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functional analysis of the neurospora crassa pzl-1 protein phosphatase by expression in budding and fission yeast.the gene pzl-1 from the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa encodes a putative ser/thr protein phosphatase that is reminiscent of the ppz1/ppz2 and pzh1 phosphatases from saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe, respectively. the entire pzl-1 protein, as well as its carboxyl-terminal domain, have been expressed in escherichia coli as active protein phosphatases. to characterize its cellular role, pzl-1 was also expressed in sz. pombe and in s. cerevisiae. expression of pzl-1 in s ...200111169754
repeat-induced point mutation (rip) in crosses with wild-isolated strains of neurospora crassa: evidence for dominant reduction of rip.seventy-one wild-isolated strains of neurospora crassa were examined for their ability to support repeat-induced point mutation (rip) in the erg-3 locus. rip was exceptionally inefficient but detectable in crosses with the strain fgsc 430 from adiopodoume, ivory coast. we could find no consistent differences in ascospore yields when wild isolates identified as "low-rip" or "high-rip" strains were crossed with strains bearing the segmental duplication dp(iiir > [i; ii])ar17. this suggested that r ...200011170738
a conserved mechanism for post-transcriptional gene silencing?proteins with homology to rna-directed rna polymerases function in post-transcriptional gene silencing: in quelling in the fungus neurospora crassa, rnai in the nematode caenorhabditis elegans, and co-suppression in the mustard plant arabidopsis thaliana. these findings are consistent with a conserved mechanism operating in these diverse species.200011178243
cloning and expression in phospholipid containing cultures of the gene encoding the specific phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from aspergillus oryzae: evidence that the pg/pi-tp is tandemly arranged with the putative 3-ketoacyl-coa thiolase gene.the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (pg/pi-tp) is a new and original phospholipid transfer protein (pltp) isolated from the deuteromycete, aspergillus oryzae. we have isolated a genomic clone of the a. oryzae pg/pi-tp using a probe derived from the corresponding cdna and sequenced the complete gene. the dna sequence analysis revealed that pg/pi-tp gene is composed of three exons encoding a 18,823 da protein of 175 amino acids as previously described and of two introns ...200111179668
exploring infection of wheat and carbohydrate metabolism in mycosphaerella graminicola transformants with differentially regulated green fluorescent protein expression.a mycosphaerella graminicola strain transformed with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) downstream of either a carbon source-repressed promoter or a constitutive promoter was used to investigate in situ carbohydrate uptake during penetration of the fungus in wheat leaves. the promoter region of the acu-3 gene from neurospora crassa encoding isocitrate lyase was used as a carbon source-repressed promoter. the promoter region of the aspergillus nidulans gpda gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phospha ...200111204778
molecular control of copper homeostasis in filamentous fungi: increased expression of a metallothionein gene during aging of podospora anserina.the lifespan of the ascomycete podospora anserina was previously demonstrated to be significantly increased in a copper-uptake mutant, suggesting that copper is a potential stressor involved in degenerative processes. in order to determine whether changes in copper stress occur in the cells during normal aging of cultures, we cloned and characterized a gene coding for a component of the molecular machinery involved in the control of copper homeostasis. this gene, pamt1, is a single-copy gene tha ...200111212915
caspase-3 activates endo-exonuclease: further evidence for a role of the nuclease in apoptosis.single-strand dnase and poly raase, activities characteristic of endo-exonuclease, were co-activated in nuclear fractions of hl-60 cells by caspase-3. activation was accompanied by cleavages of large soluble polypeptides (130-185 kda) and a 65 kda inactive chromatin-associated polypeptide related to the endo-exonuclease of neurospora crassa as detected on immunoblots. the major products seen in vitro were a 77 kda soluble polypeptide and an active chromatin-associated 34 kda polypeptide. when hl ...200011225846
chemical characterization of fungal siderophores.siderophores of twenty fungi belonging to zygomycotina (5 mucorales), ascomycotina (7 aspergilli, 6 penicillia, neurospora crassa) and deuteromycotina (fusarium dimerum) were examined for their chemical nature. siderophores produced by fungi other than mucorales were all hydroxamates. mucorales produced carboxylate siderophores. catecholate type of siderophores were not detectable. hydroxamate siderophores were mostly (9 out of 15) trihydroxamates, while six were dihydroxamates. monohydroxamate ...200011233086
[differential accumulation of the new high-affinity phosphate transporter candidated gene fragment in rice roots in response to phosphorus deficiency stress].phosphate is a major constraint to crop production, and phosphate uptake in plant is mainly by high-affinity phosphate transporter under phosphate deficiency condition. using rt-pcr, a 1,178 bp phosphate transporter gene fragment ojpt1 was cloned from roots of jingxi17 (oryza sativa l. ssp. japanica) supplied with no phosphate. the comparison of this sequence with ones in genbank indicated that it shared about 70% similarity at amino acid level with other phosphate transporters in higher plants, ...200111233258
the goodwin model: simulating the effect of light pulses on the circadian sporulation rhythm of neurospora crassa.the goodwin oscillator is a minimal model that describes the oscillatory negative feedback regulation of a translated protein which inhibits its own transcription. now, over 30 years later this scheme provides a basic description of the central components in the circadian oscillators of neurospora, drosophila, and mammals. we showed previously that neurospora's resetting behavior by pulses of temperature, cycloheximide or heat shock can be simulated by this model, in which degradation processes ...200111237568
accumulation of stress and inducer-dependent plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes during asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.determination and interpretation of fungal gene expression profiles based on digital reconstruction of expressed sequenced tags (ests) are reported. a total of 51,524 dna sequence files processed with pipeonline resulted in 9775 single and 5660 contig unique ests, 31.2% of a typical fungal transcriptome. half of the unique ests shared homology with genes in public databases, 35.8% of which are functionally defined and 64.2% are unclear or unknown. in aspergillus nidulans 86% of transcripts assoc ...200111238386
the neurospora crassa genome: cosmid libraries sorted by chromosome.a neurospora crassa cosmid library of 12,000 clones (at least nine genome equivalents) has been created using an improved cosmid vector plorist6xh, which contains a bacteriophage lambda origin of replication for low-copy-number replication in bacteria and the hygromycin phosphotransferase marker for direct selection in fungi. the electrophoretic karyotype of the seven chromosomes comprising the 42.9-mb n. crassa genome was resolved using two translocation strains. using gel-purified chromosomal ...200111238388
