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identification of a high-affinity phosphate transporter gene in a prasinophyte alga, tetraselmis chui, and its expression under nutrient limitation.a high-affinity phosphate transporter gene, tcpho, was isolated from a growth-dependent subtracted cdna library of the marine unicellular alga tetraselmis chui. the full-length cdna of tcpho obtained by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cdna ends was 1,993 bp long and encoded an open reading frame consisting of 610 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence of tcpho exhibited 51.6 and 49.8% similarity to the amino acid sequences of pho89 from saccharomyces cerevisiae and pho4 from neurospora cr ...200312570992
tim50, a novel component of the tim23 preprotein translocase of mitochondria.the preprotein translocase of the inner membrane of mitochondria (tim23 complex) is the main entry gate for proteins of the matrix and the inner membrane. we isolated the tim23 complex of neurospora crassa. besides tim23 and tim17, it contained a novel component, referred to as tim50. tim50 spans the inner membrane with a single transmembrane segment and exposes a large hydrophilic domain in the intermembrane space. tim50 is essential for viability of yeast. mitochondria from cells depleted of t ...200312574118
area directly mediates nitrogen regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in gibberella fujikuroi, but its activity is not affected by nmr.area (nit2) is a general transcription factor involved in derepression of numerous genes responsible for nitrogen utilization in gibberella fujikuroi and many other fungi. we have previously shown that the deletion of area-gf resulted in mutants with significantly reduced gibberellin (ga) production. here we demonstrate that the expression level of six of the seven ga biosynthesis genes is drastically reduced in mutants lacking area. furthermore, we show that, despite the fact that gas are nitro ...200312581353
tok homologue in neurospora crassa: first cloning and functional characterization of an ion channel in a filamentous fungus.in contrast to animal and plant cells, very little is known of ion channel function in fungal physiology. the life cycle of most fungi depends on the "filamentous" polarized growth of hyphal cells; however, no ion channels have been cloned from filamentous fungi and comparatively few preliminary recordings of ion channel activity have been made. in an attempt to gain an insight into the role of ion channels in fungal hyphal physiology, a homolog of the yeast k(+) channel (sctok1) was cloned from ...200312582135
single-strand-specific nucleases.single-strand-specific nucleases are multifunctional enzymes and widespread in distribution. their ability to act selectively on single-stranded nucleic acids and single-stranded regions in double-stranded nucleic acids has led to their extensive application as probes for the structural determination of nucleic acids. intracellularly, they have been implicated in recombination, repair and replication, whereas extracellular enzymes have a role in nutrition. although more than 30 single-strand-spe ...200312586391
pex7p and pex20p of neurospora crassa function together in pts2-dependent protein import into peroxisomes.recruiting matrix proteins with a peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 (pts2) to the peroxisomal membrane requires species-specific factors. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pts2 receptor pex7p acts in concert with the redundant pex18p/pex21p, whereas in yarrowia lipolytica, pex20p might unite the function of both s. cerevisiae peroxins. herein, the genome of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was analyzed for peroxin-encoding genes. we identified a set of 18 peroxins that resembles that of ...200312589072
cooperative action of the nit2 and nit4 transcription factors upon gene expression in neurospora crassa.in neurospora crassa, the nit-3 gene, which encodes nitrate reductase, an enzyme required for the utilization of inorganic nitrate, is subject to a high degree of genetic and metabolic regulation as a member of the nitrogen control circuit. the nit-3 gene promoter contains binding sites for a globally acting protein nit2 and a pathway-specific protein nit4. expression of the nit-3 gene absolutely requires both the nit2 and nit4 transcription factors and only occurs under conditions of nitrogen s ...200312589465
role of the two type ii myosins, myo2 and myp2, in cytokinetic actomyosin ring formation and function in fission yeast.the formation and contraction of a cytokinetic actomyosin ring (car) is essential for the execution of cytokinesis in fission yeast. unlike most organisms in which its composition has been investigated, the fission yeast car contains two type ii myosins encoded by the genes myo2(+) and myp2(+). myo2(+) is an essential gene whilst myp2(+) is dispensable under normal growth conditions. myo2 is hence the major contractile protein of the car whilst myp2 plays a more subtle and, as yet, incompletely ...200312589679
cloning and sequence analysis of a mitochondrial gene cluster encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit iii from trichoderma pseudokoningii.a mitochondrial gene cluster encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit iii (cox3), an orf (called orf250) similar to nadh dehydrogenase subunit vi (nd6), ten trna molecules, partial rrna small subunit and rrna large subunit from trichoderma pseudokoningii s38 was cloned and sequenced. these genes are tandemly clustered on the mitochondrial genome of trichoderma pseudokoningii s38. phylogenetic analysis showed that cytochrome c oxidase subunits iii exhibited high degree of similarity to sequences fro ...200212592707
the n-acetylglutamate synthase/n-acetylglutamate kinase metabolon of saccharomyces cerevisiae allows co-ordinated feedback regulation of the first two steps in arginine biosynthesis.in saccharomyces cerevisiae, which uses the nonlinear pathway of arginine biosynthesis, the first two enzymes, n-acetylglutamate synthase (nags) and n-acetylglutamate kinase (nagk), are controlled by feedback inhibition. we have previously shown that nags and nagk associate in a complex, essential to synthase activity and protein level [abadjieva, a., pauwels, k., hilven, p. & crabeel, m. (2001) j. biol. chem.276, 42869-42880]. the nagks of ascomycetes possess, in addition to the catalytic domai ...200312603335
single fungal kinesin motor molecules move processively along microtubules.conventional kinesins are two-headed molecular motors that move as single molecules micrometer-long distances on microtubules by using energy derived from atp hydrolysis. the presence of two heads is a prerequisite for this processive motility, but other interacting domains, like the neck and k-loop, influence the processivity and are implicated in allowing some single-headed kinesins to move processively. neurospora kinesin (nkin) is a phylogenetically distant, dimeric kinesin from neurospora c ...200312609885
