effect of a fermented brown rice extract on the gastrointestinal function in methotrexate-treated rats.we investigated the protective effect of a hydrous ethanol extract of brown rice fermented with aspergillus oryzae (erf) which contained nucleobases and low fiber on the methotrexate (mtx)-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats. the rats were assigned to three groups: control (con), mtx, and mtx-erf. the rats in the con and mtx groups were fed for 4 weeks on a basal diet, and those in the mtx-erf group were fed on a 9.16% erf-containing basal diet. the rats in the mtx and mtx-erf groups were ad ...201323391910
heterologous expression and characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 45 endo-β-1,4-glucanase from a symbiotic protist of the lower termite, reticulitermes speratus.the termite symbiotic system is one of the efficient lignocellulose degradation systems. we tried to express and characterize a novel cellulolytic enzyme from this system. here, we report the isolation of an endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene homolog of glycoside hydrolase family 45 from a symbiotic protistan community of reticulitermes speratus. heterologous expression of this gene was performed using the expression system of aspergillus oryzae. analysis of enzymatic properties revealed 786 μmol/min/mg ...201323354496
purification and characterization of a glutaminase enzyme accounting for the majority of glutaminase activity in aspergillus sojae under solid-state culture.glutaminase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes l-glutamine to l-glutamate, plays an important role in the production of fermented foods by enhancing the umami taste. in this study, we found ten glutaminase genes in the aspergillus sojae genome by conducting a blast search of the characterized glutaminase sequence. we subsequently constructed glutaminase gene disruptants. the glutaminase activity of the gahb disruptant was decreased by approximately 90 % in a. sojae and aspergillus oryzae, indicating tha ...201323339014
offline and online capillary electrophoresis enzyme assays of β-n-acetylhexosaminidase.enzyme assays of β-n-acetylhexosaminidase from aspergillus oryzae using capillary electrophoresis in the offline and online setup have been developed. the ph value and concentration of the borate-based background electrolyte were optimized in order to achieve baseline separation of n,n',n″-triacetylchitotriose, n,n'-diacetylchitobiose, and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine. the optimized method using 25 mm tetraborate buffer, ph 10.0, was evaluated in terms of repeatability, limits of detection, quantifica ...201323338752
detailed analysis of galactooligosaccharides synthesis with β-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae.the synthesis of galactooligosaccharides (gos) catalyzed by β-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae (enzeco) was studied. using 400 g/l of lactose and 15 u/ml, maximum gos yield, measured by hpaec-pad, was 26.8% w/w of total carbohydrates, obtained at approximately 70% lactose conversion. no less than 17 carbohydrates were identified; the major transgalactosylation product was 6'-o-β-galactosyl-lactose, representing nearly one-third (in weight) of total gos. in contrast with previous reports, th ...201323330921
analysis of microflora profile in korean traditional nuruk.a variety of nuruk were collected from various provinces in korea, and their microflora profiles were analyzed at the species level. a total of 42 nuruk samples were collected and when the viable cell numbers in these nuruk were enumerated, the average cell numbers of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria from all nuruk were 7.21, 7.91, 3.49, and 4.88 log cfu/10 g, respectively. there were no significant differences in viable cell numbers of bacteria or fungi according to regions coll ...201323314366
reconstitution of biosynthetic machinery for indole-diterpene paxilline in aspergillus oryzae.indole-diterpenes represented by paxilline share a common pentacyclic core skeleton derived from indole and geranylgeranyl diphosphate. to shed light on the detailed biosynthetic mechanism of the paspaline-type hexacyclic skeleton, we examined the reconstitution of paxilline biosynthetic machinery in aspergillus oryzae nsar1. stepwise introduction of the six pax genes enabled us to isolate all biosynthetic intermediates and to synthesize paxilline. in vitro and in vivo studies on the key enzymes ...201323311903
isolation and characterisation of a ferrirhodin synthetase gene from the sugarcane pathogen fusarium sacchari.fsn1, a gene isolated from the sugar-cane pathogen fusarium sacchari, encodes a 4707-residue nonribosomal peptide synthetase consisting of three complete adenylation, thiolation and condensation modules followed by two additional thiolation and condensation domain repeats. this structure is similar to that of ferricrocin synthetase, which makes a siderophore that is involved in intracellular iron storage in other filamentous fungi. heterologous expression of fsn1 in aspergillus oryzae resulted i ...201323307607
optimization of the nutrition for biodegradation of vinasse by aspergillus oryzae using response surface discharge of vinasse from the distillery industry causes resource wasting and environmental destruction due to its mass of organic components. aspergillus oryzae cgmcc5992 is capable of degrading the organic substrates of wastewater. one-factor-at-a-time design was adopted to select the most important nutrients influencing the degradation of organic materials of vinasse. box-behnken design (bbd) with design-expert (8.0.4) was used to develop mathematical model equations, study responses, ...201323306254
two-step purification of a novel β-glucosidase with high transglycosylation activity and another hypothetical β-glucosidase in aspergillus oryzae hml366 and enzymatic characterization.two novel β-glucosidases (bghg1 and bghg2) were purified from the enzyme extract of aspergillus oryzae hml366 through nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and anion-exchange chromatography. the molecular weights for bghg1 and bghg2 were 93 and 138 kda, respectively. the amino acid sequences were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time of flight. the mascot and blast analyses indicated that bghg1 has the same sequence as the hypothetical protein xp_001816831 from a. ory ...201323288594
xylitol production by nad(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (xdha)- and l-arabitol-4-dehydrogenase (lada)-disrupted mutants of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae can metabolize xylan to d-xylose and d-xylose to xylitol. however, accumulation of xylitol is controlled by dehydrogenases, such as xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh) and l-arabitol-4-dehydrogenase (lad), and fluxed into the pentose phosphate pathway. in a. oryzae, xdh and lad are encoded by xdha and lada, respectively. we disrupted the xdha and lada genes individually in an attempt to increase xylitol production. the xdha- and lada-disrupted mutants were constructed by homologous tr ...201323287496
