a proteomics strategy to discover beta-glucosidases from aspergillus fumigatus with two-dimensional page in-gel activity assay and tandem mass spectrometry.economically competitive production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is currently limited, in part, by the relatively high cost and low efficiency of the enzymes required to hydrolyze cellulose to fermentable sugars. discovery of novel cellulases with greater activity could be a critical step in overcoming this cost barrier. beta-glucosidase catalyzes the final step in conversion of glucose polymers to glucose. despite the importance, only a few be ...200718020405
multivariate models for prediction of rheological characteristics of filamentous fermentation broth from the size distribution.the main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that principal component analysis (pca) and partial least squares regression (plsr) can be used to extract information from particle size distribution data and predict rheological properties. samples from commercially relevant aspergillus oryzae fermentations conducted in 550 l pilot scale tanks were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, biomass concentration, and rheological properties. the rheological properties were descri ...200818023062
diastereoselective synthesis of (r)-(alkyl)-beta-d-galactopyranoside by using beta-galactosidase (aspergillus oryzae) in low-water media.a beta-galactosidase (from aspergillus oryzae) preparation viz. eprp (enzyme precipitated and rinsed with propanol), obtained by the removal of bulk water by precipitation with n-propanol, showed higher biological activity than the lyophilized powder. ft-ir study confirmed that eprp had retained the alpha-helical content of the native structure better than the lyophilized form. use of this formulation of beta-galactosidase under low water conditions (temperature 55 degrees c, reaction time of 4 ...200818024031
solid-state fermentation with fungi to enhance the antioxidative activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of black the present study, solid-state fermentation of black bean with various gras filamentous fungi including aspergillus awamori, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus sojae, rhizopus azygosporus and rhizopus sp. no. 2 was preformed to prepared koji. mycelial propagation of starter organisms and antioxidative activity, including alpha-alpha-diphenyl-2-picyl-hydoxyl (dpph) radicals, fe2+-chelating ability, and reducing activity, were examined. depending upon the starter organism, various amounts of mycel ...200818031859
entrapment of beta-galactosidase in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel.beta-galactosidase isolated from aspergillus oryzae was immobilized in lens-shaped polyvinylalcohol capsules (with activity 25 u g(-1)) giving 32% of its original activity. immobilization did not change the ph optimum (4.5) of lactose hydrolysis. the relative enzyme activity during product inhibition testing was, in average, 10% higher for immobilized enzyme. no decrease of activity was observed after 35 repeated batch runs and during 530 h of continuous hydrolysis of lactose (10%, w/v) at 45 de ...200818043870
[expression of pectin lyase 1 from aspergillus oryzae in escherichia coli].pectin lyases from aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger are usually used for the production of traditional fermented foods, but these fungi produce less pectinases under natural conditions. the cdna coding mature pell (without signal peptide) was amplified from aspergillus oryzae by rt-pcr. pell cdna was cloned into pet-28a ( + ) expression vector, then was transformed into e. coli turner (de3) plac i cells to express pell with 6-his tag. for improving the efficiency of pell expression in e. ...200718051868
degradation of raffinose oligosaccharides in soymilk by immobilized alpha-galactosidase of aspergillus oryzae.alpha-galactosidase was immobilized in a mixture of k-carrageenan and locust bean gum. the properties of the free and immobilized enzyme were then determined. the optimum ph for both the soluble and immobilized enzyme was 4.8. the optimum temperature for the soluble enzymes was 50 degrees c, whereas that for the immobilized enzyme was 55 degrees c. the immobilized enzyme was used in batch, repeated batch, and continuous modes to degrade the raffinose-family sugars present in soymilk. two hours o ...200718062219
molecular cloning and characterization of an alpha-amylase from pichia burtonii alpha-amylase secreted by pichia burtonii 15-1 isolated from a traditional starter murcha of nepal, named pichia burtonii alpha-amylase (pba), was studied. the gene was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. pba was deduced to consist of 494 amino acid residues. it shared certain degrees of amino acid sequence identity with other homologous proteins: 60% with schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase, 58% with saccharomycopsis sp. alpha-amylase, and 47% with taka-amylase a from as ...200718071262
immunoreactivity and amino acid content of fermented soybean allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the public and the food industry. the objective of this research was the detection and quantification of the major human allergenic soy proteins and to study the reduction in immunoreactivity and improvement of amino acid content after fermentation of soybean flour. fermentation was carried out in the solid state of cracked seeds inoculated with aspergillus oryzae, rhizopus oryzae, and bacillus subtilis and in the l ...200818072744
some distinguishable properties between acid-stable and neutral types of alpha-amylases from acid-producing koji.the highly humid climate of japan facilitates the growth of various molds. among these molds, aspergillus oryzae is the most important and popular in japan, and has been used as yellow-koji in producing many traditional fermented beverages and foods, such as japanese sake, and soy sauce. taka-amylase a (taa), a major enzyme produced by the mold, is well known worldwide to be a leading enzyme for industrial utilization and academic study, since many extensive studies have been carried out with ta ...200718086434
functional analysis of genes encoding putative oxidoreductases in aspergillus oryzae, which are similar to fungal fructosyl-amino acid oxidase.we found 11 genes (fao1-11) encoding putative oxidoreductases in the aspergillus oryzae genome, which are similar to fungal fructosyl-amino acid oxidases. the cdnas corresponding to the genes were cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. rfao2 had fructosyl-amino acid oxidase activity, whereas rfao1 did not show any enzyme activity, even though the deduced amino acid sequence of fao1 is identical to that of one of the fructosyl-amino acid oxidase isozymes from aspergillus oryzae. rfao7 and rfao ...200718086445
two types of beta-fructofuranosidases from aspergillus oryzae kb.aspergillus oryzae kb produces two types of beta-fructofuranosidases, f1 and f2. f1 produces 1-kestose, nystose, and fructosyl nystose from sucrose through its transfructosylation action. f2 hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose. n-terminal amino acid sequences of the purified enzymes were dynaappnlst for f1 and ysgdlrpq for f2. each enzyme encoding gene was identified in the genome of aspergillus oryzae. although the kb strain showed a higher production of f2 than f1 in a low sucrose liqui ...200818088091