amplification of hmg-coa reductase production enhances carotenoid accumulation in neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa, a filamentous fungus, naturally produces the carotenoids lycopene and neurosporaxanthin. to increase the carbon flux through the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, the 1658-bp region of the hmg1 gene encoding the catalytic domain (chmg1) of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a (hmg-coa) reductase of saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in n. crassa under control of the strong, constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) promoter and the inducible alcohol dehyd ...200212616689
inhibition of dna methylation and reactivation of silenced genes by zebularine.gene silencing by abnormal methylation of promoter regions of regulatory genes is commonly associated with cancer. silenced tumor suppressor genes are obvious targets for reactivation by methylation inhibitors such as 5-azacytidine (5-aza-cr) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-cdr). however, both compounds are chemically unstable and toxic and neither can be given orally. we characterized a new demethylating agent, zebularine [1-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one], which is a chemi ...200312618505
primary structure of cytochrome c gene from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the cytochrome c (cytc) gene of the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix was analyzed. the structure of this gene, which had three introns in the coding region, was similar to that of aspergillus nidulans. the second intron of the r. necatrix cytc gene was not present in neurospora crassa or fusarium oxysporum. however, the amino acid sequence of r. necatrix was most similar to that of neurospora crassa. thus, it seemed that the second intron of the r. necatrix cy ...200312619691
putative homologs of ssk22 mapkk kinase and pbs2 mapk kinase of saccharomyces cerevisiae encoded by os-4 and os-5 genes for osmotic sensitivity and fungicide resistance in neurospora crassa.we cloned and characterized neurospora ncssk22 and ncpbs2 genes, similar to yeast ssk22 mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase kinase kinase and the pbs2 map kinase kinase genes, respectively. disruptants of the ncssk22 gene were sensitive to osmotic stress and resistant to iprodione and fludioxonil. their phenotypes were similar to those of osmotic-sensitive (os) mutants os-1, os-2, os-4, and os-5. the os-4 mutant strain transformed with the wild-type ncssk22 gene grew on a medium containing 4% ...200312619694
regulation of expression of the rhizopus oryzae uricase and urease enzymes.the regulation of intracellular urease and uricase activities was examined in rhizopus oryzae. urease activity (2.4 u/mg protein) was present in r. oryzae mycelium grown in minimal medium containing nh4ci as sole nitrogen source. this activity increased threefold under nitrogen derepression conditions, but no induction by urea was detected. control of urease activity in r. oryzae differs from that found in neurospora crassa but resembles the situation in aspergillus nidulans. no uricase activity ...200212619824
analysis of expressed sequence tags from gibberella zeae (anamorph fusarium graminearum).gibberella zeae is a broad host range pathogen that infects many crop plants, including wheat and barley, and causes head blight and rot diseases throughout the world. to better understand fungal development and pathogenicity, we have generated 7996 ests from three cdna libraries. two libraries were generated from carbon-(c-) and nitrogen- (n-) starved mycelia and one library was generated from cultures of maturing perithecia (p). in other fungal pathogens, starvation conditions have been shown ...200312620255
the mapkk kinase stec regulates conidiophore morphology and is essential for heterokaryon formation and sexual development in the homothallic fungus aspergillus nidulans.environmental signals can be transduced into intracellular responses by the action of map kinase cascades. sequential phosphorylation results in the transient activation of a map kinase, which in turn activates certain transcription factors and thus a set of pathway-specific genes. many steps in this cascade are conserved, and homologues have been discovered from yeast to human. we have characterized the mapkk kinase, stec, a homologue of saccharomyces cerevisiae ste11, in the filamentous fungus ...200312622813
primary structure of the histone 2b gene in the white root rot fungus, rosellinia necatrix.the nucleotide sequence of the histone 2b (h2b) gene in the white root rot fungus, rosellinia necatrix, was determined. the gene has two introns in the coding region at positions conserved in the neurospora crassa and aspergillus nidulans h2b genes, but the third intron present in the h2b gene from n. crassa and a. nidulans is absent in the r. necatrix h2b gene. the amino acid sequence of the coding region of the r. necatrix gene resembled that of n. crassa and a. nidulans. therefore, the third ...200212652911
analysis of interactions between domains of a small heat shock protein, hsp30 of neurospora crassa.the alpha-crystallin-related, small heat shock proteins (shsps), despite their overall variability in sequence, have discrete regions of conserved sequence that are involved in structural organization, as well as nonconserved regions that may perform similar roles in each protein. recent x-ray diffraction analyses of an archeal and a plant shsp have revealed both similarities and differences in how they are organized, suggesting that there is variability, particularly in the oligomeric organizat ...200212653482
purification and characterization of the complex i from the respiratory chain of rhodothermus marinus.the rotenone sensitive nadh:menaquinone oxidoreductase (ndh-i or complex i) from the thermohalophilic bacterium rhodothermus marinus has been purified and characterized. three of its subunits react with antibodies against 78, 51, and 21.3c kda subunits of neurospora crassa complex i. the optimum conditions for nadh dehydrogenase activity are 50 degrees c and ph 8.1, and the enzyme presents a km of 9 microm for nadh. the enzyme also displays nadh:quinone oxidoreductase activity with two menaquino ...200212678433
circadian and light-induced expression of luciferase in neurospora crassa.we have constructed a plasmid vector for expressing firefly luciferase in neurospora crassa under control of the light- and clock-regulated ccg-2 (eas) promoter. the sequence of the luciferase gene in the vector has been modified to reflect the n. crassa codon bias. both light-induced activity and circadian activity are demonstrated. expression of luciferase in strains carrying mutant frequency alleles shows appropriate period length alterations. these data demonstrate that luciferase is a sensi ...200312684022
a circadian oscillator in aspergillus spp. regulates daily development and gene expression.we have established the presence of a circadian clock in aspergillus flavus and aspergillus nidulans by morphological and molecular assays, respectively. in a. flavus, the clock regulates an easily assayable rhythm in the development of sclerotia, which are large survival structures produced by many fungi. this developmental rhythm exhibits all of the principal clock properties. the rhythm is maintained in constant environmental conditions with a period of 33 h at 30 degrees c, it can be entrain ...200312684372
