investigations on carcinogenic effects of penicillium caseicolum and p. roqueforti in rats. 1977862755
growth of listeria monocytogenes at different ph values in uncultured whey or whey cultured with penicillium camemberti.wheys from making camembert cheese were either uncultured or cultured with penicillium camemberti, adjusted to ph 5.0, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6, 6.2, and 6.8, and filter sterilized. whey samples were inoculated to contain 100 to 500 listeria monocytogenes (strains scott a, v7, ca, or oh) cfu/ml and incubated at 6 degrees c. counts of l. monocytogenes were obtained by surface plating appropriate dilutions on tryptose agar. listeria monocytogenes failed to grow at or below ph 5.4; except for strains scott a ...19883144427
biotyping of micelial fungus cultures by the killer system.based on the occurrence of the yeast killer phenomenon in hyphomycetes, the toxic effect of 37 selected killer yeasts was studied on eleven strains of pseudallescheria boydii, six strains of aspergillus niger, 18 strains of penicillium camemberti and nine strains of sporothrix schenckii. the demonstration of different biotypes within the species of p. boydii and p. camemberti proves that the killer system also is a practical and effective method for epidemiological studies among hyphomycetes. ba ...19873653352
[experimental studies on the cancerogenicity of penicillium camemberti var. candidum]. 19714334131
[mutagenicity testing of commercially used strains of p. camemberti and p. roqueforti].we tested the mutagenic potential of crude extracts of 18 strains of penicillium camemberti and 6 strains of p. roqueforti, which are used commercially in the production of mould ripened cheese in switzerland. no mutagenic activity could be detected in any of the extracts. roquefortine, a mycotoxin of p. roqueforti, often found in blue cheese, was negative in the amestest. the results obtained do not lead reasons for experting undesired long term effects from the consumption of mould ripened che ...19846464555
inactivation of aspartyl proteinases by butane-2,3-dione. modification of tryptophan and tyrosine residues and evidence against reaction of arginine residues.butane-2,3-dione inactivates the aspartyl proteinases from penicillium roqueforti and penicillium caseicolum, as well as pig pepsin, penicillopepsin and rhizopus pepsin, at ph 6.0 in the presence of light but not in the dark. the inactivation is due to a photosensitized modification of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. in the dark none of the amino acid residues, not even arginine residues, is modified even after several days. in the light one arginine residue in pig pepsin is lost at a rate tha ...19816796042
antagonistic activity of the food-related filamentous fungus penicillium nalgiovense by the production of penicillin.defined strains of the genus penicillium used as starter cultures for food and strains isolated from mold-fermented foods were analyzed for their ability to inhibit the growth of micrococcus luteus dsm 348 used as an indicator organism. most of the strains belonging to the species penicillium nalgiovense showed antagonistic activity in agar diffusion assays. penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti strains proved to be inactive in these tests. the inhibitory substance excreted by p. nal ...19947944371
development of a semisynthetic cheese medium for fungi using chemometric methods.the growth, color formation, and mycotoxin production of six cheese-related fungi were studied on nine types of natural cheeses and 24 semisynthetic cheese media and compared using principal component analysis. the semisynthetic cheese media contained various amounts of ca, k, mg, na, p, fe, cu, zn, lactate, lactose, and casein. a robust well-defined and easily prepared semisynthetic cheese medium was developed for penicillium commune, the most frequently occurring contaminant on semihard cheese ...19979241586
colony interaction and secondary metabolite production of cheese-related fungi in dual culture.interactions between fungi used as starter cultures (penicillium roqueforti, penicillium camemberti, penicillium nalgiovense, and geotrichum candidum) and fungal contaminants associated with cheese were investigated on agar medium at two temperatures, 18 and 25 degrees c. mutual inhibition on contact was the most common interaction observed. the only other interaction observed was inhibition of the contaminant, while the starter continued to grow, especially in dual cultures involving g. candidu ...19989713765
interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as limburger, taleggio, brick, münster and saint-paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as camembert and brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as brevibacterium spp., arthrobacter spp., micrococcus spp., corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. yeasts such as candida spp., cryptococcus sp ...200111589547
