have analyzed the role in pathogenesis of the key enz ...200817616408
neurospora crassa ve-1 affects asexual conidiation.the velvet factor of the homothallic fungus aspergillus nidulans promotes sexual fruiting body formation. the encoding vea gene is conserved among fungi, including the ascomycete neurospora crassa. there, the orthologous ve-1 gene encodes a deduced protein with high similarity to a. nidulans vea. cross-complementation experiments suggest that both the promoter and the coding sequence of n. crassa ve-1 are functional to complement the phenotype of an a. nidulans deletion mutant. moreover, ve-1 ex ...200817631397
catalase-1 (cat-1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase-1 (ndk-1) play an important role in protecting conidial viability under light stress in neurospora crassa.recently we reported that catalase-1 (cat-1) played an important role in protecting conidial viability in neurospora crassa, and interacted with a light signal transducer, nucleoside diphosphate kinase-1 (ndk-1). to disclose the functional interaction between cat-1 and ndk-1 at the genetic level, we created cat-1 and ndk-1 double mutants, cat-1;ndk-1-1 and cat-1;ndk-1-2, by crossing single mutants of cat-1 ( rip ) and ndk-1 ( p72h ) previously isolated in our laboratory. the double mutant strain ...200717636331
evidence that rna silencing functions as an antiviral defense mechanism in fungi.the role of rna silencing as an antiviral defense mechanism in fungi was examined by testing the effect of dicer gene disruptions on mycovirus infection of the chestnut blight fungus cryphonectria parasitica. c. parasitica dicer-like genes dcl-1 and dcl-2 were cloned and shown to share a high level of predicted amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding dicer-like genes from neurospora crassa [ncdcl-1 (50.5%); ncdcl-2 (38.0%)] and magnaporthe oryzae [mdl-1 (45.6%); mdl-2 (38.0%)], respe ...200717646660
purification and antimicrobial activity studies of the n-terminal fragment of ubiquitin from human amniotic fluid.a 4.3-kda antimicrobial peptide was isolated from human amniotic fluid by dialysis, ultrafiltration, and c18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. this peptide, which we named amniotic fluid peptide-1 (afp-1), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. in addition, afp-1 potently inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria (escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium, listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcus aureus), filamentous fungi (botrytis cinerea, aspe ...200717669700
molecular cloning and characterization of a putative protein kinase gene from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus.based on the conserved amino acid sequence (dlkpen) of serine-threonine protein kinase from several fungi, a degenerate primer was designed and synthesized. total rna was isolated from the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus. using race-pcr, full-length cdna of a putative serine-threonine protein kinase gene was cloned from t. lanuginosus. the full-length cdna of t. lanuginosus protein kinase was 2551 bp and contained an 1806 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein kinase precu ...200717676472
neurosprora crassa rad5 homologue, mus-41, inactivation results in higher sensitivity to mutagens but has little effect on pcna-ubiquitylation in response to uv-irradiation.the dna replication machinery stalls at damaged sites on dna. postreplicaton repair (prr) is a system to avoid cell death in such circumstances of deadlock. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the rad6/rad18 heterodimer plays pivotal roles in prr. it promotes translesion synthesis via the monoubiquitylation of the dna sliding clamp, pcna. ubc13/mms2/rad5 can extend the ubiquitin chain from this monoubiquitylated pcna with a non-canonical lysine 63-linked ubiquitin-chain, resulting in an error-free mode ...200717703305
domain architectures of the scm3p protein provide insights into centromere function and evolution.recently, scm3p has been shown to be a nonhistone component of centromeric chromatin that binds stoichiometrically to cenh3-h4 histones, and to be required for the assembly of kinetochores in saccharomyces cerevisiae. scm3p is conserved across fungi, and displays a remarkable variation in protein size, ranging from approximately 200 amino acids in s. cerevisiae to approximately 1300 amino acids in neurospora crassa. this is primarily due a variable c-terminal segment that is linked to a conserve ...200717704645
heterokaryon-incompatibility factor interaction in tests between neurospora mutants.studies on presumably isogenic ad-3a and ad-3b mutants of the ascomycete neurospora crassa derived from the same wild-type strain have revealed that the negative heterokaryon tests shown by certain pairwise combinations can be attributed to interaction of incompatibility factor mutations.196217816561