construction of strains for rapid homokaryon purification after integration of constructs at the histidine-3 ( his-3) locus of neurospora crassa.we report the construction of histidine-3 (his-3) strains of neurospora crassa containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene of escherichia coli (hph(+)) fused in-frame to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (tk(+); lupton et al. 1991), integrated at the his-3 locus. we also report the construction of two ampicillin-resistant and two kanamycin-resistant his-3 gene-replacement vector plasmids. the combined use of these strains and plasmids for his-3-targeted gene integration allo ...200312684841
promoter analysis of the avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen cladosporium fulvum in the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the promoter of avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen cladosporium fulvum contains 12 sequences within a region of 0.6 kb that are reminiscent of the binding sequences of the gata-type regulator involved in nitrogen utilisation of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa. mutational analysis of this 0.6-kb promoter region, fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene, revealed that two regions, each containing two tagata boxes in inverted orientation and ove ...200312695849
the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.neurospora crassa is a central organism in the history of twentieth-century genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology. here, we report a high-quality draft sequence of the n. crassa genome. the approximately 40-megabase genome encodes about 10,000 protein-coding genes--more than twice as many as in the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe and only about 25% fewer than in the fruitfly drosophila melanogaster. analysis of the gene set yields insights into unexpected aspects of neurospora bio ...200312712197
neurospora crassa fks protein binds to the (1,3)beta-glucan synthase substrate, udp-glucose.the essential fungal cell-wall polymer (1,3)beta-glucan is synthesized by the enzyme (1,3)beta-glucan synthase. this enzyme, which is the target of the echinocandin and pneumocandin families of fungicidal antibiotics, is a complex composed of at least two proteins, rho1p and fks1p. homologs of the yeast fks1 gene have been discovered in numerous fungi, and existing evidence points to, but has not yet proved, fks1p being the catalytic subunit of (1,3)beta-glucan synthase. we have purified (1,3)be ...200312732946
the yeast isn1 (yor155c) gene encodes a new type of imp-specific 5'-nucleotidase.the purine salvage enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate (imp)-specific 5'-nucleotidase catalyzes degradation of imp to inosine. although this enzymatic activity has been purified and characterized in saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding imp 5'-nucleotidase had not been identified.200312735798
deletion of mdmb impairs mitochondrial distribution and morphology in aspergillus nidulans.mitochondria form a dynamic network of interconnected tubes in the cells of saccharomyces cerevisiae or filamentous fungi such as aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa, or podospora anserina. the dynamics depends on the separation of mitochondrial fragments, their movement throughout the cell, and their subsequent fusion with the other parts of the organelle. interestingly, the microtubule network is required for the distribution in n. crassa and s. pombe, while s. cerevisiae and a. nidulans a ...200312740872
a complete inventory of fungal kinesins in representative filamentous ascomycetes.complete inventories of kinesins from three pathogenic filamentous ascomycetes, botryotinia fuckeliana, cochliobolus heterostrophus, and gibberella moniliformis, are described. these protein sequences were compared with those of the filamentous saprophyte, neurospora crassa and the two yeasts saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe. data mining and phylogenetic analysis of the motor domain yielded a constant set of 10 kinesins in the filamentous fungal species, compared with a sma ...200312742059
analysis of loss of pathogenicity mutants reveals that repeat-induced point mutations can occur in the dothideomycete leptosphaeria maculans.restriction enzyme mediated insertional mutagenesis using a plasmid, pucatph, that confers hygromycin resistance, generated loss-of-pathogenicity mutants of leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus that causes blackleg disease of brassica napus. of 516 l. maculans transformants analysed, 12 were pathogenicity mutants. when eight of these mutants were crossed to an isolate that attacks b. napus, cosegregation of pucatph sequences and loss of pathogenicity was not observed, suggesting that these mutatio ...200312742061
diversification of exogenous genes in vivo in neurospora.we have adapted the meiotic recombination hotspot cog of neurospora crassa for shuffling exogenous dna, providing a means of generating novel genes in situ from sequences introduced into chromosomes. genes to be diversified are inserted between the his-3 locus and cog. diversification crosses are heterozygous both for alleles of the exogenous dna and for auxotrophic alleles of his-3. progeny selected for ability to grow without histidine supplementation are enriched for exchange events within th ...200312756504
the 9.8 kda subunit of complex i, related to bacterial na(+)-translocating nadh dehydrogenases, is required for enzyme assembly and function in neurospora crassa.a nuclear gene encoding a 9.8 kda subunit of complex i, the homologue of mammalian mwfe protein, was identified in the genome of neurospora crassa. the gene was cloned and inactivated in vivo by the generation of repeat-induced point mutations. fungal mutant strains lacking the 9.8 kda polypeptide were subsequently isolated. analyses of mitochondrial proteins from mutant nuo9.8 indicate that the membrane and peripheral arms of complex i fail to assemble. respiration of mutant mitochondria on mat ...200312758076
molecular genetics of fungal siderophore biosynthesis and uptake: the role of siderophores in iron uptake and storage.to acquire iron, all species have to overcome the problems of iron insolubility and toxicity. in response to low iron availability in the environment, most fungi excrete ferric iron-specific chelators--siderophores--to mobilize this metal. siderophore-bound iron is subsequently utilized via the reductive iron assimilatory system or uptake of the siderophore-iron complex. furthermore, most fungi possess intracellular siderophores as iron storage compounds. molecular analysis of siderophore biosyn ...200312759789
the role of adaptor protein ste50-dependent regulation of the mapkkk ste11 in multiple signalling pathways of yeast.in saccharomyces cerevisiae, ste50 functions in cell signalling between the activated g protein and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) kinase kinase (mapkkk) ste11. scste50 is an essential component of three mapk-mediated signalling pathways, which control the mating response, invasive/filamentous growth and osmotolerance (hog pathway), respectively. scste50 signalling may also contribute to cell wall integrity in vegetative cells. the protein contains a sterile alpha motif (sam) and a ...200312764668