new fermentation technique for complete digestion of soybean protein.the aim of this study was to develop a new fermentation method in order to improve the digestion of soybean protein, and to promote normal fermentation of soybean. a proximate composition, such as moisture, ph, and reducing sugar, of fermented soybeans by the new fermentation was similar to those of controls. neutral protease activity, the most important factor for fermented soybean products, was the highest, having about 636 u/g at 54 h fermentation. the content of total free amino acid was alm ...200718092480
identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus sojae.mold strains belonging to the species aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. a. oryzae and a. sojae are relatives of the wild molds aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. all four species are classified to the a. flavus group. strains of the a. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological s ...200718095455
hydrolysis of conjugated sulfates of estrogens by commercial enzyme preparation of aspergillus oryzae. 194918116033
identification of ace-inhibitory peptides in salt-free soy sauce that are transportable across caco-2 cell present study, we aimed to identify angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory peptides from a salt-free soy sauce (sfs), a newly developed antihypertensive seasoning obtained by aspergillus oryzae fermentation of soybean in the absence of salt, which can be transported through caco-2 cell monolayers. through an ussing transport investigation of sfs across caco-2 cell monolayers, three di-peptides, ala-phe, phe-ile and ile-phe, were successfully identified from the sfs as transportable ...200818160180
deletion analysis of the catalase-encoding gene (catb) promoter from aspergillus oryzae.the catalase-encoding gene (catb) is expressed strongly in aspergillus oryzae. to identify the transcription regulatory elements involved in strong expression, we did promoter deletion analysis using beta-glucuronidase (gus) as a reporter and an electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (emsa) systematically. the deletion 200-bp sequence from -1,000 to -800 in the 1,400-bp catb promoter caused a drastic decrease in gus activity. in addition, emsa implicated a 45-bp element from -1,000 to -956 con ...200818175923
application of a statistical design to the optimization of parameters and culture medium for alpha-amylase production by aspergillus oryzae cbs 819.72 grown on gruel (wheat grinding by-product).the production optimization of alpha-amylase (e.c. from aspergillus oryzae cbs 819.72 fungus, using a by-product of wheat grinding (gruel) as sole carbon source, was performed with statistical methodology based on three experimental designs. the optimisation of temperature, agitation and inoculum size was attempted using a box-behnken design under the response surface methodology. the screening of nineteen nutrients for their influence on alpha-amylase production was achieved using a pla ...200818180155
fungal mycelia show lag time before re-growth on endogenous carbon.nutrient starvation is a common occurrence for filamentous fungi. to better understand the effects of starvation, we used a parallel plate flow chamber to study individual fungal mycelia when subjected to a step change in glucose concentration. we report the presence of a finite "lag time" in starved mycelia during which they ceased to grow/extend while switching from growth on exogenous carbon to re-growth on endogenous carbon. this lag time precedes other morphological or physiological changes ...200818183629
high-level expression, purification and characterization of recombinant aspergillus oryzae alkaline protease in pichia pastoris.the alkaline protease gene from aspergillus oryzae was cloned, and then it was successfully expressed in the heterologous pichia pastoris gs115 with native signal peptide or alpha-factor secretion signal peptide. the yield of the recombinant alkaline protease with native signal peptide was about 1.5-fold higher than that with alpha-factor secretion signal peptide, and the maximum yield of the recombinant alkaline protease was 513 mg/l, which was higher than other researches. the recombinant alka ...200818226921
effect of cultivation ph and agitation rate on growth and xylanase production by aspergillus oryzae in spent sulphite liquor.the effects of cultivation ph and agitation rate on growth and extracellular xylanase production by aspergillus oryzae nrrl 3485 were investigated in bioreactor cultures using spent sulphite liquor (ssl) and oats spelts xylan as respective carbon substrates. xylanase production by this fungus was greatly affected by the culture ph, with ph 7.5 resulting in a high extracellular xylanase activity in the ssl-based medium as well as in a complex medium with xylan as carbon substrate. this effect, th ...200818239946
monitoring global gene expression of proteases and improvement of human lysozyme production in the nptb gene disruptant of aspergillus oryzae.aspergillus oryzae has numerous protease genes that might cause proteolytic degradation of heterologously-produced proteins. the productivity of the heterologous protein can be improved by protease gene disruption, but it is difficult to select disruption targets efficiently. in this study, we monitored the expression of 132 protease genes by dna microarray. a group of protease genes up-regulated during cultivation was identified by clustering analysis. in this protease group, the nptb gene enco ...200818256487
[lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel from high acid value waste oil with ultrasonic assistant].biodiesel fuel produced with the enzyme-catalyzed esterification and transesterification of high acid value waste oil through ultrasonic assistant was explored. propyl oleate, biodiesel, converted from high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal catalyzed with immobilized lipases from candida antarctica and aspergillus oryzae in conditions of ultrasonic assistant. commercial immobilized lipase novozym 435 from c. antarctica was used as biocatalyst catalyzing high acid value waste oil and 1-proponal ...200718257248
authentic heterologous expression of the tenellin iterative polyketide synthase nonribosomal peptide synthetase requires coexpression with an enoyl reductase.the tens gene encoding tenellin synthetase (tens), a 4239-residue polyketide synthase nonribosomal-peptide synthetase (pks-nrps) from beauveria bassiana, was expressed in aspergillus oryzae m-2-3. this led to the production of three new compounds, identified as acyl tetramic acids, and numerous minor metabolites. consideration of the structures of these compounds indicates that the putative c-terminal thiolester reductase (r) domain does not act as a reductase, but appears to act as a dieckmann ...200818266306