carbon and nitrogen substrates consumption, ammonia release and proton transfer in relation with growth of geotrichum candidum and penicillium camemberti on a solid is difficult to determine fungal biomass growing on a solid medium directly. therefore, indirect ways of measuring this growth have to be used instead. for this purpose, the kinetics of growth, of substrate consumption and of release of metabolites must be correlated. this has been carried out for geotrichum candidum and penicillium camemberti growing on a gelified lactic acid+peptone medium. peptone was shown to be preferred by g. candidum as a carbon and energy source, in contrast to the be ...200211911921
changes in selected biochemical and sensory parameters as affected by the superficial inoculation of penicillium camemberti on dry fermented atoxigenic strain of penicillium camemberti was superficially inoculated on fermented sausages in an attempt to improve their sensory properties. the growth of this mould on the surface of the sausages resulted in an intense proteolysis and lipolysis, which caused an increase in the concentration of free amino acids, free fatty acids (ffa) and volatile compounds. many of these were derived from amino acid catabolism and were responsible for the "ripened flavour", i.e. branched aldehydes and t ...200312810276
upflow column reactor design for dechlorination of chlorinated pulping wastes by penicillium camemberti.a penicillium camemberti strain isolated in our laboratory has been studied for its ability to degrade chlorinated pulping wastes, presumably containing a variety of chlorinated polyphenols. in batch tests, the highest removals (76% aox, 61% color and 65% toc) were obtained with 0.2 g/l feed acetate concentration. the tendency of the fungus to dechlorinate bleachery effluents better under non-shaking conditions and to attach onto surfaces suggested the use of immobilized cells rather than freely ...200415251223
controlled production of camembert-type cheeses. part i: microbiological and physicochemical evolutions.a holistic approach of a mould cheese ripening is presented. the objective was to establish relationships between the different microbiological and biochemical changes during cheese ripening. model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with kluyveromyces lactis, geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti and brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. two cheese-making trials with efficient control of environmental parameters were carried out and showed similar ripening cha ...200415354582
controlled production of camembert-type cheeses. part ii. changes in the concentration of the more volatile compounds.flavour generation in cheese is a major aspect of ripening. in order to enhance aromatic qualities it is necessary to better understand the chemical and microbiological changes. experimental camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with kluyveromyces lactis, geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti and brevibacterium linens under aseptic conditions. two replicates performed under controlled conditions of temperature (12 degrees c), relative humidity ( ...200415354583
the inhibitory effect of penicillium camemberti and geotruchum candidum on the associated funga of white mould cheese.the diameter of pinpoint inoculated cheese contaminates (cladosporium herbarum, penicillium roqueforti, penicillium caseifulvum and penicillium commune), isolated from either the dairy environment or directly from cheese, were inoculated 24 h after inoculation of the secondary starters to simulate contamination at the critical point of the salt brine. pure p. camemberti had the largest inhibitory effect on the c. herbarum contaminant. adding g. candidum in mixed cultures weakened the inhibitory ...200516083983
microbiological and biochemical aspects of camembert-type cheeses depend on atmospheric composition in the ripening chamber.camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with kluyveromyces lactis, geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti, and brevibacterium aurantiacum. microorganism growth and biochemical dynamics were studied in relation to ripening chamber co(2) atmospheric composition using 31 descriptors based on kinetic data. the chamber ripening was carried out under 5 different controlled atmospheres: continuously renewed atmosphere, periodically renewed atmosphere, no renewed atmospher ...200616840644
occupational immunoglobulin e-mediated asthma due to penicillium camemberti in a dry-sausage packer.a 62-year-old female sausage packer reported progressive work-related asthma, rhinitis and contact urticaria after contact to dry sausages refined by moulds. whereas skin prick tests with commercial mould extracts were negative, the patient showed weak skin sensitization to a cultivated mould sample from a dry sausage. specific immunoglobulin e antibodies to various moulds were demonstrated by immunocap and antibodies to the cultivated mould sample were demonstrated by enzyme allergosorbent test ...200817108671
controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part iii role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.phenomena generating ffas, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. in camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of ffa concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. experimental camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with kluyveromyces lactis, geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti, and brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions ...200717291387
differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose this work the potential of electronic nose analysis for differentiation of closely related fungi has been described. a total of 20 isolates of the cheese-associated species geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti, p. nordicum, and p. roqueforti and its closely related species p. paneum, p. carneum as well as the noncheese-associated p. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, gc-ms, and lc-ms analysis. the isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucrose agar in 20-ml headspac ...200717995685
molecular characterization of the niad and pyrg genes from penicillium camemberti, and their use as transformation markers.genetic manipulation of the filamentous fungus penicillium camemberti has been limited by a lack of suitable genetics tools for this fungus. in particular, there is no available homologous transformation system. in this study, the nitrate reductase (niad) and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (pyrg) genes from penicillium camemberti were characterized, and their suitability as metabolic molecular markers for transformation was evaluated. the genes were amplified using pcr-related techniqu ...200919562269
penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti enhance the growth and survival of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli o157 under mild acidic conditions.the effects of secondary starter molds of common mold-ripened cheeses on the shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157 were assessed in 3 model systems. in the 1st model, 8 stec o157 strains were incubated in the spent culture of penicillium camemberti or penicillium roqueforti under mild acidic conditions at 25 °c. in the spent cultures of the mold at ph 4.8 to 5.0, the lag times of stec o157 growth were significantly shorter than those observed in fresh medium. analyses of the spent c ...201222251153
cyclopiazonic acid bioproduction by penicillium camemberti thom: effect of temperature on individual strains.the effect of temperature on cyclopiazonic acid production varied with the strain used. accordingly, strains weakly toxigenic at the temperature of cheese ripening and storage can be selected and should be used.2005547832
plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. the objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient.201323555039
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
modeling growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese under different temperature and water activity regimes.the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (t) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. aspergillus versicolor, penicillium camemberti, p. citrinum, p. crustosum, p. nalgiovense, p. nordicum, p. roqueforti, p. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different t (0-40 °c) and aw (0.78-0.99) regimes. the highest relative growth occurred around 25 °c; all the fungi were very susc ...201628029129
the composition of camembert cheese-ripening cultures modulates both mycelial growth and appearance.the fungal microbiota of bloomy-rind cheeses, such as camembert, forms a complex ecosystem that has not been well studied, and its monitoring during the ripening period remains a challenge. one limitation of enumerating yeasts and molds on traditional agar media is that hyphae are multicellular structures, and colonies on a petri dish rarely develop from single cells. in addition, fungi tend to rapidly invade agar surfaces, covering small yeast colonies and resulting in an underestimation of the ...201222247164
indole-diterpenoids with anti-h1n1 activity from the aciduric fungus penicillium camemberti aciduric fungal strain, penicillium camemberti oucmdz-1492, was isolated from an acidic marine niche, mangrove soil and mud, around the roots of rhizophora apiculata. six new indole-diterpenoids (1-6), along with five known analogues, emindole sb (7), 21-isopentenylpaxilline (8), paspaline (9), paxilline (10), and dehydroxypaxilline (11), were isolated from the fermentation broth of p. camemberti oucmdz-1492 grown at ph 5.0. on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, cd spectra, quantum ecd calc ...201323886345
temperature and relative humidity influence the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of camembert-type cheese evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (rh) on microbial and biochemical ripening kinetics, camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with kluyveromyces marxianus, geotrichum candidum, penicillium camemberti, and brevibacterium aurantiacum. microorganism growth and biochemical changes were studied under different ripening temperatures (8, 12, and 16°c) and rh (88, 92, and 98%). the central point runs (12°c, 92% rh) were both reproducible and repeatab ...201222818481
[investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific ige levels in students' sera].atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. this study was a ...201222639315
