catalysis of proline-directed protein phosphorylation by peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases.proline-directed protein phosphorylation was shown to depend on the capacity of the targeted ser(thr)-pro bond to exhibit conformational polymorphism. the cis/trans isomer specificity underlying erk2-catalyzed phosphate transfer leads to a complete discrimination of the cis ser(thr)-pro conformer of oligopeptide substrates. we investigated in vitro the erk2-catalyzed phosphorylation of aspergillus oryzae rnase t1 containing two ser-pro bonds both of which share high stabilization energy in their ...200415147846
chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative effects of ajwain essential oil and its acetone extract.gc and gc-ms analysis of ajwain essential oil showed the presence of 26 identified components which account for 96.3% of the total amount. thymol (39.1%) was found as a major component along with p-cymene (30.8%), gamma-terpinene (23.2%), beta-pinene (1.7%), terpinene-4-ol (0.8%) whereas acetone extract of ajwain showed the presence of 18 identified components which account for 68.8% of the total amount. the major component was thymol (39.1%) followed by oleic acid (10.4%), linoleic acid (9.6%), ...200415161185
enzymatic synthesis of a beta-d-galactopyranosyl cyclic tetrasaccharide by beta-galactosidases.the galactosyl transfer reaction to cyclo-[-->6)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->6)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->] (cts) was examined using lactose as a donor and beta-galactosidases from aspergillus oryzae and bacillus circulans. the a. oryzae beta-galactosidase produced three galactosyl derivatives of cts. the main galactosyl derivative produced by the a. oryzae enzyme was identified as 6-o-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-cts, cyclo-[-->6)-alpha-d-glcp-(1-->3)-[beta-d-galp-(1-->6)]-al ...200415183734
degradation of raw or film-incorporated beta-cyclodextrin by enzymes and colonic bacteria.beta-cyclodextrin (beta-cd) is a suitable excipient for peroral use, which improves the solubility of lipophilic drugs, as well as for colon-specific drug release when it is mixed with coating polymers. the first aim of this work was to examine the suitability of various enzymes as a simple in vitro model for the glycolytic activity in the human colon. alpha-amylase (source aspergillus oryzae) and taka diastase (source a. oryzae) showed remarkable degradation capacity of free beta-cd, whereas ot ...200415207542
production of fructosyl transferase by aspergillus oryzae cfr 202 in solid-state fermentation using agricultural by-products.fructosyl transferase (ftase) production by aspergillus oryzae cfr 202 was carried out by solid-state fermentation (ssf), using various agricultural by-products like cereal bran, corn products, sugarcane bagasse,cassava bagasse (tippi) and by-products of coffee and tea processing. the ftase produced was used for the production of fructo-oligosaccharides (fos), using 60% sucrose as substrate. among the cereal bran used, rice bran and wheat bran were good substrates for ftase production by a. oryz ...200415221221
transcriptional analysis of genes for energy catabolism and hydrolytic enzymes in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae using cdna microarrays and expressed sequence tags.aspergillus oryzae is a fungus used extensively in the fermentation industry. we constructed cdna microarrays comprising 2,070 highly expressed cdnas selected from the approximately 6,000 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ests) in the a. oryzae est database ( using the cdna microarrays, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of a. oryzae cells grown under the glucose-rich (ac) and glucose-depleted (an) liquid culture conditions used during the ...200415221230
processing of a cowpea--groundnut blend into a miso-like product.a traditional salt-miso process was used to produce a miso-like product from a 50-50 mixture of cowpea and groundnuts in a 60-day fermentation process as part of a study to determine the suitability of local legumes as raw materials for the production of miso. the koji was freshly prepared from a locally obtained rice and aspergillus oryzae spores obtained from japan. an old miso sample also obtained from japan was used as the source of lactic acid bacteria. the physico-chemical changes in the p ...200415223597
airborne fungi in industrial environments--potential agents of respiratory diseases.investigations on airborne fungi in a poultry house, a swinery, a feed preparing and storing house, a grain mill, a wooden panel producing factory, and organic waste recycling facilities have been carried out in lithuania. low concentrations of fungal spores were detected in the wooden panel producing factory, the swinery, the feed preparing and storing house, and the poultry house; moderate concentrations were found in the organic waste recycling facilities; high concentrations were revealed at ...200415236494
production of fungal alpha-amylase by saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations.heterologous protein production by the yeast saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-amylase from aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a s. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid. for comparison, strains of both s. kluyveri and s. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. the s. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid was found to be stable in s. kluyveri as evalu ...200415246667
secretion, purification, and characterization of a recombinant aspergillus oryzae tannase in pichia pastoris.tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase) is an industrially important enzyme produced by a large number of fungi, which hydrolyzes the ester and depside bonds of gallotannins and gallic acid esters. in the present work, a tannase from aspergillus oryzae has been cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris. the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme was assayed. a secretory form of enzyme was made with the aid of saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor, and a simple procedure purification protocol yielded ...200415249037
enzymatic synthesis of complex glycosaminotrioses and study of their molecular recognition by hevein domains.hevein, a protein found in hevea brasiliensis, has a crd domain, which is known to bind chitin and glcnac-containing oligosaccharides. by using nmr and molecular modeling as major tools we have demonstrated that trisaccharides containing galnac and mannac residues are also recognized by hevein domains. thus far unknown trisaccharides glcnacbeta(1-->4)glcnacbeta(1-->4)mannac (1) and galnacbeta(1-->4)glcnacbeta(1-->4)mannac (2) were synthesized with the use of beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase from aspe ...200415254625
combining induced mutation and protoplasting for strain improvement of aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid combining induced mutation, using ntg and uv irradiation, and protoplasting of a wild type strain of aspergillus oryzae atcc 22788, a hyper-producing strain was obtained that accumulated 41 g kojic acid l(-1) in shake-flasks, which was 100-fold higher than that in the wild type strains. similar production of kojic acid was obtained in 5 l stirred-tank fermentations.200415266124
