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thermostimulation of conidiation and succinic oxidative metabolism of neurospora crassa. 20144303684
purification and properties of neurospora crassa laccase.extracellular neurospora laccase (p-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; ec 1.10.3.2) has been purified to apparent homogeneity by classical purification techniques. the enzyme, which consists of mainly one form, has a molecular weight of 64,800 and contains 11% carbohydrate. the ultraviolet, visible, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicate that both type i and type ii copper are present, as described for the polyporus versicolor enzyme. with the exception of phloroglucinol, only para- a ...20144278681
genetic analysis of a suppressor of urease-deficiency in neurospora crassa. 20144281763
an inducible amino acid transport system in neurospora crassa. 20144258482
the effect of phosphate buffer on the differential response of two genes in neurospora crassa to uv. 20144263301
control of non-allelic recombination in neurospora crassa. 20144273091
multigenic control of ribosomal properties associated with cycloheximide sensitivity in neurospora crassa. 20144274736
hyphal wall peptides and colonial morphology in neurospora crassa. 20144279659
activation of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase by glucagon in neurospora crassa.membrane-bound adenylate cyclase in neurospora crassa is activated by glucagon. half-maximal effect is observed at hormone concentrations of about 10 nm. after solubilization of the enzyme with lubrol-px, the glucagon effect is lost. incubation of neurospora cells with glucagon leads to a decrease in the activity of glycogen synthetase (ec 2.4.1.11) and to an increase in the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (ec 2.4.1.1) and in the rate of glycogenolysis.20144263508
[effect of some orotaldehyde derivatives as orotic acid antagonists in neurospora crassa]. 20144391358
pyruvate kinase of neurospora crassa: purification and some properties. 20144260764
the structure and development of septa in neurospora crassa. 20144278339
cytochrome b in neurospora crassa mitochondria. site of translation of the heme protein. 20144273944
use of liquid nitrogen and high ionic strength for the isolation of functional polyribosomes from neurospora crassa. 20144271372
properties of two nuclease genes in neurospora crassa.two genes, nuc-1 and nuc-2, of neurospora crassa which were responsible for the nucleic acid digestion, were located on linkage group 1 and 2, respectively. a temperature-sensitive mutant (b1ts-2) was obtained from a nuc-2 mutant. nuclease mutants showed a reduced activity of nuclease n(3) which was found to be a complex consisting of nuclease n(3) (') and inhibitor molecule. nuclease n(3), nuclease n(3) (') and inhibitor were partially purified and estimated to have the approximate molecular we ...20144260181
[isolation and properties of plasma membranes of neurospora crassa mycelium]. 20144264117
preparation of mitochondrial membrane proteins from neurospora crassa: prevention of lipid autoxidation damage by an antioxidant. 20144266161
genetic alterations at the molecular level in x-ray induced ad-3b mutants of neurospora crassa. 20144265447
alterations in growth and branching of neurospora crassa caused by sub-inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents.six antifungal agents at subinhibitory concentrations were used for investigating their ability to affect the growth and branching in neurospora crassa. among the antifungals herein used, the azole agent ketoconazole at 0.5 microg/ml inhibited radial growth more than fluconazole at 5.0 microg/ml while amphotericin b at 0.05 microg/ml was more effective than nystatin at 0.05 microg/ml. morphological alterations in hyphae were observed in the presence of griseofulvin, ketoconazole and terbinafine ...201419391525
[comparative analysis of respiratory activity in the wild type strain of neurospora crassa and its photoreceptor complex mutants].cell respiratory activity of protoplasts obtained from the wild type of neurospora crassa and photoreceptor complex wcc--white collar 1 (wc-1) and white collar 2 (wc-2)--mutants of neurospora crassa strains was investigated. respiration inhibition by kcn in the presence of 25 mm succinate was similar in all strains and did not exceed 83-85% against control. the significant induction of kcn-resistant respiratory pathway occurred under 1% glucose oxidation in wc-1 and wc-2 mutants if compared with ...201320586289
the blue light receptor complex wc-1/2 of schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation and protection against phototoxicity.blue light is necessary for initiation of mushroom formation in schizophyllum commune. the genome of this basidiomycete contains homologues of the blue light receptor genes wc-1 and wc-2 of neurospora crassa. here, it is shown that inactivation of either or both of these genes in s. commune results in a blind phenotype. mushroom formation was abolished in dikaryons and they formed symmetrical instead of asymmetrical colonies. development was restored in a temperature dependent way in a δwc-2δwc- ...201322998561
suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression analysis to identify developmentally regulated genes in filamentous fungi.ascomycetes differentiate four major morphological types of fruiting bodies (apothecia, perithecia, pseudothecia and cleistothecia) that are derived from an ancestral fruiting body. thus, fruiting body differentiation is most likely controlled by a set of common core genes. one way to identify such genes is to search for genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns. using suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh), we selected differentially expressed transcripts in pyronema confluens ...201322961396
