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segregation of heterogeneous rdna segments during demagnification of a neurospora crassa strain possessing a double nucleolar organizer.we have produced a duplication strain of neurospora crassa, dpar33-pr-6, which contains two cytologically visible nucleoli (a dno or double nucleolar organizer strain). when freshly generated, this strain has approximately twice the number of rrna cistrons found in the parental (single nucleolar organizer) strains. after several serial propagations, there is a marked reduction in rrna cistron number, approximating that of the sno parental strains. this reduction in rrna cistrons ("demagnificatio ...198324173419
leucine biosynthesis in yeast : identification of two genes (leu4, leu5) that affect α-isopropylmalate synthase activity and evidence that leu1 and leu2 gene expression is controlled by α-isopropylmalate and the product of a regulatory gene.tetrad analysis indicates that α-isopropylmalate synthase activity of yeast is determined by two separate genes, designated leu4 and leu5. leu4 is identified as a structural gene. leu5 either encodes another α-isopropylmalate synthase activity by itself or provides some function needed for the expression of a second structural gene. the properties of mutants affecting the biosynthesis of leucine and its regulation suggest that the expression of leu1 and leu2 (structural genes encoding isopropylm ...198324173418
trans-nuclear action of the nit-2 regulatory gene product and study of two additional nitrogen control genes in neurospora crassa.the nit-2 gene of neurospora crassa is a major regulatory gene for control of nitrogen metabolism. synthesis of the enzyme l-amino acid oxidase requires a functional nit-2 gene product and is also controlled by amino acid induction and nitrogen catabolite repression. electrophoretic variants of l-amino acid oxidase have been employed to demonstrate that in heterokaryons, a nit-2 (+) gene product can turn on the expression of this enzyme in its own nucleus and also in nuclei that possess a nit-2 ...198324173118
the structure of the gene for subunit i of cytochrome c oxidase in neurospora crassa mitochondria.we have sequenced the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (co i) in neurospora crassa mitochondrial dna. the gene is coded by the same strand as the rrna and trna genes. the coding sequence predicts a protein of 557 amino acids, starting with methionine, and ending with asparagine. comparison to the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the mature protein (werner et al. 1980) reveals that the methionine is located at position -2. no other upstream aug codons have been found in frame. the c-termi ...198324173114
eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. the escherichia coli gene crcb was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. there are >8,000 crcb homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed fex (fluoride exporter)] function ...201324173035
location and contribution of individual β-glucosidase from neurospora crassa to total β-glucosidase activity.this study investigated the cellular location and the contribution of individual β-glucosidase (bgl) to total bgl activity in neurospora crassa. among the seven bgl genes, bgl3, bgl5, and bgl7 were transcribed at basal levels, whereas bgl1, bgl2, bgl4, and bgl6 were significantly up-regulated when the wild-type strain was induced with cellulose (avicel). bgl1 and bgl4 were found to be contributors to intracellular bgl activity, whereas the activities of bgl2 and bgl6 were mainly extracellular. s ...201324162785
regulation of gene expression in neurospora crassa with a copper responsive promoter.precise control of gene expression is a powerful method to elucidate biological function, and protein overexpression is an important tool for industry and biochemistry. expression of the neurospora crassa tcu-1 gene (ncu00830), encoding a high-affinity copper transporter, is tightly controlled by copper availability. excess copper represses, and copper depletion, via the use of a copper chelator, activates expression. the kinetics of induction and repression of tcu-1 are rapid, and the effects a ...201324142928
polygalacturonases from moniliophthora perniciosa are regulated by fermentable carbon sources and possible post-translational modifications.we report the first molecular and in silico analysis of monilophthora perniciosa polygalacturonases (pgs). three mppg genes (mppg1, mppg2 and mppg3) were identified and analyzed at transcriptional level, by rt-qpcr, in dikaryotic m. perniciosa mycelium grown on solid-bran based medium and on liquid medium supplemented with different fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources. the mppg genes presented different expression patterns suggesting different individual regulation. however, all are m ...201324140149
sers properties of different sized and shaped gold nanoparticles biosynthesized under different environmental conditions by neurospora crassa extract.surface-enhanced raman scattering (sers) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces. it is known that metal nanoparticles, especially gold and silver nanoparticles, exhibit great sers properties, which make them very attractive for the development of biosensors and biocatalysts. on the other hand, the development of ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanostructures has become the focus of research in several countr ...201324130891
the gene cuta of fusarium fujikuroi, encoding a protein of the haloacid dehalogenase family, is involved in osmotic stress and glycerol metabolism.survival of micro-organisms in natural habitats depends on their ability to adapt to variations in osmotic conditions. we previously described the gene cut-1 of neurospora crassa, encoding a protein of the haloacid dehalogenase family with an unknown function in the osmotic stress response. here we report on the functional analysis of cuta, the orthologous gene in the phytopathogenic fungus fusarium fujikuroi. cuta mrna levels increased transiently after exposure to 0.68 m nacl and were reduced ...201424129845
proteomic alterations induced by ionic liquids in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa.this study constitutes the first attempt to understand at the proteomic level the fungal response to ionic liquid stress. ascomycota are able to grow in media supplemented with high concentrations of an ionic liquid, which, in turn, lead to major alterations in the fungal metabolic footprint. herein, we analysed the differential accumulation of mycelial proteins in aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa after their exposure to two of the most commonly used ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimid ...201324120530
neurospora crassa, a model system for epigenetics research.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa has provided a rich source of knowledge on epigenetic phenomena that would have been difficult or impossible to gain from other systems. neurospora sports features found in higher eukaryotes but absent in both budding and fission yeast, including dna methylation and h3k27 methylation, and also has distinct rna interference (rnai)-based silencing mechanisms operating in mitotic and meiotic cells. this has provided an unexpected wealth of information on gen ...201324086046