steroid toxicity and detoxification in ascomycetous the last couple of decades fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem. a major interest into fungal steroid action has been provoked since research has proven that steroid hormones are toxic to fungi and affect the host/fungus relationship. steroid hormones were found to differ in their antifungal activity in ascomycetous fungi hortaea werneckii, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus oryzae. dehydroepiandrosterone was shown to be the strongest inhibitor of growth in all t ...201323257178
identification of regulatory elements in the glucoamylase-encoding gene (glab) promoter from aspergillus oryzae.the aspergillus oryzae glucoamylase-encoding gene glab is expressed specifically and strongly only during solid-state cultivation (ssc). to elucidate the basis for the specificity, the glab promoter was analyzed by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (emsa) which indicated two protein-binding elements from -382 to -353 and from -332 to -313. to confirm that these regions contained cis-elements, deletion analysis of the promoter was undertaken using β-glucuronidase as a reporter. the results ...201323224588
pei-coated gold nanoparticles decorated with laccase: a new platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and biosensing applications.this paper describes the synthesis and characterization of pei-coated gold nanoparticles (pei-aunp), which were applied as a new platform in the immobilization of laccase (lac) originating from aspergillus oryzae. this material (pei-aunp-lac) was used in the construction of a biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode coated with a bio-nanostructured film. the occurrence of direct electron transfer (det) between the electroactive center of lac and the electrode surface was observed by cyclic v ...201323208093
functional expression of a foreign gene in aspergillus oryzae producing new pyrone compounds.fungi from the genus xylaria produce a wide range of polyketides with diverse structures, which provide important sources for pharmaceutical agents. at least seven polyketide synthase (pks) genes, including pksmt, were found in xylaria sp. bcc 1067. the multifunctional enzyme pksmt contains the following catalytic motifs: β-ketosynthase (ks), acyltransferase (at), dehydratase (dh), methyltransferase (mt), enoylreductase (er), ketoreductase (kr), and acyl carrier region (acp). the presence of mul ...201323174282
functional analysis of aoatg1 and detection of the cvt pathway in aspergillus oryzae.autophagy is a degradation system in which cellular components are digested via vacuoles/lysosomes. in the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, the induction of autophagy results from inactivation of target of rapamycin complex 1 (torc1), promoting formation of the serine/threonine kinase atg1, which is one of the key autophagy-related (atg) proteins required for both nonselective and selective autophagy such as the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (cvt) pathway. here, to understand the inducti ...201323136971
enzymatic characteristics of a recombinant neutral protease i (rnpi) from aspergillus oryzae expressed in pichia pastoris.a truncated neutral protease i (npi) from aspergillus oryzae 3.042 was expressed in pichia pastoris with a high enzyme yield of 43101 u/ml. its optimum ph was about 8.0, and it was stable in the ph range of 5.0-9.0. its optimum temperature was about 55 °c and retained >90% activity at 50 °c for 120 min. recombinant npi (rnpi) was inhibited by cu(2+) and edta. eight cleavage sites of rnpi in oxidized insulin b-chain were determined by mass spectrometry, and five of them had high hydrophobic amino ...201223136814
isolation and characterization of the mhea (most highly expressed) gene of aspergillus oryzae.the amino acid sequence of the mhea gene of aspergillus oryzae encodes a putative metallothionein-like protein 1. the size of the mhea transcript was 497 nt and the mhea promoter was induced by glucose, consistent with results of analysis by northern hybridization and with the pdca promoter, respectively.201223115516
hyphal heterogeneity in aspergillus oryzae is the result of dynamic closure of septa by woronin bodies.hyphae of higher fungi are compartmentalized by septa. these septa contain a central pore that allows for inter-compartmental and inter-hyphal cytoplasmic streaming. the cytoplasm within the mycelium is therefore considered to be a continuous system. in this study, however, we demonstrate by laser dissection that 40% of the apical septa of exploring hyphae of aspergillus oryzae are closed. closure of septa correlated with the presence of a peroxisome-derived organelle, known as woronin body, nea ...201223106143
engineering hyperthermostability into a mesophilic family 11 xylanase from aspergillus oryzae by in silico design of n-terminus substitution.a mesophilic xylanase from aspergillus oryzae cicc40186 (abbreviated to aoxyn11a) belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 11. the thermostability of aoxyn11a was significantly improved by substituting its n-terminus with the corresponding region of a hyperthermostable family 11 xylanase, evxyn11(ts) . the suitable n-terminus of aoxyn11a to be replaced was selected by the comparison of b-factors between aoxyn11a and evxyn11(ts) , which were generated and calculated after a 15 ns molecular dynamic ( ...201323097144
a toolkit for heterologous expression of metabolic pathways in aspergillus oryzae.much has been learned about the activities of the key enzymes involved in eukaryotic natural product synthesis by isolating the relevant genes and expressing them in a suitable foreign host. aspergillus oryzae has proved to be an amenable host for the functional analysis of megasynthases from other fungi, but secondary metabolites are often the products of suites of enzymes, and understanding their biosynthesis requires simultaneous expression of several genes. this chapter describes the develop ...201223084942
reconstitution of a secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous fungal host.expression of multiple genes involved in a particular metabolic pathway in a heterologous host facilitates the study of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis and production of useful compounds. two plasmids with different selection markers, argb and the pyrithiamine resistance marker, are used to transform aspergillus oryzae allowing for expression of up to three genes simultaneously.201223065616
manr, a novel zn(ii)2cys6 transcriptional activator, controls the β-mannan utilization system in aspergillus oryzae.fungal endo-β-mannanases (β-mannanases) are widely used as industrial enzymes; however, no transcriptional regulator of β-mannanases has been identified in fungi or other eukaryotic cells to date. to identify a transcriptional regulator of β-mannanases in aspergillus oryzae, a gene-disruptant library of transcriptional regulators was screened for mutants exhibiting reduced β-mannanase activity by using konjac glucomannan as the substrate, and manr, a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) type dna binding protein was ...201223063954
endophytes from an australian native plant are a promising source of industrially useful enzymes.endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues that are potential sources of novel bioactive compounds, including enzymes. we have identified endophytes of the australian native plant eremophilia longifolia which were screened for the production of industrially useful enzymes. seventeen fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of e. longifolia and enzyme production was investigated within a range of ph (3.5, 5.5, 7 and 9) and temperatures (9, 25, 37 and 50 °c). amylase was t ...201323054705