a defect of ligd (human lig4 homolog) for nonhomologous end joining significantly improves efficiency of gene-targeting in aspergillus oryzae.gene-targeting by homologous recombination occurs rarely during transformation since nonhomologous recombination is predominant in aspergillus oryzae. to develop a highly efficient gene-targeting system for a. oryzae, we constructed disrupted strains harboring a gene (ligd) encoding human dna ligase iv homolog that is involved in the final step of dna nonhomologous end joining. the a. oryzae ligd disruptants showed no apparent defect in vegetative growth and/or conidiation, and exhibited increas ...200818282727
alcoholic chestnut fermentation in mixed culture. compatibility criteria between aspergillus oryzae and saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.the main objective of the present work consisted in the transfer to the case of the chestnut of a rice fermentative process that carried out to the japanese traditional way to lead to an alcoholic bagasse, the moromi, capable of obtaining distilled. this way, selection assays of amylolitic aspergillus oryzae strains and studies of compatibility between microfungi and yeast were carried out. these mixed cultivations were performed operating in batch submerged culture. later on, using solid state ...200818289846
cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the use of its promoter for expression in myrothecium gramineum, a novel expression our laboratory, research has focused on the development of myrothecium gramineum as a novel expression host. the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd)-promoter of m. gramineum was isolated and characterized (genbank accession number ef486690). in order to prove its functionality and to explore the potential of m. gramineum as a novel fungal expression host, use of this gpd-promoter for the expression of a fungal alpha-amylase was investigated. myrothecium gramineum was transformed wi ...200818294194
fusarielin a as an anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative agent: basic biological characterization.fusarielin a shows anti-angiogenic activity in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (huvec) tube formation assay. structural development studies indicated the importance of the hydroxyl groups in this molecule. a 3h-labeled derivative and a fluorescent affinity-labeling agent were prepared and used to examine the cellular distribution and biological behavior of fusarielin a.200818310939
methylation in methanol-water mixtures: the effect of solvent composition and high pressure.the effect of pressure (0.1 to 400 mpa) and solvent composition (methanol concentration of 5 to 30%) on the synthesis of beta-methylgalactoside was studied. galactose was used as a reactant and the reaction was catalyzed by beta-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae. under the applied conditions the enzyme was sufficiently stable and the reaction equilibrium was reached. higher methanol concentrations obviously influenced the product yield positively due to an increase in reactant concentration ...200818329783
a trispecies aspergillus microarray: comparative transcriptomics of three aspergillus species.the full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. as a tool to explore this, we are making available an affymetrix genechip developed for transcriptome analysis of any of the three above-mentioned aspergilli. transcriptome analysis of triplicate batch cultivations of all three aspergilli on glucose and xylose media was used to validat ...200818332432
riboswitches for enhancing target gene expression in eukaryotes. 200818338354
isoflavone aglycones production from isoflavone glycosides by display of beta-glucosidase from aspergillus oryzae on yeast cell surface.for efficient production of isoflavone aglycones from soybean isoflavones, we isolated three novel types of beta-glucosidase (bgl1, bgl3, and bgl5) from the filamentous fungi aspergillus oryzae. three enzymes were independently displayed on the cell surface of a yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae as a fusion protein with alpha-agglutinin. three beta-glucosidase-displaying yeast strains hydrolyzed isoflavone glycosides efficiently but exhibited different substrate specificities. among these beta-gluc ...200818340445
a microtitre plate assay for measuring glycosidase activity.glycosidases perform a wide range of functions in physiology and pathology, and are potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as influenza, cancer, aids and diabetes. this paper reports a convenient discontinuous colourimetric assay for the measurement of glycosidase activity. the assay utilises 4-nitrophenyl- substrates and quantities of product are determined by measuring absorbance at 405 nm. this assay is performed in a 96 well microtitre plate and has been used to characterise th ...200818341264
a highly efficient gene-targeting system for aspergillus establish a system that greatly increases the gene-targeting frequency in aspergillus parasiticus.200818346134
acid activation of protyrosinase from aspergillus oryzae: homo-tetrameric protyrosinase is converted to active dimers with an essential intersubunit disulfide bond at acidic ph.aspergillus oryzae protyrosinase (pro-ty) has a unique feature that the proenzyme is activated under conditions of acidic ph. the pro-ty was inactive at ph 7.0. the latent enzyme was activated at ph 3.0, and was slightly activated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds). the molecular masses of the pro-ty and acid-activated tyrosinase (acid-ty) were 266 and 165 kda, respectively, as estimated by gel-filtration chromatography. the cd spectra showed that the tertiary and/or quaternary structure was change ...200818353147
gene structure dynamics and divergence of the polygalacturonase gene family of plants and fungus.whole copies of the polygalacturonase (pg) genes from rice (oryza sativa subsp. japonica) and a filamentous fungus (aspergillus oryzae) were isolated. the orthologs of the rice pgs were also retrieved from other plant species. the 106 plant pgs analyzed were divided into 5 clades, a, b, c, d, and e. the fungus pgs were classified into 3 clades, of which one formed a loose cluster with clade e of the plant pgs. four domain motifs (i, ii, iii, iv) were identified in all pgs. motifs ii and iii were ...200818356937
purification of alpha-galactosidase and invertase by three-phase partitioning from crude extract of aspergillus oryzae.alpha-galactosidase and invertase were accumulated in a coherent middle phase in a three-phase partitioning system under different conditions (ammonium sulphate, ratio of tert-butanol to crude extract, temperature and ph). alpha-galactosidase and invertase were purified 15- and 12-fold with 50 and 54% activity recovery, respectively. the fractions of interfacial precipitate arising from the three-phase partitioning were analyzed by sds-page. both purified preparations showed electrophoretic homo ...200818414794
a wheat biorefining strategy based on solid-state fermentation for fermentative production of succinic this study, a novel generic feedstock production strategy based on solid-state fermentation (ssf) has been developed and applied to the fermentative production of succinic acid. wheat was fractionated into bran, gluten and gluten-free flour by milling and gluten extraction processes. the bran, which would normally be a waste product of the wheat milling industry, was used to produce glucoamylase and protease enzymes via ssf using aspergillus awamori and aspergillus oryzae, respectively. the r ...200818434138