discovery of cellobionic acid phosphorylase in cellulolytic bacteria and fungi.a novel phosphorylase was characterized as new member of glycoside hydrolase family 94 from the cellulolytic bacterium xanthomonas campestris and the fungus neurospora crassa. the enzyme catalyzed reversible phosphorolysis of cellobionic acid. we propose 4-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl-d-gluconic acid: phosphate α-d-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and cellobionic acid phosphorylase as the short names for the novel enzyme. several cellulolytic fungi of the phylum ascomycota also possess homolog ...201324055472
the uve1 endonuclease is regulated by the white collar complex to protect cryptococcus neoformans from uv damage.the pathogenic fungus cryptococcus neoformans uses the bwc1-bwc2 photoreceptor complex to regulate mating in response to light, virulence and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. how the complex controls these functions is unclear. here, we identify and characterize a gene in cryptococcus, uve1, whose mutation leads to a uv hypersensitive phenotype. the homologous gene in fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe encodes an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease acting in the uvde-dependent excision repai ...201324039606
convergent transcription induces dynamic dna methylation at disirna loci.cytosine methylation of dna is an important epigenetic gene silencing mechanism in plants, fungi, and animals. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, nearly all known dna methylations occur in transposon relics and repetitive sequences, and dna methylation does not depend on the canonical rnai pathway. disirnas are dicer-independent small non-coding rnas that arise from gene-rich part of the neurospora genome. here we describe a new type of dna methylation that is associated with the disir ...201324039604
early colony establishment in neurospora crassa requires a map kinase regulatory network.vegetative fusion is essential for the development of an interconnected colony in many filamentous fungi. in the ascomycete fungus neurospora crassa, vegetative fusion occurs between germinated conidia (germlings) via specialized structures termed "conidial anastomosis tubes" (cats) and between hyphae within a mature colony. in n. crassa, both cat and hyphal fusion are under the regulation of a conserved map kinase cascade (nrc1, mek2, and mak2). here we show that the predicted downstream target ...201324037267
ham-2 and ham-3 are central for the assembly of the neurospora stripak complex at the nuclear envelope and regulate nuclear accumulation of the map kinase mak-1 in a mak-2-dependent manner.intercellular communication and somatic cell fusion are important for fungal colony establishment, multicellular differentiation and have been associated with host colonization and virulence of pathogenic species. by a combination of genetic, biochemical and live cell imaging techniques, we characterized the neurospora crassa stripak complex that is essential for self-signalling and consists of the six proteins ham-2/strip, ham-3/striatin, ham-4/slmap, mob-3/phocein, ppg-1/pp2a-c and pp2a-a. we ...201324028079
coexistence and expression profiles of two alternative splice variants of the pheromone receptor gene pre‑1 in neurospora crassa.in this study, we show that two splice variants of the pheromone receptor gene (pre-1) transcript coexist in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the filamentous ascomycete fungus neurospora crassa. the two splice variants differ by intron retention of the last intron, which is predicted to result in a premature stop codon and loss of 322 amino acids in the c-terminal cytosolic region of pre-1. using quantitative pcr, we show that expression of the variants is influenced by mating type (mat), ...201324022114
retracted article: the effects of each beta-glucosidase gene deletion on cellulase gene regulation in neurospora crassa (online publication: doi 10.1007/s10482-013- 9972-7).takao kasuga and zhiliang fan were listed as co-authors without their acknowledgement and would like to be removed from the authors list. this article is retracted on request of weihua wu due to inconsistent errors of intracellular and total beta-glucosidase activities assay and the mycelia weight measurement in this paper. these errors led to inaccurate results of total and intracellular beta-glucosidase activities, and the normalized endoglucanases and exoglucanases activities and therefore co ...201424000093
aspergillus oryzae aoso is a novel component of stress granules upon heat stress in filamentous fungi.stress granules are a type of cytoplasmic messenger ribonucleoprotein (mrnp) granule formed in response to the inhibition of translation initiation, which typically occurs when cells are exposed to stress. stress granules are conserved in eukaryotes; however, in filamentous fungi, including aspergillus oryzae, stress granules have not yet been defined. for this reason, here we investigated the formation and localization of stress granules in a. oryzae cells exposed to various stresses using an e ...201323991062
phosphorylation of calcineurin at a novel serine-proline rich region orchestrates hyphal growth and virulence in aspergillus fumigatus.the fungus aspergillus fumigatus is a leading infectious killer in immunocompromised patients. calcineurin, a calmodulin (cam)-dependent protein phosphatase comprised of calcineurin a (cnaa) and calcineurin b (cnab) subunits, localizes at the hyphal tips and septa to direct a. fumigatus invasion and virulence. here we identified a novel serine-proline rich region (sprr) located between two conserved cnaa domains, the cnab-binding helix and the cam-binding domain, that is evolutionarily conserved ...201323990785
molecular tools for functional genomics in filamentous fungi: recent advances and new strategies.advances in genetic transformation techniques have made important contributions to molecular genetics. various molecular tools and strategies have been developed for functional genomic analysis of filamentous fungi since the first dna transformation was successfully achieved in neurospora crassa in 1973. increasing amounts of genomic data regarding filamentous fungi are continuously reported and large-scale functional studies have become common in a wide range of fungal species. in this review, ...201323988676
is the fungus magnaporthe losing dna methylation?the long terminal repeat retrotransposon, magnaporthe gypsy-like element (maggy), has been shown to be targeted for cytosine methylation in a subset of magnaporthe oryzae field isolates. analysis of the f1 progeny from a genetic cross between methylation-proficient (br48) and methylation-deficient (gfsi1-7-2) isolates revealed that methylation of the maggy element was governed by a single dominant gene. positional cloning followed by gene disruption and complementation experiments revealed that ...201323979580
mass flow and velocity profiles in neurospora hyphae: partial plug flow dominates intra-hyphal transport.movement of nuclei, mitochondria and vacuoles through hyphal trunks of neurospora crassa were vector-mapped using fluorescent markers and green fluorescent protein tags. the vectorial movements of all three were strongly correlated, indicating the central role of mass (bulk) flow in cytoplasm movements in n. crassa. profiles of velocity versus distance from the hyphal wall did not match the parabolic shape predicted by the ideal hagen-poiseuille model of flow at low reynolds number. instead, the ...201323970568
evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased genes in a hermaphrodite fungus.differential gene expression is believed to largely explain sexually dichotomous phenotypes. this phenomenon is especially significant in hermaphrodites, in which male and female sexual tissues have identical genotypes. sex differences in transcription have been linked to molecular evolution: genes with higher expression in male compared with female sexual tissues (i.e., male-biased genes) have been associated with rapid gene divergence in various animals and plants, implying that selective diff ...201323966547
interconnections of reactive oxygen species homeostasis and circadian rhythm in neurospora crassa.both circadian rhythm and the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) are fundamental features of aerobic eukaryotic cells. the circadian clock enhances the fitness of organisms by enabling them to anticipate cycling changes in the surroundings. ros generation in the cell is often altered in response to environmental changes, but oscillations in ros levels may also reflect endogenous metabolic fluctuations governed by the circadian clock. on the other hand, an effective regulation and timing ...201423964982
the n-terminal region of the neurospora ndr kinase cot1 regulates morphology via its interactions with mob2a/b.nuclear dbf2p-related (ndr) protein kinases are important for cell differentiation and polar morphogenesis in various organisms, yet some of their functions are still elusive. dysfunction of the neurospora crassa ndr kinase cot1 leads to cessation of tip extension and hyperbranching. ndr kinases require the physical interaction between the kinase's n-terminal region (ntr) and the mps1-binding (mob) proteins for their activity and functions. to study the interactions between cot1 and mob2 protein ...201323962317
investigation of the functional role of aldose 1-epimerase in engineered cellobiose utilization.functional expression of a cellodextrin transporter and an intracellular β-glucosidase from neurospora crassa in saccharomyces cerevisiae enables simultaneous co-fermentation of cellobiose and non-glucose sugars such as xylose. here we investigate the functional role of aldose 1-epimerase (aep) in engineered cellobiose utilization. one aep (gal10) and two putative aeps (yhr210c and ynr071c sharing 50.6% and 51.0% amino acid identity with gal10, respectively) were selected. deletion of gal10 led ...201323954547
mtb-3, a microtubule plus-end tracking protein (+tip) of neurospora crassa.the microtubule (mt) "plus end" constitutes the platform for the accumulation of a structurally and functionally diverse group of proteins, collectively called "mt plus-end tracking proteins" (+tips). +tips control mt dynamics and link mts to diverse sub-cellular structures. neurospora crassamicrotubule binding protein-3 (mtb-3) is the homolog of yeast eb1, a highly conserved +tip. to address the function of mtb-3, we examined strains with mtb-3 deletions, and we tagged mtb-3 with gfp to assess ...201323950979
analysis of mutations in neurospora crassa ermes components reveals specific functions related to β-barrel protein assembly and maintenance of mitochondrial morphology.the endoplasmic reticulum mitochondria encounter structure (ermes) tethers the er to mitochondria and contains four structural components: mmm1, mdm12, mdm10, and mmm2 (mdm34). the gem1 protein may play a role in regulating ermes function. saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa strains lacking any of mmm1, mdm12, or mdm10 are known to show a variety of phenotypic defects including altered mitochondrial morphology and defects in the assembly of β-barrel proteins into the mitochondrial out ...201323940790
genome wide association identifies novel loci involved in fungal communication.understanding how genomes encode complex cellular and organismal behaviors has become the outstanding challenge of modern genetics. unlike classical screening methods, analysis of genetic variation that occurs naturally in wild populations can enable rapid, genome-scale mapping of genotype to phenotype with a medium-throughput experimental design. here we describe the results of the first genome-wide association study (gwas) used to identify novel loci underlying trait variation in a microbial e ...201323935534
reconstruction and validation of a genome-scale metabolic model for the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa using farm.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa played a central role in the development of twentieth-century genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology, and continues to serve as a model organism for eukaryotic biology. here, we have reconstructed a genome-scale model of its metabolism. this model consists of 836 metabolic genes, 257 pathways, 6 cellular compartments, and is supported by extensive manual curation of 491 literature citations. to aid our reconstruction, we developed three optimization ...201323935467
characterization of bud emergence 46 (bem46) protein: sequence, structural, phylogenetic and subcellular localization analyses.the bud emergence 46 (bem46) protein from neurospora crassa belongs to the α/β-hydrolase superfamily. recently, we have reported that the bem46 protein is localized in the perinuclear er and also forms spots close by the plasma membrane. the protein appears to be required for cell type-specific polarity formation in n. crassa. furthermore, initial studies suggested that the bem46 amino acid sequence is conserved in eukaryotes and is considered to be one of the widespread conserved "known unknown ...201323916612
the oxygenase cao-1 of neurospora crassa is a resveratrol cleavage enzyme.the genome of the ascomycete neurospora crassa encodes cao-1 and cao-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. previous studies demonstrated the role of cao-2 in cleaving the c40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the c35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. in this work, we investigated the activity of cao-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the nop-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. ...201323893079
recent advances in septum biogenesis in neurospora crassa.hyphae of the ascomycota are tubular cells compartmentalized by perforated septa, whose central pore allows the flow of organelles and cytoplasm. while in plants and yeast septation leads to cell separation, in filamentous fungi the formation of crosswalls appears to have an architectural role, limits the extent of mechanical damage thus maintaining hyphal integrity, and also is of fundamental importance as part of cell differentiation. the increasing number of available fungal genome sequences, ...201323890213
synchronous activation of cell division by light or temperature stimuli in the dimorphic yeast schizosaccharomyces japonicus.many fungi respond to light and regulate fungal development and behavior. a blue light-activated complex has been identified in neurospora crassa as the product of the wc-1 and wc-2 genes. orthologs of wc-1 and wc-2 have hitherto been found only in filamentous fungi and not in yeast, with the exception of the basidiomycete pathogenic yeast cryptococcus. here, we report that the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces japonicus responds to blue light depending on wcs1 and wcs2, orthologs of components ...201323873862