modelling the effect of temperature, ph, water activity, and organic acids on the germination time of penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti this study, the influence of environmental factors on the germination time of penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti conidia was evaluated. to do so, the effects of i/temperature, ph, water activity, and ii/organic acids were determined using models based on i/cardinal values, and ii/minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) respectively. cardinal values for germination of conidia were not observed to be species dependent. minimum temperatures were estimated to be below the freezing p ...201727090813
a taxonomic and ecological overview of cheese fungi.cheese is made from milk by a succession of microbes (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) that determine the consistency and flavor of the cheese. apart from the emblematic species, penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti, cheese fungi are not well known. here we present a taxonomic and phylogenetic overview of the most important filamentous cheese ascomycota based on 133 isolates provided by the producers of cheese and cheese starter cultures and 97 isolates from culture collections. we check ...201222381457
quantification of penicillium camemberti and p. roqueforti mycelium by real-time pcr to assess their growth dynamics during ripening cheese.real-time pcr has been applied to quantify mycelium of penicillium camemberti and penicillium roqueforti during ripening of model cheese curd and surface mould-ripened cheeses. total fungal dna was first validated as an indicator of mycelial biomass in pure liquid culture and then in model curds at different stages of ripening. to imitate cheese matrix effects, dna was extracted from curd mixed with known amounts of fresh mycelium of p. camemberti or p. roqueforti and was used as biomass standar ...201020060187
mold-ripened soft cheeses fortified with date palm fruit product as functional dairy fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. this study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with streptococcus thermophilus, penicillium came ...201626930796
antigenic characterization of penicillium camemberti and related common cheese contaminants.twenty-four isolates of penicillium (including a green-spored mutant from a french brie cheese, penicillium camemberti) with a proposed relationship to the white cheese mold p. camemberti were investigated by immunological procedures. these penicillia, which are representative of species that have caused considerable taxonomic confusion, had common micromorphology (terverticillate penicilli with rough and smooth stipes and smooth ellipsoidal to subglobose [(3 to 5) x 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 microns] coni ...19873579286
diversity and characteristics of the meat microbiological community on dry aged beef.beef was dry aged for 40-60 days under controlled environmental conditions in a refrigerated room with a relative humidity of 75%-80% and air-flow. to date, there is little information on the microbial diversity and characteristics of dry aged beef. in this study, we explored the effect of change in meat microorganisms on dry aged beef. initially, the total bacteria and lab were significantly increased for 50 days during all dry aging periods. there was an absence of representative foodborne pat ...201829081086
metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains penicillium camemberti and geotrichum candidum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened camembert-type cheese.camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including geotrichum candidum and penicillium camemberti. these species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. biochemical studies showed that g. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while p. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and produces enzyme ...201424670012
clavine alkaloids gene clusters ofpenicilliumand related fungi: evolutionary combination of prenyltransferases, monooxygenases and dioxygenases.the clavine alkaloids produced by the fungi of the aspergillaceae and arthrodermatacea families differ from the ergot alkaloids produced byclavicepsandneotyphodium. the clavine alkaloids lack the extensive peptide chain modifications that occur in lysergic acid derived ergot alkaloids. both clavine and ergot alkaloids arise from the condensation of tryptophan and dimethylallylpyrophosphate by the action of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase. the first five steps of the biosynthetic pathway tha ...201729186777
heterotrimeric g protein alpha subunit controls growth, stress response, extracellular protease activity, and cyclopiazonic acid production in penicillium camemberti.the fungus penicillium camemberti is widely used in the ripening of various bloomy-rind cheeses. several properties of p. camemberti are important in cheese ripening, including conidiation, growth and enzyme production, among others. however, the production of mycotoxins such as cyclopiazonic acid during the ripening process by p. camemberti has raised concerns among consumers that demand food with minimal contamination. here we show that overexpressing an α-subunit from the subgroup i of the he ...201728800847