production and characterization of the talaromyces stipitatus feruloyl esterase faec in pichia pastoris: identification of the nucleophilic serine.feruloyl esterases constitute an interesting group of enzymes that have the potential for use over a broad range of applications in the agri-food industries. we report the over-expression and characterization of a novel feruloyl esterase exhibiting broad substrate specificity from talaromyces stipitatus (faec) in pichia pastoris. using various gene constructions, we have investigated the use of alternative signal peptides to produce an authentic feruloyl esterase featuring the n-terminal sequenc ...200312767807
biosynthesis of pyridoxine in saccharomyces cerevisiae--origin of the pyridoxine nitrogen atom differs under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.the amide nitrogen atom of glutamine is incorporated into pyridoxine in four eukaryotes (i.e., emericella nidulans, mucor racemosus, neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae) and two prokaryotes (i.e., staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis). however, in the prokaryotes pseudomonas putida, enterobacter aerogenes and escherichia coli, it is the nitrogen atom of glutamate that is incorporated into pyridoxine (j nutr sci vitaminol (2000) 46, 55-57). as these results were from experiments ...200212775110
hop, an active mutator-like element in the genome of the fungus fusarium oxysporum.a new type of active dna transposon has been identified in the genome of fusarium oxysporum by its transposition into the niad target gene. two insertions within the final exon, in opposite orientations at the same nucleotide site, have been characterized. these elements, called hop, are 3,299 bp long, with perfect terminal inverted repeats (tirs) of 99 bp. the sequencing of genomic copies reveals a 9-bp target site duplication and no apparent sequence specificity at the insertion sites. the seq ...200312777515
alternative oxidase expression in neurospora crassa.when electron flow through the cytochrome-mediated electron transport chain is blocked by inhibitors or mutations, the mitochondria of neurospora crassa contain a kcn-insensitive alternative oxidase, encoded by the aod-1 gene, that transfers electrons directly from the ubiquinone pool to oxygen. the mechanism by which the enzyme is induced is unknown. comparison of the sequence upstream of the n. crassa aod-1 gene with the corresponding region of gelasinospora spp. and aspergillus nidulans revea ...200312781676
antifungal properties of novel n- and alpha,beta-substituted succinimides against dermatophytes.the synthesis and antifungal properties of a series of new n-aryl alpha,beta-substituted succinimides against a panel of dermatophytes of clinical relevance are reported. among those compounds possessing a n-phenyl substituent, 7-thia-2-azabicyclo[2,2,1]hept-2-en-3-amine[5,6-c]succinimide was the better inhibitor of trichophyton rubrum, the major ethiological agent of all infections produced by dermatophytes. in contrast, succinimides containing a n-(p-sulfonylphenyl) substituent, only inhibited ...200312785125
selectivity of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole as an atp-competitive potent inhibitor of protein kinase ck2 from various sources.like the previously reported 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (tbbt), the structurally related 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (tbbz) is a selective atp-competitive inhibitor of protein kinase ck2 from such divergent sources as yeast, rat liver, neurospora crassa and candida tropicalis, with k(i) values in the range 0.5-1 microm. it is virtually inactive vs. pka, pkc, and a very weak inhibitor of protein kinase ck1. the corresponding tetrachlorobenzimidazole (tcbz) is a much weaker inhibitor of c ...200312788077
verification of a new gene on saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome iii.we present verification of the existence of a previously unannotated, intron-containing gene of 134 amino acids (predicted molecular weight approximately 15.5 kda) located on chromosome iii of saccharomyces cerevisiae. strains carrying a deletion of this gene, which we have called ycl012c, reveal no apparent phenotype. orthologues of ycl012c are present in related species s. bayanus, s. paradoxus and ashbya gossypii. comparison with other fungal sequences reveals that orthologues of this gene ar ...200312794934
a blumeria graminis gene family encoding proteins with a c-terminal variable region with homologues in pathogenic fungi.in a study aimed at characterising, at the molecular level, the obligate biotrophic fungus blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (bgh), we have identified a novel group of genes, the egh16h genes, and shown that two of these are up-regulated during primary infection of barley leaves. the genes have partial homology to a previously characterised bgh gene family, egh16. egh16 and egh16h are subfamilies of a larger multigene family with presently about 15 members identified in bgh. egh16h has about ten m ...200312853153
suv39h-mediated histone h3 lysine 9 methylation directs dna methylation to major satellite repeats at pericentric heterochromatin.histone h3 lysine 9 (h3-k9) methylation and dna methylation are characteristic hallmarks of mammalian heterochromatin. h3-k9 methylation was recently shown to be a prerequisite for dna methylation in neurospora crassa and arabidopsis thaliana. currently, it is unknown whether a similar dependence exists in mammalian organisms.200312867029
the aspergillus nidulans metr gene encodes a bzip protein which activates transcription of sulphur metabolism genes.the identification, isolation and characterization of a new aspergillus nidulans positive-acting gene metr, which encodes a transcriptional activator of sulphur metabolism, is reported. metr mutants are tight auxotrophs requiring methionine or homocysteine for growth. mutations in the metr gene are epistatic to mutations in the negative-acting sulphur regulatory scon genes. the metr coding sequence is interrupted by a single intron of 492 bp which is unusually long for fungi. aspergillus nidulan ...200312890030
characterization of the genomic organization of the region bordering the centromere of chromosome v of podospora anserina by direct sequencing.a podospora anserina bac library of 4800 clones has been constructed in the vector pbhyg allowing direct selection in fungi. screening of the bac collection for centromeric sequences of chromosome v allowed the recovery of clones localized on either sides of the centromere, but no bac clone was found to contain the centromere. seven bac clones containing 322,195 and 156,244bp from either sides of the centromeric region were sequenced and annotated. one 5s rrna gene, 5 trna genes, and 163 putativ ...200312892638
the ph-induced glycosylation of secreted phosphatases is mediated in aspergillus nidulans by the regulatory gene pacc-dependent pathway.in this communication, we show that the pacc(c)14 mutation drastically reduced the mannose and n-acetylglycosamine content of the paca-encoded acid phosphatase secreted by the fungus aspergillus nidulans when grown at 22 degrees c, ph 5.0, compared to a control strain. the staining after page was not observed for the paca-encoded acid phosphatase, while the pald-encoded pi-repressible alkaline phosphatase had an altered electrophoretic mobility. in addition, the secreted acid phosphatase also ha ...200312892641