effects of protein transport inhibitors on the distribution and secretion of the fusion protein rnta-egfp in aspergillus oryzae.the distribution of the secreted protein ribonuclease t1 (rnta) fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp), rnta-egfp, was visualized in hyphae of aspergillus oryzae in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor, brefeldin a, cytochalasin a, or nocodazole. during treatment with the protein transport inhibitors, the distribution of rnta-egfp changed and distinct patterns of fluorescence accumulation were observed. the addition of brefeldin a caused rnta-egfp fluorescence to appea ...200415277763
characteristics of a newly isolated fungus geotrichum candidum dec 1 with broad degradation spectrum of xenobiotic compounds.a newly isolated fungus, geotrichum candidum dec 1 (abbreviated as dec 1), was found to have the ability to degrade many xenobiotic compounds such as synthetic dyes, food coloring agents, molasses, organic halogens, lignin and kraft pulp effluents. the broad spectrum of the degradation of these compounds are associated mainly with peroxidases produced by the fungus.200315296177
reversible and strong immobilization of proteins by ionic exchange on supports coated with and strong ionic exchange resins have been prepared by the simple and rapid ionic adsorption of anionic polymers (sulfate-dextran) on porous supports activated with the opposite ionic group (deae/manae). ionic exchange properties of such composites were strongly dependent on the size of the ionic polymers as well as on the conditions of the ionic coating of the solids with the ionic polymers (optimal conditions were 400 mg of sulfate-dextran 5000 kda per gram of support). around 80% of the p ...200415296440
disordered cell integrity signaling caused by disruption of the kexb gene in aspergillus oryzae.we isolated the kexb gene, which encodes a subtilisin-like processing enzyme, from a filamentous fungus, aspergillus oryzae. to examine the physiological role of kexb in a. oryzae, we constructed a kexb disruptant (deltakexb), which formed shrunken colonies with poor generation of conidia on czapek-dox (cd) agar plates and hyperbranched mycelia in cd liquid medium. the phenotypes of the deltakexb strain were restored under high osmolarity in both solid and liquid culture conditions. we found tha ...200415302836
siderophore production by a marine pseudomonas aeruginosa and its antagonistic action against phytopathogenic fungi.a marine isolate of fluorescent pseudomonas sp. having the ability to produce the pyoverdine type of siderophores under low iron stress (up to 10 microm iron in the succinate medium) was identified as pseudomonas aeruginosa by using biolog breathprint and siderotyping. pyoverdine production was optimum at 0.2% (w/v) succinate, ph 6.0, in an iron-deficient medium. studies carried out in vitro revealed that purified siderophores and pseudomonas culture have good antifungal activity against the pla ...200415304753
translation efficiency mediated by the 5' untranslated region greatly affects protein production in aspergillus oryzae.we demonstrate that the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) plays an important role in determining translation efficiency in aspergillus oryzae, using a model beta-glucuronidase (gus) expression system. alterations in the 5' utr resulted in an increase in gus activity of up to eight-fold, without affecting mrna levels. moreover, using the most effective 5'utr construct, we could achieve remarkable intracellular overproduction of gus protein; and the gus level reached more than 50% of the total solubl ...200415309336
hydrolytic polyketide shortening by ayg1p, a novel enzyme involved in fungal melanin biosynthesis.the pentaketide 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (t4hn) is a key precursor of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin, an important virulence factor in pathogenic fungi, where t4hn is believed to be the direct product of pentaketide synthases. we showed recently the involvement of a novel protein, ayg1p, in the formation of t4hn from the heptaketide precursor ywa1 in aspergillus fumigatus. to investigate the mechanism of its enzymatic function, ayg1p was purified from an aspergillus oryzae strain that o ...200415310761
role of h164 in a unique dye-decolorizing heme peroxidase dyp.the expression system of a unique dye-decolorizing peroxidase dyp in escherichia coli has been constructed. the molecular mass of the expressed dyp (edyp) is 47kda, indicating no any modification with saccharides. the characteristics of edyp were almost the same as those of native dyp from a fungus thanatephorus cucumeris dec 1 and recombinant dyp with aspergillus oryzae except thermostability. as h164 was suggested to be the proximal histidine based on the preliminary x-ray crystallographic ana ...200415313183
lipase production by recombinant strains of aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from thermomyces lanuginosus.two recombinant strains of aspergillus niger (nw 297-14 and nw297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. the heterologous lipase was expressed using the taka amylase promoter from aspergillus oryzae. the production kinetics of the two strains on different carbon sources in batch and carbon-limited chemostat cultivations were evaluated. in batch cultivations, the highest total product yield coefficient (y(xp total)), given as the sum of extracellular an ...200415316684
an appropriate increase in the transcription of aspergillus nidulans uvsc improved gene targeting efficiency.gene targeting to knock out the activity of specific genes has become important due to recent progress in genomics research. but this technique is still unavailable for many organisms, including economically important microorganisms, due to the high background of ectopic integration during genetic transformation. strategies to improve targeting efficiency have included manipulating the expression of genes that are involved in homologous recombination. in this study, transcription of aspergillus ...200415322347
construction of a xylan-fermenting yeast strain through codisplay of xylanolytic enzymes on the surface of xylose-utilizing saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.hemicellulose is one of the major forms of biomass in lignocellulose, and its essential component is xylan. we used a cell surface engineering system based on alpha-agglutinin to construct a saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain codisplaying two types of xylan-degrading enzymes, namely, xylanase ii (xynii) from trichoderma reesei qm9414 and beta-xylosidase (xyla) from aspergillus oryzae niad300, on the cell surface. in a high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, xylose was detected as the ...200415345427
evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.this report represents the conclusions of a joint fao/who expert committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (adis) and to prepare specifications for the identity and purity of food additives. the first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of food additives (including flavouring agents) and contaminants, assessments of intake, and the establishment an ...200415354533
release of short and proline-rich antihypertensive peptides from casein hydrolysate with an aspergillus oryzae protease.angiotensin-i converting enzyme inhibitory activities were measured after hydrolysis of casein by 9 different commercially available proteolytic enzymes. among these enzymes, a protease isolated from aspergillus oryzae showed the highest angiotensin-i converting enzyme inhibitory activity per peptide. the a. oryzae peptide also showed the highest antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats when the systolic blood pressure was measured 5 h after oral administration of 32 mg/kg of v ...200415377596