sensory quality of camembert-type cheese: relationship between starter cultures and ripening molds.starter cultures and ripening molds used in the manufacture of moldy cheese aimed at obtaining characteristic flavors and textures considerably differ among dairy industries. thus, the study of variables inherent to the process and their influence on sensory patterns in cheese can improve the standardization and control of the production process. the aim of this work was to study the influence of three different variables on the sensory quality of camembert-type cheese: type of lactic bacteria, ...201627382958
1-octanol, a self-inhibitor of spore germination in penicillium camemberti.penicillium camemberti is a technologically relevant fungus used to manufacture mold-ripened cheeses. this fungal species produces many volatile organic compounds (vocs) including ammonia, methyl-ketones, alcohols and esters. although it is now well known that vocs can act as signaling molecules, nothing is known about their involvement in p. camemberti lifecycle. in this study, spore germination was shown to be self-regulated by quorum sensing in p. camemberti. this phenomenon, also called "cro ...201627052695
conidiation of penicillium camemberti in submerged liquid cultures is dependent on the nitrogen study the ability of a commercial penicillium camemberti strain, used for camembert type cheese ripening, to produce conidia during growth in liquid culture (lc), in media containing different sources of nitrogen as, industrially, conidia are produced by growth at the surface of a solid state culture because conidiation in stirred submerged aerobic lc is not known.201626714809
kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram (macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. it is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. solid state fermentation of horse gram using penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. the fermented material, termed kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. a reduction i ...201526604417
penicamedine a, a highly oxygenated hexacyclic indole alkaloid from penicillium camemberti.a highly oxygenated hexacyclic indole alkaloid, penicamedine a (1), bearing a rare furan ring, was isolated from the culture broth of penicillium camemberti, together with two known analogs, iso-α-cyclopiazonic acid (2) and cyclopiazonic acid (3). the structure of 1 was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including nmr and hr-esi-ms. its absolute configuration was further confirmed unambiguously by single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. compound 1 was evaluated for anti-hiv ac ...201526460559
effects of different strains penicillium nalgiovense in the nalžovy cheese during ripening.the present study examined the influence of eight selected strains of penicillium nalgiovense as secondary culture on the ripening of soft mould cheese. ion-exchange chromatography, sds-page and sensory analysis were used for comparison of p. nalgiovense with common secondary mould culture (penicillium camemberti).201626251231
temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in camembert cheeses: penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. to evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°c) and relative humidity (rh; 88, 92, and ...201525497800
manganese biosorption from aqueous solution by penicillium camemberti biomass in the batch and fix bed reactors: a kinetic study.biosorption of manganese(ii) using suspended and immobilized cells of fungal penicillium camemberti (biomass) and nano-p. camemberti (nano-biomass) was studied by evaluating the physicochemical parameters of the solution such as initial manganese ion concentration, ph, temperature, dosage, and contact time in both batch system and fixed bed column. the maximum biosorption obtained from the batch process was 91.54 and 71.08 % for nano-biomass and biomass in initial concentration of 5 ppm, respect ...201425154368
production of conidia of penicillium camemberti in liquid medium through microcycles of conidiation.microcycle conidiation is a survival mechanism of fungi encountering unfavorable conditions. in this phenomenon, asexual spores germinate secondary spores directly without formation of mycelium. as penicillium camemberti conidia have the ability to produce conidiophores after germination in liquid culture induced by a thermal stress (18 and 30 °c), our work has aimed at producing conidia through this mean. incubation at 18 and 30 °c increased the swelling of conidia and their proportion thereby ...201424975730
short communication: little change takes place in camembert-type cheese water activities throughout ripening in terms of relative humidity and salt.water activity (a(w)) affects the growth and activity of ripening microorganisms. moreover, it is generally accepted that a(w) depends on relative humidity (rh) and salt content; these 3 variables were usually measured on a given day in a cheese without the microorganism layer and without accounting for a distinction between the rind, the underrind, and the core. however, a(w) dynamics have never been thoroughly studied throughout cheese ripening. experimental camembert cheeses were ripened unde ...201324404582