import and assembly of neurospora crassa tom40 into mitochondria of trypanosoma brucei in vivo.the tom complex (translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane) is a dynamic, multisubunit protein complex. tom40 is the major component of the complex and forms the preprotein conducting pore. to determine if a heterologous tom40 could be properly targeted and assembled into the trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial outer membrane, an ectopic copy of a gene encoding neurospora crassa tom40 (nctom40) was expressed in procyclic trypanosomes from a tetracycline regulated procyclic acidic repetitive p ...200312898181
environmental suppression of neurospora crassa cot-1 hyperbranching: a link between cot1 kinase and stress sensing.cot-1 mutants belong to a class of neurospora crassa colonial temperature-sensitive (cot) mutants that exhibit abnormal polar extension and branching patterns when grown at restrictive temperatures. cot-1 encodes a ser/thr protein kinase that is structurally related to the human myotonic dystrophy kinase which, when impaired, confers a disease that involves changes in cytoarchitecture and ion homeostasis. when grown under restrictive conditions, cot-1 cultures exhibited enhanced medium acidifica ...200312912889
asexual development is increased in neurospora crassa cat-3-null mutant strains.we use asexual development of neurospora crassa as a model system with which to determine the causes of cell differentiation. air exposure of a mycelial mat induces hyphal adhesion, and adherent hyphae grow aerial hyphae that, in turn, form conidia. previous work indicated the development of a hyperoxidant state at the start of these morphogenetic transitions and a large increase in catalase activity during conidiation. catalase 3 (cat-3) increases at the end of exponential growth and is induced ...200312912899
tina interacts with the nima kinase in aspergillus nidulans and negatively regulates astral microtubules during metaphase arrest.the tina gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a protein that interacts with the nima mitotic protein kinase in a cell cycle-specific manner. highly similar proteins are encoded in neurospora crassa and aspergillus fumigatus. tina and nima preferentially interact in interphase and larger forms of tina are generated during mitosis. localization studies indicate that tina is specifically localized to the spindle pole bodies only during mitosis in a microtubule-dependent manner. deletion of tina alo ...200312925754
identification of a new chondropsin class of antitumor compound that selectively inhibits v-atpases.we identify a new naturally occurring class of inhibitor of vacuolar h+-atpases (v-atpases) isolated from vacuolar membranes of neurospora crassa and from chromaffin granule membranes of bos taurus. to date, the new class includes six chondropsins and poecillastrin a, large polyketide-derived macrolide lactams with 33-37 membered rings. in the national cancer institute's 60-cell screen the chondropsin class showed a tumor cell growth inhibitory fingerprint essentially indistinguishable from that ...200312944415
an ordered collection of expressed sequences from cryphonectria parasitica and evidence of genomic microsynteny with neurospora crassa and magnaporthe grisea.cryphonectria parasitica, the causative agent of chestnut blight, has proven to be a tractable experimental system for studying fungal pathogenesis. moreover, the development of infectious cdna clones of c. parasitica hypoviruses, capable of attenuating fungal virulence, has provided the opportunity to examine molecular aspects of fungal plant pathogenesis in the context of biological control. in order to establish a genomic base for future studies of c. parasitica, the authors have analysed a c ...200312949163
vivid is a flavoprotein and serves as a fungal blue light photoreceptor for photoadaptation.blue light regulates many physiological and developmental processes in fungi. most of the blue light responses in the ascomycete neurospora crassa are dependent on the two blue light regulatory proteins white collar (wc)-1 and -2. wc-1 has recently been shown to be the first fungal blue light photoreceptor. in the present study, we characterize the neurospora protein vivid. vivid shows a partial sequence similarity with plant blue light photoreceptors. in addition, we found that vivid non-covale ...200312970196
mmm1p spans both the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes and contains distinct domains for targeting and foci formation.in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, the integral membrane protein mmm1p is required for maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and retention of mitochondrial dna (mtdna). mmm1p localizes to discrete foci on mitochondria that are adjacent to mtdna nucleoids in the matrix, raising the possibility that this protein plays a direct role in organizing, replicating, or segregating mtdna. although mmm1p has been shown to cross the outer membrane with its c terminus facing the cytoplasm, the location ...200312972421
haemoglobin in moulds: neurospora crassa and penicillium notatum. 195313087244
effect of sulphanilamide on formation of sterols in saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa. 195813535581
characterization and expression of the neurospora crassa nmt-1 gene.the neurospora crassa homologue of the yeast no message in thiamine ( nmt-1) gene was characterized. the deduced 342-amino-acid gene product has more than 60% identity with other fungal homologues and 42% similarity to a putative bacterial permease. in addition to three introns disrupting the coding sequence, a differentially spliced intron in the 5' untranslated region was also detected. unlike other fungi, the n. crassa nmt-1 gene is repressed only 6- to 8-fold by exogenous thiamine concentrat ...200313680155
biosynthesis of valine and isoleucine. 2. formation of alpha-acetolactate and alpha-aceto-alpha-hydroxybutyrate in neurospora crassa and escherichia coli. 196013856271
effect of azo dyes on growth and metabolism of neurospora crassa. i. relative resistance of neurospora strains to azo dye inhibition.bobb, dolores (palo alto medical research foundation, palo alto, calif.), dorothy liebes, and david a. salzberg. effect of azo dyes on growth and metabolism of neurospora crassa. i. relative resistance of neurospora strains to azo dye inhibition. j. bacteriol. 84:242-249. 1962.-under conditions where growth factors were not limiting, 3'-methyl-4-monoaminoazobenzene, a rat hepatocarcinogen, inhibited growth of six neurospora strains studied. the strains could be divided into three groups with reg ...196213870285
the biosynthesis of leucine. i. the accumulation of beta-carboxy-beta-hydroxyisocaproate by leucine auxotrophs of salmonella typhimurium and neurospora crassa. 196313958083
biotin biosynthesis. i. biotin yields and biotin vitamers in cultures of phycomyces blakesleeanus.eisenberg, m. a. (columbia university, new york, n.y.). biotin biosynthesis. i. biotin yields and biotin vitamers in cultures of phycomyces blakesleeanus. j. bacteriol. 86:673-680. 1963.-the addition of pimelic acid to a well-aerated medium resulted in a 10- to 12-fold increase in the biotin production of phycomyces blakesleeanus. azelaic acid also stimulated biotin production, but not to the same extent as did pimelic acid. a number of biotin analogues were found to be inactive. further enhance ...196314066460