hybridization-based mapping of neurospora crassa linkage groups ii and v.as part of the german neurospora crassa genome project, physical clone maps of linkage groups ii and v of n. crassa were generated by hybridization-based mapping. to this end, two different types of clone library were used: (1) a bacterial artificial clone library of 15-fold genome coverage and an average insert size of 69 kb, and (2) three cosmid libraries--each cloned in a different vector--with 17-fold coverage and 34 kb average insert size. for analysis, the libraries were arrayed on filters ...200111238391
ods2: a multiplatform software application for creating integrated physical and genetic maps.a contig map is a physical map that shows the native order of a library of overlapping genomic clones. one common method for creating such maps involves using hybridization to detect clone overlaps. false- positive and false-negative hybridization errors, the presence of chimeric clones, and gaps in library coverage lead to ambiguity and error in the clone order. genomes with good genetic maps, such as neurospora crassa, provide a means for reducing ambiguities and errors when constructing conti ...200111238393
analysis of expressed sequence tags from two starvation, time-of-day-specific libraries of neurospora crassa reveals novel clock-controlled genes.in an effort to determine genes that are expressed in mycelial cultures of neurospora crassa over the course of the circadian day, we have sequenced 13,000 cdna clones from two time-of-day-specific libraries (morning and evening library) generating approximately 20,000 sequences. contig analysis allowed the identification of 445 unique expressed sequence tags (ests) and 986 ests present in multiple cdna clones. for approximately 50% of the sequences (710 of 1431), significant matches to sequence ...200111238394
analysis of the pdx-1 (snz-1/sno-1) region of the neurospora crassa genome: correlation of pyridoxine-requiring phenotypes with mutations in two structural genes.we report the analysis of a 36-kbp region of the neurospora crassa genome, which contains homologs of two closely linked stationary phase genes, snz1 and sno1, from saccharomyces cerevisiae. homologs of snz1 encode extremely highly conserved proteins that have been implicated in pyridoxine (vitamin b6) metabolism in the filamentous fungi cercospora nicotianae and in aspergillus nidulans. in n. crassa, snz and sno homologs map to the region occupied by pdx-1 (pyridoxine requiring), a gene that ha ...200111238395
function of the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase in rna splicing. role of the idiosyncratic n-terminal extension and different modes of interaction with different group i introns.the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (cyt-18 protein) promotes the splicing of group i introns by helping the intron rna fold into the catalytically active structure. the regions required for splicing include an idiosyncratic n-terminal extension, the nucleotide-binding fold domain, and the c-terminal rna-binding domain. here, we show that the idiosyncratic n-terminal region is in fact comprised of two functionally distinct parts: an upstream region consisting predominantl ...200111243805
the hydrophobin eas is largely unstructured in solution and functions by forming amyloid-like structures.fungal hydrophobin proteins have the remarkable ability to self-assemble into polymeric, amphipathic monolayers on the surface of aerial structures such as spores and fruiting bodies. these monolayers are extremely resistant to degradation and as such offer the possibility of a range of biotechnological applications involving the reversal of surface polarity. the molecular details underlying the formation of these monolayers, however, have been elusive. we have studied eas, the hydrophobin from ...200111250193
blue light adaptation and desensitization of light signal transduction in neurospora crassa.the ascomycete neurospora crassa has the capacity of adapting to a given light quantity, leading to transient blue light responses under continuous light conditions. here, we present an investigation of this photoadaptation phenomenon. we demonstrated previously that two proteins of the neurospora blue light signal transduction chain, wc1 and wc2, are subject to light-dependent phosphorylation. wc1 was phosphorylated in parallel with the transient increase in transcript levels of light-regulated ...200111251826
the neurospora crassa colonial temperature-sensitive 3 (cot-3) gene encodes protein elongation factor 2.at elevated temperatures, the neurospora crassa mutant colonial, temperature-sensitive 3 (cot-3) forms compact, highly branched colonies. growth of the cot-3 strain under these conditions also results in the loss of the lower molecular weight (lmw) isoform of the ser/thr protein kinase encoded by the unlinked cot-1 gene, whose function is also involved in hyphal elongation. the unique cot-3 gene has been cloned by complementation and shown to encode translation elongation factor 2 (ef-2). as exp ...200111254137
discovery of a novel antitumor benzolactone enamide class that selectively inhibits mammalian vacuolar-type (h+)-atpases.a series of naturally occurring compounds reported recently by multiple laboratories defines a new small-molecule class sharing a unique benzolactone enamide core structure and diverse biological actions, including inhibition of growth of tumor cells and oncogene-transformed cell lines. here we show that representative members of this class, including salicylihalamide a, lobatamides a-f, and oximidines i and ii inhibit mammalian vacuolar-type (h+)-atpases (v-atpases) with unprecedented selectivi ...200111259534
the cbk1p pathway is important for polarized cell growth and cell separation in saccharomyces cerevisiae.during the early stages of budding, cell wall remodeling and polarized secretion are concentrated at the bud tip (apical growth). the cbk1 gene, encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase, was identified in a screen designed to isolate mutations that affect apical growth. analysis of cbk1delta cells reveals that cbk1p is required for efficient apical growth, proper mating projection morphology, bipolar bud site selection in diploid cells, and cell separation. epitope-tagged cbk1p locali ...200111259593
rcoa has pleiotropic effects on aspergillus nidulans cellular development.aspergillus nidulans rcoa encodes a member of the wd repeat family of proteins. the rcoa protein shares sequence similarity with other members of this protein family, including the saccharomyces cerevisiae tup1p and neurospora crassa rco1. tup1p is involved in negative regulation of an array of functions including carbon catabolite repression. rco1 functions in regulating pleiotropic developmental processes, but not carbon catabolite repression. in a. nidulans, deletion of rcoa (deltarcoa), a re ...200111260466
biogenesis of porin of the outer mitochondrial membrane involves an import pathway via receptors and the general import pore of the tom complex.porin, also termed the voltage-dependent anion channel, is the most abundant protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. the process of import and assembly of the protein is known to be dependent on the surface receptor tom20, but the requirement for other mitochondrial proteins remains controversial. we have used mitochondria from neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze the import pathway of porin. import of porin into isolated mitochondria in which the outer membrane has bee ...200111266446