dynamics of penicillium camemberti growth quantified by real-time pcr on camembert-type cheeses under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity.penicillium camemberti plays a major role in the flavor and appearance of camembert-type cheeses. however, little is known about its mycelium growth kinetics during ripening. we monitored the growth of p. camemberti mycelium in camembert-type cheeses using real-time pcr in 4 ripening runs, performed at 2 temperatures (8 and 16°c) and 2 relative humidities (88 and 98%). these findings were compared with p. camemberti quantification by spore concentration. during the first phase, the mycelium grew ...201323587382
microsatellite loci to recognize species for the cheese starter and contaminating strains associated with cheese manufacturing.we report the development of 17 microsatellite markers in the cheese fungi penicillium camemberti and p. roqueforti, using an enrichment protocol. polymorphism and cross-amplification were explored using 23 isolates of p. camemberti, 26 isolates of p. roqueforti, and 2 isolates of each of the p. chrysogenum and p. nalgiovense species, used to produce meat fermented products. the markers appeared useful for differentiating species, both using their amplification sizes and the sequences of their f ...201020031244
studies on baeyer-villiger oxidation of steroids: dhea and pregnenolone d-lactonization pathways in penicillium camemberti am83.penicillium camemberti am83 strain is able to carry out effective baeyer-villiger type oxidation of dhea, pregnenolone, androstenedione and progesterone to testololactone. pregnenolone and dhea underwent oxidation to testololactone via two routes: through 4-en-3-ketones (progesterone and/or androstenedione respectively) or through 3beta-hydroxy-17a-oxa-d-homo-androst-5-en-17-one. analysis of transformation progress of studied substrates as function of time indicates that the 17beta-side chain cl ...200919481558
cloning and expression of genes involved in conidiation and surface properties of penicillium camemberti grown in liquid and solid cultures.based on bioinformatic data on model fungi, the roda and weta genes encoding, respectively, a roda hydrophobin protein and the weta protein involved in conidiation mechanisms, were pcr-cloned and characterized for the first time in penicillium camemberti. these results, completed by a sequence of the brla gene (available in genbank), which encodes a major transcriptional regulator also involved in the conidiation mechanism, were used to compare, by qrt-pcr, the expression of the three genes in l ...200818093806
metabolism of phenylalanine and biosynthesis of styrene in penicillium camemberti.the occurrence of styrene in food may be an important aroma defect (celluloid odour), even at very low concentrations (miltz et al. 1980) causing consumer rejection and is therefore a problem for the food industry. we examined the biosynthetic pathway leading to styrene formation by penicillium camemberti using labelled compounds. as styrene is strongly hydrophobic and volatile, we first had to develop a continuous extraction process. using resins xad2 it was reasonable to suspect phenylalanine ...200717291386
dehalogenation of lindane by penicillium camemberti. 200617219309
degradation of low and high molecular weight fractions of softwood bleachery effluents by penicillium camemberti in up-flow column reactor. 200616652263
near-infrared spectra of penicillium camemberti strains separated by extended multiplicative signal correction improved prediction of physical and chemical variations.different methods for spectral preprocessing were compared in relation to the ability to distinguish between fungal isolates and growth stages for penicillium camemberti grown on cheese substrate. the best classification results were obtained by temperatureand wavelength-extended multivariate signal correction (twemsc) preprocessing, whereby three patterns of variation in nearinfrared (nir) log(1/r) spectra of fungal colonies could be separated mathematically: (1) physical light scattering and i ...200515720739
cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar.known or potential new fungal starter culture species such as penicillium camemberti, p. roqueforti, p. nalgiovense, p. caseifulvum, and p. solitum have been cultivated on a cheese agar medium together with the common cheese contaminants p. commune, p. crustosum, p. discolor, p. atramentosum, and p. nordicum. secondary metabolites were extracted and analyzed by hplc-dad and tested for cytotoxicity by using the mtt-cell culture assay. metabolites such as cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine c, and pe ...200212358494