isolation of a novel promoter for efficient protein production in aspergillus oryzae.a novel protein overexpression system of aspergillus oryzae was constructed. five promoters which originate from a. oryzae expressed sequence tag (est) clones in submerged culture were obtained by genome walking. these were subjected to beta-glucuronidase (gus) reporter assays. the promoter of manganese superoxide dismutase-encoding gene (sodm) showed the most gus production. the sodm gene was abundantly expressed in submerged culture but little expressed in solid-state culture. the sodm promote ...200415388959
mode of amyr binding to the cggn8agg sequence in the aspergillus oryzae taag2 promoter.amyr is a transcriptional activator in aspergillus spp. necessary for induction of the amylolytic enzyme genes. it recognizes 5'-cggn8cgg-3' conserved in a number of the amylolytic gene promoters, and in addition 5'-cggaaatttaa-3' in the a. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. in this report, interaction of amyr with the 5'-cggaaatttaa-3' type binding site in the taka-amylase gene (taag2) promoter was precisely characterized by dnase i footprinting analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay in ...200415388966
preparation of crystals containing protease from aspergillus oryzae. 195015416771
[kojic acid, an antibiotic obtained from aspergillus oryzae cultures]. 195015421360
efficient degradation of tannic acid by black aspergillus species.a set of aspergillus strains from culture collections and wild-type black aspergilli isolated on non-selective media were used to validate the use of media with 20% tannic acid for exclusive and complete selection of the black aspergilli. the 20% tannic acid medium proved useful for both quantitative and qualitative selection of all different black aspergilli, including all recognized species: a. carbonarius, a. japonicus, a. aculeatus, a foetidus, a. heteromorphus, a. niger, a. tubingensis and ...200415449597
development of a novel quadruple auxotrophic host transformation system by argb gene disruption using adea gene and exploiting adenine auxotrophy in aspergillus oryzae.we previously designed a triple auxotrophic host-vector system in aspergillus oryzae by isolating red-colored adenine auxotrophic mutants upon uv mutagenesis of a double auxotrophic host (niad-sc-). in the present study an effort to exploit this system and construct a novel quadruple auxotrophic host was made by disrupting the argb gene involved in arginine biosynthesis. the argb gene-disruption cassette was generated by fusion pcr, which required only two steps of pcr to insert the selectable m ...200415451104
bioprocess monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy.near-infrared spectroscopy (nir) is a nondestructive analytical technique that has been used for simultaneous prediction of the concentrations of several substrates, products and constructs in mixtures sampled from fermentation processes. in this chapter, we discuss applications of nir for the monitoring of bioprocesses involving rice vinegar, compost, glycolipid, l-glutamic acid, lactic acid fermentation, mushroom cultivation, and koji production. this includes detailed discussion of applicatio ...200415453190
functional analysis of fructosyl-amino acid oxidases of aspergillus oryzae.three active fractions of fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (faod-ao1, -ao2a, and -ao2b) were isolated from aspergillus oryzae strain rib40. n-terminal and internal amino acid sequences of faod-ao2a corresponded to those of faod-ao2b, suggesting that these two isozymes were derived from the same protein. faod-ao1 and -ao2 were different in substrate specificity and subunit assembly; faod-ao2 was active toward n(epsilon)-fructosyl n(alpha)-z-lysine and fructosyl valine (fru-val), whereas faod-ao1 was ...200415466528
biodegradable water absorbent synthesized from bacterial poly(amino acid)s.biodegradable hydrogels prepared by gamma-irradiation from microbial poly(amino acid)s have been studied. ph-sensitive hydrogels were prepared by the gamma-irradiation of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (pga) produced by bacillus subtilis and poly(epsilon-lysine) (pl) produced by streptomyces albulus in aqueous solutions. when the gamma-irradiation dose was 19 kgy or more, and the concentration of pga in water was 2 wt.-% or more, transparent hydrogels could be produced. for the 19 kgy dose, the produ ...200415468223
impact of fermented brown rice with aspergillus oryzae (febra) intake and concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (pbdes) in blood of humans from japan.the isotope dilution technique was applied for the analysis of new polybrominated diphenylethers (pbdes) calibration standard (both labeled and non-labeled) using high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (hrgc-hrms). the relative response factor (rrf) and relative standard deviation (rsd) for new calibration standard in finnigan thermo electron (mat-95xl) and micromass (autospec ultima) were more or less identical with mean rrf (0.9882), rsd (0.0865) and cv% of (8.75) ...200415488571
n-glycosylated catalytic unit meets o-glycosylated propeptide: complex protein architecture in a fungal hexosaminidase.beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase from a filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae is a secreted enzyme known to be an important component of the binary chitinolytic system. cloning of the hexa gene and sequencing of the enzyme revealed its unique preproprotein structure. while the enzyme's zincin-like and catalytic domain had significant similarities with members of the glycohydrolase 20 family, the propeptide was unique for the fungal enzyme. detailed pulse-chase and inhibition studies revealed that pro ...200415494009
cloning and enhanced expression of the cytochrome p450nor gene (nica; cyp55a5) encoding nitric oxide reductase from aspergillus oryzae.we cloned and characterized the gene and cdna of aspergillus oryzae cytochrome p450nor (anor). the anor gene (nica; cyp55a5) has a different gene structure from other p450nor genes in that it has an extra intron. there were not only two kinds of mrna but also two sets of tata-box and ccaat-box, and it appears that this gene has two expression patterns, like cyp55a1 of fusarium oxysporum. a reporter analysis using the uida gene indicated that gene expression of cyp55a5 was induced under anaerobic ...200415502348
expression of the fusarium oxysporum lactonase gene in aspergillus oryzae: molecular properties of the recombinant enzyme and its application.the lactonase gene of fusarium oxysporum was expressed in aspergillus oryzae for optical resolution of dl-pantoyl lactone. when the chromosomal gene encoding the full-length form of the lactonase, which has its own nh2-terminal signal peptide, was introduced in the host cells, the resulting transformant produced an enzyme of 46,600 da, which corresponded to the wild-type enzyme. in contrast, a. oryzae transformed with the cdna coding the mature enzyme produced a protein of 41,300 da. deglycosyla ...200515503009
