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an evolutionary comparison of plant histones.histones were extracted from chromatin of the following: a moss (polytrichum juniperinum); the primitive vascular plants psilotum nudum and equisetum arvense; a fern (polypodium vulgare); the gymnosperms fir (abies concolor), yew (taxus canadensis) and gingko biloba; the dicotyledonous angiosperms tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) and maple (acer saccharinum); and the monocotyledonous angiosperms corn (zea mays) and lily (lilium longiflorum). the histones were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electroph ...19751164518
studies on myo-inositol-1-phosphate from lilium longiflorum pollen, neurospora crassa and bovine testis. further evidence that a classical aldolase step is not utilized. 19816456770
isolation and characterization of a yeast gene that is homologous with a meiosis-specific cdna from a plant.by using as probe a meiosis-specific cdna clone lim15 from the monocotyledonous plant, lilium longiflorum, a clone containing a 2.8 kb dna fragment was isolated from a genomic library of saccharomyces cerevisiae. primary structure analysis revealed that the clone includes two complete open reading frames, designated isc2 and isc10, capable of coding for a 36.6 kda and a 31.6 kda polypeptide, respectively, with the former frame being interrupted by a 92 bp intron. the predicted amino acid sequenc ...19938455558
actin-bundling protein isolated from pollen tubes of lily. biochemical and immunocytochemical characterizationa 135-kd actin-bundling protein was purified from pollen tubes of lily (lilium longiflorum) using its affinity to f-actin. from a crude extract of the pollen tubes, this protein was coprecipitated with exogenously added f-actin and then dissociated from f-actin by treating it with high-ionic-strength solution. the protein was further purified sequentially by chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column, a gel-filtration column, and a diethylaminoethyl-cellulose ion-exchange column. in the present ...19989536060
plant homologue of human excision repair gene ercc1 points to conservation of dna repair mechanisms.nucleotide excision repair (ner), a highly versatile dna repair mechanism, is capable of removing various types of dna damage including those induced by uv radiation and chemical mutagens. ner has been well characterized in yeast and mammalian systems but its presence in plants has not been reported. here it is reported that a plant gene isolated from male germline cells of lily (lilium longiflorum) shows a striking amino acid sequence similarity to the dna excision repair proteins human ercc1 a ...19989681020
a mads box gene from lily (lilium longiflorum) is sufficient to generate dominant negative mutation by interacting with pistillata (pi) in arabidopsis thaliana.lily mads box gene 1 (lmads1), with sequence homology to the ap3 family of genes, was cloned and characterized from lily (lilium longiflorum). lmads1 protein contains almost complete consensus sequence of the pistillata (pi)-derived motif (yefrvqpsqpnlh) found in the ap3 family of genes and paleoap3 motif (ygshdlrla) found in the ap3 family of genes from the low eudicot, magnolid dicot and monocot species. lmads1 mrna was expressed in all four whorls of the flower and absent in the vegetative le ...200111673632
the c-terminal sequence of lmads1 is essential for the formation of homodimers for b function proteins.lmads1, a lily (lilium longiflorum) ap3 orthologue, contains the complete consensus sequence of the paleoap3 (ygshdlrla) and pi-derived (yefrvqpsqpnlh) motifs in the c-terminal region of the protein. interestingly, through yeast two-hybrid analysis, lmads1 was found to be capable of forming homodimers. these results indicated that lmads1 represents an ancestral form of the b function protein, which retains the ability to form homodimers in regulating petal and stamen development in lily. to expl ...200414676188
isolation and characterization of a novel gras gene that regulates meiosis-associated gene expression.gras protein is a family of plant-specific proteins that plays a role in various developmental processes. here we report a novel gras protein from lily, designated llscl (lilium longiflorum scarecrow-like), dominantly expressed at the premeiotic phase within anthers. the llscl protein has two highly basic regions, and transient expression analyses of dissected gfp-llscl fusion proteins showed that both basic regions are important for the nuclear localization. a series of transcriptional activati ...200312657631
a novel histone variant localized in nucleoli of higher plant cells.immunofluorescence staining with antisera raised against p35, a basic nuclear protein that accumulates in the pollen nuclei of lilium longiflorum, specifically stained the nucleoli in interphase nuclei of somatic tissues, including root and leaf, and in pachytene nuclei during meiotic division, whereas antisera raised against histone h1 uniformly stained the entire chromatin domain with the exception of the nucleoli in these nuclei. further, p35-specific antisera stained the nucleoli in root and ...199910398848