hex-1, a gene unique to filamentous fungi, encodes the major protein of the woronin body and functions as a plug for septal pores.we have identified a gene, named hex-1, that encodes the major protein in the hexagonal crystals, or woronin bodies, of neurospora crassa. analysis of a strain with a null mutation in the hex-1 gene showed that the septal pores in this organism were not plugged when hyphae were damaged, leading to extensive loss of cytoplasm. when grown on agar plates containing sorbose, the hex-1(-) strain showed extensive lysis of hyphal tips. the hex-1 protein was predicted to be 19,125 da. analysis of the n- ...200011273682
expression of the avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen cladosporium fulvum is regulated by the global nitrogen response factor nrf1.here we describe the role of the cladosporium fulvum nitrogen response factor 1 (nrf1) gene in regulation of the expression of avirulence gene avr9 and virulence on tomato. the nrf1 gene, which was isolated by a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy, is predicted to encode a protein of 918 amino acid residues. the protein contains a putative zinc finger dna-binding domain that shares 98% amino acid identity with the zinc finger of the major nitrogen regulatory proteins area and nit2 of asperg ...200111277429
assembly of tom6 and tom7 into the tom core complex of neurospora crassa.translocation of preproteins across the mitochondrial outer membrane is mediated by the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (tom) complex. we report the molecular identification of tom6 and tom7, two small subunits of the tom core complex in the fungus neurospora crassa. cross-linking experiments showed that both proteins were found to be in direct contact with the major component of the pore, tom40. in addition, tom6 was observed to interact with tom22 in a manner that depends on th ...200111278536
tests of a cellular model for constant branch distribution in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa.the growth of mycelial fungi is characterized by the highly polarized extension of hyphal tips and the formation of subapical branches, which themselves extend as new tips. in neurospora crassa, tip growth and branching are crucial elements for this saprophyte in the colonization and utilization of organic substrates. much research has focused on the mechanism of tip extension, but a cellular model that fully explains the known phenomenology of branching by n. crassa has not been proposed. we de ...200111282634
actin modulates the gating of neurospora crassa vdac.vdac forms the major pathway for metabolites across the mitochondrial outer membrane. the regulation of the gating of vdac channels is an effective way to control the flow of metabolites into and out of mitochondria. here we present evidence that actin can modulate the gating process of neurospora crassa vdac reconstituted into membranes made with phosphatidylcholine. an actin concentration as low as 50 nm caused the vdac-mediated membrane conductance to drop by as much as 85% at elevated membra ...200111284205
a point mutation in nucleoside diphosphate kinase results in a deficient light response for perithecial polarity in neurospora crassa.in neurospora crassa, the phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase (ndk)-1 is rapidly enhanced after blue light irradiation. we have investigated the function of ndk-1 in the blue light signal transduction pathway. a mutant called psp (phosphorylation of small protein) shows undetectable phosphorylation of ndk-1 and is defective in light-responsive regulation of perithecial polarity. sequencing analysis of ndk-1 cdna by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that prolin ...200111287415
escape from repeat-induced point mutation of a gene-sized duplication in neurospora crassa crosses that are heterozygous for a larger chromosome segment duplication.in neurospora crassa the ability of an ectopic gene-sized duplication to induce repeat-induced point mutation (rip) in its target gene was suppressed in crosses that were heterozygous for another larger chromosome segment duplication. specifically, the frequency of rip in the erg-3 gene due to a 1.3-kb duplication was reduced if the chromosome segment duplications dp(iiir > [i;ii]) ar17, dp(vir > iiir) oy329, or dp(ivr > vii) s1229 were present in either the same or the other parental nucleus of ...200111290714
the cryptococcus neoformans ste11alpha gene is similar to other fungal mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (mapkkk) genes but is mating type specific.partial sequence analysis of the cryptococcus neoformans matalpha mating type locus revealed the presence of a gene with substantial sequence similarity to other fungal mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase kinase kinase (mapkkk) genes. the c. neoformans gene, designated ste11alpha, showed the highest degree of similarity to the neurospora crassa nrc-1, schizosaccharomyces pombe byr2 and saccharomyces cerevisiae ste11 genes. a polymerase chain reaction-mediated sib-selection technique was succe ...200111298287
study of the role of antimicrobial glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates in resistance of arabidopsis to microbial pathogens.crude aqueous extracts from arabidopsis leaves were subjected to chromatographic separations, after which the different fractions were monitored for antimicrobial activity using the fungus neurospora crassa as a test organism. two major fractions were obtained that appeared to have the same abundance in leaves from untreated plants versus leaves from plants challenge inoculated with the fungus alternaria brassicicola. one of both major antimicrobial fractions was purified to homogeneity and iden ...200111299350
electron tomography of mitochondria after the arrest of protein import associated with tom19 depletion.in a mutant form of neurospora crassa, in which sheltered rip (repeat induced point mutation) was used to deplete tom19, protein transport through the tom/tim pathway is arrested by the addition of p-fluorophenylalanine (fpa). using intermediate-voltage electron tomography, we have generated three-dimensional reconstructions of 28 fpa-treated mitochondria at four time points (0-32 h) after the addition of fpa. we determined that the cristae surface area and volume were lost in a roughly linear m ...200111302518
the aspergillus nidulans gata transcription factor gene areb encodes at least three proteins and features three classes of mutation.in aspergillus nidulans, the principal transcription factor regulating nitrogen metabolism, area, belongs to the gata family of dna-binding proteins. in seeking additional gata factors, we have cloned areb, which was originally identified via a genetic screen for suppressors of area loss-of-function mutations. based on our analysis, areb is predicted to encode at least three distinct protein products. these arise from the use of two promoters, differential splicing and translation initiating at ...200111309119
interaction of the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (cyt-18 protein) with the group i intron p4-p6 domain. thermodynamic analysis and the role of metal ions.the neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetase (cyt-18 protein) functions in splicing group i introns by promoting the formation of the catalytically active structure of the intron's catalytic core. previous studies suggested a model in which the protein binds first to the intron's p4-p6 domain, and then makes additional contacts with the p3-p9 domain to stabilize the two domains in the correct relative orientation to form the intron's active site. here, we analyzed the interaction ...200111327760