an endophytic neurospora sp. from nothapodytes foetida producing camptothecin.the medicinal plant, nothapodytes foetida contains a number of important alkaloids like camptothecin (an anticancer drug molecule) but its concentration is less to meet the existing demand of this important molecule, so in an effort for accessible availability of camptothecin. an endophyte (designated zp5se) was isolated from the seed of nothapodytes foetida and was examined as potential source of anticancer drug lead compound i.e. camptothecin, when grown in sabouraud liquid culture media under ...201318669267
[a study of the nitrate and nitrite discharge from the mutant cells of neurospora crassa lacking nitrate and nitrite reductase activities].the neurospora crassa mutants nit-2 (lacking both nitrite and nitrate reductases) and nit-6 (lacking nitrite reductase) grown in the medium with ammonium chloride as a sole source of nitrogen discharged nitrate and nitrite ions into culture medium. for nit-2, the content of nitrate exceeded that of nitrite in both the homogenate of fungal cells and growth medium; moreover, this difference was more pronounced in the culture medium. unlike nit-2, the content of nitrite in the cultivation medium of ...201317619581
the involvement of photoregulated dna methylation into a choice between sexual and asexual developmental pathways in neurospora crassa. 201311712181
[superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in carotenoid-synthesizing fungi blakeslea trispora and neurospora crassa under the oxidative stress].the addition of menadione into the medium during cultivation of neurospora crassa in the dark activated its constitutive superoxide dismutase. exposure to light not only activated superoxide dismutase and catalase, but also increased the content of neurosporaxanthin. superoxide dismutase activity in the mixed (+/-) mycelium of blakeslea trispora synthesizing beta-carotene in the dark was much lower than that in neurospora crassa. the superoxide dismutase activity further decreased in oxidative s ...201312068573
[effect of inhibitors of enzymatic dna methylation on the formation of reproductive structures and carotenoid production in neurospora crassa].the effect of inhibitors of dna methylation on light-sensitive developmental stages of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was studied. under conditions of nitrogen starvation, when blue light induced protoperithecia development and inhibited conidia formation, 5-azacytidine (3-300 microm) inhibited protoperithecia formation and stimulated conidia formation (a 700-fold increase after light induction). after treatment of the mycelium with 5-azacytidine, the protoperithecia formation was acco ...201311443894
[effect of 5-azacytidine on the light-sensitive formation of sexual and asexual reproductive structures in wc-1 and wc-2 mutants of neurospora crassa].under the conditions of nitrogen starvation, illumination by blue light of wc-1 and wc-2 mutants of the ascomycete neurospora crassa failed to stimulate the formation of protoperithecia and inhibit conidiation (contrary to what was observed in the mycelium of the wild-type fungus). the data obtained indicate that wc-1 and wc-2 genes of n. crassa are involved in light-dependent formation of protoperithecia and conidia. the effects of 5-azacytidine (an inhibitor of dna methylation) under the same ...201315455721
nad(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of neurospora crassa: cloning, complete nucleotide sequence, and gene mapping.the nad(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (nad-gdh) of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is a tetrameric enzyme, regulated by catabolite repression. the amino acid sequence of this enzyme had been published several years ago. with the object of investigating the molecular mechanism of catabolite repression, the nucleotide sequence of genomic clones containing the coding region, along with 5'- and 3'-flanking noncoding segments of the nad-gdh transcription unit, was obtained. the gdh str ...20138398079
[in situ studies of myoinositol-1-p synthase in wild and inos- strains of neurospora crassa].the biosynthetic pathway for myo-inositol consist of two enzymatic steps: first, the cycloaldolization of glucose-6p to l-myo-inositol-ip followed by its hydrolysis to form free myo-inositol. the former reaction is catalyzed by myo-inositol-ip synthase (mips) while, a phosphatase is responsible for the hydrolysis step. depending on its degree of purification and storage age, mips activity us to be, from partial to fully, dependent on added nad. therefore, we decided to study the kinetic properti ...20131345122
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pools in neurospora crassa: effects of histidine and hydroxyurea.an effective hplc method for detecting deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in hyphae from the fungus neurospora crassa has been developed. in rapidly growing cells the nucleotide levels vary from 11.8 pmoles/micrograms dna for dgtp to 24.2 pmoles/micrograms dna for dttp. these levels fall by approximately one half in stationary-phase cultures but the ratio of each pool to dgtp remains the same. the dntp pools in conidia are at least 5-fold lower than in rapidly growing cells. the pool sizes are th ...20132969078
the wilhelmine e. key 1989 invitational lecture. organization and regulation of the qa (quinic acid) genes in neurospora crassa and other fungi.in neurospora crassa, five structural genes and two regulatory genes control the use of quinic acid as a carbon source. all seven genes are tightly linked to form the qa gene cluster. the entire cluster, which has been cloned and sequenced, occupies a continuous dna segment of 17.3 kb. three pairs of genes are divergently transcribed, including the two regulatory genes that are located at one end of the cluster and that encode an activator (qa-1f) and a repressor (qa-1s). three of the structural ...20131825499
bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 7. cellular deformation in the presence of cytochalasin b.the influence of cytochalasin b on the mechanical properties of neurospora crassa cells subjected to a periodic electric field was investigated. shear and extensional deformations were considered and studied separately. conditions were found under which shear deformations become irreversible. rheological models helped in the interpretation of the results in terms of the different response to the shear stress of the three hypothetical supramolecular regions of the membrane-skeleton network (f, s ...20139474262
[cyclic nucleotides and membrane electrogenesis in cell differentiation in neurospora crassa].significance of membrane electrogenic system and cyclic nucleotides for developmental regulation in lower eukaryotes was studied in neurospora crassa. despite of their morphological uniformity, hyphal cells were differentiated by their electrophysiological parameters--membrane potential and input resistance. the cells maintained regulated electric communication through septal pores. such electric communication allowed the apical "cell" to compensate the energy requirements for membrane transport ...20137618293
a new ultraviolet-light sensitive mutant of neurospora crassa with unusual photoreactivation property.a mutant, uvs-(sa3b), which shows high sensitivity to uv light segregated among the progeny in a back-cross of a presumptive mms-sensitive mutant to a wild-type strain. at 37% survival, this mutant was approximately 5 times more sensitive to uv and also 6 times more sensitive to 4-nqo than the wild type. but it was only slightly sensitive to gamma-ray, mms, mnng, mtc and histidine. it showed an unusual photoreactivation response. its time course of photorecovery was similar to the photoreactivat ...20132933585
[effect of the cyclic nucleotide level on the degree of carotenoid pigment formation in the mycelial cells of neurospora crassa].the relation between the content of cyclic nucleotides and the rate of formation of carotenoid pigments in the neurospora crassa mycelium cells was investigated. light derepression of the carotenoid synthesis during the photoinduction lag-period induced a transient decrease of the camp content. the intracellular camp content was in negative correlation with the constitutive level of carotenoid pigments. the cgmp content remained unchanged during the photoinduction lag-period and showed no correl ...20136304680
inhibition of adenine and hypoxanthine uptake by guanosine in conidia of neurospora crassa.guanosine competitively inhibits the uptake of adenine and hypoxanthine by the general purine-base permease in conidia of neurospora crassa. there is no reciprocal effect of adenine or hypoxanthine on guanosine uptake so it is suggested that guanosine can bind to the general purine-base permease to cause this inhibition but is not transported through this system. it is known that guanosine is transported by two separate nucleoside transport sites. guanosine also noncompetitively inhibits the spe ...20136460550
changes in nucleotide pools during conidial germination in neurospora crassa. 20136460549
[studies on the conidial differentiation of "neurospora crassa" -- vii. -- alcoholic regulation and conidiogenous capacity (wild-type and "fluffy" mutant) (authors transl)].sucrose consumption by the wild-type neurospora crassa is quicker, with much more ethanol produced, in the ammonium medium than in nitrate as single n source. on low sugar concentration which is quickly nullified, little alcohol is produced and early conidiation can develop. the higher the initial sugar concentration, the higher is the alcoholigenic coefficient defined as the efficiency of alcoholic glycolysis per unit of sugar consumed, and the more complete is the conidial "repression" in ammo ...2013157707
ageing of neurospora crassa. iii. induction of cellular death and clonal senescence of an inositol-less mutant by inositol starvation and the protective effect of dietary antioxidants.clonal growth rate and cellular viability of an inositol-less mutant of neurospora crassa decline rapidly during deprivation of dietary inositol. dietary antioxidants, either nordihydroguaiaretic acid, vitamin e or 3,5-ditert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, protected cells and clones of the mutant from death and senescence. membrane deterioration with associated lipid autoxidation and consequent deleterious free radical reactions appear to be, in part at least, the causes of the mutant's death a ...2013133275
a poly u directed phenylalanine polymerizing system from neurospora crassa: general characterization and ionic effects. 20135515872
[the effect of orotic acid hydrazide on the growth of neurospora crassa and on the development of ehrlich ascitic tumor]. 20135455884
electrophoretic comparison of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins from neurospora crassa. 20135380348
control of trehalase synthesis in neurospora crassa. 20135373655
analysis of ad-3 mutants induced by nitrous acid in a heterokaryon of neurospora crassa. 20135807326
an effect of genetic background on dose-response curves in neurospora crassa. 20135807325
[study of phosphorus compounds of mitochrndria from neurospora crassa]. 20134302491
[on the biosynthesis of inorganic polyphosphates in neurospora crassa]. 20134300424
[considerations on the specificity of the microbiological determination of adenine using neurospora crassa]. 20135728610
arginyl-transfer ribonucleic acid and synthetase of neurospora crassa. 20134260497