physiological role of acyl coenzyme a synthetase homologs in lipid metabolism in neurospora crassa.acyl coenzyme a (coa) synthetase (acs) enzymes catalyze the activation of free fatty acids (fas) to coa esters by a two-step thioesterification reaction. activated fas participate in a variety of anabolic and catabolic lipid metabolic pathways, including de novo complex lipid biosynthesis, fa β-oxidation, and lipid membrane remodeling. analysis of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa identified seven putative fatty acss (acs-1 through acs-7). acs-3 was found to be the ...201323873861
nuclear dynamics in a fungal chimera.a fungal colony is a syncytium composed of a branched and interconnected network of cells. chimerism endows colonies with increased virulence and ability to exploit nutritionally complex substrates. moreover, chimera formation may be a driver for diversification at the species level by allowing lateral gene transfer between strains that are too distantly related to hybridize sexually. however, the processes by which genomic diversity develops and is maintained within a single colony are little u ...201323861490
optimization of cdt-1 and xyl1 expression for balanced co-production of ethanol and xylitol from cellobiose and xylose by engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae.production of ethanol and xylitol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is an alternative to the traditional production of ethanol in utilizing biomass. however, the conversion efficiency of xylose to xylitol is restricted by glucose repression, causing a low xylitol titer. to this end, we cloned genes cdt-1 (encoding a cellodextrin transporter) and gh1-1 (encoding an intracellular β-glucosidase) from neurospora crassa and xyl1 (encoding a xylose reductase that converts xylose into xylitol) from sch ...201323844185
simultaneous saccharification and fermentation by engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae without supplementing extracellular β-glucosidase.simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) has been considered a promising and economical process for cellulosic ethanol production. further cost savings could be gained by reducing enzyme loading and engineering host strain for ethanol production. in this study, we demonstrate efficient ethanol production by ssf without supplementation of β-glucosidase using an engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing a cellodextrin transporter and an intracellular β-glucosidase from neur ...201323835155
sulfur-regulated control of the met-2⁺ gene of neurospora crassa encoding cystathionine β-lyase.cystathionine β-lyase performs an essential role in the transsulfuration pathway by its primary reaction of forming homocysteine from cystathionine. understanding how the neurospora crassa met-2⁺ gene, which encodes cystathionine β-lyase, is regulated is important in determining the basis of the cellular control of transsulfuration. the aim of this study was to determine the nature of a potential regulatory connection of met-2⁺ to the neurospora sulfur regulatory network.201323835025
conformational stability and crystal packing: polymorphism in neurospora crassa cat-3.polymorphism is frequently observed from different crystallization conditions. in proteins, the effect on conformational variability is poorly documented, with only a few reported examples. here, three polymorphic crystal structures determined for a large-subunit catalase, cat-3 from neurospora crassa, are reported. two of them belonged to new space groups, p1 and p43212, and a third structure belonged to the same space group, p212121, as the previously deposited 2.3 å resolution structure (pdb ...201323832201
transcriptomic profiling-based mutant screen reveals three new transcription factors mediating menadione resistance in neurospora crassa.to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms of oxidative stress responses in filamentous fungi, the genome-wide transcriptional response of neurospora crassa to menadione was analysed by digital gene expression (dge) profiling, which identified 779 upregulated genes and 576 downregulated genes. knockout mutants affecting 130 highly-upregulated genes were tested for menadione sensitivity, which revealed that loss of the transcription factor siderophore regulation (sre) (a transcriptional repre ...201323809652
residual recombination in neurospora crassa spo11 deletion homozygotes occurs during meiosis.spo11 is considered responsible for initiation of meiotic recombination in higher organisms, but previous analysis using spo11 (rip) mutants suggests that the his-3 region of neurospora crassa experiences spo11-independent recombination. however, despite possessing several stop codons, it is conceivable that the mutants are not completely null. also, since lack of spo11 interferes with chromosomal pairing and proper segregation at meiosis i, spores can be partially diploid for a period after mei ...201323801409
adoption of the q transcriptional regulatory system for zebrafish transgenesis.the gal4-uas regulatory system of yeast is widely used to modulate gene expression in drosophila; however, there are limitations to its usefulness in transgenic zebrafish, owing to progressive methylation and silencing of the cpg-rich multicopy upstream activation sequence. although a modified, less repetitive uas construct may overcome this problem, it is highly desirable to have additional transcriptional regulatory systems that can be applied independently or in combination with the gal4/uas ...201423792917
evolution, selection and isolation: a genomic view of speciation in fungal plant pathogens.895 i. 895 ii. 896 iii. 898 iv. 900 v. 902 vi. 904 vii. 905 905 references 905 summary: speciation of fungal plant pathogens has been associated with host jumps, host domestication, clonal divergence, and hybridization. although we have substantial insight into the speciation histories of several important plant pathogens, we still know very little about the underlying genetics of reproductive isolation. studies in saccharomyces cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, and nonfungal model systems illustra ...201323782262
analysis of a conserved cellulase transcriptional regulator reveals inducer-independent production of cellulolytic enzymes in neurospora crassa.cellulose is recalcitrant to deconstruction to glucose for use in fermentation strategies for biofuels and chemicals derived from lignocellulose. in neurospora crassa, the transcriptional regulator, clr-2, is required for cellulolytic gene expression and cellulose deconstruction. to assess conservation and divergence of cellulase gene regulation between fungi from different ecological niches, we compared clr-2 function with its ortholog (clrb) in the distantly related species, aspergillus nidula ...201323766336
sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 mediates the sensitivity to antifungal azoles in neurospora crassa and fusarium verticillioides.antifungal azoles inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis by interfering with lanosterol 14α-demethylase. in this study, seven upregulated and four downregulated ergosterol biosynthesis genes in response to ketoconazole treatment were identified in neurospora crassa. azole sensitivity test of knockout mutants for six ketoconazole-upregulated genes in ergosterol biosynthesis revealed that deletion of only sterol c-22 desaturase erg5 altered sensitivity to azoles: the erg5 mutant was hypersensitive to azo ...201323755044