activation mechanism of melb tyrosinase from aspergillus oryzae by acidic treatment.the pro form of recombinant tyrosinase from aspergillus oryzae (melb) shows no catalytic activity, but acid treatment (around ph 3.5) of protyrosinase activates it to induce tyrosinase activity. circular dichroism spectra, gel filtration analysis, and colorimetric assay have indicated that acid treatment around ph 3.5 induced the disruption of the conformation of the c-terminal domain covering the enzyme active site. these structural changes induced by the acid treatment may open the entrance to ...201323053534
characterization of a novel lipolytic enzyme from aspergillus this study, we report the characterization of a protein from aspergillus oryzae, exhibiting sequence identity with paraben esterase from the genus aspergillus. the coding region of 1,586 bp, including a 77-bp intron, encoded a protein of 502 amino acids. the gene without the signal peptide of 19 amino acids was cloned into a vector, ppiczαc, and expressed successfully in pichia pastoris as an active extracellular protein. the purified recombinant protein had ph and temperature optima of 7.0-8 ...201323001008
serine-type carboxypeptidase kexa of aspergillus oryzae has broader substrate specificity than saccharomyces cerevisiae kex1 and is required for normal hyphal growth and conidiation.aspergillus oryzae has an ortholog of saccharomyces cerevisiae kex1, termed kexa. a truncated form of kexa protein showed serine-type carboxypeptidase activity and somewhat broader substrate specificity than kex1 protease. furthermore, our results indicated that kexa is required for normal growth of a. oryzae and that it might be involved in hyphal branching.201222961905
production of polygalacturonases by aspergillus oryzae in stirred tank and internal- and external-loop airlift reactors.the production of endo- and exo-polygalacturonase (pg) by aspergillus oryzae was assessed in stirred tank reactors (strs), internal-loop airlift reactors (ilars) and external-loop airlift reactors (elars). for str production, we compared culture media formulated with either pectin (wbe) or partially hydrolyzed pectin. the highest enzyme activities were obtained in medium that contained 50% pectin in hydrolyzed form (wbe5). pg production in the three reactor types was compared for wbe5 and low sa ...201222940313
kinetic analysis, expression pattern, and production of a recombinant fungal protease inhibitor of tasar silkworm antheraea mylitta.antheraea mylitta, a tasar silk-producing insect of saturniidae family, expresses a fungal protease inhibitor named as a. mylitta fungal protease inhibitor-1 (amfpi-1). amfpi-1 inhibits alkaline protease of aspergillus oryzae but its mechanism of action is not known. to understand the mode of inhibition of amfpi-1 against the fungal protease, it was purified from the hemolymph of a. mylitta larvae and inhibitory activity against a. oryzae protease was studied. kinetic analysis of purified amfpi- ...201222935928
draft genome sequence of aspergillus oryzae strain 3.042.aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in china and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. we report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of a. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of a. oryzae rib40.201222933657
identification of antifungal niphimycin from streptomyces sp. kp6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. a microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (ak) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. a culture extract of streptomyces sp. strain kp6107 lysed cells of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high ak activity. the active ingr ...201322915202
improved heterologous protein production by a tripeptidyl peptidase gene (aosedd) disruptant of the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.proteolytic degradation is one of the serious bottlenecks limiting the yields of heterologous protein production by aspergillus oryzae. in this study, we selected a tripeptidyl peptidase gene aosedd (ao090166000084) as a candidate potentially degrading the heterologous protein, and performed localization analysis of the fusion protein aosedd-egfp in a. oryzae. as a result, the aosedd-egfp was observed in the septa and cell walls as well as in the culture medium, suggesting that aosedd is a secre ...201222878738
contribution ratios of amya, amyb, amyc genes to high-level α-amylase expression in aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae strains express α-amylases abundantly, and the genome reference strain rib40 has three α-amylase genes (amya, amyb, and amyc). however, there is no information on the contribution ratios of individual α-amylase genes to total expression. in this study, we generated single, double, and triple disruptants of α-amylase genes by employing a strain (δligd) with high gene-targeting efficiency and pyrg marker recycling in a. oryzae. all the disruptants showed reduced activities of α- ...201222878189
degradation of terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin pesticides by selected fungi cultures.contamination of waters by xenobiotic compounds such as pesticides presents a serious environmental problem with substantial levels of pesticides now contaminating european water resources. the aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the fungi fusarium oxysporum, aspergillus oryzae, lentinula edodes, penicillium brevicompactum and lecanicillium saksenae, for the biodegradation of the pesticides terbuthylazine, difenoconazole and pendimethalin in batch liquid cultures. these pesticides ar ...201222878100
isolation and identification of two novel umami and umami-enhancing peptides from peanut hydrolysate by consecutive chromatography and maldi-tof/tof ms.peanut hydrolysate produced by crude protease extract from aspergillus oryzae hn 3.042 was found to elicit intense umami and umami-enhancing effect. taste profiles, amino acid and organic acid composition of peanut hydrolysate and its separation fractions by ultrafiltration were evaluated. the results revealed that peanut hydrolysate was mainly low molecular weight compounds. fractions of 1-3 kda and below 1 kda prominently contributed to the umami taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peanut ...201222868117
production of biodiesel from plant oil hydrolysates using an aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst highly expressing candida antarctica lipase b.for enzymatic biodiesel production from plant oil hydrolysates, an aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst that expresses candida antarctica lipase b (r-calb) with high esterification activity was developed. each of soybean and palm oils was hydrolyzed using candida rugosa lipase, and the resultant hydrolysates were subjected to esterification where immobilized r-calb was used as a catalyst. in esterification, r-calb afforded a methyl ester content of more than 90% after 6 h with the addition ...201322850174