[nicotinamide coenzymes at the early stages of light induction of carotenogenesis in the neurospora crassa mycelium].changes in the concentration of nad+, nadh, nadp+ and nadph in the mycelium of the nadase free mutant of neurospora crassa were studied during the latent stage of light induction of carotenogenesis. a 30 minute illumination by visible light brought about a stable decrease in the nadh/nad+nadh ratio, exerting no effect on the nadph/nadp+nadph ratio. at the same time the nadp+/nad+ ratio increased. these changes occurred only when illumination induced carotenoid accumulation in the n. crassa mycel ...201323524
mutations in neurospora crassa affecting ascus and ascospore development. 20134273813
phosphorylation of calcineurin at a novel serine-proline rich region orchestrates hyphal growth and virulence in aspergillus fumigatus.the fungus aspergillus fumigatus is a leading infectious killer in immunocompromised patients. calcineurin, a calmodulin (cam)-dependent protein phosphatase comprised of calcineurin a (cnaa) and calcineurin b (cnab) subunits, localizes at the hyphal tips and septa to direct a. fumigatus invasion and virulence. here we identified a novel serine-proline rich region (sprr) located between two conserved cnaa domains, the cnab-binding helix and the cam-binding domain, that is evolutionarily conserved ...201323990785
fungal siderophore biosynthesis is partially localized in peroxisomes.siderophores play a central role in iron metabolism and virulence of most fungi. both aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans excrete the siderophore triacetylfusarinine c (tafc) for iron acquisition. in a. fumigatus, green fluorescence protein-tagging revealed peroxisomal localization of the tafc biosynthetic enzymes sidi (mevalonyl-coa ligase), sidh (mevalonyl-coa hydratase) and sidf (anhydromevalonyl-coa transferase), while elimination of the peroxisomal targeting signal (pts) impaired ...201323617799
fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.the composition and organization of the cell walls from saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus fumigatus, schizosaccharomyces pombe, neurospora crassa, and cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. these cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, mixed β-1,3-/β-1,4-glucan, α-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. a comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition ...201323419716
two functional motifs define the interaction, internalization and toxicity of the cell-penetrating antifungal peptide paf26 on fungal cells.the synthetic, cell penetrating hexapeptide paf26 (rkkwfw) is antifungal at low micromolar concentrations and has been proposed as a model for cationic, cell-penetrating antifungal peptides. its short amino acid sequence facilitates the analysis of its structure-activity relationships using the fungal models neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae, and human and plant pathogens aspergillus fumigatus and penicillium digitatum, respectively. previously, paf26 at low fungicidal concentration ...201323349973
a comparative study of hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities of fungal β-glucosidases.β-glucosidases (bgs) from aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa, and penicillium brasilianum were purified to homogeneity, and investigated for their (simultaneous) hydrolytic and transglycosylation activity in samples with high concentrations of either cellobiose or glucose. the rate of the hydrolytic process (which converts one cellobiose to two glucose molecules) shows a maximum around 10-15 mm cellobiose and decreases with further ...201322311644
the oxygenase cao-1 of neurospora crassa is a resveratrol cleavage enzyme.the genome of the ascomycete neurospora crassa encodes cao-1 and cao-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. previous studies demonstrated the role of cao-2 in cleaving the c40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the c35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. in this work, we investigated the activity of cao-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the nop-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. ...201323893079
microbial transformations of isophorone by alternaria alternata and neurospora crassa.isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one), a monoterpene, and the structurally related 1,8-cineole and camphor, have demonstrated a protective effect against cancer, biological activity against a variety of microorganisms, and anti-oxidant properties. the derivatization of isophorone is, therefore, an important field of xenobiochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. the aim of this study was to obtain derivatives of isophorone through microbial biotransformation and evaluate the biotransfo ...201323472460
the l-cysteine desulfurase nfs1 is localized in the cytosol where it provides the sulfur for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in humans.in humans, the l-cysteine desulfurase nfs1 plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and in the thiomodification of mitochondrial and cytosolic trnas. we have previously demonstrated that purified nfs1 is able to transfer sulfur to the c-terminal domain of mocs3, a cytosolic protein involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and trna thiolation. however, no direct evidence existed so far for the interaction of nfs1 and mocs3 in the cytosol of human cells. here, ...201323593335
molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: recent advances and new strategies.advances in genetic transformation techniques have made important contributions to molecular genetics. various molecular tools and strategies have been developed for functional genomic analysis of filamentous fungi since the first dna transformation was successfully achieved in neurospora crassa in 1973. increasing amounts of genomic data regarding filamentous fungi are continuously reported and large-scale functional studies have become common in a wide range of fungal species. in this review, ...201323988676