cloning and expression of a gene encoding gallerimycin, a cysteine-rich antifungal peptide, from eri-silkworm, samia cynthia ricini.a cdna clone encoding gallerimycin was isolated from larval fat body of immunized samia cynthia ricini and named as scr-gallerimycin. in naive larvae, no gene expression was detected, but strongly induced in fat body and hemocytes following immune challenge with bacteria or entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana. strong expression of the gene was also induced by injection of peptidoglycan and zymosan, but very weakly by non-pathogenic fungus aspergillus oryzae. analysis of the sequence upstr ...200818436462
concanavalin a layered calcium alginate-starch beads immobilized beta galactosidase as a therapeutic agent for lactose intolerant patients.a novel therapeutic agent in the form of beta galactosidase immobilized on the surface of concanavalin a layered calcium alginate-starch beads has been developed. immobilized beta galactosidase exhibited significantly very high stability against conditions of digestive system such as ph, salivary amylase, pepsin and trypsin. soluble and immobilized beta galactosidase exhibited same ph-optima. however, the immobilized enzyme retained greater fraction of catalytic activity at higher and lower ph t ...200818439774
lactic fermentation of cellobiose by a yeast strain displaying beta-glucosidase on the cell surface.the aspergillus aculeatus beta-glucosidase 1 (bgl1) gene was expressed in a lactic-acid-producing saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to enable lactic fermentation with cellobiose. the recombinant beta-glucosidase enzyme was expressed on the yeast cell surface by fusing the mature protein to the c-terminal half region of the alpha-agglutinin. the beta-glucosidase expression plasmids were integrated into the genome. three strong promoters of s. cerevisiae, the tdh3, pgk1, and pdc1 promoters, were use ...200818443785
aspergillus oryzae atfb encodes a transcription factor required for stress tolerance in conidia.using an aspergillus oryzae est database, we identified a gene encoding a transcription factor (atfb), which is a member of the atf/creb family. expression of atfb was barely detectable during vegetative growth, but was readily detected during conidiation in solid-state culture. microarray analyses showed that expression of many other genes, including catalase (cata), were downregulated in an atfb-disruptant. the expression of most of these genes was upregulated in the wild-type strain during th ...200818448366
enzymatic production of epigallocatechin by using an epigallocatechin gallate hydrolase induced from aspergillus oryzae.catechins are a group of polyphenolic compounds that are antioxidants having beneficial biological activities. there are four main catechins in green tea, and each has its own biological features. in order to fully exploit prominent biological activities of specific catechins and to develop new medicine from catechins, it is necessary to obtain pure catechin preparations by isolation from natural sources, by chemical synthesis, or by biotransformation reactions with high yield and specificity. i ...200818452340
[polarized distribution of intracellular organelles involved in vesicular trafficking in filamentous fungal cells]. 200818453152
efficient and direct fermentation of starch to ethanol by sake yeast strains displaying fungal glucoamylases.aspergillus oryzae glucoamylases encoded by glaa and glab, and rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, were displayed on the cell surface of sake yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae gri-117-uk and laboratory yeast s. cerevisiae mt8-1. among constructed transformants, gri-117-uk/pudgaa, displaying glaa glucoamylase, produced the most ethanol from liquefied starch, although mt8-1/pudgar, displaying r. oryzae glucoamylase, had the highest glucoamylase activity on its cell surface.200818460787
tannase production by solid state fermentation of cashew apple bagasse.the ability of aspergillus oryzae for the production of tannase by solid state fermentation was investigated using cashew apple bagasse (cab) as substrate. the effect of initial water content was studied and maximum enzyme production was obtained when 60 ml of water was added to 100.0 g of cab. the fungal strain was able to grow on cab without any supplementation but a low enzyme activity was obtained, 0.576 u/g of dry substrate (g(ds)). optimization of process parameters such as supplementation ...200718478425
corncob-induced endo-1,4-beta-d-xylanase of aspergillus oryzae mtcc 5154: production and characterization of xylobiose from glucuronoxylan.eight different fungi were cultivated in a peptone-yeast extract medium containing 1% oat spelt xylan (osx) to evaluate endo-1,4-beta-xylanase secretion for xylooligosaccharide (xos) production. aspergillus oryzae mtcc 5154, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus niger , and aspergillus ochraceus showed significant titers of endoxylanases, which were further used for the production of xos from birch wood xylan (bwx). a. oryzae produced 89.5 +/- 1.13% xos in the hydrolysate at 24 h of reaction. the eff ...200818489109
role of n-terminal 28-amino-acid region of rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of aspergillus develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the n-terminal region of rhizopus oryzae lipase (rol). several n-terminal deletion variants of rol were expressed in a. oryzae. interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the c-terminal region of the propeptide (n28) was found to be critical for secretion of rol into the culture medium. to further investigate the role of n28, the rol secretory process was visua ...200818496686
improved annotation through genome-scale metabolic modeling of aspergillus oryzae.since ancient times the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae has been used in the fermentation industry for the production of fermented sauces and the production of industrial enzymes. recently, the genome sequence of a. oryzae with 12,074 annotated genes was released but the number of hypothetical proteins accounted for more than 50% of the annotated genes. considering the industrial importance of this fungus, it is therefore valuable to improve the annotation and further integrate genomic inf ...200818500999
new, efficient synthesis of oseltamivir phosphate (tamiflu) via enzymatic desymmetrization of a meso-1,3-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid diester.a new, enantioselective synthesis of the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor prodrug oseltamivir phosphate 1 (tamiflu) and its enantiomer ent-1 starting from cheap, commercially available 2,6-dimethoxyphenol 10 is described. the main features of this approach comprise the cis-hydrogenation of 5-(1-ethyl-propoxy)-4,6-dimethoxy-isophthalic acid diethyl ester (6a) and the desymmetrization of the resultant all-cis meso-diesters 7a and 7b, respectively. enzymatic hydrolysis of the meso-diester 7b with ...200818517254