characterization of an opsin gene from the ascomycete leptosphaeria maculans.an opsin gene (ops) has been characterized from leptosphaeria maculans, the ascomycete that causes black-leg disease of brassica species. this is the second opsin identified outside the archaeal and animal kingdoms. the gene encodes a predicted protein with high similarity (70.3%) and identity (53.3%) to the nop-1 opsin of another ascomycete neurospora crassa. the l. maculans opsin also has identical amino acid residues in 20 of the 22 residues in the retinal-binding pocket of archaeal opsins. o ...200111341726
structure and function analysis of the calcium-related gene spray in neurospora crassa.the spray gene was cloned, and wildtype and mutant alleles were sequenced. spray(+) has a 3452-bp open reading frame plus seven introns. the spray mutant had a t --> g transversion close to the carboxyl end, creating a stop codon (tga). the sequence shows no match to genes of known function, but the carboxyl end shows seven transmembrane domains and matches putative membrane proteins of yeast. the most abundant transcript detected was 4.4 kb in size. repeat-induced point mutagenesis produced the ...200111343401
vvd is required for light adaptation of conidiation-specific genes of neurospora crassa, but not circadian conidiation.con-10 and con-6 are two of the conidiation (con) genes of neurospora crassa that were identified based on their preferential expression during macroconidiophore development. they are also regulated by several other environmental stimuli independent of development, including a transient induction by light. we identified an allele of vivid (vvd) in a mutant screen designed to obtain strains with altered expression of con-10. vvd mutants display enhanced carotenoid pigmentation in response to ligh ...200111343403
identification of two tetranuclear fes clusters on the ferredoxin-type subunit of nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex i).the proton-translocating nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of respiratory chains (complex i) contains one flavin mononucleotide and five epr-detectable iron-sulfur clusters as redox groups. because of the number of conserved motifs typical for binding iron-sulfur clusters and the high content of iron and acid-labile sulfide of complex i preparations, it is predicted that complex i contains additional clusters which have not yet been detected by epr spectroscopy. to search for such clusters, we used ...200111352750
mobilisation of trehalose in mutants of the cyclic amp signalling pathway, cr-1 (crisp-1) and mcb (microcycle conidiation), of neurospora crassa.the influence of the camp-signalling pathway on the metabolism of trehalose in neurospora crassa was investigated. the changes in intracellular trehalose concentration were measured in two mutants affected in components of the camp-signalling pathway: cr-1 (crisp-1), deficient in adenylyl cyclase activity, and mcb (microcyclic conidiation), deficient in the regulatory subunit of pka. rapid mobilisation of intracellular trehalose in the wild-type occurred, either at the onset of germination, or a ...200111356572
genome quality control: rip (repeat-induced point mutation) comes to podospora.rip (repeat-induced point mutation) is a silencing process discovered in neurospora crassa and so far clearly established only in this species as a currently occurring process. rip acts premeiotically on duplicated sequences, resulting in c-g to t-a mutations, with a striking preference for cpa/tpg dinucleotides. in podospora anserina, an rip-like event was observed after several rounds of sexual reproduction in a strain with a 40 kb tandem duplication resulting from homologous integration of a ...200111359565
structural requirements of tom40 for assembly into preexisting tom complexes of mitochondria.tom40 is the major subunit of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (the tom complex). to study the assembly pathway of tom40, we have followed the integration of the protein into the tom complex in vitro and in vivo using wild-type and altered versions of the neurospora crassa tom40 protein. upon import into isolated mitochondria, tom40 precursor proteins lacking the first 20 or the first 40 amino acid residues were assembled as the wild-type protein. in contrast, a tom40 precurso ...200111359915
characterization of mutations in the two-component histidine kinase gene that confer fludioxonil resistance and osmotic sensitivity in the os-1 mutants of neurospora crassa.osmotic-sensitive (os-1) mutant alleles in neurospora crassa exhibit resistance to dicarboximides, aromatic hydrocarbons and phenylpyrroles. we have previously reported that the os-1 mutants can be classified into two groups based on their resistance to fungicides and osmotic stress: type i, which are highly resistant to iprodione and fludioxonil but moderately sensitive to osmotic stress, and type ii, which are highly sensitive to osmotic stress but moderately resistant to fungicides. to explai ...200111374161
protein-dependent transition states for ribonucleoprotein assembly.native folding and splicing by the saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial bi5 group i intron rna is facilitated by both the s. cerevisiae cbp2 and neurospora crassa cyt-18 protein cofactors. both protein-bi5 rna complexes splice at similar rates, suggesting that the rna active site structure is similar in both ribonucleoproteins. in contrast, the two proteins assemble with the bi5 rna by distinct mechanisms and bind opposing, but partially overlapping, sides of the group i intron catalytic core. ...200111399081
tom40, the pore-forming component of the protein-conducting tom channel in the outer membrane of mitochondria.tom40 is the main component of the preprotein translocase of the outer membrane of mitochondria (tom complex). we have isolated tom40 of neurospora crassa by removing the receptor tom22 and the small tom components tom6 and tom7 from the purified tom core complex. tom40 is organized in a high molecular mass complex of approximately 350 kd. it forms a high conductance channel. mitochondrial presequence peptides interact specifically with tom40 reconstituted into planar lipid membranes and decreas ...200111402060
elimination of active tad elements during the sexual phase of the neurospora crassa life cycle.tad is an active line-like retrotransposon isolated from the adiopodoumé strain of neurospora crassa. extensive analysis of other neurospora strains has revealed no other strain with active tad, but all strains tested have multiple copies of defective tad elements. we have examined the ability of tad to survive during the sexual cycle of neurospora and find that active tad is rapidly eliminated. the characteristics of this elimination suggest that the repeat-induced point mutation (rip) mechanis ...200111407885
photochemical reaction cycle and proton transfers in neurospora rhodopsin.it was recently found that nop-1, a membrane protein of neurospora crassa, shows homology to haloarchaeal rhodopsins and binds retinal after heterologous expression in pichia pastoris. we report on spectroscopic properties of the neurospora rhodopsin (nr). the photocycle was studied with flash photolysis and time-resolved fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the ph range 5-8. proton release and uptake during the photocycle were monitored with the ph-sensitive dye, pyranine. kinetic and spe ...200111435422
[effect of inhibitors of enzymatic dna methylation on the formation of reproductive structures and carotenoid production in neurospora crassa].the effect of inhibitors of dna methylation on light-sensitive developmental stages of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa was studied. under conditions of nitrogen starvation, when blue light induced protoperithecia development and inhibited conidia formation, 5-azacytidine (3-300 microm) inhibited protoperithecia formation and stimulated conidia formation (a 700-fold increase after light induction). after treatment of the mycelium with 5-azacytidine, the protoperithecia formation was acco ...201311443894