identification of a gene involved in the synthesis of a dipeptidyl peptidase iv inhibitor in aspergillus oryzae.wyk-1 is a dipeptidyl peptidase iv inhibitor produced by aspergillus oryzae strain ao-1. because wyk-1 is an isoquinoline derivative consisting of three l-amino acids, we hypothesized that a nonribosomal peptide synthetase was involved in its biosynthesis. we identified 28 nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in the sequenced genome of a. oryzae rib40. these genes were also identified in ao-1. among them, ao090001000009 (wykn) was specifically expressed under wyk-1-producing conditions in ao-1. ...201222843525
removal of off-flavors from sea tangle (laminaria japonica) extract by fermentation with aspergillus oryzae.this study was conducted to reduce off-flavors from sea tangle (laminaria japonica) extract since the typical odor of seaweed is an impediment to consumption of seaweed products. fifty-six odor compounds emitted from the extract were identified using a thermal desorbor and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. on the basis of expected odor intensity (eoi), isovaleric acid (41.2%), allyl isothiocyanate (22.6%), octanal (11.1%) and acetaldehyde (10.6%) were responsible for about 85.5% of total odo ...201222840201
comparison of expression and enzymatic properties of aspergillus oryzae lysine aminopeptidases apsa and apsb.the apsa and apsb genes encoding family m1 aminopeptidases were identified in the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae. the apsb was transcriptionally up-regulated up to 2.5-fold in response to the deprivation of nitrogen or carbon sources in growth media, while up-regulation of apsa was less significant. the encoded proteins were bacterially expressed and purified to characterize their enzymatic properties. apsa and apsb were optimally active at ph 7.0 and 35 °c and stable at ph ranges of 6-10 ...201222806190
solid-state fermentation of soybean and corn processing coproducts for potential feed improvement.two agro-industrial coproducts, soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles (ddgs), were used as substrates to evaluate the effect of coculturing three different fungi, aspergillus oryzae, trichoderma reesei, and phanerochaete chrysosporium, on enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (ssf). when soybean fiber was used as the substrate, a maximum xylanase activity of 757.4 iu/g and a cellulase activity of 3.2 iu/g were achieved with the inoculation and incubation of t ...201222799754
the evolutionary imprint of domestication on genome variation and function of the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.the domestication of animals, plants, and microbes fundamentally transformed the lifestyle and demography of the human species [1]. although the genetic and functional underpinnings of animal and plant domestication are well understood, little is known about microbe domestication [2-6]. here, we systematically examined genome-wide sequence and functional variation between the domesticated fungus aspergillus oryzae, whose saccharification abilities humans have harnessed for thousands of years to ...201222795693
cloning and expression of the aspergillus oryzae glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase a (exga) in pichia pastoris.the glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase a gene (exga) from aspergillus oryzae and fused to the saccharomyces cerevisiae signal peptide (α-factor) was expressed under the control of either a constitutive (gap) or an inducible (aox1) promoter in pichia pastoris. a 1.4-fold higher extracellular enzyme activity (2 u/ml) was obtained using the aox1 inducible expression system than with the gap constitutive promoter (1.4 u/ml). the purified recombinant exga enzyme, with a yield of 10 mg protein/l culture supe ...201222782265
population-based study reveals new risk-stratification biomarker panel for barrett's esophagus.the risk of progression of barrett's esophagus (be) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (eac) is low and difficult to calculate. accurate tools to determine risk are needed to optimize surveillance and intervention. we assessed the ability of candidate biomarkers to predict which cases of be will progress to eac or high-grade dysplasia and identified those that can be measured in formalin-fixed tissues.201222771507
high production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (vhh) fused to various reader proteins by aspergillus oryzae.llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (vhh) fused to four different reader proteins was produced and secreted in culture medium by aspergillus oryzae. these fusion proteins consisted of n-terminal reader proteins, vhh, and a c-terminal his-tag sequence which facilitated purification using one-step his-tag affinity chromatography. sds-page analysis of the deglycosylated purified fusion proteins confirmed that the molecular weight of each corresponded to the expected sum of vhh and the resp ...201322752366
common and distant structural characteristics of feruloyl esterase families from aspergillus oryzae.feruloyl esterases (faes) are important biomass degrading accessory enzymes due to their capability of cleaving the ester links between hemicellulose and pectin to aromatic compounds of lignin, thus enhancing the accessibility of plant tissues to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. faes have gained increased attention in the area of biocatalytic transformations for the synthesis of value added compounds with medicinal and nutritional applications. following the increasing attention on the ...201222745763
metabolomics-based optimal koji fermentation for tyrosinase inhibition supplemented with astragalus radix.the present study was focused on improving the quality of rice koji by fermentation with a selected aspergillus oryzae strain and a plant astragalus radix. a. oryzae kccm 60345 was used as main inoculant and the astragalus radix was added as supplement in rice koji preparation. lc-ms based metabolite analysis and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were studied for different time periods. a. oryzae kccm 60345 fermented rice koji supplemented with astragalus showed higher tyrosinase inhibition activ ...201222738950
increased production of fatty acids and triglycerides in aspergillus oryzae by enhancing expressions of fatty acid synthesis-related genes.microbial production of fats and oils is being developed as a means of converting biomass to biofuels. here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in aspergillus oryzae. examination of the a. oryzae genome demonstrates that it contains two fatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. we enhanced the expression of fatt ...201322733113
jewelry boxes contaminated by aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?in 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in china, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in besançon, france. all the boxes were contaminated by mold. because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis ...201222702230
a novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoside hydrolase from ustilago esculenta functions in β-1,3-glucan degradation.a glycoside hydrolase responsible for laminarin degradation was partially purified to homogeneity from a ustilago esculenta culture filtrate by weak-cation-exchange, strong-cation-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. three proteins in enzymatically active fractions were digested with chymotrypsin followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms/ms) analysis, resulting in the identification of three peptide sequences that shared significant similarity to a putative β-1,3- ...201222685137