homology modeling, ligand docking and in silico mutagenesis of neurospora hsp80 (90): insight into intrinsic atpase activity.the hsp90 family of proteins is an important component of the cellular response to elevated temperatures, environmental or physiological stress and nuclear receptor signalling. the primary object of this work is the 80-kda heat shock protein, a member of the hsp90 family, from the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, (henceforth referred to as hsp80nc). in contrast to more extensively characterized members of the same family, (e.g. hsp82sc of saccharomyces cerevisiae) it exhibits a higher ...201323735900
transcriptional profiling of neurospora crassa δmak-2 reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase mak-2 participates in the phosphate signaling pathway.the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa is an excellent model system for examining molecular responses to ambient signals in eukaryotic microorganisms. inorganic phosphate (pi) is an essential growth-limiting nutrient in nature and is crucial for the synthesis of nucleic acids and the flow of genetic information. the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling the response to pi starvation in n. crassa include at least four genes (nuc-2, preg, pogv, and nuc-1), which are involved in a hierarch ...201323733042
the plasma membrane proton pump pma-1 is incorporated into distal parts of the hyphae independently of the spitzenkörper in neurospora crassa.most models for fungal growth have proposed a directional traffic of secretory vesicles to the hyphal apex, where they temporarily aggregate at the spitzenkörper before they fuse with the plasma membrane (pm). the pm h(+)-translocating atpase (pma-1) is delivered via the classical secretory pathway (endoplasmic reticulum [er] to golgi) to the cell surface, where it pumps h(+) out of the cell, generating a large electrochemical gradient that supplies energy to h(+)-coupled nutrient uptake systems ...201323729384
the trichoderma atroviride photolyase-encoding gene is transcriptionally regulated by non-canonical light response elements.the blr-1 and blr-2 proteins of trichoderma atroviride are the neurospora crassa homologs of white collar-1 and -2, two transcription factors involved in the regulation of genes by blue light. blr-1 and blr-2 are essential for photoinduction of phr-1, a photolyase-encoding gene whose promoter exhibits sequences similar to well-characterized light regulatory elements of neurospora, including the albino proximal element and the light response element (lre). however, despite the fact that this gene ...201323721733
septins are important for cell polarity, septation and asexual spore formation in neurospora crassa and show different patterns of localisation at germ tube tips.septins are gtp-binding cytoskeletal proteins that contribute to cell polarity, vesicle trafficking, cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. here we have characterised the six septins encoded by the genome of the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. analysis of septin null mutants demonstrated that septins limit the sites of emergence of germ tubes and are important for septation and conidiation in n. crassa. septins constituted a range of different higher-order structures in n. crassa - ring ...201323691103
neurospora crassa nkin2, a kinesin-3 motor, transports early endosomes and is required for polarized growth.biological motors are molecular nanomachines, which convert chemical energy into mechanical forces. the combination of mechanoenzymes with structural components, such as the cytoskeleton, enables eukaryotic cells to overcome entropy, generate molecular gradients, and establish polarity. hyphae of filamentous fungi are among the most polarized cells, and polarity defects are most obvious. here, we studied the role of the kinesin-3 motor, nkin2, in neurospora crassa. we found that nkin2 localizes ...201323687116
an apparent increase in meiotic silencing strength in crosses involving inbred neurospora crassa strains.meiotic silencing by unpaired dna is a presumed rnai-mediated elimination of the transcripts of any gene that is not properly paired with a homolog in meiosis. wild-isolated strains of neurospora crassa can be classified into three types based on the apparent strength of meiotic silencing of the bml (β-tubulin) and mei-3 genes in crosses of the wild strains with the tester strains ::bml(r) and ::mei-3. crosses with "or" and "sad" type wild-isolates, respectively, did or did not silence both the ...201323685173
reduced glutathione export during programmed cell death of neurospora crassa.in a previous study, we demonstrated that staurosporine (sts) induces programmed cell death (pcd) in the fungus neurospora crassa and that glutathione has the capability of inhibiting both sts-induced reactive oxygen species (ros) formation and cell death. here, we further investigated the role of glutathione in sts-induced pcd in n. crassa and observed an efflux of reduced glutathione (gsh) together with a change in the cell internal redox state to a more oxidative environment. this event was a ...201323666236
novel insights into the role of neurospora crassa ndufaf2, an evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial complex i assembly factor.complex i deficiency is commonly associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation diseases. mutations in nuclear genes encoding structural subunits or assembly factors of complex i have been increasingly identified as the cause of the diseases. one such factor, ndufaf2, is a paralog of the ndufa12 structural subunit of the enzyme, but the mechanism by which it exerts its function remains unknown. herein, we demonstrate that the neurospora crassa ndufaf2 homologue, the 13.4 l protein, is a ...201323648483
conf and conj contribute to conidia germination and stress response in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.light induces various responses in fungi including formation of asexual and sexual reproductive structures. the formation of conidia in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by red and blue light receptors. expression of conidia associated con genes, which are widely spread in the fungal kingdom, increases upon exposure to light. we have characterized the light-inducible conf and conj genes of a. nidulans which are homologs of con-6 and con-10 of neurospora crassa. con genes a ...201323644150
the bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol impairs mitochondrial function and affects calcium homeostasis in neurospora crassa.the bacterial secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (dapg) is of interest as an active ingredient of biological control strains of pseudomonas fluorescens and as a potential lead pharmaceutical molecule because of its capacity to inhibit growth of diverse microbial and non-microbial cells. the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown and in this study the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was used as a model to investigate the effects of dapg on a eukaryotic cell. colony growth, co ...201323624246
the type of mutations induced by carbon-ion-beam irradiation of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.heavy-ion beams are known to cause great damage to cellular components and are particularly renowned for their ability to generate dna double-strand breaks (dsbs). to gain insight into the mutagenic effect of carbon-ion beams and how such damage is repaired by the cell, neurospora crassa mutants deficient in one of three components involved in the repair of dsbs, nonhomologous end-joining (nhej), homologous recombination repair (hr), and the mre11-rad50-xrs2 (mrx) complex, were irradiated with a ...201323622717