the uve1 endonuclease is regulated by the white collar complex to protect cryptococcus neoformans from uv damage.the pathogenic fungus cryptococcus neoformans uses the bwc1-bwc2 photoreceptor complex to regulate mating in response to light, virulence and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. how the complex controls these functions is unclear. here, we identify and characterize a gene in cryptococcus, uve1, whose mutation leads to a uv hypersensitive phenotype. the homologous gene in fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease acting in the uvde-dependent excision repai ...201324039606
physiological role of acyl coenzyme a synthetase homologs in lipid metabolism in neurospora crassa.acyl coenzyme a (coa) synthetase (acs) enzymes catalyze the activation of free fatty acids (fas) to coa esters by a two-step thioesterification reaction. activated fas participate in a variety of anabolic and catabolic lipid metabolic pathways, including de novo complex lipid biosynthesis, fa β-oxidation, and lipid membrane remodeling. analysis of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa identified seven putative fatty acss (acs-1 through acs-7). acs-3 was found to be the ...201323873861
rnai function, diversity, and loss in the fungal kingdom.rnai is conserved and has been studied in a broad cross-section of the fungal kingdom, including neurospora crassa, schizosaccharomyces pombe, cryptococcus neoformans, and mucor circinelloides. and yet well known species, including the model yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and the plant pathogen ustilago maydis, have lost rnai, providing insights and opportunities to illuminate benefits conferred both by the presence of rnai and its loss. some of the earliest studies of rnai were conducted in neu ...201324173579
sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 mediates the sensitivity to antifungal azoles in neurospora crassa and fusarium verticillioides.antifungal azoles inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis by interfering with lanosterol 14α-demethylase. in this study, seven upregulated and four downregulated ergosterol biosynthesis genes in response to ketoconazole treatment were identified in neurospora crassa. azole sensitivity test of knockout mutants for six ketoconazole-upregulated genes in ergosterol biosynthesis revealed that deletion of only sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 altered sensitivity to azoles: the erg5 mutant was hypersensitive to azo ...201323755044
effect of heterologous xylose transporter expression in candida tropicalis on xylitol production rate.xylose utilization is inhibited by glucose uptake in xylose-assimilating yeasts, including candida tropicalis, resulting in limitation of xylose uptake during the fermentation of glucose/xylose mixtures. in this study, a heterologous xylose transporter gene (at5g17010) from arabidopsis thaliana was selected because of its high affinity for xylose and was codon-optimized for functional expression in c. tropicalis. the codon-optimized gene was placed under the control of the gapdh promoter and was ...201323411871
eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. the escherichia coli gene crcb was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. there are >8,000 crcb homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed fex (fluoride exporter)] function ...201324173035
aspergillus oryzae aoso is a novel component of stress granules upon heat stress in filamentous fungi.stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mrnp) granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. for this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in a. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an e ...201323991062
a comparative study of nitrilases identified by genome mining.escherichia coli strains expressing different nitrilases transformed nitriles or kcn. six nitrilases (from aspergillus niger (2), a. oryzae, neurospora crassa, arthroderma benhamiae, and nectria haematococca) were arylacetonitrilases, two enzymes (from a. niger and penicillium chrysogenum) were cyanide hydratases and the others (from p. chrysogenum, p. marneffei, gibberella moniliformis, meyerozyma guilliermondi, rhodococcus rhodochrous, and r. ruber) preferred (hetero)aromatic nitriles as subst ...201323475593
assessing the effects of light on differentiation and virulence of the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea: characterization of the white collar complex.organisms are exposed to a tough environment, where acute daily challenges, like light, can strongly affect several aspects of an individual's physiology, including pathogenesis. while several fungal models have been widely employed to understand the physiological and molecular events associated with light perception, various other agricultural-relevant fungi still remain, in terms of their responsiveness to light, in the dark. the fungus botrytis cinerea is an aggressive pathogen able to cause ...201324391918
proteomic alterations induced by ionic liquids in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa.this study constitutes the first attempt to understand at the proteomic level the fungal response to ionic liquid stress. ascomycota are able to grow in media supplemented with high concentrations of an ionic liquid, which, in turn, lead to major alterations in the fungal metabolic footprint. herein, we analysed the differential accumulation of mycelial proteins in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa after their exposure to two of the most commonly used ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimid ...201324120530
analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in neurospora crassa.cellulose is recalcitrant to deconstruction to glucose for use in fermentation strategies for biofuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulose. in neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, clr-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression and cellulose deconstruction. to assess conservation and divergence of cellulase gene regulation between fungi from different ecological niches, we compared clr-2 function with its ortholog (clrb) in the distantly related species, aspergillus nidula ...201323766336
neurospora crassa nkin2, a kinesin-3 motor, transports early endosomes and is required for polarized growth.biological motors are molecular nanomachines, which convert chemical energy into mechanical forces. the combination of mechanoenzymes with structural components, such as the cytoskeleton, enables eukaryotic cells to overcome entropy, generate molecular gradients, and establish polarity. hyphae of filamentous fungi are among the most polarized cells, and polarity defects are most obvious. here, we studied the role of the kinesin-3 motor, nkin2, in neurospora crassa. we found that nkin2 localizes ...201323687116
conf and conj contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. the formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. we have characterized the light-inducible conf and conj genes of a. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of neurospora crassa. con genes a ...201323644150
phylogenetics and gene structure dynamics of polygalacturonase genes in aspergillus and neurospora crassa.polygalacturonase (pg) gene is a typical gene family present in eukaryotes. forty-nine pgs were mined from the genomes of neurospora crassa and five aspergillus species. the pgs were classified into 3 clades such as clade 1 for rhamno-pgs, clade 2 for exo-pgs and clade 3 for exo- and endo-pgs, which were further grouped into 13 sub-clades based on the polypeptide sequence similarity. in gene structure analysis, a total of 124 introns were present in 44 genes and five genes lacked introns to give ...201325288950
circadian rhythms in neurospora crassa on a polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic device for real-time gas perturbations.racetubes, a conventional system employing hollow glass tubes, are typically used for monitoring circadian rhythms from the model filamentous fungus, neurospora crassa. however, a major technical limitation in using a conventional system is that racetubes are not amenable for real-time gas perturbations. in this work, we demonstrate a simple microfluidic device combined with real-time gas perturbations for monitoring circadian rhythms in neurospora crassa using bioluminescence assays. the develo ...201324404062
biological activity of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove fungi neurospora crassa.the screening of antimicrobial compounds from mangrove-associated fungi is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human pathogens. in the present study, a novel foliar fungus was isolated from the leaves of rhizophora mucronata. crude fungal extracts were obtained through solvent extraction. the fungal extracts exhibited an effective antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains. this study reports the cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolite produced ...201324640249
evolution, selection and isolation: a genomic view of speciation in fungal plant pathogens.895 i. 895 ii. 896 iii. 898 iv. 900 v. 902 vi. 904 vii. 905 905 references 905 summary: speciation of fungal plant pathogens has been associated with host jumps, host domestication, clonal divergence, and hybridization. although we have substantial insight into the speciation histories of several important plant pathogens, we still know very little about the underlying genetics of reproductive isolation. studies in saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, and nonfungal model systems illustra ...201323782262
homology modeling, ligand docking and in silico mutagenesis of neurospora hsp80 (90): insight into intrinsic atpase activity.the hsp90 family of proteins is an important component of the cellular response to elevated temperatures, environmental or physiological stress and nuclear receptor signalling. the primary object of this work is the 80-kda heat shock protein, a member of the hsp90 family, from the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, (henceforth referred to as hsp80nc). in contrast to more extensively characterized members of the same family, (e.g. hsp82sc of saccharomyces cerevisiae) it exhibits a higher ...201323735900
transcriptional profiling of neurospora crassa δmak-2 reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase mak-2 participates in the phosphate signaling pathway.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is an excellent model system for examining molecular responses to ambient signals in eukaryotic microorganisms. inorganic phosphate (pi) is an essential growth-limiting nutrient in nature and is crucial for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the flow of genetic information. the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling the response to pi starvation in n. crassa include at least four genes (nuc-2, preg, pogv, and nuc-1), which are involved in a hierarch ...201323733042
the plasma membrane proton pump pma-1 is incorporated into distal parts of the hyphae independently of the spitzenkörper in neurospora crassa.most models for fungal growth have proposed a directional traffic of secretory vesicles to the hyphal apex, where they temporarily aggregate at the spitzenkörper before they fuse with the plasma membrane (pm). the pm h(+)-translocating atpase (pma-1) is delivered via the classical secretory pathway (endoplasmic reticulum [er] to golgi) to the cell surface, where it pumps h(+) out of the cell, generating a large electrochemical gradient that supplies energy to h(+)-coupled nutrient uptake systems ...201323729384