high prevalence of fastidious bacteria in 1520 cases of uveitis of unknown etiology.the etiologic evaluation of uveitis is frequently unsuccessful when noninvasive methods are used. we conducted a prospective study to evaluate systematic screening for pathogens of uveitis. all patients with uveitis referred to the participating tertiary ophthalmology departments from january 2001 to september 2007 underwent intraocular and serum specimen collection. the standardized protocol for laboratory investigations included universal polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based detection of any ...200818520326
characterization and evaluation of aspergillus oryzae lactase coupled to a regenerable support.a derivative of crosslinked sepharose, p-(n-acetyl-l-tyrosine azo) benzamidoethyl-cl-sepharose 4b, was synthesized and used for the selective immobilization of thermostable lactase from aspergillus oryzae.preparations of soluble and immobilized lactase were evaluated under initial velocity conditions in a batch process. immobilization had no significant effect on the ph optimum at 50 degrees c or kinetic parameters at ph 4.5 or ph 6.5 and 50 degrees c. at ph 4.5, the soluble enzyme possessed max ...198218546306
evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.this report represents the conclusions of a joint fao/who expert committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (adis) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. the committee also evaluated the risk posed by two food contaminants, with the aim of advising on risk management options for the purpose of public health protection. the first part of the report contains a general discu ...200718551832
enhancement of the alcoholytic activity of alpha-amylase amya from thermotoga maritima msb8 (dsm 3109) by site-directed mutagenesis.amya, an alpha-amylase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium thermotoga maritima, is able to hydrolyze internal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds in various alpha-glucans at 85 degrees c as the optimal temperature. like other glycoside hydrolases, amya also catalyzes transglycosylation reactions, particularly when oligosaccharides are used as substrates. it was found that when methanol or butanol was used as the nucleophile instead of water, amya was able to catalyze alcoholysis reactions. this capabili ...200818552192
dephosphorylation and quantification of organic phosphorus in poultry litter by purified phytic-acid high affinity aspergillus phosphohydrolases.extracellular phosphohydrolases mediate the dephosphorylation of phosphoesters and influence bioavailability and loss of agricultural p to the environment to pose risks of impairment of sensitive aquatic ecosystems. induction and culture of five strains of aspergillus were conducted to develop a source of high-affinity and robust phosphohydrolases for detecting environmental p and quantifying bioactive p pools in heterogeneous environmental specimens. enzyme stability and activity against organi ...200818555509
multiple gene disruptions by marker recycling with highly efficient gene-targeting background (deltaligd) in aspergillus oryzae.previously we reported that double disruption of the proteinase genes (tppa and pepe) improved heterologous protein production by aspergillus oryzae (jin et al. appl microbiol biotechnol 76:1059-1068, 2007). since a. oryzae has 134 protease genes, the number of auxotrophy in a single host is limited for multiple disruptions of many protease genes. in order to rapidly perform multiple gene disruptions in a. oryzae, we generated the marker recycling system in highly efficient gene-targeting backgr ...200818574559
hydrolysis of lactose in skim milk by immobilized beta-galactosidase in a spiral flow reactor.beta-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae immobilized in a spiral flow reactor was used to effect the hydrolysis of the lactose component of skim milk. residence time distribution measurements were used to assess the amount of longitudinal dispersion occurring as a consequence of the spiral flow pattern and the semiporous nature of the polymeric material used to construct the spiral. it was possible to model the flow conditions as tubular flow with a peclet number that was a linear function of ...198918587857
action pattern of alpha-amylase from aspergillus oryzae in concentrated media.the influence of concentrated maltotetraose solutions on fungal alpha-amylase activity and specificity has been determined. it has been found that the enzyme is not inhibited by 500 g/l substrate concentration and that transglycosylation reactions are increased with rising substrate concentration. the amount of oligosaccharides of polymerization degree higher than maltotetraose reaches 20% (w/w). moreover, the effect of polyhydric alcohols, known as water activity depressors has been analyzed: t ...199018592604
use of novel immobilized beta-galactosidase reactor to hydrolyze the lactose constituent of skim milk.beta-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae immobilized in an axial-annular flow reactor was used to effect the hydrolysis of the lactose component of skim milk. nonlinear regression methods were employed to determine the kinetic parameters of four rate expressions derived from a proposed enzymatic mechanism. data taken at three different temperatures (30 degrees c, 40 degrees c, and 50 degrees c) were fit via nonlinear regression methods assuming an arrhenius temperature model for each of the pa ...199018595081
cultivation characteristics of immobilized aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. the immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/l, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. the over ...199218601027
morphology and physiology of an alpha-amylase producing strain of aspergillus oryzae during batch cultivations.the microscopic morphology, that is, total hyphal length and total number of tips, has been characterized during batch cultivations of aspergillus oryzae. the specific growth rate estimated by measuring the total hyphal length (mu(h)) corresponds well with the specific growth rate estimated from dry weight measurements during cultures grown as free hyphal elements. the average tip extension rate can be described with a saturation type kinetics with respect to the average total hyphal length, and ...199618623577
effect of organic solvents on enantioselectivity of protease catalysis.the protease-catalyzed transesterifications between n-trifluoroacetyl-dl-phenylalanine 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl ester and 1-propanol were studied in a variety of anhydrous organic solvents at 30 degrees c. the protease preparations lyophilized from phosphate buffer solutions (ph 8.0) were used as catalysts. the organic solvent affected both rate of reaction and enantioselectivity differently. proteases such as aspergillus oryzae protease, subtilisin carlsberg, and subtilisin bpn' always preferred th ...199718629956
characterization of an alpha-l-rhamnosidase from aspergillus kawachii and its alpha-l-rhamnosidase was purified by fractionating a culture filtrate of aspergillus kawachii grown on l-rhamnose as the sole carbon source. the alpha-l-rhamnosidase had a molecular mass of 90 kda and a high degree of n-glycosylation of approximately 22%. the enzyme exhibited optimal activity at ph 4.0 and temperature of 50 degrees c. further, it was observed to be thermostable, and it retained more than 80% of its original activity following incubation at 60 degrees c for 1 h. its t (50) val ...200818633609