fungal siderophore biosynthesis is partially localized in peroxisomes.siderophores play a central role in iron metabolism and virulence of most fungi. both aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus nidulans excrete the siderophore triacetylfusarinine c (tafc) for iron acquisition. in a. fumigatus, green fluorescence protein-tagging revealed peroxisomal localization of the tafc biosynthetic enzymes sidi (mevalonyl-coa ligase), sidh (mevalonyl-coa hydratase) and sidf (anhydromevalonyl-coa transferase), while elimination of the peroxisomal targeting signal (pts) impaired ...201323617799
production of xylitol by recombinant microalgae.microalgae have received significant attention recently as a potential low-cost host for the production of next-generation biofuels and natural products. here we show that the chloroplast genome of the eukaryotic green microalga chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be genetically engineered to produce xylitol through the introduction of a gene encoding a xylose reductase (xr) from the fungi neurospora crassa. increased levels of heterologous protein accumulation and xylitol production were achieved by ...201323597921
the l-cysteine desulfurase nfs1 is localized in the cytosol where it provides the sulfur for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in humans.in humans, the l-cysteine desulfurase nfs1 plays a crucial role in the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and in the thiomodification of mitochondrial and cytosolic trnas. we have previously demonstrated that purified nfs1 is able to transfer sulfur to the c-terminal domain of mocs3, a cytosolic protein involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis and trna thiolation. however, no direct evidence existed so far for the interaction of nfs1 and mocs3 in the cytosol of human cells. here, ...201323593335
the transcriptional response to nonself in the fungus podospora anserina.in fungi, heterokaryon incompatibility is a nonself recognition process occurring when filaments of different isolates of the same species fuse. compatibility is controlled by so-called het loci and fusion of strains of unlike het genotype triggers a complex incompatibility reaction that leads to the death of the fusion cell. herein, we analyze the transcriptional changes during the incompatibility reaction in podospora anserina. the incompatibility response was found to be associated with a mas ...201323589521
characterization of cytotoxic compound from mangrove derived fungi irpex hydnoides vb4.to investigate the cytotoxic activity of endophytic fungi isolated from mangrove fungi.201123569763
computational discovery of transcriptional regulatory modules in fungal ribosome biogenesis genes reveals novel sequence and function patterns.genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and assembly (rba) are responsible for ribosome formation. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, their transcription is regulated by two dissimilar dna motifs. we were interested in analyzing conservation and divergence of rba transcription regulation machinery throughout fungal evolution. we have identified orthologs of s. cerevisiae rba genes in 39 species across fungal phylogeny and searched upstream regions of these gene sets for dna sequences significantly simil ...201323555806
biochemical characterization of molybdenum cofactor-free nitrate reductase from neurospora crassa.nitrate reductase (nr) is a complex molybdenum cofactor (moco)-dependent homodimeric metalloenzyme that is vitally important for autotrophic organism as it catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of nitrate assimilation. beside moco, eukaryotic nr also binds fad and heme as additional redox active cofactors, and these are involved in electron transfer from nad(p)h to the enzyme molybdenum center where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. we report the first biochemical characterizatio ...201323539622
regional control of histone h3 lysine 27 methylation in neurospora.trimethylated lysine 27 on histone h3 (h3k27me3) is present in drosophila, arabidopsis, worms, and mammals, but is absent from yeasts that have been examined. we identified and analyzed h3k27me3 in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa and in other neurospora species. h3k27me3 covers 6.8% of the n. crassa genome, encompassing 223 domains, including 774 genes, all of which are transcriptionally silent. n. crassa h3k27me3-marked genes are less conserved than unmarked genes and only ∼35% of gene ...201323530226
trans-species activity of a nonself recognition domain.the ability to distinguish nonself from self is a fundamental characteristic of biological systems. in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, multiple incompatibility genes mediate nonself recognition during vegetative growth. one of these genes, un-24, encodes both nonself recognition function and the large subunit of a type i ribonucleotide reductase, an evolutionarily conserved enzyme that is essential for the conversion of ndp precursors into dndps for use in dna synthesis. previous studi ...201323517247
alternative splicing in ascomycetes.alternative splicing is a complex and regulated process, which results in mrna with different coding capacities from a single gene. extend and types of alternative splicing vary greatly among eukaryotes. in this review, i focus on alternative splicing in ascomycetes, which in general have significant lower extend of alternative splicing than mammals. yeast-like species have low numbers of introns and consequently alternative splicing is lower compared to filamentous fungi. several examples from ...201323515838
novel proteins required for meiotic silencing by unpaired dna and sirna generation in neurospora crassa.during meiosis in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are identified and silenced by a process known as meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud). previous work has uncovered six proteins required for msud, all of which are also essential for meiotic progression. additionally, they all localize in the perinuclear region, suggesting that it is a center of msud activity. nevertheless, at least a subset of msud proteins must be present inside the nucleus, as unpaired dna recogni ...201323502675
identification of small rnas associated with meiotic silencing by unpaired dna.in neurospora crassa, unpaired genes are silenced by a mechanism called meiotic silencing by unpaired dna (msud). although some rna interference proteins are necessary for this process, its requirement of small rnas has yet to be formally established. here we report the characterization of small rnas targeting an unpaired region, using illumina sequencing.201323502674
coordination of k+ transporters in neurospora: trk1 is scarce and constitutive, while hak1 is abundant and highly regulated.fungi, plants, and bacteria accumulate potassium via two distinct molecular machines not directly coupled to atp hydrolysis. the first, designated trk, hkt, or ktr, has eight transmembrane helices and is folded like known potassium channels, while the second, designated hak, kt, or kup, has 12 transmembrane helices and resembles mfs class proteins. one of each type functions in the model organism neurospora crassa, where both are readily accessible for biochemical, genetic, and electrophysiologi ...201323475706