lily cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase: purification, partial sequencing, and immunolocalization.a cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (pgam-i) was isolated to homogeneity from monocotyledonous lilium longiflorum thunb. two-dimensional (2d) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved three pgam-i forms. this enzyme was originally identified by cross-reactivity to antibodies affinity-purified from 2d gels using human vitronectin (vn). antibody produced against a denatured protein spot from a 2d gel did not recognize vn protein, but partial protein and dna sequencing showed similarit ...19968931352
immunohistochemical characterization of a stage-specific antigen during oogenesis and spermatogenesis recognized with monoclonal antibody.in order to detect and characterize novel molecules which function in oogenesis, immunohistochemical study using a monoclonal antibody (mab) raised against oocytes of xenopus laevis was carried out. the distribution of the detectable molecule with mab x-80, which specifically reacts with xenopus previtellogenic oocytes; stages i and ii (dumont, 1972), in particular was analyzed. the hamster, mouse, chick, quail, caenorhabditis elegans and lilium longiflorum were also examined. interestingly mab ...19947804159
stereochemistry of the myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase reaction.experiments with d-glucose-6-p stereospecifically tritiated at c-6 showed that the myo-inositol-1 p synthase reaction catalyzed by both the enzyme from beef testis and from pollen of lilium longiflorum proceeds with stereospecific loss of the pro-6r and incorporation of the pro-6s hydrogen into the product. the ring closure thus occurs in a retention mode at c-6 of the substrate, a finding at variance with an earlier report, but in agreement with the stereochemistry recently determined for the r ...19807002927
substrate specificity and molecular cloning of the lily endo-beta-mannosidase acting on n-glycan.endo-beta-mannosidase, which hydrolyzes the manbeta1-4glcnac linkage in the trimannosyl core structure of n-glycans, was recently purified to homogeneity from lily (lilium longiflorum) flowers as a heterotrimer [ishimizu, t., sasaki, a., okutani, s., maeda, m., yamagishi, m., and hase, s. (2004) j. biol. chem. 279, 38555-38562]. here, we describe the substrate specificity of the enzyme and cloning of its cdna. the purified enzyme hydrolyzed pyridylaminated (pa-) man(n)manalpha1-6manbeta1-4glcnac ...200515713887
transcriptional activity of male gamete-specific histone gch3 promoter in sperm cells of lilium longiflorum.histones are essential for packaging of eukaryotic genomic dna in nucleosomes, and histone gene expression is normally coupled with dna synthesis. some of the flowering plant histone genes show strictly male gamete-specific expression. however, mechanisms underlying their male gamete-specific expression have not been elucidated so far. here we report the isolation of the male gamete-specific histone gch3 promoter from lilium longiflorum and its activity in the male gametic cell of the flowering ...200515755744
exogenous free ubiquitin enhances lily pollen tube adhesion to an in vitro stylar matrix and may facilitate endocytosis of sca.pollen tube adhesion and guidance on extracellular matrices within the pistil are essential processes that convey the pollen tube cell and the sperm cells to the ovule. in this study, we purified an additional molecule from the pistil that enhances pollen tube adhesion when combined with the sca (stigma/stylar cysteine-rich adhesin)/pectin matrix in our in vitro assay. the enhancer of adhesion was identified as free ubiquitin (ub). this was confirmed by use of bovine ub as a substitute for lily ...200616998086
synthesis of beta-mannosides using the transglycosylation activity of endo-beta-mannosidase from lilium longiflorum.endo-beta-mannosidase is an endoglycosidase that hydrolyzes only the man beta 1-4glcnac linkage of the core region of n-linked sugar chains. recently, endo-beta-mannosidase was purified to homogeneity from lilium longiflorum (lily) flowers, its corresponding gene was cloned and important catalytic amino acid residues were identified [ishimizu t., sasaki a., okutani s., maeda m., yamagishi m. & hase s. (2004) j. biol. chem.279, 38555-38562]. in the presence of man beta 1-4glcnac beta 1-4glcnac-pe ...200515794753
clathrin is involved in organization of mitotic spindle and phragmoplast as well as in endocytosis in tobacco cell cultures.we previously identified a 175 kda polypeptide in lilium longiflorum germinating pollen using a monoclonal antibody raised against myosin ii heavy chain from physarum polycephalum. in the present study, the equivalent polypeptide was also found in cultured tobacco by-2 cells. analysis of the amino acid sequences revealed that the 175 kda polypeptide is clathrin heavy chain and not myosin heavy chain. after staining of by-2 cells, punctate clathrin signals were distributed throughout the cytoplas ...200717351731