sequence analysis and expression of a blue-light photoreceptor gene, le.phra from the basidiomycetous mushroom lentinula edodes.we cloned and sequenced a photoreceptor gene (le.phra) from the basidiomycete lentinula edodes. the product of le.phra, le.phra (924 aa residues) contained a serine-rich region, an lov domain and two pas domains. it was clearly smaller than other fungal lov domain-containing blue-light photoreceptors such as coprinopsis cinerea dst1 (1,175 aa), neurospora crassa wc-1 (1,167 aa), and cryptococcus neoformans wc-1 (1,141 aa). the le.phra gene was found to be transcribed at all stages of the fruitin ...200717827679
comparison of protein coding gene contents of the fungal phyla pezizomycotina and saccharomycotina.several dozen fungi encompassing traditional model organisms, industrial production organisms and human and plant pathogens have been sequenced recently and their particular genomic features analysed in detail. in addition comparative genomics has been used to analyse specific sub groups of fungi. notably, analysis of the phylum saccharomycotina has revealed major events of evolution such as the recent genome duplication and subsequent gene loss. however, little has been done to gain a comprehen ...200717868481
involvement of os-2 map kinase in regulation of the large-subunit catalases cat-1 and cat-3 in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa has four catalase genes--cat-1, cat-2, cat-3, and ctt-1/cat-4. cat-1 and cat-3 encode two fungal-specific large-subunit catalases cat-1 and cat-3 normally produced in conidia and growing hyphae, respectively. cat-2 encodes cat-2 catalase-peroxidase normally produced in conidia. ctt-1 (or cat-4), of which expression was controlled by os-2 map kinase (noguchi et al., fungal genet. biol. 44, 208-218), encodes a small-subunit catalase with unknown function. to clarify the contribut ...200717895581
the use of fungal in vitro systems for studying translational regulation.the use of cell-free systems enables biochemical determination of factors and mechanisms contributing to translational processes. the preparation and use of cell-free translation systems from the fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa are described. examples provided illustrate the use of these systems, in conjunction with luciferase assays, [(35)s]met incorporation, and primer-extension inhibition (toeprint) analyses, to assess the translational effects of upstream open reading fr ...200717913625
identification and characterization of amidase- homologous ami1 genes of bottom-fermenting has been proposed that a bottom-fermenting yeast strain of saccharomyces pastorianus is a natural hybrid between s. cerevisiae and s. bayanus and possesses at least two types of genome. in the process of conducting expressed sequence tag (est) analysis, we isolated bottom-fermenting yeast-specific (bfy) genes that have no significant homology with sequences in the s288c database. one of the bfy genes, ami1, encodes a protein with homology to an amidase conserved among plants, bacillus subtili ...200717924455
meiosis and ascospore development in cochliobolus heterostrophus.cochliobolus heterostrophus produces eight filiform ascospores per ascus, following meiosis and a postmeiotic mitosis. early ascus development and nuclear divisions in c. heterostrophus resemble those of the prototypic pyrenomycete neurospora crassa. however, the two fungi differ in several important details owing to differences in ascus and ascospore shape, spindle pole body (spb) behavior during spore delimitation, and ascospore development. in c. heterostrophus, the two spindles at meiosis ii ...200817931917
studies on fungal pumilio gene family through mining multiple genome-scale data sets.the genes belonging to pumilio gene family of the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe (s. pombe) were compared with genome information of the several fungi and their functions have been inferred using public-access databases disclosed on the internet websites. the pumilio-family genes are conserved from yeast to man and have been considered to suppress the expression of other genes by binding their specific target messenger rnas. in s. pombe genome, nine genes belonging to pumilio gene famil ...200717932456
cloning, characterization, and mutational analysis of a highly active and stable l-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase from neurospora nad(+)-dependent l-arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase (lad, ec from neurospora crassa was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. the enzyme was a homotetramer and contained two zn(2+) ions per subunit, displaying similar characteristics to medium-chain sorbitol dehydrogenases (sdhs). high enzymatic activity was observed for substrates l-arabinitol, adonitol, and xylitol and no activity for d-mannitol, d-arabinitol, or d-sorbitol. the enzyme showed strong prefe ...200717938906
the mitochondrial machinery for import of precursor proteins.mitochondria contain a small genome that codes for approx 1% of the total number of proteins that reside in the mitochondria. hence, most mitochondrial proteins are encoded for by the nuclear genome. after transcription in the nucleus these proteins are synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes. like proteins destined for other organellar compartments, mitochondrially destined proteins possess targeting signals within their primary or secondary structure that direct them to the organelle with the assis ...200717951683