the trichoderma atroviride photolyase-encoding gene is transcriptionally regulated by non-canonical light response elements.the blr-1 and blr-2 proteins of trichoderma atroviride are the neurospora crassa homologs of white collar-1 and -2, two transcription factors involved in the regulation of genes by blue light. blr-1 and blr-2 are essential for photoinduction of phr-1, a photolyase-encoding gene whose promoter exhibits sequences similar to well-characterized light regulatory elements of neurospora, including the albino proximal element and the light response element (lre). however, despite the fact that this gene ...201323721733
septins are important for cell polarity, septation and asexual spore formation in neurospora crassa and show different patterns of localisation at germ tube tips.septins are gtp-binding cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to cell polarity, vesicle trafficking, cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. here we have characterised the six septins encoded by the genome of the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. analysis of septin null mutants demonstrated that septins limit the sites of emergence of germ tubes and are important for septation and conidiation in n. crassa. septins constituted a range of different higher-order structures in n. crassa - ring ...201323691103
an apparent increase in meiotic silencing strength in crosses involving inbred neurospora crassa strains.meiotic silencing by unpaired dna is a presumed rnai-mediated elimination of the transcripts of any gene that is not properly paired with a homolog in meiosis. wild-isolated strains of neurospora crassa can be classified into three types based on the apparent strength of meiotic silencing of the bml (β-tubulin) and mei-3 genes in crosses of the wild strains with the tester strains ::bml(r) and ::mei-3. crosses with "or" and "sad" type wild-isolates, respectively, did or did not silence both the ...201323685173
reduced glutathione export during programmed cell death of neurospora crassa.in a previous study, we demonstrated that staurosporine (sts) induces programmed cell death (pcd) in the fungus neurospora crassa and that glutathione has the capability of inhibiting both sts-induced reactive oxygen species (ros) formation and cell death. here, we further investigated the role of glutathione in sts-induced pcd in n. crassa and observed an efflux of reduced glutathione (gsh) together with a change in the cell internal redox state to a more oxidative environment. this event was a ...201323666236
novel insights into the role of neurospora crassa ndufaf2, an evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial complex i assembly factor.complex i deficiency is commonly associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation diseases. mutations in nuclear genes encoding structural subunits or assembly factors of complex i have been increasingly identified as the cause of the diseases. one such factor, ndufaf2, is a paralog of the ndufa12 structural subunit of the enzyme, but the mechanism by which it exerts its function remains unknown. herein, we demonstrate that the neurospora crassa ndufaf2 homologue, the 13.4 l protein, is a ...201323648483
the bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol impairs mitochondrial function and affects calcium homeostasis in neurospora crassa.the bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg) is of interest as an active ingredient of biological control strains of pseudomonas fluorescens and as a potential lead pharmaceutical molecule because of its capacity to inhibit growth of diverse microbial and non-microbial cells. the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown and in this study the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was used as a model to investigate the effects of dapg on a eukaryotic cell. colony growth, co ...201323624246
the type of mutations induced by carbon-ion-beam irradiation of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.heavy-ion beams are known to cause great damage to cellular components and are particularly renowned for their ability to generate dna double-strand breaks (dsbs). to gain insight into the mutagenic effect of carbon-ion beams and how such damage is repaired by the cell, neurospora crassa mutants deficient in one of three components involved in the repair of dsbs, nonhomologous end-joining (nhej), homologous recombination repair (hr), and the mre11-rad50-xrs2 (mrx) complex, were irradiated with a ...201323622717
production of xylitol by recombinant microalgae.microalgae have received significant attention recently as a potential low-cost host for the production of next-generation biofuels and natural products. here we show that the chloroplast genome of the eukaryotic green microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be genetically engineered to produce xylitol through the introduction of a gene encoding a xylose reductase (xr) from the fungi neurospora crassa. increased levels of heterologous protein accumulation and xylitol production were achieved by ...201323597921
the transcriptional response to nonself in the fungus podospora anserina.in fungi, heterokaryon incompatibility is a nonself recognition process occurring when filaments of different isolates of the same species fuse. compatibility is controlled by so-called het loci and fusion of strains of unlike het genotype triggers a complex incompatibility reaction that leads to the death of the fusion cell. herein, we analyze the transcriptional changes during the incompatibility reaction in podospora anserina. the incompatibility response was found to be associated with a mas ...201323589521