a comparative study of nitrilases identified by genome mining.escherichia coli strains expressing different nitrilases transformed nitriles or kcn. six nitrilases (from aspergillus niger (2), a. oryzae, neurospora crassa, arthroderma benhamiae, and nectria haematococca) were arylacetonitrilases, two enzymes (from a. niger and penicillium chrysogenum) were cyanide hydratases and the others (from p. chrysogenum, p. marneffei, gibberella moniliformis, meyerozyma guilliermondi, rhodococcus rhodochrous, and r. ruber) preferred (hetero)aromatic nitriles as subst ...201323475593
microbial transformations of isophorone by alternaria alternata and neurospora crassa.isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one), a monoterpene, and the structurally related 1,8-cineole and camphor, have demonstrated a protective effect against cancer, biological activity against a variety of microorganisms, and anti-oxidant properties. the derivatization of isophorone is, therefore, an important field of xenobiochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. the aim of this study was to obtain derivatives of isophorone through microbial biotransformation and evaluate the biotransfo ...201323472460
biotransformation of 14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide into a novel hydroxylation product by neurospora crassa.the biotransformation of 14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide by neurospora crassa cgmcc as 3.1604 to produce a new hydroxylation derivative was studied. the structure of this novel compound was determined using spectral data. this biotransformation using whole cells conditioned for 4 days transformed approximately 65% (mol ratio) of the substrate into the compound (5r)-5-hydroxy-14-deoxy-14-methylenetriptolide.201323465510
genetics of cordyceps and related fungi.ascomycete cordyceps sensu lato consists of hundreds of species of fungi capable of infecting different insects. species of these fungi are either valued traditional chinese medicines or used for biocontrol of insect pests. phylogenomic analysis indicated that fungal entomopathogenicity has evolved for multiple times, and the species of cordyceps were diverged from the mycoparasite or plant endophyte. relative to plant pathogens and saprophytes, cordyceps species demonstrate characteristic genom ...201323435902
fungal cell wall organization and biosynthesis.the composition and organization of the cell walls from saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus fumigatus, schizosaccharomyces pombe, neurospora crassa, and cryptococcus neoformans are compared and contrasted. these cell walls contain chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan, β-1,6-glucan, mixed β-1,3-/β-1,4-glucan, α-1,3-glucan, melanin, and glycoproteins as major constituents. a comparison of these cell walls shows that there is a great deal of variability in fungal cell wall composition ...201323419716
effect of heterologous xylose transporter expression in candida tropicalis on xylitol production rate.xylose utilization is inhibited by glucose uptake in xylose-assimilating yeasts, including candida tropicalis, resulting in limitation of xylose uptake during the fermentation of glucose/xylose mixtures. in this study, a heterologous xylose transporter gene (at5g17010) from arabidopsis thaliana was selected because of its high affinity for xylose and was codon-optimized for functional expression in c. tropicalis. the codon-optimized gene was placed under the control of the gapdh promoter and was ...201323411871
direct cellobiose production from cellulose using sextuple beta-glucosidase gene deletion neurospora crassa mutants.direct cellobiose production from cellulose by a genetically modified fungus-neurospora crassa, was explored in this study. a library of n. crassa sextuple beta-glucosidase (bgl) gene deletion strains was constructed. various concentrations of cellobiose were detected in the culture broth of the n. crassa sextuple beta-glucosidase (bgl) gene deletion strains when grown on avicel without exogenous cellulase addition. the sextuple bgl deletion strains expressing one of the three basally transcribe ...201323410930
the stringency of start codon selection in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.in eukaryotic cells initiation may occur from near-cognate codons that differ from aug by a single nucleotide. the stringency of start codon selection impacts the efficiency of initiation at near-cognate codons and the efficiency of initiation at aug codons in different contexts. we used a codon-optimized firefly luciferase reporter initiated with aug or each of the nine near-cognate codons in preferred context to examine the stringency of start codon selection in the model filamentous fungus ne ...201323396971
global analyses of ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: from genome to proteome.the ascomycete fungus ceratocystis cacaofunesta is the causal agent of wilt disease in cacao, which results in significant economic losses in the affected producing areas. despite the economic importance of the ceratocystis complex of species, no genomic data are available for any of its members. given that mitochondria play important roles in fungal virulence and the susceptibility/resistance of fungi to fungicides, we performed the first functional analysis of this organelle in ceratocystis us ...201323394930
both osrecq1 and osrdr1 are required for the production of small rna in response to dna-damage in rice.small rna-mediated gene silencing pathways play important roles in the regulation of development, genome stability and various stress responses in many eukaryotes. recently, a new type of small interfering rnas (qirnas) approximately 20-21 nucleotides long in neurospora crassa have been shown to mediate gene silencing in the dna damage response (ddr) pathway. however, the mechanism for rna silencing in the ddr pathway is largely unknown in plants. here, we report that a class of small rnas (qirn ...201323383126
eukaryotic tpp riboswitch regulation of alternative splicing involving long-distance base pairing.thiamin pyrophosphate (tpp) riboswitches are found in organisms from all three domains of life. examples in bacteria commonly repress gene expression by terminating transcription or by blocking ribosome binding, whereas most eukaryotic tpp riboswitches are predicted to regulate gene expression by modulating rna splicing. given the widespread distribution of eukaryotic tpp riboswitches and the diversity of their locations in precursor messenger rnas (pre-mrnas), we sought to examine the mechanism ...201323376932
glucoamylase is a potential allergen in products expressed in neurospora crassa. 201323352537
two functional motifs define the interaction, internalization and toxicity of the cell-penetrating antifungal peptide paf26 on fungal cells.the synthetic, cell penetrating hexapeptide paf26 (rkkwfw) is antifungal at low micromolar concentrations and has been proposed as a model for cationic, cell-penetrating antifungal peptides. its short amino acid sequence facilitates the analysis of its structure-activity relationships using the fungal models neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae, and human and plant pathogens aspergillus fumigatus and penicillium digitatum, respectively. previously, paf26 at low fungicidal concentration ...201323349973