molecular cloning of the rps0 gene from candida tropicalis.the saccharomyces cerevisiae rps0 a and b genes encode proteins essential for maturation of the 40s ribosomal subunit precursors. we have isolated a homologue of the rps0 gene from candida tropicalis, which we named ctrps0. the c. tropicalis rps0 encodes a protein of 261 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 28.65 kda and an isoelectric point of 4.79. ctrps0p displays significant amino acid sequence homology with rps0p from c. albicans, s. cerevisiae, neurospora crassa, schizo ...200111447603
null mutants of the neurospora actin-related protein 1 pointed-end complex show distinct phenotypes.dynactin is a multisubunit complex that regulates the activities of cytoplasmic dynein, a microtubule-associated motor. actin-related protein 1 (arp1) is the most abundant subunit of dynactin, and it forms a short filament to which additional subunits associate. an arp1 filament pointed-end--binding subcomplex has been identified that consists of p62, p25, p27, and arp11 subunits. the functional roles of these subunits have not been determined. recently, we reported the cloning of an apparent ho ...200111452013
identification of the gene at the pmg locus, encoding system ii, the general amino acid transporter in neurospora crassa.mutations at the pmg locus in neurospora crassa cause a deficiency in a transport system for a broad range of amino acids. we have isolated a gene that encodes a protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the gap1 general amino acid permease in saccharomyces cerevisiae. our data indicate that this is the gene at the pmg locus. it encodes a 572-residue protein with a molecular mass of 62,649 da. the predicted secondary structure has 12 membrane-spanning regions, a feature characteristic ...200111456465
regions of microsynteny in magnaporthe grisea and neurospora crassa.a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clone containing 110,467 bp of genomic dna from magnaporthe grisea was sequenced, annotated, and compared to the genomes of neurospora crassa, candida albicans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae. twenty-six open reading frames (orfs), involved in multiple biochemical pathways, were identified in the bac sequence. a region of 53 kb, containing 18 of the 26 orfs, was found to be syntenic to a portion of the n. crassa genome. subregions of complete colinearity as ...200111456466
dna methylation inhibits expression and transposition of the neurospora tad retrotransposon.tad is a line-like retrotransposon of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. we have analyzed both expression and transposition of this element using strains with a single copy of tad located in the 5' noncoding sequences of the am (glutamate dehydrogenase) gene. tad in this position has been shown to carry a de novo cytosine methylation signal which causes reversible methylation of both tad and am upstream sequences. here we find that methylation of the tad sequences inhibits both tad expres ...200111459196
a fungus among us: the neurospora crassa circadian system.neurospora crassa is the only molecular genetic model system for circadian rhythms research in the fungi. its strengths as a model organism lie in its relative simplicity--compared to photosynthesizing and vertebrate organisms, it is a stripped-down version of life. it forms syncitial hyphae, propagates and reproduces, and the circadian clock is manifest in numerous processes therein. as with other model circadian systems, neurospora features a transcription/translation feedback loop that is fun ...200111463212
chloride channel antagonists perturb growth and morphology of neurospora crassa.the chloride channel antagonists anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, ethacrynic acid and niflumic acid were found to be fungistatic and morphogenic when tested against the ascomycete neurospora crassa. potency increased with decreasing ph, suggesting that the protonated forms of the compounds were active. niflumic acid produced the most pronounced growth aberrations which may reflect an ability to acidify the cytoplasm and block the plasma membrane anion channel of n. crassa.200111470368
the methionine biosynthetic pathway from homoserine in pseudomonas putida involves the metw, metx, metz, meth and mete gene products.biosynthesis of methionine from homoserine in pseudomonas putida takes place in three steps. the first step is the acylation of homoserine to yield an acyl-l-homoserine. this reaction is catalyzed by the products of the metxw genes and is equivalent to the first step in enterobacteria, gram-positive bacteria and fungi, except that in these microorganisms the reaction is catalyzed by a single polypeptide (the product of the meta gene in escherichia coli and the met5 gene product in neurospora cra ...200111479715
dim-2 encodes a dna methyltransferase responsible for all known cytosine methylation in neurospora.to understand better the control of dna methylation, we cloned and characterized the dim-2 gene of neurospora crassa, the only eukaryotic gene currently known in which mutations appear to eliminate dna methylation. the dim-2 gene is responsible for methylation in both symmetrical and asymmetrical sites. we mapped dim-2 between wc-1 and un-10 on linkage group (lg) viir and identified the gene by rflp mapping and genetic complementation. dim-2 encodes a 1454 amino acid protein including a c-termin ...200111483533
regulation of the tip-high [ca2+] gradient in growing hyphae of the fungus neurospora crassa.previous work has shown that hyphal elongation in the fungus neurospora crassa requires a tip-high cytosolic ca2+ gradient. the source of the ca2+ appears to be intracellular stores as there is no net transplasma membrane ca2+ flux at the elongating hyphal tip and modification of ion fluxes across the plasma membrane using voltage clamp is without effect on tip growth. to decode the internal mechanisms which generate and maintain the tip-high ca2+ gradient we first identified calcium regulators ...200111484929
evidence that fungal mep proteins mediate diffusion of the uncharged species nh(3) across the cytoplasmic membrane.methylammonium and ammonium (mep) permeases of saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to a ubiquitous family of cytoplasmic membrane proteins that transport only ammonium (nh(4)(+) + nh(3)). transport and accumulation of the ammonium analog [(14)c]methylammonium, a weak base, led to the proposal that members of this family were capable of energy-dependent concentration of the ammonium ion, nh(4)(+). in bacteria, however, atp-dependent conversion of methylammonium to gamma-n-methylglutamine by glutamine ...200111486013
ca(2+) shuttling in vesicles during tip growth in neurospora crassa.tip-growing organisms maintain an apparently essential tip-high gradient of cytoplasmic ca(2+). in the oomycete saprolegnia ferax, in pollen tubes and root hairs, the gradient is produced by a tip-localized ca(2+) influx from the external medium. such a gradient is normally dispensable for neurospora crassa hyphae, which may maintain their ca(2+) gradient by some form of internal recycling. we localized ca(2+) in n. crassa hyphae at the ultrastructural level using two techniques (a) electron spe ...200111495575