biosynthesis of ergothioneine and hercynine by mycobacteria.genghof, dorothy s. (yeshiva university, new york, n.y.), and olga van damme. biosynthesis of ergothioneine and hercynine by mycobacteria. j. bacteriol. 87:852-862. 1964.-ergothioneine and hercynine were found to be synthesized by a wide variety of mycobacteria grown in chemically defined media free from these compounds. the cultures examined included 53 recently isolated and laboratory strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis, 26 "unclassified" mycobacteria (runyon groups i to iv), and representat ...196414137624
the nature of complementation among mutants in the histidine-3 region of neurospora crassa. 196414246266
the conversion of shikimic acid to anthranilic acid by extracts of neurospora crassa. 196514284730
an endonuclease from neurospora crassa specific for polynucleotides lacking an ordered structure. ii. studies of enzyme specificity. 196514284739
permeability and metabolism of lactose in neurospora crassa.lester, g. (worcester foundation for experimental biology, shrewsbury, mass.), d. azzena, and o. hechter. permeability and metabolism of lactose in neurospora crassa. j. bacteriol. 84:217-227. 1962.-germinated conidia of neurospora crassa suspended in buffer take up lactose, and this uptake can be attributed to the intracellular accumulation and to the metabolism of lactose. the former process predominates initially, and the latter after a few hours of incubation. the accumulation of lactose app ...196214464364
identification of a protective antigen of coccidioides immitis by expression library immunization.coccidioides immitis is a fungal pathogen of humans and is classified as a select agent. we have identified a new potential vaccine candidate for this pathogen using cdna expression library immunization (eli). a c. immitis spherule-phase cdna library containing 800-1000 genes was divided into 10 pools and each was tested for its protective capacity in balb/c mice against intraperitoneal challenge with 2500 arthroconidia of this dimorphic fungus. the most protective pool, designated pool 7, was f ...200314505918
active/de-active transition of respiratory complex i in bacteria, fungi, and animals.mammalian complex i (nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) exists as a mixture of interconvertible active (a) and de-activated (d) forms. the a-form is capable of nadh:quinone-reductase catalysis, but not the d-form. complex i from the bacterium paracoccus denitrificans, by contrast, exists only in the a-form. this bacterial complex contains 32 fewer subunits than the mammalian complex. the question arises therefore if the structural complexity of complex i from higher organisms correlates with its ab ...200314507430
the photolyase gene from the plant pathogen fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is induced by visible light and alpha-tomatine from tomato plant.survival of irradiated spores from fusarium oxysporum with ultraviolet radiation (uv) was increased following exposition to visible light, indicating that this phytopathogenic fungus has a mechanism of photoreactivation able to counteract the lethal effects of uv. a genomic sequence containing the complete photolyase gene (phr1) from f. oxysporum was isolated by heterologous hybridisation with the neurospora crassa photolyase gene. the f. oxysporum phr1 cdna was isolated and expressed in a photo ...200314516768
chromosome rearrangements in isolates that escape from het-c heterokaryon incompatibility in neurospora crassa.chromosomal rearrangement is implicated in human cancers and hereditary diseases. mechanisms generating chromosomal rearrangements may be shared by a variety of organisms. spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements, especially large deletions, take place at high frequency in isolates that escape from heterokaryon incompatibility in neurospora crassa. in this study, chromosomal rearrangements were detected in strains that had escaped from het-c heterokaryon incompatibility in n. crassa. a vc1 mutant ...200414564476
a novel binding protein for a member of cyp40-type cyclophilins: n.crassa cypbp37, a growth and thiamine regulated protein homolog to yeast thi4p.cyclophilins belong to the family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (ppiases), which are ubiquitous and highly conserved enzymes capable of cis/trans isomerizing xaa-pro peptide bonds. members of the cyp40-type cyclophilins have originally been described as components of hormone receptor complexes. here, we describe nccyp41, a cyp40 ortholog from neurospora crassa, its expression in escherichia coli and subsequent purification. characterization of nccyp41 reveals that it is a heat shock pr ...200314568539
arabidopsis ndk1 is a component of ros signaling by interacting with three catalases.plants sense various environmental stimuli and have specific signaling pathways to respond to these cues. we focused on light responsive components and found that ndks were phosphorylated specifically after red light irradiation in pisum sativum [tanaka et al. (1998) j. photochem. photobiol. b 45: 113] and after blue light irradiation in neurospora crassa [oda and hasunuma (1997) mol. gen. genet. 256: 593, ogura et al. (2001) j. biol. chem. 276: 21228]. we performed yeast two-hybrid screening us ...200314581623
mapping and characterization of polymorphism in mtdna of cryphonectria parasitica: evidence of the presence of an optional intron.the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of the filamentous ascomycete cryphonectria parasitica is large and polymorphic so, to better understand the nature of the polymorphisms within populations, a small collection of italian strains of the fungus was examined. known mtdna polymorphisms were mapped and found to cluster in four regions of the mtdna molecule, particularly in the rflp region 2 where five different mtdna haplotypes out of 13 strains were identified. this region included an area of 8.4kbp whi ...200314599889
two divergent plasma membrane syntaxin-like snares, nsyn1 and nsyn2, contribute to hyphal tip growth and other developmental processes in neurospora crassa.highly polarized exocytosis of vesicles at hyphal apices is an essential requirement of tip growth. this requirement may be met by the localization and/or activation of an apical snare-based machinery. we have cloned nsyn1 and nsyn2, snares predicted to function at the plasma membrane in neurospora crassa. transformation of extra copies of nsyn1 into wild-type strains displayed effects consistent with quelling of nsyn1 expression, which was lethal in most transformants. all surviving transforman ...200314599895
time series analysis demonstrates the absence of pulsatile hyphal growth.hyphal tip growth has been previously reported as pulsatile, defined as regularly alternating fast and slow rates of extension. the growth of pollen tubes, and hyphae of neurospora crassa and saprolegnia ferax were analysed using high spatial and temporal resolution. by using long (100-500 s) records of growth rate, sampled every second, it was possible to apply rigorous statistical analysis of the time series. as previously demonstrated, pollen tubes can show pulsatile growth, detectable with t ...200314600223