direct ethanol production from barley beta-glucan by sake yeast displaying aspergillus oryzae beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase.three beta-glucosidase- and two endoglucanase-encoding genes were cloned from aspergillus oryzae, and their gene products were displayed on the cell surface of the sake yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae gri-117-uk. gri-117-uk/pudb7 displaying beta-glucosidase ao090009000356 showed the highest activity against various substrates and efficiently produced ethanol from cellobiose. on the other hand, gri-117-uk/pudcb displaying endoglucanase ao090010000314 efficiently degraded barley beta-glucan to glu ...200818640601
stable repeated-batch production of recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase (rdyp) from aspergillus oryzae.recombinant aspergillus oryzae expressing a dye-decolorizing peroxidase gene (dyp) was cultivated for repeated-batch production of recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase (rdyp) using maltose as a carbon source. high-level rdyp activity in limitation of carbon and nitrogen sources was maintained stably for 26 cycles of repeated 1-d batches of a. oryzae pellets without any additional ph control. cultures maintained at 4 degrees c for 20 d resumed rdyp production following a single day of incubati ...200818640612
an open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy males.current research suggests that protein intake of 1.5 - 2.8 g/kg/day (3.5 times the current recommended daily allowance) is effective and safe for individuals trying to increase or maintain lean muscle mass. to achieve these levels of daily protein consumption, supplementing the diet with processed whey protein concentrate (wpc) in liquid form has become a popular choice for many people. some products have a suggested serving size as high as 50 g of protein. however, due to possible inhibition of ...200818652668
identification and cloning of a gene encoding tannase (tannin acylhydrolase) from lactobacillus plantarum atcc 14917(t).the gene tanlpl, encoding a novel tannase enzyme (tanlpl), has been cloned from lactobacillus plantarum atcc 14917(t). this is the first report of a tannase gene cloned from a bacterial source other than from staphylococcus lugdunensis, which has been reported elsewhere. the open reading frame of tanlpl, spanning 1410 bp, encoded a 469-amino-acid protein that showed 28.8% identity to the tannase of s. lugdunensis with several commonly conserved sequences. these sequences could not be found in pu ...200818653299
improvement of aspergillus oryzae for hyperproduction of endoglucanase: expression cloning of cmc-1 gene of aspergillus (cmc1; family 12) is one of the endoglucanases of aspergillus aculeatus and consists of single polypeptide chain of 221 amino acids. the cmc1 gene was expressed in aspergillus oryzae niad300 (niad-) under promoter 8142. the plasmid pcmg14 carrying the cmc1 gene at psti site was used as a source of the gene (920 bp) and aspergillus oryzae was successfully transformed by the plasmid pnan-cmc1 (harboring cmc1 gene). the plasmid was integrated in aspergillus oryzae niad300 ...200818661108
effects of a casein hydrolysate prepared from aspergillus oryzae protease on adjuvant arthritis in rats.we evaluated the effects of a casein hydrolysate (ch) prepared from aspergillus oryzae protease on rat adjuvant arthritis, a model of human rheumatoid arthritis. ch was administered orally once a day to the animals for 22 d after the adjuvant injection. ch suppressed swelling in the adjuvant-uninjected hind paws, and a higher dose of ch suppressed the increase in arthritic score and swelling of the adjuvant-injected hind paws. a histopathological examination revealed evidence that the higher dos ...200818685219
annotation of stress-response proteins in the aspergilli.stress-response proteins of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus clavatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus terreus and neosartorya fischeri (3908 in total) were annotated and grouped according to stress types ( all genomes harboured elements of the sska-hoga/saka stress signalling pathway. there are accumulating data pointing at the importance of sska-hoga/saka signalling in different types of stre ...200918703157
value addition to corncob: production and characterization of xylooligosaccharides from alkali pretreated lignin-saccharide complex using aspergillus oryzae mtcc 5154.comparison of various pretreatments such as mild alkali/acid treatments and pressure cooking of corncob to expose its lignin-saccharide complex has been carried out to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan to xylooligosaccharides (xos). scanning electron micrographs of lignin-saccharide complex of native and pretreated corncob powder showed that the complex was greatly altered during alkali pretreatment. hydrolysis of alkali pretreated corncob powder using a commercial endoxylanase produced 81+/ ...200918703333
catalytic and thermodynamic characterization of endoglucanase (cmcase) from aspergillus oryzae cmc-1.monomeric extracellular endoglucanase (25 kda) of transgenic koji (aspergillus oryzae cmc-1) produced under submerged growth condition (7.5 u mg(-1) protein) was purified to homogeneity level by ammonium sulfate precipitation and various column chromatography on fast protein liquid chromatography system. activation energy for carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) hydrolysis was 3.32 kj mol(-1) at optimum temperature (55 degrees c), and its temperature quotient (q (10)) was 1.0. the enzyme was stable over ...200918704277
therapeutic effects of a fermented soy product on peanut hypersensitivity is associated with modulation of t-helper type 1 and t-helper type 2 responses.immubalance is a koji fungus (aspergillus oryzae) and lactic acid fermented soybean product. this unique production process is believed to create a food supplement that helps to induce or maintain normal immune response.200818705693
elusive origins of the extra genes in aspergillus oryzae.the genome sequence of aspergillus oryzae revealed unexpectedly that this species has approximately 20% more genes than its congeneric species a. nidulans and a. fumigatus. where did these extra genes come from? here, we evaluate several possible causes of the elevated gene number. many gene families are expanded in a. oryzae relative to a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but we find no evidence of ancient whole-genome duplication or other segmental duplications, either in a. oryzae or in the common ...200818725939
codon optimization increases steady-state mrna levels in aspergillus oryzae heterologous gene expression.we investigated the effect of codon optimization on the expression levels of heterologous proteins in aspergillus oryzae, using the mite allergen der f 7 as a model protein. a codon-optimized der f 7 gene was synthesized according to the frequency of codon usage in a. oryzae by recursive pcr. both native and optimized der f 7 genes were expressed under the control of a high-level-expression promoter with their own signal peptides or in a fusion construct with a. oryzae glucoamylase (glaa). codon ...200818791013