functional analysis of pathogenicity genes in a genomics world.genome-wide mutational and expression analyses have been performed in yeast and provide a model for large-scale analysis of gene function in filamentous fungi. the recent completion of the neurospora crassa genome offers a resource for comparative analysis with plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. these advances have important implications for molecular genetic studies of pathogenicity genes.200111495799
potassium gradients in the growing hyphae of neurospora crassa.x-ray electron probe microanalysis of a neurospora crassa hyphal preparation revealed a significant heterogeneity of the potassium content in the hyphae. low-potassium areas were found in a close proximity of the growing tip and in the distal part of the hyphae in the submembrane area of about 1 microm width. the intracellular potassium concentration was shown to change more than 3-5 times from apical to distal regions of the leading hyphae, the potassium contents in the apical part of the hypha ...200111497103
seasonality and photoperiodism in fungi.this review gives a retrospective of what is known about photoperiodism in fungi, which is largely based on reports about seasonal spore concentrations. relatively few species have been investigated under laboratory conditions, so that our knowledge whether seasonal reproduction in fungi is mainly a direct response to environmental conditions or whether it involves a photoperiodic machinery with memory capacities and a relationship to the circadian system is extremely limited. to form a basis fo ...200111506384
modeling circadian oscillations with interlocking positive and negative feedback loops.both positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation have been proposed to be important for the generation of circadian rhythms. to test the sufficiency of the proposed mechanisms, two differential equation-based models were constructed to describe the neurospora crassa and drosophila melanogaster circadian oscillators. in the model of the neurospora oscillator, frq suppresses frq transcription by binding to a complex of the transcriptional activators wc-1 and wc-2, thus yield ...200111517254
a family of dna repeats in aspergillus nidulans has assimilated degenerated retrotransposons.in the course of a chromosomal walk towards the centromere of chromosome iv of aspergillus nidulans, several cross-hybridizing genomic cosmid clones were isolated. restriction mapping of two such clones revealed that their restriction patterns were similar in a region of at least 15 kb, indicating the presence of a large repeat. the nature of the repeat was further investigated by sequencing and southern analysis. the study revealed a family of long dispersed repeats with a high degree of sequen ...200111523805
the grp78 promoter of neurospora crassa: constitutive, stress and differentiation-dependent protein-binding patterns.in order to characterize the transcriptional regulation of the grp78 (glucose-regulated protein 78 kda) gene of neurospora crassa, a 1.65-kb genomic fragment upstream of the protein-coding region was sequenced and analysed. a single transcription start point was mapped 160 nt upstream of the first codon. several distinct protein-dna binding sites were identified in the promoter region by non-radioactive scanning electrophoretic mobility shift analysis during growth, stress treatment and differen ...200111525405
spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the bifunctional chorismate synthase from neurospora crassa: evidence for a common binding site for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and nadph.chorismate synthase catalyzes the anti-1,4-elimination of the phosphate group and the c-(6pror) hydrogen from 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate to yield chorismate, a central building block in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. the enzyme has an absolute requirement for reduced fmn, which in the case of the fungal chorismate synthases is supplied by an intrinsic fmn:nadph oxidoreductase activity, i.e. these enzymes have an additional catalytic activity. therefore, these fungal enzymes have been ...200111526120
the neurospora circadian clock regulates a transcription factor that controls rhythmic expression of the output eas(ccg-2) gene.the circadian clock provides a link between an organism's environment and its behaviour, temporally phasing the expression of genes in anticipation of daily environmental changes. input pathways sense environmental information and interact with the clock to synchronize it to external cycles, and output pathways read out from the clock to impart temporal control on downstream targets. very little is known about the regulation of outputs from the clock. in neurospora crassa, the circadian clock tr ...200111532152
the biological clock of neurospora in a microgravity environment.the circadian rhythm of conidiation in neurospora crassa is thought to be an endogenously derived circadian oscillation; however, several investigators have suggested that circadian rhythms may, instead, be driven by some geophysical time cue(s). an experiment was conducted on space shuttle flight sts-9 in order to test this hypothesis; during the first 7-8 cycles in space, there were several minor alterations observed in the conidiation rhythm, including an increase in the period of the oscilla ...198911537340
preliminary characterization of persisting circadian rhythms during space flight.in order to evaluate the function of the circadian timing system in space, the circadian rhythm of conidiation of the fungus neurospora crassa was monitored in constant darkness on the sts 9 flight of the space shuttle columbia. during the first 7 days of spaceflight many tubes showed a marked reduction in the apparent amplitude of the conidiation rhythm, and some cultures appeared arrhythmic. there was more variability in the growth rate and circadian rhythms of individual cultures in space tha ...198411539642
neurospora circadian rhythms in space: a reexamination of the endogenous-exogenous question.to test the functioning of circadian rhythms removed from periodicities of the earth's 24-hour rotation, the conidiation rhythm of the fungus neurospora crassa was monitored in constant darkness during spaceflight. the free-running period of the rhythm was the same in space as on the earth, but there was a marked reduction in the clarity of the rhythm, and apparent arrhythmicity in some tubes. at the current stage of analysis of our results there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the ...198411540800
a new yeast metabolon involving at least the two first enzymes of arginine biosynthesis: acetylglutamate synthase activity requires complex formation with acetylglutamate kinase.open reading frame yjl071w of saccharomyces cerevisiae was shown to be arg2 and identified as the structural gene for acetylglutamate synthase, first step in arginine biosynthesis. the three ascomycete acetylglutamate synthases characterized to date appear homologous, but unlike the other enzymes of the yeast arginine biosynthesis pathway, they showed no significant similarity to their prokaryotic equivalents. the measured synthase activity did not increase with the number of arg2 gene copies un ...200111553611
map-1 and iap-1, two novel aaa proteases with catalytic sites on opposite membrane surfaces in mitochondrial inner membrane of neurospora crassa.eukaryotic aaa proteases form a conserved family of membrane-embedded atp-dependent proteases but have been analyzed functionally only in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. here, we have identified two novel members of this protein family in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa, which were termed map-1 and iap-1. both proteins are localized to the inner membrane of mitochondria. they are part of two similar-sized high molecular mass complexes, but expose their catalytic sites to opposite me ...200111553723