impact of febra (fermented brown rice with aspergillus oryzae) intake and concentrations of pcdds, pcdfs and pcbs in blood of humans from japan.impact of febra (fermented brown rice with aspergillus oryzae, a rich dietary fiber) intake on the concentrations of polychlorinated-biphenyls (pcbs), -dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlpcbs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), and -dibenzofurans (pcdfs) in blood of nine married japanese were studied for 2 years. concentrations of total pcbs (average+/-standard deviation) were greater 326,000+/-263,000 and 207,000+/-89,000 in febra-intake and non-febra-intake groups, respectively, on pg/g lipid ...200415519386
enzymatic production and complete nuclear magnetic resonance assignment of the sugar lactulose.the enzymatic transgalactosylation from lactose to fructose leading to the prebiotic disaccharide lactulose was investigated using the beta-galactosidase from aspergillus oryzae and the hyperthermostable beta-glycosidase from pyrococcus furiosus (celb). the conditions for highest lactulose yields relative to the initial lactose concentration were established on a 1 ml scale. dependent on the initial molar ratio of lactose to fructose, more or fewer oligosaccharides other than lactulose were gene ...200415537307
preventive effect of fermented brown rice and rice bran on n-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis in rats.modifying effect of fermented brown rice by aspergillus oryzae (fbra) during the initiation or post-initiation phase of n-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (nmba)-induced esophageal tumorigenesis was investigated in rats. five-week-old male f344 rats were divided into 7 groups, and groups 1-5 were given subcutaneous injections of nmba (0.5 mg/kg body weight/injection 15 times) for 5 weeks starting at 7 weeks of age. groups 2 and 4 were fed the diet containing 5 and 10% fbra during the initiation phase, r ...200415547721
limitations of membrane cultures as a model solid-state fermentation examine the reliability of membrane cultures as a model solid-state fermentation (ssf) system.200415548302
detection of aflatoxin-producing molds in korean fermented foods and grains by multiplex assay based on multiplex pcr was applied for the detection of potential aflatoxin-producing molds in korean fermented foods and grains. three genes, avfa, omta, and ver-1, coding for key enzymes in aflatoxin biosynthesis, were used as aflatoxin-detecting target genes in multiplex pcr. dna extracted from aspergillus flavus, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, penicillium expansum, and fusarium verticillioides was used as pcr template to test spe ...200415553652
molecular cloning, overexpression, and purification of micrococcus luteus k-3-type glutaminase from aspergillus oryzae rib40.we have for the first time found and cloned the cdna (aoglsa) of aspergillus oryzae rib40, which encodes a 49.9-kda protein sharing 40% homology with the salt-tolerant glutaminase of micrococcus luteus k-3 (micrococcus glutaminase). aoglsa was subcloned into a series of expression vectors and expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae and escherichia coli. the gene product, which we named aogls, showed glutaminase activity and was produced in a cell wall fraction of s. cerevisiae and a soluble protei ...200415555943
analysis of secreted proteins during conidial germination of aspergillus oryzae broaden our understanding of extracellular proteins of aspergillus oryzae at the conidial germination stage, analyses of the secreted proteins during germination were carried out. taka-amylase a (taa), glucoamylase (glaa), and aspergillopepsin a (pepa) were identified as the main products by peptide mass fingerprinting. taa and pepa were detected simultaneously with the formation of germ tubes. with the development of germination, the ph of the medium fell from 5.5 to 3.5. the secreted pepa h ...200415618633
aspergillus oryzae produces compounds inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis downstream of dihydrolanosterol.the formation of cholesterol synthesis inhibiting molecules by five different strains of the koji mold aspergillus oryzae was studied. after growing these strains on a complex liquid medium we found in crude organic phase extracts and specific fractions there from compounds inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in human hepatic t9a4 cells in vitro at enzyme sites downstream of dihydrolanosterol. this was evidenced by using different radioactively labeled precursors, namely acetate, mevalonate, 24,25- ...200515621432
effect of cycle time on fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity during pulsed addition of limiting carbon source.for many years, high broth viscosity has remained a key challenge in large-scale filamentous fungal fermentations. in previous studies, we showed that broth viscosity could be reduced by pulsed addition of limiting carbon during fed-batch fermentation. the objective in this study was to determine how changing the frequency of pulsed substrate addition affects fungal morphology, broth rheology, and recombinant enzyme productivity. to accomplish this, a series of duplicate fed-batch fermentations ...200515643626
numerical analysis of the depletion zone formation around a growing protein is expected that a protein depletion zone and an impurity depletion zone are formed around a crystal during protein crystal growth if the diffusion field around the crystal is not disturbed. the growth rate of the crystal may be decreased and the impurity uptake may be suppressed to result in highly ordered crystals if these zones are not disturbed. it is well known that a microgravity environment can reduce convective fluid motion, and this is thought to disturb the depletion zones. therefor ...200415644341
synthesis of ethyl phenylacetate by lyophilized mycelium of aspergillus oryzae.lyophilized mycelia of aspergillus oryzae cbs 102.07, aspergillus oryzae mim, rhizopus oryzae cbs 112.07, rhizopus oryzae cbs 391.34, rhizopus oryzae cbs 260.28 and rhizopus oryzae cbs 328.47 were tested in this study to select the best biocatalysts for ethanol acylation with phenylacetic acid. the mycelium-bound carboxylesterase activity of a. oryzae mim, which exhibited the best performances, was initially investigated at 50 degrees c, either in 0.1 m phosphate buffer or in n-heptane to cataly ...200515650849
improvement of the aspergillus oryzae enolase promoter (p-enoa) by the introduction of cis-element repeats.we constructed a protein expression vector with an improved enoa promoter that harbored 12 tandem repeats of the cis-acting element (region iii) of aspergillus oryzae. the improved promoter yielded reporter beta-glucuronidase (gus) activity approximately 30-fold of the original promoter. northern blot analysis confirmed that gus expression was increased at the transcriptional level. the transformant harboring seven copies of the novel vector showed more than 100,000 u/mg gus protein, which was a ...200515665487
aspergillus oryzae gb-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.this study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by aspergillus oryzae gb-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. after fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characte ...200415671685