preparation and comparative characterization of immobilized aspergillus oryzae expressing fusarium heterosporum lipase for enzymatic biodiesel this paper, we provide the first report of utilizing recombinant fungal whole cells in enzymatic biodiesel production. aspergillus oryzae, transformed with a heterologous lipase-encoding gene from fusarium heterosporum, produced fully processed and active forms of recombinant f. heterosporum lipase (fhl). cell immobilization within porous biomass support particles enabled the convenient usage of fhl-producing a. oryzae as a whole-cell biocatalyst for lipase-catalyzed methanolysis. the additio ...200818795281
genomics of industrial aspergilli and comparison with toxigenic relatives.aspergillus oryzae has been used in japanese fermentation industries for more than a thousand years. the species produces large amounts of various hydrolytic enzymes and has been successfully applied to modern biotechnology. the size of the a. oryzae genome (37.5 mb) is very close to that of a. flavus and a. niger, and 20-30% larger than that of either a. nidulans or a. fumigatus. a. oryzae and a. flavus have exactly the same number of aspartic proteinase genes, of which each orthologous pair sh ...200818798040
isolation and characterization of an extracellular antimicrobial protein from aspergillus oryzae.a 17 kda antimicrobial protein was isolated from growth medium containing the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae by extracting the supernatants from the culture media, ion exchange chromatography on cm-sepharose, and c18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. this antimicrobial protein, which we considered to be an extracellular antimicrobial protein from a. oryzae (exap-ao17), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. the exap-ao17 protein strongly inhibi ...200818803391
construction of an aspergillus oryzae cell-surface display system using a putative gpi-anchored protein.a novel cell-surface display system was constructed in aspergillus oryzae. each of the five genes encoding the putative cell-wall-localized protein from the a. oryzae genome was cloned and these cell-surface anchor functions were examined by fusion to the c-terminal of the green fluorescent protein (gfp). using the mp1 and cwp proteins as anchor proteins, gfp signals were strongly observed on the cell surface of recombinant a. oryzae. when these proteins were used as anchor proteins for cell-sur ...200818813924
genomics of aspergillus oryzae: learning from the history of koji mold and exploration of its a time when the notion of microorganisms did not exist, our ancestors empirically established methods for the production of various fermentation foods: miso (bean curd seasoning) and shoyu (soy sauce), both of which have been widely used and are essential for japanese cooking, and sake, a magical alcoholic drink consumed at a variety of ritual occasions, are typical examples. a filamentous fungus, aspergillus oryzae, is the key organism in the production of all these traditional foods, and it ...200818820080
efficient production and partial characterization of aspartyl aminopeptidase from aspergillus oryzae.aspartyl aminopeptidase (dap) has a high degree of substrate specificity, degrading only amino-terminal acidic amino acids from peptides. therefore, attention is focused here on the efficient production of this enzyme by a recombinant aspergillus oryzae and characterization of its biochemical properties.200818828788
enzymatic removal of flatulence-inducing sugars in chickpea milk using free and polyvinyl alcohol immobilized alpha-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae.the treatment of chickpea milk was carried out in batch, repeated batch and continuous reaction by soluble and polyvinyl alcohol (pva) immobilized aspergillus oryzae alpha-galactosidase for the removal of raffinose family oligosaccharides (rfos). in the batch mode of treatment 96 and 92% of rfos hydrolysis was observed by soluble and immobilized enzyme, respectively. in repeated batch experiments, immobilized enzyme showed 70% rfos hydrolysis up to sixth cycle. polyvinyl alcohol immobilized alph ...200918839231
three-phase partitioning of alpha-galactosidase from fermented media of aspergillus oryzae and comparison with conventional purification techniques.simple, attractive and versatile technique, three-phase partitioning (tpp) was used to purify alpha-galactosidase from fermented media of aspergillus oryzae. the various conditions required for attaining efficient purification of the alpha-galactosidase fractions were optimized. the addition of n-butanol, t-butanol, and isopropanol in the presence of ammonium sulfate pushes the protein out of the solution to form an interfacial precipitate layer between the lower aqueous and upper organic layers ...200918846399
identification of a novel polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (pks-nrps) gene required for the biosynthesis of cyclopiazonic acid in aspergillus oryzae.cyclopiazonic acid (cpa) is a mycotoxin produced by several strains of penicillium and aspergillus species. aspergillus oryzae strains used in fermented foods do not produce cpa; however, several wild-type a. oryzae strains produce cpa. here, we identified a novel polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (pks-nrps) gene involved in cpa production by comparing the telomere-adjacent region of a cpa-producing strain (a. oryzae nbrc 4177) with that of a nonproducing strain (a. oryzae rib4 ...200818854220
characterization of the aspergillus niger prtt, a unique regulator of extracellular protease encoding genes.expression of several aspergillus niger genes encoding major secreted, but not vacuolar, protease genes including the major acid protease gene pepa, was shown to be affected in the previously isolated a. niger protease mutant, ab1.13 [mattern, i.e., van noort, j.m., van den berg, p., archer, d.a., roberts, i.n., hondel, c.a.m.j.j., 1992. isolation and characterization of mutants of aspergillus niger deficient in extracellular proteases. molecular & general genetics 2, 332-336]. complementation c ...200818930158
analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four aspergillus genomes.several aspergillus fungal genomic sequences have been published, with many more in progress. obviously, it is essential to have high-quality, consistently annotated sets of proteins from each of the genomes, in order to make meaningful comparisons. we have developed a dedicated, publicly available, splice site prediction program called netaspgene, for the genus aspergillus. gene sequences from aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. compared ...200918948220
generation of large chromosomal deletions in koji molds aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus sojae via a loop-out recombination.we established a technique for efficiently generating large chromosomal deletions in the koji molds aspergillus oryzae and a. sojae by using a ku70-deficient strain and a bidirectional marker. the approach allowed deletion of 200-kb and 100-kb sections of a. oryzae and a. sojae, respectively. the deleted regions contained putative aflatoxin biosynthetic gene clusters. the large genomic deletions generated by a loop-out deletion method (resolution-type recombination) enabled us to construct multi ...200818952883