transcription of the major neurospora crassa microrna-like small rnas relies on rna polymerase iii.most plant and animal micrornas (mirnas) are transcribed by rna polymerase ii. we previously discovered mirna-like small rnas (milrnas) in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa and uncovered at least four different pathways for milrna production. to understand the evolutionary origin of milrnas, we determined the roles of polymerases ii and iii (pol ii and pol iii) in milrna transcription. our results show that pol iii is responsible for the transcription of the major milrnas produced in this ...201323349642
using a model filamentous fungus to unravel mechanisms of lignocellulose deconstruction.filamentous fungi are the main source of enzymes used to degrade lignocellulose to fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels. while the most commonly used organism for the production of cellulases in an industrial setting is trichoderma reesei (hypocrea jecorina), recent work in the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa has shown that the variety of molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques developed for this organism can expedite analyses of the complexities involved in the uti ...201323339486
nonself recognition through intermolecular disulfide bond formation of ribonucleotide reductase in neurospora.type i ribonucleotide reductases (rnrs) are conserved across diverse taxa and are essential for the conversion of rna into dna precursors. in neurospora crassa, the large subunit of rnr (un-24) is unusual in that it also has a nonself recognition function, whereby coexpression of oak ridge (or) and panama (pa) alleles of un-24 in the same cell leads to growth inhibition and cell death. we show that coexpressing these incompatible alleles of un-24 in n. crassa results in a high molecular weight u ...201323335337
biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal ...201323318834
reactive oxygen species can modulate circadian phase and period in neurospora crassa.reactive oxygen species (ros) may serve as signals coupling metabolism to other cell functions. in addition to being by-products of normal metabolism, they are generated at elevated levels under environmental stress situations. we analyzed how reactive oxygen species affect the circadian clock in the model organism neurospora crassa. in light/dark cycles, an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species advanced the phase of both the conidiation rhythm and the expression of the clock gene fr ...201323277144
deletion and expression analysis of beta-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferase genes in neurospora crassa.gpi(glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored beta-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferases play an active role in cell wall biosynthesis in fungi. neurospora crassa has 5 putative beta-(1,3)-glucanosyltransferase genes, namely, gel-1, gel-2, gel-3, gel-4, and gel-5, in its genome. among them, the gel-3 gene is constitutively expressed at the highest level in growing hyphae, whereas gel-1 is expressed at the lowest level. the gel-3 deletion mutant displayed slow growth, while other gel gene disruptants exhibit ...201323274249
the essential phosphoinositide kinase mss-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in neurospora crassa.fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. we characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (pis) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete neurospora crassa. mss-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. tw ...201223272106
single amino acid substitutions in hxt2.4 from scheffersomyces stipitis lead to improved cellobiose fermentation by engineered saccharomyces cerevisiae.saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize cellobiose, but this yeast can be engineered to ferment cellobiose by introducing both cellodextrin transporter (cdt-1) and intracellular β-glucosidase (gh1-1) genes from neurospora crassa. here, we report that an engineered s. cerevisiae strain expressing the putative hexose transporter gene hxt2.4 from scheffersomyces stipitis and gh1-1 can also ferment cellobiose. this result suggests that hxt2.4p may function as a cellobiose transporter when hxt2.4 is ...201323263959
efficient sequential repetitive gene deletions in neurospora crassa employing a self-excising β-recombinase/six cassette.despite its long-standing history as a model organism, neurospora crassa has limited tools for repetitive gene deletions utilizing recyclable self-excising marker systems. here we describe, for the first time, the functionality of a bacterial recombination system employing β-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (β-rec/six) in n. crassa, which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling. we report generating the mus-51 deletion strain using this system, recyclin ...201323246910
[effect of oxylipins on neurospora crassa growth and differentiation ion]. 201223234069
a uvs-5 strain is deficient for a mitofusin gene homologue, fzo1, involved in maintenance of long life span in neurospora crassa.mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that continuously fuse and divide. to maintain mitochondria, cells establish an equilibrium of fusion and fission events, which are mediated by dynamin-like gtpases. we previously showed that an mus-10 strain, a mutagen-sensitive strain of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, is defective in an f-box protein that is essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial dna (mtdna), long life span, and mitochondrial morphology. similarly, a uvs-5 mutant ac ...201323223037
in vitro antifungal evaluation and studies on mode of action of eight selected species from the argentine flora.twenty nine extracts belonging to eight species of the argentine flora reported as antifungal in folk medicine, were assayed for antifungal properties by using the agar dilution method, against a panel of yeasts, filamentous fungi as well as dermatophytes. nine extracts belonging to six species, exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against microsporum cants, microsporum gypseum, trichophyton mentagrophytes, trichophyton rubrum and epidermophyton floccosum, with mics ranging from 25 to 900 μg/m ...199823195989
identification of genes required for alternative oxidase production in the neurospora crassa gene knockout library.the alternative oxidase (aox) of neurospora crassa transfers electrons from ubiquinol to oxygen. the enzyme is not expressed under normal conditions. however, when the function of the standard electron transport chain is compromised, aox is induced, providing cells with a means to continue respiration and growth. induction of the enzyme represents a form of retrograde regulation because aox is encoded by a nuclear gene that responds to signals produced from inefficiently functioning mitochondria ...201223173086
variation in mitochondrial genome primary sequence among whole-genome-sequenced strains of neurospora crassa.eighteen classical mutant strains of neurospora crassa were subject to whole genome sequence analysis and the mitochondrial genome is analyzed. overall, the mitochondrial genomes of the classical mutant strains are 99.45 to 99.98 % identical to the reference genome. two-thirds of the snps and three-fourths of indels identified in this analysis are shared among more than one strain. most of the limited variability in mitochondrial genome sequence is neutral with regard to protein structure. despi ...201223155504
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