evolution of the composition of a selected bitter camembert cheese during ripening: release and migration of taste-active compounds.the aim of this study was to add to the understanding of changes in taste that occur during the ripening of a bitter camembert cheese by the evolution of its composition. physicochemical analyses were performed on rind, under-rind, and center portions of a camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness. at each of the six steps of ripening studied organic acids, sugars, total nitrogen, soluble nitrogen, phosphotungstic acid soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, na, k, ca, mg, pi, cl, and ...200111409990
sporulation of penicillium camemberti in submerged batch culture.sporulation of penicillium camemberti was studied in submerged batch fermentation. a defined medium was used with glucose and ammonium as c- and n-sources. temperature was set to 25 degrees c at ph 5.6. essential for submerged sporulation was the presence of calcium (14 mm) which was adsorbed to the cell walls in all sporulating strains and inhibited mycelial growth. acetate led to highly branched conidiophores and was the second main factor for efficient sporulation. the chelating properties of ...199910553300
aspartic proteinase from penicillium camemberti: purification, properties, and substrate acid proteinase from the culture filtrate of penicillium camemberti was isolated in a two-step purification procedure by cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration. the enzyme is an aspartic proteinase inhibited by pepstatin, dan, and epnp, with a molecular mass determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 33.5 kda. the optimum activity for hydrolysis of denatured hemoglobin is around ph 3.4. the enzyme is highly specific for the aromatic and hydrophobic a ...19957646878
[cheese-packers' disease--respiratory complaints at a cheese-packing dairy].twenty-one present and three former employees working in the paching room of a cheese-making dairy underwent clinical examinations including symptom history, smoking habits, chest examination, and pulmonary function tests. blood samples were drawn to determine level of peripheral eosinophil count and antibodies to microorganisms detected by air samples. air sample concentrations of penicillium camemberti var. candidum, used in the cheese-production, were very high (> 6000 colony forming units pe ...19947985280
penicillium camemberti a new source of brefeldin a. 199217226515
purification of the cellulase complex produced by penicillium camemberti and its partial characterization.three cellulase components (fp-ase, cmc-ase and cellobiase) were purified by affinity binding on avicel followed by sephadex g-25, deae-sepharose, deae-cellulose and sephadex g-100 chromatography from the culture filtrate of the newly isolated strain penicillium camemberti. the isolated enzymes had the properties of cellobiohydrolase, endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase and cellobiase and their respective molar masses were 99, 87 and 61 kda as determined by molecular sieve chromatography on sephadex g-100 ...19921505882
induction and characterization of penicillium caseicolum mutants resistant to ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors.the isolation of penicillium caseicolum mutants resistant to different fungicides which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis is reported. mutational frequencies for resistance were high (3 x 10 to 3 x 10). the levels of resistance toward the inhibitors of sterol c-14 demethylation were always low (<10), whereas high values were obtained with mutants resistant to inhibitors of sterol delta14 reduction or delta8-->delta7 isomerization, or both. generally, there was a positive cross-resistance between f ...198716347379
[formation of nitrosamines in cheese products].several strains of micromycetes used as fermentation agents in the cheese industry or having led to accidents during cheese making are able to favor the formation of nitrosamines in 60% of the cases. the concentrations observed are similar to those found by other authors with other microorganisms. the results obtained in a semi-synthetic medium are checked during the ripening of experimental camembert type cheese made from milk containing nitrates and cultured with a strain of penicillium camemb ...19807258908
metalloproteases from penicillium caseicolum and p. roqueforti: comparison of specificity and chemical characterization. 19806998789
cyclopiazonic acid production by penicillium camemberti thom and natural occurrence of this mycotoxin in cheese.every penicillium camemberti strain freshly isolated from 20 commercial cheese brands produced cyclopiazonic acid in two culture media at 25, 13, and 4 degrees c; the toxin yield was greatly dependent on the strain and environmental parameters (medium, temperature, and incubation time). the toxigenic ability appeared as a log-normal distribution. this mycotoxin was found in the crust (0.05 to 0.1 microgram/g in three samples, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/g in five samples, and 0.4, 1, and 1.5 microgram/ ...1979526014
regulation of pyruvate carboxylase of penicillium camemberti by the adenylate system. 19685672143
[factors of conidia formation by penicillium caseicolum bainer in agitated medium]. 195713425101
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