development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative pcr assay for aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus is a ubiquitous mold and the most common mold contaminating foodstuffs. many strains of a. flavus produce aflatoxins. in addition it is an allergen and an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. a. flavus often is underestimated in traditional culture analyses due to the expertise required and the cost associated with speciating members of the genus aspergillus. the goal of this study was to develop and validate a primer and probe set for the rapid detection and quantita ...200818959152
bioremediation of dyes in textile effluents by aspergillus this study aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes procion red he7b (pr-he7b) and procion violet h3r (pv-h3r) at different ph values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). the best ph for biosorption was 2.50, though the autoclaved demonstrated a higher biosorption capacity than the non-autoclaved ...200918989608
ribonucleases in takadiastase. 196018990809
identification of three mutant loci conferring carboxin-resistance and development of a novel transformation system in aspergillus oryzae.mutants exhibiting resistance to the fungicide, carboxin, were isolated from aspergillus oryzae, and the mutations in the three gene loci, which encode succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) b, c, and d subunits, were identified to be independently responsible for the resistance. a structural model of the sdh revealed the different mechanisms that confer carboxin-resistance in different mutations. the mutant aosdhb gene (aosdhb(cxr)) was further examined for possible use as a transformant selection marke ...200918992352
a comparison of the unfolded protein response in solid-state with submerged cultures of aspergillus oryzae.the unfolded protein response (upr) is a regulatory system to maintain the homeostasis of er functions. here we report a comparison of express levels of upr relevant genes in aspergillus oryzae between solid-state and submerged cultivation. the results were that up-regulation of the upr mechanism in solid-state culture was higher than in submerged culture (heat-shock or non-stress conditions). this might have been a result of changing culture conditions.200818997417
improved production of raw starch degrading enzyme by aspergillus oryzae f-30 using methyl glucoside sesqui-stearate.the effect of methyl glucoside sesqui-stearate (mgs) on the production of raw starch degrading enzyme (rsde) by aspergillus oryzae f-30 was studied in this paper. the activity of rsde formed by aspergillus oryzae f-30 was enhanced dramatically by the addition of mgs to the medium. as a result, with the addition of 1.5 g mgs in 1 l basal medium, rsde activity and productivity were 107 u ml(-1) and 1.49 u ml(-1) h(-1), 4.3-fold and 7.1-fold greater than the values obtained in the basal medium, res ...200919002609
beneficial effects of oral tilactase on patients with hypolactasia.a lactose-free diet is commonly prescribed to subjects with hypolactasia. we tested the effectiveness of a single ingestion of tilactase (a beta-d-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae) in adults with hypolactasia, previously assessed by lactose h(2)-breath test.200819021701
endocytosis is crucial for cell polarity and apical membrane recycling in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.establishing the occurrence of endocytosis in filamentous fungi was elusive in the past mainly due to the lack of reliable indicators of endocytosis. recently, however, it was shown that the fluorescent dye n-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethyl-aminophenyl-hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide (fm4-64) and the plasma membrane protein aouapc (aspergillus oryzae uapc) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) were internalized from the plasma membrane by endocytosis. although the occurrenc ...200919028995
enzymatically hydrolyzed lactotripeptides do not lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects.several placebo-controlled clinical studies suggest that products containing isoleucyl-prolyl-proline and valyl-prolyl-proline are able to lower blood pressure without adverse effects. the most efficient way of producing high concentrations of these lactotripeptides (ltps) is enzymatic hydrolysis of dairy protein (casein) with the use of a mixture of several enzymes derived from the nongenetically modified organism aspergillus oryzae, including proteases and peptidases. to date, no large studies ...200819064533
metabolism of hydroxylated pcb congeners by cloned laccase isoforms.the white-rot fungus t. versicolor uamh 8272 produced two groups of laccases, each of which included several isoforms showing different isoelectric points (pi). group 1 and group 2 laccases, respectively, displayed higher pi 5-6 and lower pi 3-4. of the four cloned full-length laccase cdnas, lac 1 and lac 4 were expressed in the heterologous protein expression system using aspergillus oryzae. the measured pi of each lac 1 and lac 4 expressed in a. oryzae was lower than that of pi predicted from ...200919066882
late stage oxidations during the biosynthesis of the 2-pyridone tenellin in the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.late stage oxidations during the biosynthesis of the 2-pyridone tenellin in the insect pathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana were investigated by a combination of gene knockout, antisense rna, and gene coexpression studies. open reading frames (orf) 3 and 4 of the tenellin biosynthetic gene cluster were previously shown to encode a trans-acting enoyl reductase and a hybrid polyketide synthase nonribosomal peptide synthetase (pks-nrps), respectively, which together synthesize the acyltetramic acid ...200819067514
the effect of domestication on the fungal proteome.the molecular effect of domestication has rarely been examined in fungi. i examined the molecular signature of domestication on aspergillus oryzae, a fungus used to ferment several japanese food products. the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions and the percentage of estimated deleterious substitutions along the a. oryzae lineage were lower than those in the wild sister lineage aspergillus flavus. the patterns of genetic change observed in human-mediated domestication of animals an ...200919081651
biosensor based on laccase and an ionic liquid for determination of rosmarinic acid in plant extracts.novel biosensors based on laccase from aspergillus oryzae and the ionic liquids (ils) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (bmipf(6)) and 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmibf(4)) were constructed for determination of rosmarinic acid by square-wave voltammetry. the laccase catalyzes the oxidation of rosmarinic acid to the corresponding o-quinone, which is electrochemically reduced back to rosmarinic acid at +0.2v vs. ag/agcl. the biosensor based on bmipf(6) showed a ...200919084643
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