transcripts of a heterologous gene encoding mite allergen der f 7 are stabilized by codon optimization in aspergillus oryzae.we have previously demonstrated that transcripts of an at-biased heterologous gene encoding mite allergen der f 7 from dermatophagoides farinae were polyadenylated prematurely within the coding region when native cdna was expressed in aspergillus oryzae, and that this premature polyadenylation was prevented by the codon optimization of the der f 7 gene, resulting in increased steady-state mrna levels. in this study, we tested the stability of transcription products derived from expression constr ...201222644529
efficient heterologous expression and secretion in aspergillus oryzae of a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment v(hh) against egfr.we have constructed a filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae that secretes a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (v(hh)) that binds specifically to epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) in a culture medium. a major improvement in yield was achieved by fusing the v(hh) with a taka-amylase a signal sequence (staa) and a segment of 28 amino acids from the n-terminal region of rhizopus oryzae lipase (n28). the yields of secreted, immunologically active anti-egfr v(hh) reached 73.8 mg/1 in ...201222644525
comparative proteome analysis of aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and a. oryzae 100-8 strains: towards the production of different soy sauce flavors.aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. we present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain a100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by maldi-tof ms, with 134 spots being confirmed by maldi-tof ms/ms. of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (deps). there was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots ...201222634401
a heptaketide naphthaldehyde produced by a polyketide synthase from nectria haematococca.bostrycoidin and fusarubin are biologically active fungal polyketides produced by nectria haematococca. this azaanthraquinone and naphthoquinone are thought to be biosynthesized via formation of a c(14) heptaketide aldehyde as a common key intermediate. a blast search against the genome of n. haematococca revealed one candidate gene (nechadraft_101778, nhpks1), which encodes a multi-domain polyketide synthase (pks) with a thiol reductase (tr) domain that would facilitate the reductive release of ...201222633689
gene cloning, purification, and characterization of a novel peptidoglutaminase-asparaginase from aspergillus sojae.glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-glutamine to l-glutamate, and it plays an important role in the production of fermented foods by enhancing the umami taste. by using the genome sequence and expressed sequence tag data available for aspergillus oryzae rib40, we cloned a novel glutaminase gene (asgaha) from aspergillus sojae, which was similar to a previously described gene encoding a salt-tolerant, thermostable glutaminase of cryptococcus nodaensis (cngaha). the structu ...201222610430
changes in selected physical property and enzyme activity of rice and barley koji during fermentation and storage.koji are solid-state fermentation products made by inoculating steamed grains with the spores of fungi, particularly aspergillus spp. this research was undertaken to identify the fermentation and storage conditions optimal for the production and maintenance of selected hydrolytic enzymes, such as α-amlyase and protease, in koji. steamed rice and barley were inoculated with 2 × 10 ¹¹ aspergillus oryzae spores per kilogram of grains and fermented for 118 h in a growth chamber at 28 to 32 °c with c ...201222583119
two new steroidal saponins from the biotransformation product of the rhizomes of dioscorea nipponica.two new steroidal saponins, dioscins e (1) and f (2), along with nine known steroidal saponins, were isolated from the biotransformation product of the rhizomes of dioscorea nipponica using aspergillus oryzae. the structures of new compounds were established as 25(r)-spirost-5-en-21β-methyl-3β-ol-3-o-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1) and (25r)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-7-one 3-o-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) by detailed spectroscopic analyses including 1d and 2d ...201222582713
the evolution of three types of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenases in fungi with distinct molecular and biochemical characteristics.indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (ido) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme and known as a mammalian immunosuppressive molecule. in fungi, the primary role of ido is to supply nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad(+)) via the kynurenine pathway. we previously reported that the koji-mold, aspergillus oryzae has two ido genes, idoα and idoβ. in the present study, we found that a. oryzae also has the third ido, idoγ. these three-types of idos are widely distributed among the pezizomycotina fungi, although ...201222564706
meju, unsalted soybeans fermented with bacillus subtilis and aspergilus oryzae, potentiates insulinotropic actions and improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats. 201222550941
lect-hepa, a glyco-marker derived from multiple lectins, as a predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis c patients.assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis c (chc) is critical for predicting disease progression and determining future antiviral therapy. lect-hepa, a new glyco-marker derived from fibrosis-related glyco-alteration of serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, was used to differentiate cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis in a single-center study. herein, we aimed to validate this new glyco-marker for estimating liver fibrosis in a multicenter study. overall, 183 chc patients were recru ...201222535703
evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (ddgs) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (ssf) to improve feed digestibility. aspergillus oryzae, trichoderma reesei, and phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in ssf for feed. the results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significant ...201222528656
kinetic modeling of fructooligosaccharide production using aspergillus oryzae this study, the kinetic for the bioconversion of sucrose to fructooligosaccharides (fos) by free cells of aspergillus oryzae n74 was modeled. in addition, the effect of immobilized glucose isomerase (igi) on fos production yield was evaluated and considered in the kinetic model. the selected kinetic models were based on a proposed reaction mechanism described by elementary rate equations and modified michaelis-menten kinetic equations. the use of igi allowed to increase the fos production yie ...201222528647