a fungal perspective on human inborn errors of metabolism: alkaptonuria and beyond.crucial for the establishment and development of biochemical genetics as a self-standing discipline was beadle and tatum's choice of neurospora crassa as experimental organism some 60 years ago. although garrod's insights on biochemical genetics and his astonishingly modern concepts of biochemical individuality and susceptibility to disease had been ignored by their contemporaries, beadle acknowledged on several occasions how close garrod had come to the "one-gene-one-enzyme" hypothesis. in an u ...200111567547
dynactin-membrane interaction is regulated by the c-terminal domains of p150(glued).dynactin has been proposed to link the microtubule-associated motor cytoplasmic dynein with membranous cargo; however, the mechanism by which dynactin-membrane interaction is regulated is unknown. here we show that dynein and dynactin exist in discrete cytosolic and membrane-bound states in the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa. results from in vitro membrane-binding studies show that dynein and dynactin-membrane interaction is co-dependent. p150(glued) of dynactin has been shown to interact ...200111571270
epistatic and synergistic interactions between circadian clock mutations in neurospora crassa.we identified a series of epistatic and synergistic interactions among the circadian clock mutations of neurospora crassa that indicate possible physical interactions among the various clock components encoded by these genes. the period-6 (prd-6) mutation, a short-period temperature-sensitive clock mutation, is epistatic to both the prd-2 and prd-3 mutations. the prd-2 and prd-3 long-period mutations show a synergistic interaction in that the period length of the double mutant strain is consider ...200111606531
recombination events in neurospora crassa may cross a translocation breakpoint by a template-switching mechanism.to assist investigation of the effect of sequence heterology on recombination in neurospora crassa, we inserted the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (tk) as an unselected marker on linkage group i, giving a gene order of cen-his-3-tk-cog-lpl. we show here that in crosses heterozygous for tk, conversion of a his-3 allele on one homolog is accompanied by transfer of the heterologous sequence between cog and his-3 from the other homolog, indicating that recombination is initiated centromere-dis ...200111606534
an analysis of gene-finding programs for neurospora crassa.computational gene identification plays an important role in genome projects. the approaches used in gene identification programs are often tuned to one particular organism, and accuracy for one organism or class of organism does not necessarily translate to accurate predictions for other organisms. in this paper we evaluate five computer programs on their ability to locate coding regions and to predict gene structure in neurospora crassa. one of these programs (ffg) was designed specifically fo ...200111673234
transcriptional regulation of the nitrate reductase gene in chlorella vulgaris: identification of regulatory elements controlling expression.nitrate reductase (nr), the rate-limiting and primary control point of the nitrate assimilation pathway, is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. to better understand how nr is regulated at the transcriptional level in chlorella vulgaris, studies were performed to identify the factors regulating nr expression. sequence analysis of the nr promoter identified a number of potential sites that were investigated by mobility shift assays. of the protein-binding sites found, sev ...200111680822
cloning and sequence analysis of cnaa gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin from aspergillus oryzae.calcineurin has been implicated in ion-homeostasis, stress adaptation in yeast and for hyphal growth in filamentous fungi. genomic dna and cdna encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (cnaa) were isolated from aspergillus oryzae. the cnaa open reading frame extended to 1727 bp and encoded a putative protein of 514 amino acids. comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequence of cnaa genomic dna and cdna confirmed the presence of three introns and a highly conserved calmodulin binding domain ...200111682197
on complex i and other nadh:ubiquinone reductases of neurospora crassa mitochondria.the mitochondrial complex i is the first component of the respiratory chain coupling electron transfer from nadh to ubiquinone to proton translocation across the inner membrane of the organelle. the enzyme from the fungus neurospora crassa is similar to that of other organisms in terms of protein and prosthetic group composition, structure, and function. it contains a high number of polypeptide subunits of dual genetic origin. most of its subunits were cloned, including those binding redox group ...200111695829
new (and used) approaches to the study of fungal pathogenicity.the fungi are the most economically important plant pathogens and continue to be the focus of extensive research with a wide variety of methodologies. enhancements in microscopy techniques have increased our ability to visualize the intimate interaction of fungi and their host plants. improving methods allow pharmacological inhibition and genetic dissection of the determinants of fungal pathogenicity in a gene-by-gene approach. identification and analysis of genes differentially transcribed in w ...200111701869
structure of a fast kinesin: implications for atpase mechanism and interactions with microtubules.we determined the crystal structure of the motor domain of the fast fungal kinesin from neurospora crassa (nckin). the structure has several unique features. (i) loop 11 in the switch 2 region is ordered and enables one to describe the complete nucleotide-binding pocket, including three inter-switch salt bridges between switch 1 and 2. (ii) loop 9 in the switch 1 region bends outwards, making the nucleotide-binding pocket very wide. the displacement in switch 1 resembles that of the g-protein ra ...200111707393
unusual properties of the fungal conventional kinesin neck domain from neurospora crassa.fungal conventional kinesins are unusually fast microtubule motor proteins. to compare the functional organization of fungal and animal conventional kinesins, a set of c-terminal deletion mutants of the neurospora crassa conventional kinesin, nckin, was investigated for its biochemical and biophysical properties. while the shortest, monomeric construct comprising the catalytic core and the neck-linker (nckin343) displays very high steady-state atpase (k(cat) = 260/s), constructs including both t ...200111707394
the neurospora circadian clock: simple or complex?the fungus neurospora crassa is being used by a number of research groups as a model organism to investigate circadian (daily) rhythmicity. in this review we concentrate on recent work relating to the complexity of the circadian system in this organism. we discuss: the advantages of neurospora as a model system for clock studies; the frequency (frq), white collar-1 and white collar-2 genes and their roles in rhythmicity; the phenomenon of rhythmicity in null frq mutants and its implications for ...200111710976