identification of growth phenotype-related genes in aspergillus oryzae by heterologous macroarray and suppression subtractive hybridization.aspergillus oryzae requires polarized growth for colonization of solid substrates, and this growth phenotype differs from that seen in liquid medium. various experimental approaches were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when a. oryzae is grown on wheat kernels and in a wheat-based liquid medium. hybridization of a. oryzae rnas to a macroarray bearing cdnas isolated from a library representing at least 16% of the total number of a. niger genes identified 14 differentially ...200515678358
some properties of two aldolases in extracts of aspergillus oryzae.fructose 1,6-diphosphate (fdp) aldolase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (kdg) aldolase the two key enzymes of embden-meyerhof-parnas (emp) and the nonphosphorolytic entner-doudoroff (ed) pathways respectively, were identified in cell-free extracts of four aspergillus oryzae strains grown on d-glucose as sole source of carbon. a. oryzae nrrl 3435 gave the highest enzymatic activity for the two enzymes and selected for further studies. studies on the properties of the two key enzymes indicated that ...200515678561
structural and mechanistic studies of chloride induced activation of human pancreatic alpha-amylase.the mechanism of allosteric activation of alpha-amylase by chloride has been studied through structural and kinetic experiments focusing on the chloride-dependent n298s variant of human pancreatic alpha-amylase (hpa) and a chloride-independent taka-amylase. kinetic analysis of the hpa variant clearly demonstrates the pronounced activating effect of chloride ion binding on reaction rates and its effect on the ph-dependence of catalysis. structural alterations observed in the n298s variant upon ch ...200515722449
double mutant of aspergillus oryzae for improved production of l-dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine) from l-tyrosine.aspergillus oryzae mutant strain uv-7 was further improved for the production of l-dopa from l-tyrosine using chemical mutation. different putative mutant strains of the organism were tested for the production of l-dopa in triplicate shake-flask cultures. among these putative mutants, the strain designated si-12 gave a maximal production of l-dopa (444+/-14 mg of l-dopa/g of cells). the regulation of l-dopa from different carbon source solutions [initial substrate concentration (s(0))=30 g/l] by ...200515727563
development of aspergillus oryzae thia promoter as a tool for molecular biological filamentous fungi, the repertoire of promoters available for exogenous gene expression is limited. here, we report the development and application of the thiamine-regulatable thia promoter (pthia) in aspergillus oryzae as a tool for molecular biological studies. when pthia was used to express the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) reporter, the fluorescence in the mycelia was either repressed or induced in the presence or absence of thiamine in the culture media, respectively. in addit ...200515727819
bread eating induced oral angioedema due to alpha-amylase allergy.inhalation of dust from different enzymes can be the cause of occupational asthma in exposed workers. enzymes from different sources are being increasingly used in food. few cases of food allergy to alpha-amylase induced by eating bread have been reported. those cases were reported in bakery-related patients and in a pharmaceutical-industry worker. a 25-year-old farmer suffered sneezing, rhinorrhea, oropharyngeal itching, hoarseness, cough, and non-wheezy dyspnea after eating white bread. skin p ...200415736722
enrichment of cheeses manufactured from cow's and sheep's milk blends with sheep-like species-related alkylphenols.enhancement of concentrations of species-related sheep-like alkylphenols, p- and m-cresols and 3- and 4-ethylphenols, in experimental manchego-type cheeses manufactured from cow's and sheep's milk blends (80:20) by using arylsulfatases was investigated. a food-grade arylsulfatase from aspergillus oryzae (atcc 20719) was produced using a stimulatory medium, and crude dried cells were used as the enzyme source. exogenous arylsulfatases from helix pomatia and a. oryzae were added to cheese curd, an ...200515740062
effect of low oxygen concentrations on growth and alpha-amylase production of aspergillus oryzae in model solid-state fermentation systems.oxygen transfer in the fungal mat is a major concern in solid-state fermentation (ssf). oxygen supply into the mycelial layers is hampered by diffusion limitation. for aerobic fungi, like aspergillus oryzae, this oxygen depletion can be a severely limiting factor for growth and metabolite production. this paper describes the effects of a low oxygen concentration on growth at the levels of individual hyphae, colonies and overcultures, and on alpha-amylase production in overcultures. pda medium wa ...200515748690
different control mechanisms regulate glucoamylase and protease gene transcription in aspergillus oryzae in solid-state and submerged fermentation.solid-state fermentation (ssf) with aspergillus oryzae results in high levels of secreted protein. however, control mechanisms of gene expression in ssf have been only poorly studied. in this study we show that both glucoamylase (glab) and protease (alpa, nptb) genes are highly expressed during surface cultivation on wheat-based solid medium, and even higher during cultivation on wheat kernels. in wheat-based liquid medium, low levels of gene expression are observed. typical ssf cultivation cond ...200415800731
high-level expression of myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase in pichia pastoris, and its facile purification and characterization.bilirubin oxidase (bo) from myrothecium verrucaria (authentic bo) catalyzing the oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdine was overexpressed in the methylotrophic yeast, pichia pastoris. the cdna encoding bo was cloned into the p. pastoris expression vector ppic9k under the control of the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter and its protein product was secreted using the saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor signal sequence. the productivity of recombinant bo (rbo) in p. pastoris was approximately 5000 ...200515802224
discovery of a novel superfamily of type iii polyketide synthases in aspergillus oryzae.identification of genes encoding type iii polyketide synthase (pks) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. among other aspergilli (aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus), a. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (chs)-like genes (csya, csyb, csyc, and csyd). expression of csya, csyb, and csyd genes was confirmed by rt-pcr. comparative genome analyses r ...200515845386
visualizing nuclear migration during conidiophore development in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae: multinucleation of conidia occurs through direct migration of plural nuclei from phialides and confers greater viability and early germination in aspergillus oryzae.nuclear migration is indispensable for normal growth, differentiation, and development, and has been studied in several fungi including aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa. to better characterize nuclear movement and its consequences during conidiophore development, conidiation, and conidial germination, we performed confocal microscopy and time-lapse imaging on a. nidulans and aspergillus oryzae strains expressing the histone h2b-egfp fusion protein. active trafficking of nuclei from a v ...200515849413