synthesis of β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside (n-acetylsucrosamine) using β-fructofuranosidase-containing aspergillus oryzae mycelia as a whole-cell catalyst.using soft granules consisting of celite 535 and dried aspergillus oryzae nbrc100959 mycelia containing β-fructofuranosidase as a whole-cell catalyst, n-acetylsucrosamine [β-d-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-glucopyranoside] was produced from sucrose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose by enzymatic transfructosylation. the isolated yield of n-acetylsucrosamine from the reaction mixture was 22.1% (from sucrose). the result of n-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that the ...201222525099
genetic, molecular, and biochemical basis of fungal tropolone biosynthesis.a gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the fungal tropolone stipitatic acid was discovered in talaromyces stipitatus (penicillium stipitatum) and investigated by targeted gene knockout. a minimum of three genes are required to form the tropolone nucleus: tropa encodes a nonreducing polyketide synthase which releases 3-methylorcinaldehyde; tropb encodes a fad-dependent monooxygenase which dearomatizes 3-methylorcinaldehyde via hydroxylation at c-3; and tropc encodes a non-heme fe(ii)-depende ...201222508998
modified cre-loxp recombination in aspergillus oryzae by direct introduction of cre recombinase for marker gene rescue.marker rescue is an important molecular technique that enables sequential gene deletions. the cre-loxp recombination system has been used for marker gene rescue in various organisms, including aspergilli. however, this system requires many time-consuming steps, including construction of a cre expression plasmid, introduction of the plasmid, and cre expression in the transformant. to circumvent this laborious process, we investigated a method wherein cre could be directly introduced into aspergil ...201222504800
enhancing the value of nitrogen from rapeseed meal for microbial oil production.rapeseed meal, a major byproduct of biodiesel production, has been used as a low-cost raw material for the production of a generic microbial feedstock through a consolidated bioconversion process. various strategies were tested for the production of a novel fermentation medium, rich in free amino nitrogen (fan): commercial enzymes (ces) (2.7 mg g⁻¹ dry meal), liquid state fungal pre-treatment (lsf) using aspergillus oryzae (4.6 mg g⁻¹), liquid state fungal pre-treatment followed by fungal autoly ...201222500902
effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and the availability of minerals and amino acids in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for broilers.the addition of microbial phytase to diets for broiler chickens has been shown to improve the availability of phytate p, total p, some other minerals, and amino acids. in this study, the effect of a novel microbial phytase expressed by synthetic genes in aspergillus oryzae on amino acid and mineral availability was assessed. phytase was incorporated (1,000 and 2,000 u/kg) into low-p corn-soybean meal-based diets for broilers. broilers received the experimental diets for 3 wk, and excreta were co ...201222499869
cloning, expression, and characterization of a cellobiose dehydrogenase from thielavia terrestris induced under cellulose growth conditions.the enzyme cellobiose dehydrogenase (cdh) is of considerable interest, not only for its biotechnological applications, but also its potential biological role in lignocellulosic biomass breakdown. the enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of cellobiose and other cellodextrins, utilizing a variety of one- and two-electron acceptors, although the electron acceptor employed in nature is still unknown. in this study we show that a cdh is present in the secretome of the thermophilic ascomycete thielavia terr ...201222484439
monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by pcr-denaturing gradient gel sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. in this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by pcr-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge). the bacterial dgge profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were weissella cibaria (weissella confusa, weissella kimchii, weissella salipiscis, lactobacillus fermentum, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus iner ...201222475947
bioremediation of direct dyes in simulated textile effluents by a paramorphogenic form of aspergillus oryzae.azo dyes are extensively used for coloring textiles, paper, food, leather, drinks, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and inks. the textile industry consumes the largest amount of azo dyes, and it is estimated that approximately 10-15% of dyes used for coloring textiles may be lost in waste streams. almost all azo dyes are synthetic and resist biodegradation, however, they can readily be reduced by a number of chemical and biological reducing systems. biological treatment has advantages over phy ...201222466598
overexpressing transcriptional regulator in aspergillus oryzae activates a silent biosynthetic pathway to produce a novel polyketide.fungal genomes carry many gene clusters seemingly capable of natural product biosynthesis, yet most clusters remain silent. this places a major constraint on the conventional approach of cloning these genes in more amenable heterologous host for the natural product biosynthesis. one way to overcome this difficulty is to activate the silent gene clusters within the context of the target fungus. here, we successfully activated a silent polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus oryzae by ...201222447538
antimicrobial activity of saponin-rich fraction from camellia oleifera cake and its effect on cell viability of mouse macrophage raw a by-product of oil production, several million tons of camellia oleifera cake is discarded every year in china. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a saponin-rich fraction isolated from c. oleifera cake and investigate its effect on the cell viability of raw 264.7, a macrophage-like cell line present in almost all mouse tissues.201222430639
a new zn(ii)(2)cys(6)-type transcription factor bglr regulates β-glucosidase expression in trichoderma reesei.bglr (pi: 52368, beta-glucosidaseregulator) was identified as a new transcription factor that up-regulates expression of specific genes encoding β-glucosidases. based on a comparative genomic analysis to verify snps between trichoderma reesei mutant pc-3-7 and its parent kdg-12, 19 were confirmed. one of the snps was found to cause a missense mutation close to the end of the dna-binding region of bglr that turned out to be a zn(ii)(2)cys(6)-type fungal-specific transcription factor. bglr was fou ...201222425594
amperometric glucose biosensor utilizing fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase immobilized on nanocomposite electrode.amperometric glucose biosensors utilizing commercially available fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenases from two strains of aspergillus species are described. enzymes were immobilized on nanocomposite electrode consisting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by entrapment between chitosan layers. unlike the common glucose oxidase based biosensor, the presented biosensors appeared to be o(2)-independent. the optimal amount of enzymes, working potential and ph value of working media of the glucose biose ...201222418262