rhythms of differentiation and diacylglycerol in neurospora.although the fungus neurospora crassa is a relatively simple lower eukaryote, its circadian system may be more complex than previously thought. in this paper we review evidence suggesting that there may be several output pathways coupled in complex ways to a single oscillator, or that there may be more than one oscillator driving independent output pathways. we have described two new rhythms in neurospora that are not tightly coupled to the rhythm of conidiation bands that is the standard assay ...200111710977
genetic interactions between clock mutations in neurospora crassa: can they help us to understand complexity?recent work on circadian clocks in neurospora has primarily focused on the frequency (frq) and white-collar (wc) loci. however, a number of other genes are known that affect either the period or temperature compensation of the rhythm. these include the period (no relationship to the period gene of drosophila) genes and a number of genes that affect cellular metabolism. how these other loci fit into the circadian system is not known, and metabolic effects on the clock are typically not considered ...200111710978
the involvement of photoregulated dna methylation into a choice between sexual and asexual developmental pathways in neurospora crassa. 201311712181
a histone h3 methyltransferase controls dna methylation in neurospora crassa.dna methylation is involved in epigenetic processes such as x-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and silencing of transposons. we have demonstrated previously that dim-2 encodes a dna methyltransferase that is responsible for all known cytosine methylation in neurospora crassa. here we report that another neurospora gene, dim-5, is required for dna methylation, as well as for normal growth and full fertility. we mapped dim-5 and identified it by transformation with a candidate gene. the mutant ...200111713521
conversion of pipecolic acid into lysine in penicillium chrysogenum requires pipecolate oxidase and saccharopine reductase: characterization of the lys7 gene encoding saccharopine reductase.pipecolic acid is a component of several secondary metabolites in plants and fungi. this compound is useful as a precursor of nonribosomal peptides with novel pharmacological activities. in penicillium chrysogenum pipecolic acid is converted into lysine and complements the lysine requirement of three different lysine auxotrophs with mutations in the lys1, lys2, or lys3 genes allowing a slow growth of these auxotrophs. we have isolated two p. chrysogenum mutants, named 7.2 and 10.25, that are una ...200111717275
mutations in subunit c of the vacuolar atpase confer resistance to bafilomycin and identify a conserved antibiotic binding site.bafilomycin a1, a potent inhibitor of vacuolar h(+)-atpases (v-atpase), inhibited growth of neurospora crassa in medium adjusted to alkaline ph. ninety-eight mutant strains were selected for growth on medium (ph 7.2) containing 0.3 or 1.0 microm bafilomycin. three criteria suggested that 11 mutant strains were altered in the v-atpase: 1) these strains accumulated high amounts of arginine when grown at ph 5.8 in the presence of bafilomycin, 2) the mutation mapped to the locus of vma-3, which enco ...200211724795
partial amino acid sequences of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases offusarium sporotrichioides.peptidyl-proprylyl cis-trans isomerase (ppiase) activity was observed from crude extract of fusarium sporotrichioides. proteins from this fungi were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and more than one thousand protein spots were separated. two cytosolic ppiases were found by the n-terminal sequencing from the two separated spots. the n-terminal 41 residues of the major protein spot showed high sequence identity (63.4%) with ppiase from neurospora crassa. this protei ...199511725072
molecular and kinetic study of catalase-1, a durable large catalase of neurospora crassa.catalase-1 (cat-1), one of the two monofunctional catalases of neurospora crassa, increases during asexual spore formation to constitute 0.6% of total protein in conidia. cat-1 was purified 170-fold with a yield of 48% from conidiating cultures. like most monofunctional catalases, cat-1 is a homotetramer, resistant to inactivation by solvents, fully active over a ph range of 4-12, and inactivated by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. unlike most monofunctional catalases, cat-1 consists of 88 kda monomers t ...200111728803
homologous expression and characterization of cel61a (eg iv) of trichoderma reesei.there are currently four proteins in family 61 of the glycoside hydrolases, from trichoderma reesei, agaricus bisporus, cryptococcus neoformans and neurospora crassa. the enzymatic activity of these proteins has not been studied thoroughly. we report here the homologous expression and purification of t. reesei cel61a [previously named endoglucanase (eg) iv]. the enzyme was expressed in high amounts with a histidine tag on the c-terminus and purified by metal affinity chromatography. this is the ...200111737205
identification of genes in the bw/be regulatory cascade in ustilago maydis.in the phytopathogenic fungus ustilago maydis, the switch to filamentous growth and pathogenic development is controlled by a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of the bw and be homeodomain proteins. to identify genes in the regulatory cascade triggered by the bw/be heterodimer, we have constructed strains in which transcription of the b genes is inducible by either arabinose or nitrate. at different time-points after induction, genes that are switched on or off were identified throug ...200111737646
identification of transcriptionally expressed pheromone receptor genes in filamentous ascomycetes.detection of pheromone genes in filamentous ascomycetes implicated the presence of pheromone receptor genes. similar to yeasts and basidiomycetes, these might be involved in a g-protein triggered signal transduction pathway during mating. we have identified two pheromone receptor genes, named pre1 and pre2, in the genome of the heterothallic filamentous ascomycete neurospora crassa and the closely related homothallic sordaria macrospora. the deduced pre1 gene product is a putative seven-transmem ...200111738813
amplified uvra protein can ameliorate the ultraviolet sensitivity of an escherichia coli reca mutant.when a reca strain of escherichia coli was transformed with the multicopy plasmid psf11 carrying the uvra gene of e. coli, its extreme ultraviolet (uv) sensitivity was decreased. the sensitivity of the lexa1 (ind(-)) strain to uv was also decreased by psf11. the reca cells expressing neurospora crassa uv damage endonuclease (uvde), encoding uv-endonuclease, show uv resistance. on the other hand, only partial amelioration of uv sensitivity of the reca strain was observed in the presence of the pl ...200111738941
epigenetic crosstalk.in the november 15 issue of nature, report that disruption of histone methylation in the fungus neurospora crassa results in the elimination of dna methylation. this demonstrates that chromatin structure can pattern dna methylation and suggests that different epigenetic layers engage in complex crosstalk.200111741529
a pest-like element in frequency determines the length of the circadian period in neurospora crassa.frequency (frq) is a crucial element of the circadian clock in neurospora crassa. in the course of a circadian day frq is successively phosphorylated and degraded. here we report that two pest-like elements in frq, pest-1 and pest-2, are phosphorylated in vitro by recombinant ck-1a and ck-1b, two newly identified neurospora homologs of casein kinase 1 epsilon. ck-1a is localized in the cytosol and the nuclei of neurospora and it is in a complex with frq in vivo. deletion of pest-1 results in hyp ...200111742984
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