allosteric nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase from aspergilli: purification, characterization and implications for metabolic regulation at the carbon-nitrogen interface.nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) mediates fungal ammonium assimilation through reductive synthesis of glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate. by virtue of its position at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, biosynthetic nadp-gdh is a potential candidate for metabolic control. in order to facilitate characterization, a new and effective dye-affinity method was devised to purify nadp-gdh from two aspergilli, aspergillus niger and aspergillus nidulans. the a. niger nadp-gdh was ...200515870451
three-dimensional image analysis of plugging at the septal pore by woronin body during hypotonic shock inducing hyphal tip bursting in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.we observed that the filamentous fungus, aspergillus oryzae, grown on agar media burst out cytoplasmic constituents from the hyphal tip soon after flooding with water. woronin body is a specialized organelle known to plug the septal pore adjacent to the lysed compartment to prevent extensive loss of cytoplasm. a. oryzae aohex1 gene homologous to neurospora crassa hex1 gene encoding a major protein in woronin body was expressed as a fusion with dsred2, resulting in visualization of woronin body. ...200515882988
repeated-batch production of kojic acid in a cell-retention fermenter using aspergillus oryzae m3b9.a cell-retention fermenter was used for the pilot-scale production of kojic acid using an improved strain of aspergillus oryzae in repeated-batch fermentations. among the various carbon and nitrogen sources used, sucrose and yeast extract promoted pellet morphology of fungi and higher kojic acid production. repeated-batch culture using a medium replacement ratio of 75% gave a productivity of 5.3 gl(-1)day(-1) after 11.5 days of cultivation. while batch culture in shake-flasks resulted in a produ ...200515895266
grifolisin, a member of the sedolisin family produced by the fungus grifola frondosa.the pepstatin-insensitive carboxyl proteinase grifolisin was purified from fruiting bodies of the fungus grifola frondosa, a maitake mushroom. the enzyme had an optimum ph of 3.0 for the digestion of hemoglobin and 2.8 for milk casein digestion. its molecular mass was determined to be 43kda by sds-page and 40kda by gel chromatography on superose 12, and its isoelectric point was found to be 4.6 by isoelectric focusing. the enzyme hydrolyzed four major bonds in the oxidized insulin b-chain: phe1- ...200515896366
branching mutants of aspergillus oryzae with improved amylase and protease production on solid study the relation between the number of hyphal tips and protein secretion during growth on a solid substrate, we have constructed two mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae with increased hyphal branching. we have analysed hydrolytic enzyme activities during growth on wheat kernels (wk) of a. oryzae strains carrying the disrupted allele of the pcla gene encoding a secretion pathway specific (kex2-like) endo-protease and the disrupted allele of the pg/pi-tp gene encoding a phosphatidylglycerol/ ...200515909137
identification and characterization of rns4/vps32 mutation in the rnase t1 expression-sensitive strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae: evidence for altered ambient response resulting in transportation of the secretory protein to vacuoles.we previously reported a genetic analysis of the growth-inhibitory effect caused by the overexpression of the aspergillus oryzae rnta gene, encoding rnase t1 (ribonuclease t1), in saccharomyces cerevisiae. subsequently, rns (ribonuclease t1 sensitive) mutants with mutations in the rns1 (dsl1), rns2 (ump1), and rns3 (sec17) genes, were identified. in the present study, rns4 (vps32/snf7) gene mutation was identified by complementation of tunicamycin sensitivity. while the rns4 mutant exhibited sen ...200515925308
xylanase production by fungal strains on spent sulphite liquor.xylanase production by seven fungal strains was investigated using concentrated spent sulphite liquor (sslc), xylan and d: -xylose as carbon substrates. an sslc-based medium induced xylanase production at varying levels in all of these strains, with aspergillus oryzae nrrl 3485 and aspergillus phoenicis atcc 13157 yielding activities of 164 and 146 u ml(-1), respectively; these values were higher than those obtained on xylan or d: -xylose with the same fungal strains. the highest xylanase activi ...200515944854
a new xylanase from penicillium griseofulvum.a new xylanase (pgxyna) from penicillium griseofulvum a160 has been isolated and characterised using a screening method based on the ability to digest a complex substrate. the enzyme belongs to the hydrolase family 11 or g and shows an optimum ph of 5.0 and an optimum temperature of 50 degrees c. the xylanase breaks down the xylan to very small oligosaccharides. the corresponding gene (pgxyna) was cloned and expressed in aspergillus oryzae. a second xylanase gene with 66% identity to pgxyna has ...200115954597
hereditary variation and genetic recombination in koji-molds (aspergillus oryzae and asp. sojae). i. natural variation.natural variation in monospore lines of koji-molds (asp. oryzae and asp. sojae), isolated from commercial koji material or soil and from laboratory stock cultures, has been observed. we can divide the 58 strains of koji-molds investigated into two groups; one group consists of inconstant strains which are very liable to produce natural variants, and the other consists of strains which remain constant through successive single spore culture. the inconstant strains develop colonies bearing various ...200415965886
hiochic acid, a new growth factor for lactobacillus homohiochi and lactobacillus heterohiochi. 200415965887
[the action of s1 nuclease and a cloning strategy for microcircular dnas].s1 nuclease (from aspergillus oryzae) is a specific enzyme to degrade single stranded dna or rna molecules. it has been reported to be able to convert superhelical circular dna molecules into open circle or linear forms under certain conditions, but this function has not been well explored. in order to use the action of s1 nuclease to linearize circular dna and develop a novel way of cloning microcircular dnas, the puc19 was used to investigate the relationship between the linearization efficien ...200315966330
purification and characterization of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from aspergillus oryzae.we used biodegradable plastics as fermentation substrates for the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae. this fungus could grow under culture conditions that contained emulsified poly-(butylene succinate) (pbs) and emulsified poly-(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (pbsa) as the sole carbon source, and could digest pbs and pbsa, as indicated by clearing of the culture supernatant. we purified the pbs-degrading enzyme from the culture supernatant, and its molecular mass was determined as 21.6 kda. t ...200515968570
fructosyl-amino acid oxidases of aspergillus oryzae are induced by the reaction product, glucosone.aspergillus oryzae has two fructosyl-amino acid oxidase (faod) isozymes (aofao1 and aofao2), which are different in the substrate specificities. northern blot analysis showed both fao genes were induced by autoclave-browned medium containing l-lysine or l-valine. studies with a mutant, that had a disrupted aofao2 gene, revealed that the expression of aofao1 by fructosyl l-valine depended on the expression of aofao2. both genes were also induced by one of the faod-reaction products, glucosone. in ...200515972252