the influence of inoculum composition on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of grass pea tempeh obtained by mixed-culture fermentation with rhizopus oligosporus and aspergillus oryzae strains.tempeh is a popular indonesian product obtained from legume seeds by solid-state fermentation with rhizopus sp. the aim of this research was to study the effect of simultaneous mixed-culture fermentation of grass pea seeds on selected parameters of products as compared to traditional tempeh. the inoculum contained different ratios of rhizopus oligosporus and aspergillus oryzae spores. the simultaneous fermentation of grass pea seeds with inoculum consisting of 1.2 × 10(6) r. oligosporus and 0.6  ...201222414936
effect of aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. in this study, the effects of stress induced by aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (us) and germinated (gs) soybeans. additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-indu ...201222409158
extract of fermented brown rice induces apoptosis of human colorectal tumor cells by activating mitochondrial pathway.brown rice fermented with aspergillus oryzae, designated as fbra, is a dietary fiber-rich food, and fully appreciated as one of the prebiotics, which are generally considered to be beneficial to the health of the body, because of stimulating the growth and/or the activity of bacteria in the digestive system. to assess the effectiveness of fbra as a functional food, the direct effect of fbra extract on human colorectal tumor cells was examined. the exposure of hct116 cells to fbra extract reduced ...201222389198
biocatalytic conversion of aloeresin a to aloesin.leaf exudates from aloe species, such as the southern african aloe ferox, are used in traditional medicines for both humans and livestock. this includes aloesin, a skin bleaching product that inhibits the synthesis of melanin. aloesin, (a c-glycoside-5-methylchromone) can be released from aloeresin a, an ester of aloesin, through hydrolysis. the objective of the current study was to identify an enzymatic hydrolysis method for converting aloeresin a to aloesin, resulting in increased concentratio ...201222374229
vector-initiated transitive rna interference in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.rna interference (rnai), modulates gene expression via cleavage of double-stranded rna (dsrna) by dicer, producing 21-25 nucleotide silence-inducing rnas (sirnas). in association with argonaute containing complexes, these sirnas target sequence-specific degradation of the homologous single-stranded messenger rna. in the majority of eukaryotes, degradation occurs within the boundaries of the dsrna target. in arabidopsis thaliana and caenorhabditis elegans, gene silencing can also take place trans ...201222366516
secretome of aspergillus oryzae in shaoxing rice wine koji.shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative chinese rice wine. aspergillus oryzae su16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the shaoxing rice wine starter culture. in the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of a. oryzae su16 in shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. the proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionizat ...201222341915
presence and functionality of mating type genes in the supposedly asexual filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.the potential for sexual reproduction in aspergillus oryzae was assessed by investigating the presence and functionality of mat genes. previous genome studies had identified a mat1-1 gene in the reference strain rib40. we now report the existence of a complementary mat1-2 gene and the sequencing of an idiomorphic region from a. oryzae strain ao6. this allowed the development of a pcr diagnostic assay, which detected isolates of the mat1-1 and mat1-2 genotypes among 180 strains assayed, including ...201222327593
analysis of the functions of recombination-related genes in the generation of large chromosomal deletions by loop-out recombination in aspergillus oryzae.loop-out-type recombination is a type of intrachromosomal recombination followed by the excision of a chromosomal region. the detailed mechanism underlying this recombination and the genes involved in loop-out recombination remain unknown. in the present study, we investigated the functions of ku70, ligd, rad52, rad54, and rdh54 in the construction of large chromosomal deletions via loop-out recombination and the effect of the position of the targeted chromosomal region on the efficiency of loop ...201222286092
anti-obesity effect of a standardised ethanol extract from curcuma longa l. fermented with aspergillus oryzae in ob/ob mice and primary mouse adipocytes.we examined the anti-obesity effect of fermented curcuma longa l. (turmeric) standardised ethanol extract (fte) in the c57bl/6j ob/ob mouse model. mice were fed a chow diet containing fte (0, 200, or 500 mg kg⁻¹ body weight) for 9 weeks.201222278718
effects of koji fermented phenolic compounds on the oxidative stability of fish the present study, aspergillus oryzae-inoculated koji inhibited lipid oxidation in fermented fish paste rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids following a long fermentation period. the fermentation of koji by a. oryzae liberated several bioactive phenolic compounds, including kojic acid and ferulic acid, which were the most abundant. a linear correlation between several phenolic compounds and their bioactive properties, including their radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal-chelating ...201222251370
comparative chemistry of aspergillus oryzae (rib40) and a. flavus (nrrl 3357).aspergillus oryzae and a. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the secondary metabolite production. in this study we report on the first comparison of secondary metabolite production between the full genome sequenced strains of a. oryzae (rib40) and a. flavus (nrrl 3357). ...201224957367
kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-d-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated aspergillus oryzae iib-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.sixteen different mould cultures viz. aspergillus, alternaria, arthroderma, trichoderma, fusarium, penicillium, rhizopus and chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of qatar by serial dilution method. the preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. the isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (smf). the 1,4-α-d-glucan glucohydrolase (ggh) activ ...201223961361
protease inhibitor from moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative.protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. in this study plants belonging to different families of leguminosae, malvaceae, rutaceae, graminae and moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. among them moringa oleifera, belonging to the family moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. m. oleifera, which g ...201123961135
kinetic analysis of batch ethanol acetylation in isothermal non-stationary multiphase systems by lyophilized mycelium of aspergillus oryzae.a relatively complex network of reactions has been investigated, using as a network model the isothermal batch esterification of acetic acid with ethanol in n-heptane catalyzed by lyophilized mycelium of aspergillus oryzae. the kinetic analysis was firstly carried out on the whole system, without any simplification, by means of the well-known integral method. owing to the poor results obtained by this way, we developed an alternative approach, combining initial rates and integral analysis and re ...201124031645