contig assembly and microsynteny analysis using a bacterial artificial chromosome library for epichloë festucae, a mutualistic fungal endophyte of grasses.we constructed and characterized a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library for epichloë festucae, a genetically tractable fungal plant mutualist. the 6144 clone library with an average insert size of 87kb represents at least 18-fold coverage of the 29 mb genome. we used the library to assemble a 110kb contig spanning the putative ornithine decarboxylase (odc) ortholog and subsequently expanded it to 228kb with a single walking step in each direction. furthermore, we evaluated conservation ...200414643256
fungal proteomics: mapping the mitochondrial proteins of a trichoderma harzianum strain applied for biological control.mitochondria are essential for cellular functions across organisms. a proteomic approach was taken to separate and identify mitochondrial proteins from a strain of trichoderma harzianum with well established biocontrol properties. we optimized a method for the preparation of a sample enriched with mitochondria by ensuring efficient cell lysis and including several washing steps to minimize cytoplasmic contamination. we separated hundreds of proteins, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ...200414652694
purification, characterization and functional cloning of inositol oxygenase from cryptococcus.the enzyme inositol oxygenase (myo-inositol : oxygen oxidoreductase; e.c. 1.13.99.1) is a monooxygenase that converts inositol into glucuronic acid in the presence of molecular oxygen. this enzyme is integrated into a pathway leading to either degradation and energy production or the biosynthesis of precursors for polysaccharides. the enzyme was purified from the yeast cryptococcus lactativorus by a five-step chromatography procedure. the purified enzyme shows a molecular mass of 37 kda on sds-p ...200314663824
whole-genome analysis of two-component signal transduction genes in fungal pathogens.two-component phosphorelay systems are minimally comprised of a histidine kinase (hk) component, which autophosphorylates in response to an environmental stimulus, and a response regulator (rr) component, which transmits the signal, resulting in an output such as activation of transcription, or of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. the genomes of the yeasts saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe, and candida albicans encode one, three, and three hks, respectively. in contra ...200314665450
cloning, heterologous expression, and characterization of thielavia terrestris glucoamylase.thielavia terrestris is a soil-borne thermophilic fungus whose molecular/ cellular biology is poorly understood. only a few genes have been cloned from the thielavia genus. we detected an extracellular glucoamylase in culture filtrates of t. terrestris and cloned the corresponding glaa gene. the coding region contains five introns. based on the amino acid sequence, the glucoamylase was 65% identical to neurospora crassa glucoamylase. sequence comparisons suggested that the enzyme belongs to the ...200314665735
gene organization and molecular modeling of copper amine oxidase from aspergillus niger: re-evaluation of the cofactor structure.amine oxidase ao-i from aspergillus niger aku 3302 has been reported to contain topa quinone (tpq) as a cofactor; however, analysis of the p-nitrophenylhydrazine-derivatized enzyme and purified active site peptides showed the presence of a carboxylate ester linkage of tpq to a glutamate. the catalytic functionality of such a cross-linked cofactor has recently been shown unlikely by spectroscopic and voltammetric studies on synthesized model compounds. we have obtained resonance raman spectra of ...200314669988
mips: analysis and annotation of proteins from whole genomes.the munich information center for protein sequences (mips-gsf), neuherberg, germany, provides protein sequence-related information based on whole-genome analysis. the main focus of the work is directed toward the systematic organization of sequence-related attributes as gathered by a variety of algorithms, primary information from experimental data together with information compiled from the scientific literature. mips maintains automatically generated and manually annotated genome-specific data ...200414681354
role of two g-protein alpha subunits, tgaa and tgab, in the antagonism of plant pathogens by trichoderma virens.g-protein alpha subunits are involved in transmission of signals for development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi. we cloned two g-protein alpha subunit genes, tgaa and tgab, from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma virens. tgaa belongs to the fungal galphai class, while tgab belongs to the class defined by gna-2 of neurospora crassa. we compared loss-of-function mutants of tgaa and tgab with the wild type for radial growth, conidiation, germinatio ...200414711686
the tim8-tim13 complex of neurospora crassa functions in the assembly of proteins into both mitochondrial membranes.the tim8 and tim13 proteins in yeast are known to exist in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and to form a hetero-oligomeric complex involved in the import of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein tim23, the central component of the tim23 translocase. here, we have isolated tim8 and tim13 mutants in neurospora crassa and have shown that mitochondria lacking the tim8-tim13 complex were deficient in the import of the outer membrane beta-barrel proteins tom40 and porin. cross-linking studies ...200414722057
disruption of the aspergillus fumigatus argb gene using a novel in vitro transposon-based mutagenesis approach.we disrupted the aspergillus fumigatus argb gene, encoding ornithine transcarbamylase, using a novel in vitro transposon-based mutagenesis approach. this approach utilizes a modified transposon containing the neurospora crassa pyr4 gene, which is randomly inserted in vitro into a target sequence of interest. clones in which the gene of interest has been disrupted are identified by pcr and used to transform a pyrg-deficient strain of a. fumigatus. using this approach, we obtained arginine auxotro ...200414727059
nuclear migration advances in fungi.nuclear migration encompasses three areas: separation of daughter nuclei during mitosis, congress of parental nuclei before they fuse during fertilization, and positioning of nuclei in interphase cells. this review deals primarily with interphase nuclear migration, which is crucial for events as disparate as vertebrate embryonic development and growth of fungal mycelia. mutants of aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae have been particularly informative, and a detai ...199514732112
cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of magnaporthe grisea mvp1 gene, a hex-1 homolog encoding a putative 'woronin body' protein.a hex-1 homolog named mvp1 was isolated from an appressoria cdna library of the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea. the transcript of approximately 1.6 kb contains 546 bp of coding sequence with a 3' untranslated region about 168 bp long and a 5' untranslated region about 870 bp long. southern gel blot analysis of genomic dna following digestion with three restriction enzymes (bamhi, ecori, hindiii) indicated that the gene exists as a single copy in m. grisea genome. rna gel blot analyses show ...200414734169