copper-dependent production of a pycnoporus coccineus extracellular laccase in aspergillus oryzae and saccharomyces cerevisiae.laccase is a multicopper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds. lcc1 cdna coding for a secretory laccase of pycnoporus coccineus was expressed under the maltose inducible amyb promoter in aspergillus oryzae and under the galactose inducible gal10 promoter in saccharomyces cerevisiae. laccase activities, which were undetectable in the absence of copper, were observed by increasing copper concentrations in the media for both systems. the amounts of secreted laccase p ...200515973039
[overexpression of aspergillus candidus lactase and analysis of enzymatic properties].the lactase gene lacb' from aspergillus candidus was fused behind alpha-factor signal sequence in the pichia pastoris expression vector ppic9, then integrated into the genome of p. pastoris by recombination events. the p. pastoris recombinants for lactase overexpression were screened by enzyme activity analysis and sds-page. the lactase expressed in p. pastoris was glycosylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 130 kd, while the deglycosylated lactase treated with endo h had an appare ...200515989270
characterization of salt-tolerant glutaminase from stenotrophomonas maltophilia nyw-81 and its application in japanese soy sauce fermentation.glutaminase from stenotrophomonas maltophilia nyw-81 was purified to homogeneity with a final specific activity of 325 u/mg. the molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated to be 41 kda by gel filtration. a subunit molecular mass of 36 kda was measured with sds-page, thus indicating that the native enzyme is a monomer. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined to be keaetqqklanvvilatggtia. besides l: -glutamine, which was hydrolyzed with the highest specific activity ...200516012776
synthesis of morphiceptin (tyr-pro-phe-pro-nh(2)) by dipeptidyl aminopeptidase iv derived from aspergillus oryzae.morphiceptin (tyr-pro-phe-pro-nh(2)), tetrapeptide, was synthesized using dipeptidyl aminopeptidase iv (dp iv, ec derived from aspergillus oryzae rib 915 as a catalyst. tyr-pro-oet was incubated with phe-pro-nh(2) in the presence of dp iv under various conditions of temperature, concentrations of ethylene glycol, ph, reaction time, and others. morphiceptin was obtained at 40% yield under the optimal reaction conditions: substrate, 4 mm tyr-pro-oet.hcl and 20 mm phe-pro-nh(2).hcl; enzym ...200516029004
acidolysis between triolein and short-chain fatty acid by lipase in organic solvents.ten kinds of lipases were examined as biocatalysts for the incorporation of short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, and butyric acids) into triolein in order to produce one kind of reduced-calorie structured lipids. trans-esterification (acidolysis) was successfully done in n-hexane by several microbial lipases. among them, lipase from aspergillus oryzae was used to investigate the effects of incubation time, substrate molar ratio, and water content on acidolysis. finally, more than 80% of t ...200516041127
significance of bed porosity, bran and specific surface area in solid-state cultivation of aspergillus this paper, the effects of bed porosity, bran and specific surface area on the oxygen uptake rate and alpha-amylase production during growth of aspergillus oryzae on wheat grain and wheat-flour substrate are reported. the high oxygen uptake rate found during cultivation of a. oryzae on wheat-flour substrate was not reached on wheat grain. this is mainly due to the bran of the wheat grain. using wheat-flour substrates, it was shown that extra bed porosity increased the alpha-amylase production ...200516046183
5' untranslated region of the hsp12 gene contributes to efficient translation in aspergillus oryzae.we describe a 5' untranslated region (5'utr) that dramatically increases the expression level of an exogenous gene in aspergillus oryzae. using a series of 5'utr::gus (uida) fusion constructs, we analyzed the translation efficiency of chimeric mrnas with different 5'utrs at different temperatures. we found that the 5'utr of a heat-shock protein gene, hsp12, greatly enhanced the translation efficiency of the chimeric gus mrna at normal temperature (30 degrees c). moreover, at high temperature (37 ...200616059686
isolation and characterization of aspergillus oryzae vacuolar protein sorting mutants.the vacuolar protein sorting (vps) system in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae, which has unique cell polarity and the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, was evaluated by using mutants that missort vacuolar proteins into the medium. vacuolar carboxypeptidase y (cpy) fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was used as a vacuolar marker. twenty dfc (dim egfp fluorescence in conidia) mutants with reduced intracellular egfp fluorescence in conidia were isolated by flu ...200516085884
hydrolase-catalyzed michael addition of imidazoles to acrylic monomers in organic medium.hydrolase-catalyzed michael addition of imidazole derivatives to acrylic monomers in organic medium was described. a serial of n-substituted imidazole derivatives were successfully synthesized in moderate yields by the catalysis of hydrolases in organic medium. nine commercially available hydrolases from different sources were screened and all of them were found to be able to catalyze this type of addition reaction. the reaction yields depended on the solvent properties and the solvents with hig ...200616099065
what the aspergillus genomes have told us.the sequencing and annotation of the genomes of the first strains of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus oryzae, and aspergillus fumigatus will be seen in retrospect as a transformational event in aspergillus biology. with this event the entire genetic composition of a. nidulans, the sexual experimental model organism of the genus aspergillus, a. oryzae, the food biotechnology organism which is the product of centuries of cultivation, and a. fumigatus, the most common causative agent of invasive a ...200516110785
antihypertensive effect of casein hydrolysate in a placebo-controlled study in subjects with high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertension.we describe a clinical trial to study the efficacy of a casein hydrolysate, prepared using an aspergillus oryzae protease, containing the major angiotensin-i-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides val-pro-pro (vpp) and ile-pro-pro (ipp) in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. a total of 131 volunteers with high-normal blood pressure and mild hypertension were randomly divided into four groups (n 32 or 33 in each group). each volunteer was given two tablets containing four different dosages o ...200516115337
an aspergillus oryzae acetyl xylan esterase: molecular cloning and characteristics of recombinant enzyme expressed in pichia pastoris.we screened 20,000 clones of an expressed sequence tag (est) library from aspergillus oryzae ( and obtained one cdna clone encoding a protein with similarity to fungal acetyl xylan esterase. we also cloned the corresponding gene, designated as aoaxe, from the genomic dna. the deduced amino acid sequence consisted of a putative signal peptide of 31-amino acids and a mature protein of 276-amino acids. we engineered aoaxe for heterologous expression in p. ...200616129506