protein targeting to mitochondria of saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa: in vitro and in vivo studies.most studies on the biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins have been carried out using fungal mitochondria as a model system. in particular, baker's yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae, combines several experimental advantages, allowing both genetic and biochemical approaches and thus a combination of investigations in vivo and in vitro. however, the red bread mold neurospora crassa has also been an important research tool. isolated mitochondria can be used from both organisms for import experiments i ...200717951686
the neurospora crassa uvs-3 epistasis group encodes homologues of the atr/atrip checkpoint control system.the mutagen sensitive uvs-3 and mus-9 mutants of neurospora show mutagen and hydroxyurea sensitivity, mutator effects and duplication instability typical of recombination repair and dna damage checkpoint defective mutants. to determine the nature of these genes we used cosmids from a genomic library to clone the uvs-3 gene by complementation for mms sensitivity. mutation induction by transposon insertion and rip defined the coding sequence. rflp analysis confirmed that this sequence maps in the ...200817983847
crystal structure of human mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase reveals common and idiosyncratic features.we report the structure of a strictly mitochondrial human synthetase, namely tyrosyl-trna synthetase (mt-tyrrs), in complex with an adenylate analog at 2.2 a resolution. the structure is that of an active enzyme deprived of the c-terminal s4-like domain and resembles eubacterial tyrrss with a canonical tyrosine-binding pocket and adenylate-binding residues typical of class i synthetases. two bulges at the enzyme surface, not seen in eubacterial tyrrss, correspond to conserved sequences in mt-tyr ...200717997975
evidence for the absence of meiotic silencing by unpaired dna in neurospora tetrasperma.meiotic silencing by unpaired dna is a posttranscriptional gene silencing process in neurospora crassa. any gene without a homolog in the same chromosomal position during meiotic prophase generates a sequence-specific signal that prevents expression of all copies of that gene, but only during meiosis. meiotic silencing is epigenetic and involves components of a meiosis-specific rna silencing machinery. although n. tetrasperma is closely related to n. crassa, its sexual biology is significantly d ...200818023372
improved protocols for functional analysis in the pathogenic fungus aspergillus available whole genome sequence for aspergillus flavus provides the opportunity to characterize factors involved in pathogenicity and to elucidate the regulatory networks involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. functional analysis of genes within the genome is greatly facilitated by the ability to disrupt or mis-express target genes and then evaluate their result on the phenotype of the fungus. large-scale functional analysis requires an efficient genetic transformation system and the ability to ...200718039373
vegetative hyphal fusion is not essential for plant infection by fusarium oxysporum.vegetative hyphal fusion (vhf) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in filamentous fungi whose biological role is poorly understood. in neurospora crassa, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) mak-2 and the ww domain protein so are required for efficient vhf. a mapk orthologous to mak-2, fmk1, was previously shown to be essential for root penetration and pathogenicity of the vascular wilt fungus fusarium oxysporum. here we took a genetic approach to test two hypotheses, that (i) vhf and plant infect ...200818039941
alternative modes of binding by u2af65 at the polypyrimidine tract.during initial recognition of an intron in pre-mrna, the 3' end of the intron is bound by essential splicing factors. notably, the consensus rna sequences bound by these proteins are highly degenerate in humans. this raises the question of 3' splicing factor function in introns lacking canonical binding sites. investigating the introns of the model organism neurospora crassa revealed a different organization at the 3' end of the intron compared to most eukaryotic organisms. the predicted branch ...200818067274
function of the c-terminal domain of the dead-box protein mss116p analyzed in vivo and in vitro.the dead-box proteins cyt-19 in neurospora crassa and mss116p in saccharomyces cerevisiae are general rna chaperones that function in splicing mitochondrial group i and group ii introns and in translational activation. both proteins consist of a conserved atp-dependent rna helicase core region linked to n and c-terminal domains, the latter with a basic tail similar to many other dead-box proteins. in cyt-19, this basic tail was shown to contribute to non-specific rna binding that helps tether th ...200818096186
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