cloning and characterization of the histidine kinase gene dic1 from cochliobolus heterostrophus that confers dicarboximide resistance and osmotic adaptation.a gene for a putative two-component histidine kinase, which is homologous to os-1 from neurospora crassa, was cloned and sequenced from the plant-pathogenic fungus cochliobolus heterostrophus. the predicted protein possessed the conserved histidine kinase domain, the response regulator domain, and six tandem repeats of 92-amino-acids at the n-terminal end that are found in histidine kinases from other filamentous fungi. introduction of the histidine kinase gene complemented the deficiency of the ...200414752661
mate transposable elements in aspergillus nidulans: evidence of repeat-induced point mutation.the sequences of five mate transposable elements were retrieved from the aspergillus nidulans genome sequence. these elements are 6.1 kb in length and are characterized by 9-10 bp target site duplications, paired approximately 40 bp palindromes close to each end, and in the unmutated elements, 57 clustered spe-motifs (rwctagwy) scattered through their length. short open reading frames have no known homology. two of the mate elements have numerous c --> t transitions on both dna strands relative ...200414761791
the oxa2 protein of neurospora crassa plays a critical role in the biogenesis of cytochrome oxidase and defines a ubiquitous subbranch of the oxa1/yidc/alb3 protein family.proteins of the oxa1/yidc/alb3 family mediate the insertion of proteins into membranes of mitochondria, bacteria, and chloroplasts. here we report the identification of a second gene of the oxa1/yidc/alb3 family in the genome of neurospora crassa, which we have named oxa2. its gene product, oxa2, is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. deletion of the oxa2 gene caused a specific defect in the biogenesis of cytochrome oxidase and resulted in induction of the alternative oxidase (aod), w ...200414767059
[transformation of kynurenin into nicotinic acid in the rat and in neurospora crassa]. 195014802985
molecular characterization of a penicillium chrysogenum exo-1,5-alpha-l-arabinanase that is structurally distinct from other arabinan-degrading enzymes.the nucleotide sequence of the abnx cdna gene, which encodes an exo-arabinanase (abnx) of penicillium chrysogenum 31b, was determined. abnx was found to be structurally distinct from known arabinan-degrading enzymes based on its amino acid sequence and a hydrophobic cluster analysis. the protein in the protein database with the highest similarity to abnx was the neurospora crassa conserved hypothetical protein. the abnx cdna gene product expressed in escherichia coli catalyzed the release of ara ...200414988022
disruption of the gene encoding the v-atpase subunit a results in inhibition of normal growth and abolished sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.the authors have previously reported on molecular responses of aspergillus nidulans to bacterial antifungal metabolites, e.g. bafilomycins and the related concanamycins. these compounds are known inhibitors of v-atpases and cause dramatic effects on mycelial growth and morphology. in neurospora crassa, studies have shown that disruption of the gene encoding subunit a of the v-atpase results in morphological changes and reduced growth similar to those observed after addition of concanamycin. this ...200414993324
identification of a novel gene hbrb required for polarised growth in aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned a novel gene, hbrb, by complementation of a temperature sensitive hyperbranching (hbr) mutant of aspergillus nidulans. the mutant, hbrb3, exhibits hyperseptation and shows a marked increase in hyphal branching at the restrictive temperature. a genomic library incorporating the ama1 sequence, which confers autonomous replication on the plasmid, was used to clone the gene. co-ordinate loss of the complementing plasmid and wild type phenotype was shown. the 847 amino acid predicted p ...200414998529
a sensitive predictor for potential gpi lipid modification sites in fungal protein sequences and its application to genome-wide studies for aspergillus nidulans, candida albicans, neurospora crassa, saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe.the fungal transamidase complex that executes glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) lipid anchoring of precursor proteins has overlapping but distinct sequence specificity compared with the animal system. therefore, a taxon-specific prediction tool for the recognition of the c-terminal signal in fungal sequences is necessary. we have collected a learning set of fungal precursor protein sequences from the literature and fungal proteomes. although the general four segment scheme of the recognition si ...200415003443
lessons from the genome sequence of neurospora crassa: tracing the path from genomic blueprint to multicellular organism.we present an analysis of over 1,100 of the approximately 10,000 predicted proteins encoded by the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. seven major areas of neurospora genomics and biology are covered. first, the basic features of the genome, including the automated assembly, gene calls, and global gene analyses are summarized. the second section covers components of the centromere and kinetochore complexes, chromatin assembly and modification, and transcription and trans ...200415007097
sequence heterology and gene conversion at his-3 of neurospora crassa.although sequence heterology clearly reduces crossing over in yeast, conflicting studies suggest that mismatches may increase or decrease gene conversion. to investigate this issue in an additional species, we measured the effect of local sequence heterology on conversion in his-3 of neurospora crassa. mismatches close to the cog recombination initiator or within his-3 reduce conversion to 70% and 30% of the homologous level, respectively, while heterologous insertions between his-3 and cog incr ...200415007624
incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of a growth defect as a consequence of knocking out two k(+) transporters in the euascomycete fungus podospora anserina.we describe an example of incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity in the filamentous fungus podospora anserina, two genetic properties classically associated with mutations in more complex organisms, such as green plants and animals. we show that the knockouts of two trk-related k(+) transporters of this ascomycete present variability in their phenotype that cannot be attributed to fluctuations of the genetic background or the environment. thalli of the knockout strains derived from inde ...200415020412
the neurospora crassa cyt-18 protein c-terminal rna-binding domain helps stabilize interdomain tertiary interactions in group i introns.the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (cyt-18 protein) promotes the splicing of group i introns by stabilizing the catalytically active rna structure. to accomplish this, cyt-18 recognizes conserved structural features of group i intron rnas using regions of the n-terminal nucleotide-binding fold, intermediate alpha-helical, and c-terminal rna-binding domains that also function in binding trna(tyr). curiously, whereas the splicing of the n. crassa mitochondrial large subuni ...200415037773
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