mutagenesis of aspergillus oryzae ipt-301 to improve the production of β-fructofuranosidase.aspergillus oryzae ipt-301, previously reported as a β-fructofuranosidase producing microorganism, was successfully mutated using uv irradiation at 253.7 nm followed by the screening of survivors resistant to certain stress conditions. strains were first subjected to the β-fructofuranosidase activity assay using a portion from the colony grown in petri dish as the enzyme source. seven mutants with β-fructofuranosidase activity values relative to the parent culture between 140 - 190% were selecte ...201024031480
purification and characterization of intracellular cellulase from aspergillus oryzae itcc-4857.01.purification and characterization of intracellular cellulase produced by a. oryzae itcc-4857.01 are reported. the enzyme was purified by ion-exchange chromatography using deae-cellulose followed by gel filtration. the purification achieved was 41 fold from the crude extract with yield of 27%. the purified enzyme showed single band on poly acrylamide gel. the molecular weight as determined by sds-page and gel filtration was 38 kda and 38.6 kda respectively and contained only one subunit. the enzy ...200923983520
purification and characterization of isoamyl alcohol oxidase ("mureka"-forming enzyme).isoamyl alcohol oxidase (iaaod) was purified to apparent homogeneity on sds-page from ultrafiltration (uf) concentrated sake. iaaod was a glycoprotein, a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 73 and 87 kda, by sds-page and gel filtration on hplc, respectively. iaaod showed high substrate specificity toward c5 branched-chain alkyl alcohol (isoamyl alcohol), and no activity toward shorter (c1-c4) or longer (c7-c10) alkyl alcohols tested. iaaod was stable between ph 3.0-6.0 at 25°c. ...199927380232
cysteine protease inhibitors produced by the industrial koji mold, aspergillus oryzae o-1018.aspergillus oryzae o-1018 (ferm p-15834) separated from industrial koji for brewing sake was found to produce five papain-inhibitory compounds in the culture supernatant. the five isolated inhibitors were named cpi-1 to cpi-5, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical degradation. we determined the structures of cpi-2, cpi-3 and cpi-4 as 4-amino-1-[[n- [(2s, 3s)-3-trans-carboxyoxiran-2-carbonyl]-l-isoleucyl] amino]butane, 5-amino-1-[[n-[(2s, 3s)-3-trans-carboxyo ...199827392587
transglycosylation of thiamin by fungal β-n-acetylhexosaminidases.a new thiamin glycoside, e.g., thiamin β-d-2-deoxy-2-acetamidoglucopyranoside was prepared by transglycosylation by β-n-acetylhexosaminidase from aspergillus oryzae and characterized spectrally. series of other fungal β-n-acetyl-hexosaminidases from a. awamori, a. tamari, a. terreus, and penicillium oxalicum were shown to be able to synthesize the same compound in lower yields.199827392399
isolation of taka-amylase a peptides required for substrate α-amylase from aspergillus oryzae, taka-amylase a (taa), was cleaved into peptide fragments by an acid protease. inactivation of taa was greatly retarded by the addition of α-cyclodextrin or ca(2+). taa peptide fragments were separated into two groups having no and high affinity to the substrate, soluble starch. this separation was done by the forced affinity chromatography method by a column of epichlorohydrin cross-linked soluble starch gel. three peptides were isolated from the high-affini ...199727396736
the effect of urea on growth of moulds and biomass yield in solid-state cultivation.urea, added at 2 to 20 mg/g in solid bran medium supporting growth of aspergillus oryzae and rhizopus oligosporus, led to a higher concentration of nh4 (+) and ph but a decrease in biomass production.199524414664
increasing glutaminase activity in shoyu koji using a mixed culture of two koji moulds.for improved fermentation of shoyu (soy sauce), a useful koji-making system has been developed using a mixed tane-koji of two shoyu koji moulds, namely aspergillus oryzae k2 (length of conidiophores about 350 μm) and the late-conidiation strain, a. oryzae hg (length of conidiophores about 2500 μm). the mixed culture of strains k2 and hg had about twice the glutaminase activity of the single-strain cultures. in addition, the number of conidia in the mixed culture was about 10% of that in a cultur ...199424421198
oxygen fluorescence quenching studies with single tryptophan-containing proteins.the work of lakowicz and weber [biochemistry 12, 4161 (1973)] demonstrated that molecular oxygen is a powerful quencher of tryptophan fluorescence in proteins. here we report studies of the oxygen quenching of several proteins that have a single, internal tryptophan residue. among these are apoazurin (pseudomonas aeruginosa), asparaginase (escherichia coli), ribonuclease t1 (aspergillus oryzae), and cod parvalbumin. both fluorescence intensity and phase lifetime quenching data are reported. by c ...199424233381
effects of microorganisms on the peroxidation of lipid and fatty acid composition of fermented fish meal.fermentation of waste fish treated with aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus sojae k, and saccharomyces cerevisiae ifo 2114 were studied independently and combined. three microorganisms decreased the pov, mda, and coy of fish meal at different rates. the optimum conditions for fermentation with the combination of three microorganisms was found at 30°c for 20-hr fermentation. almost no difference was observed in the chemical composition or amino acid spectra of the protein hydrolysates of the fermente ...199227286377
 the smooth microsomal fractions from aspergillus oryzae were shown to carry out transfer of mannose from gdp-mannose to endogenous proteins acceptors. data also are presented which support that among the subcellular fractions, only the microsomes are active in the mannose transfer reaction. all of the radioactive material chromatographs with mannose, following acid hydrolysis of microsomal fractions.197011947343
purification and characterization of a newly serine protease inhibitor from rhamnus frangula with potential for use as therapeutic drug.protease inhibitors from plants are well known to be potent inhibitors of the growth of bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses which make them excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents for applications in medicine. in this study, rhamnus frangula was selected as a protease inhibitor source. the maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor against trypsin was recorded in the crude extract made in 0.1 m phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) and isola ...201728597160
a new and efficient approach for construction of uridine/uracil auxotrophic mutants in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae using agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus widely used in food industry and as a microbial cell factory for recombinant protein production. due to the inherent resistance of a. oryzae to common antifungal compounds, genetic transformation of this mold usually requires auxotrophic mutants. in this study, we show that agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) method is very efficient for deletion of the pyrg gene in different aspergillus oryzae wild-type strains to generate uridine/ ...201728466303
Displaying items 2301 - 2400 of 2435