change in hyphal morphology of aspergillus oryzae during fed-batch cultivation.industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. during cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. the morphology of a recombinant lipase producing aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated during fed-batch cultivations. during the exponential batch phase of the fed-batch cultivations, the average hyphal length increased as did the number of tips per hyphal element. most striking was the fi ...200616133324
functional characterization of delta9 and omega9 desaturase genes in mortierella alpina 1s-4 and its derivative mutants.cloning and characterization of the delta9 desaturase (delta9i) gene of a fungus, mortierella alpina 1s-4, was previously reported. in this study, two genes encoding delta9 desaturase homologs were isolated from this fungus. one is a delta9 desaturase (delta9ii) that exhibits 86% amino acid sequence similarity to delta9i. functional analysis involving expression of the encoding gene in aspergillus oryzae revealed that delta9ii exhibits delta9 desaturase activity, 18:0 being converted to 18:1delt ...200616133334
the fungal hydrophobin rola recruits polyesterase and laterally moves on hydrophobic surfaces.when fungi grow on plant or insect surfaces coated with wax polyesters that protect against pathogens, the fungi generally form aerial hyphae to contact the surfaces. aerial structures such as hyphae and conidiophores are coated with hydrophobins, which are surface-active proteins involved in adhesion to hydrophobic surfaces. when the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae was cultivated in a liquid medium containing the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-coadipate (pbsa), the rola gen ...200516135240
genotyping of madurella mycetomatis by selective amplification of restriction fragments (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and subtype correlation with geographical origin and lesion of the causative organisms of mycetoma is the fungus madurella mycetomatis. previously, extensive molecular typing studies identified sudanese isolates of this fungus as clonal, but polymorphic genetic markers have not yet been identified. here, we report on the selective amplification of restriction fragment (aflp) analysis of 37 sudanese clinical isolates of m. mycetomatis. of 93 aflp fragments generated, 25 were polymorphic, and 12 of these 25 polymorphic fragments were found in a large f ...200516145076
thermostability of irreversible unfolding alpha-amylases analyzed by unfolding kinetics.for most multidomain proteins the thermal unfolding transitions are accompanied by an irreversible step, often related to aggregation at elevated temperatures. as a consequence the analysis of thermostabilities in terms of equilibrium thermodynamics is not applicable, at least not if the irreversible process is fast with respect the structural unfolding transition. in a comparative study we investigated aggregation effects and unfolding kinetics for five homologous alpha-amylases, all from mesop ...200516150692
nuclear translocation of the heterotrimeric ccaat binding factor of aspergillus oryzae is dependent on two redundant localising signals in a single subunit.the ccaat-binding complex in the aspergillus species, also known as the hap complex, consists of at least three subunits, namely hapb, hapc and hape. each hap subunit contains an evolutionary conserved core domain. recently, we have found that the hapc and hape subunits do not carry a nuclear localisation signal. furthermore, when in complex with hapb, they are transported into the nucleus via a 'piggy back mechanism' in a. nidulans. to extend our findings to other filamentous fungi, we examined ...200516163515
genomic evidences for the existence of a phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in aspergillus oryzae.plants interact with their environment by producing a diverse array of secondary metabolites. a majority of these compounds are phenylpropanoids and flavonoids which are valued for their medicinal and agricultural properties. the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway proceeds with the basic c6-c3 carbon skeleton of phenylalanine, and involves a wide range of enzymes viz., phenylalanine ammonia lyase, coumarate hydroxylase, coumarate ligase, chalcone synthase, chalcone reductase and chalcone isome ...200516182237
nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in the genome of fusarium graminearum, causative agent of wheat head blight.fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites which serve as virulence factors in several plant-pathogen interactions. the aim of our work was to investigate the diversity of these genes in a fusarium graminearum sequence database using bioinformatic techniques. our search identified 15 nrps sequences, among which two were found to be closely related to peptide synthetases of various fungi taking part in ferrichrome biosynthesis. ano ...200516196211
identification of secreted proteins of aspergillus oryzae associated with growth on solid cereal substrates.filamentous growth of aspergillus oryzae on solid cereal substrates involves secretion of substrate converting enzymes and a solid substrate specific polarised hyphal growth phenotype. to identify proteins produced under these specific conditions, the extracts of a. oryzae grown on wheat-based media were analysed using n-terminal sequence analysis. in a submerged wheat-based growth medium of a. oryzae, besides alpha-amylase, also an arabinosidase and xylanase were abundantly produced. in the ext ...200616226332
cloning and functional analysis of the aspergillus oryzae conidiation regulator gene brla by its disruption and misscheduled expression.we cloned the brla gene from aspergillus oryzae genomic dna using the a. nidulans brla gene as a probe. a 3.1-kb ecori-bali genomic dna fragment was cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence revealed 70% identity with a. nidulans brla and contained two c2h2 zinc finger motifs in its carboxyl terminus, and the promoter sequence contained a 43-bp highly conserved region, indicating that the cloned gene was an a. oryzae homologue of a. nidulans brla. disruption of the brla gene by homol ...199916232494
properties of the peptides liberated from rice protein in the supernatant of sokujo-moto, a high level of acid carboxypeptidase (acp) activity and a large amount of peptides were observed, however, the amount of free amino acids liberated was small. in order to determine why these peptides were not hydrolyzed to any significant degree by the acp, the properties of the peptides in sokujo-moto were investigated in this study. peptides were fractionated from sokujo-moto by ion exchange column chromatography. acp purified from rice-koji (rice overgrown ...199916232611
aspergillus oryzae palbory encodes a calpain-like protease: homology to emericella nidulans palb and conservation of functional regions.we have cloned and sequenced genomic dna of aspergillus oryzae palbory, orthologue of emericella nidulans palb, which encodes a calpain-like protease modulating a signal transduction pathway during alkaline adaptation. the deduced amino acid sequence of palbory is 70.0% identical to palb over its entire length. the regions with high similarity revealed possible domains important for their function. this is the first step towards understanding the alkaline adaptation mechanism of a. oryzae, which ...199916232641
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