computational discovery of transcriptional regulatory modules in fungal ribosome biogenesis genes reveals novel sequence and function patterns.genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and assembly (rba) are responsible for ribosome formation. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, their transcription is regulated by two dissimilar dna motifs. we were interested in analyzing conservation and divergence of rba transcription regulation machinery throughout fungal evolution. we have identified orthologs of s. cerevisiae rba genes in 39 species across fungal phylogeny and searched upstream regions of these gene sets for dna sequences significantly simil ...201323555806
biochemical characterization of molybdenum cofactor-free nitrate reductase from neurospora crassa.nitrate reductase (nr) is a complex molybdenum cofactor (moco)-dependent homodimeric metalloenzyme that is vitally important for autotrophic organism as it catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of nitrate assimilation. beside moco, eukaryotic nr also binds fad and heme as additional redox active cofactors, and these are involved in electron transfer from nad(p)h to the enzyme molybdenum center where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. we report the first biochemical characterizatio ...201323539622
regional control of histone h3 lysine 27 methylation in neurospora.trimethylated lysine 27 on histone h3 (h3k27me3) is present in drosophila, arabidopsis, worms, and mammals, but is absent from yeasts that have been examined. we identified and analyzed h3k27me3 in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa and in other neurospora species. h3k27me3 covers 6.8% of the n. crassa genome, encompassing 223 domains, including 774 genes, all of which are transcriptionally silent. n. crassa h3k27me3-marked genes are less conserved than unmarked genes and only ∼35% of gene ...201323530226
trans-species activity of a nonself recognition domain.the ability to distinguish nonself from self is a fundamental characteristic of biological systems. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, multiple incompatibility genes mediate nonself recognition during vegetative growth. one of these genes, un-24, encodes both nonself recognition function and the large subunit of a type i ribonucleotide reductase, an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that is essential for the conversion of ndp precursors into dndps for use in dna synthesis. previous studi ...201323517247
alternative splicing in ascomycetes.alternative splicing is a complex and regulated process, which results in mrna with different coding capacities from a single gene. extend and types of alternative splicing vary greatly among eukaryotes. in this review, i focus on alternative splicing in ascomycetes, which in general have significant lower extend of alternative splicing than mammals. yeast-like species have low numbers of introns and consequently alternative splicing is lower compared to filamentous fungi. several examples from ...201323515838
novel proteins required for meiotic silencing by unpaired dna and sirna generation in neurospora crassa.during meiosis in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are identified and silenced by a process known as meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud). previous work has uncovered six proteins required for msud, all of which are also essential for meiotic progression. additionally, they all localize in the perinuclear region, suggesting that it is a center of msud activity. nevertheless, at least a subset of msud proteins must be present inside the nucleus, as unpaired dna recogni ...201323502675
identification of small rnas associated with meiotic silencing by unpaired dna.in neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are silenced by a mechanism called meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud). although some rna interference proteins are necessary for this process, its requirement of small rnas has yet to be formally established. here we report the characterization of small rnas targeting an unpaired region, using illumina sequencing.201323502674
coordination of k+ transporters in neurospora: trk1 is scarce and constitutive, while hak1 is abundant and highly regulated.fungi, plants, and bacteria accumulate potassium via two distinct molecular machines not directly coupled to atp hydrolysis. the first, designated trk, hkt, or ktr, has eight transmembrane helices and is folded like known potassium channels, while the second, designated hak, kt, or kup, has 12 transmembrane helices and resembles mfs class proteins. one of each type functions in the model organism neurospora crassa, where both are readily accessible for biochemical, genetic, and electrophysiologi ...201323475706
biotransformation of 14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide into a novel hydroxylation product by neurospora crassa.the biotransformation of 14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide by neurospora crassa cgmcc as 3.1604 to produce a new hydroxylation derivative was studied. the structure of this novel compound was determined using spectral data. this biotransformation using whole cells conditioned for 4 days transformed approximately 65% (mol ratio) of the substrate into the compound (5r)-5-hydroxy-14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide.201323465510
genetics of cordyceps and related fungi.ascomycete cordyceps sensu lato consists of hundreds of species of fungi capable of infecting different insects. species of these fungi are either valued traditional chinese medicines or used for biocontrol of insect pests. phylogenomic analysis indicated that fungal entomopathogenicity has evolved for multiple times, and the species of cordyceps were diverged from the mycoparasite or plant endophyte. relative to plant pathogens and saprophytes, cordyceps species demonstrate characteristic genom ...201323435902
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