immunological characterization of a tapetal protein in developing anthers of lilium longiflorum.antiserum was raised in rabbits against a lily (lilium longiflorum) anther-specific protein (lla-15). monospecific anti-lla-15 antibodies were prepared to investigate the distribution of lla-15 during anther development in a variety of flowering plants. immunoblot analyses of total protein from floral and vegetative organs confirmed that lla-15 or lla-15-like proteins accumulated to detectable levels only in a discrete stage of anther development. in situ localization using anti-rabbit immunoglo ...199216669007
alkaline phytase from lily pollen: investigation of biochemical properties.phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid (insp6, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells. in cereal grains and legumes, it constitutes 3-5% of the dry weight of seeds. the inability of humans and monogastric animals such as swine and poultry to absorb complexed insp6 has led to nutritional and environmental problems. the efficacy of supplemental phytases to address these issues is well established; thus, there is a need for phytases with a range of bi ...200516051182
pollen proteolytic enzymes degrade tight junctions.asthma and allergic rhinitis are significant, increasing causes of morbidity worldwide. pollen, a major cause of seasonal rhinitis/conjunctivitis, carries proteolytic enzymes on its surface. we showed previously that peptidase allergens from house dust mites compromise epithelial barrier function by degrading the extracellular domains of the tight junction proteins, occludin and claudin, thus facilitating allergen delivery across epithelial layers. in this study, we aimed to determine whether pe ...200717986111
effect of cadmium on pollen germination and tube growth in lilium longiflorum and nicotiana tabacum.cadmium had a highly toxic effect on pollen germination and tube growth, which were greatly inhibited as metal concentrations increased. cadmium concentrations up to 10(-2) m completely stopped pollen germination and pollen showed an increasing tendency to burst within 1 h. at low concentrations, the metal caused a slight stimulation of pollen germination, growth rate and tube elongation at the initial stages of tube development. comparing the two plants studied, cadmium was more toxic for nicot ...200818709476
management options for pratylenchus penetrans in easter lily.alternatives to reduce or modify nematicide use for minimizing groundwater contamination in easter lily were explored in two field trials. alternatives to standard 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-d) plus phorate injection in the first trial were: (i) delaying applications until after winter rains, (ii) removing roots from planting stock, (iii) 1,3-d via drip irrigation, (iv) a chitin-urea soil amendment, (v) the registered insecticide disulfoton, and (vi) several nonregistered nematicides. none of the ...200319262778
fine-tuning of the cytoplasmic ca2+ concentration is essential for pollen tube growth.pollen tube growth is crucial for the delivery of sperm cells to the ovule during flowering plant reproduction. previous in vitro imaging of lilium longiflorum and nicotiana tabacum has shown that growing pollen tubes exhibit a tip-focused ca(2+) concentration ([ca(2+)]) gradient and regular oscillations of the cytosolic [ca(2+)] ([ca(2+)](cyt)) in the tip region. whether this [ca(2+)] gradient and/or [ca(2+)](cyt) oscillations are present as the tube grows through the stigma (in vivo condition) ...200919474213
the arabidopsis cdpk-snrk superfamily of protein kinases.the cdpk-snrk superfamily consists of seven types of serine-threonine protein kinases: calcium-dependent protein kinase (cdpks), cdpk-related kinases (crks), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinases (ppcks), pep carboxylase kinase-related kinases (peprks), calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (camks), calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (ccamks), and snrks. within this superfamily, individual isoforms and subfamilies contain distinct regulatory domains, subcellular targeting informat ...200312805596
arabinogalactan proteins, pollen tube growth, and the reversible effects of yariv phenylglycoside.arabinogalactan proteins (agps) are abundant complex macromolecules involved in both reproductive and vegetative plant growth. they are secreted at pollen tube tips in lilium longiflorum. here, we report the effect of the (beta-d-glucosyl)3 yariv phenylglycoside, known to interact with agps, on pollen tube extension in several plant species. in annona cherimola the yariv reagent clearly inhibited pollen tube extension within 1-2 h of treatment, as demonstrated previously for l. longiflorum, but ...200211926071
visualization of an ftsz ring in chloroplasts of lilium longiflorum leaves.ftsz is a bacterial division protein which forms a ring at the leading edge of the cell division site. to date, a hypothesis that the plant ftsz forms the same structure in chloroplast division is proposed, but has not been demonstrated yet. in this study, recombinant llftsz (lilium longiflorum ftsz) protein was produced from a previously isolated ftsz cdna clone [mori and tanaka (2000) protoplasma 214: 57] and used to raise polyclonal anti-llftsz antibodies in rabbits. in immunoblot analysis wi ...200111427673
problems associated with crop rotation for management of pratylenchus penetrans on easter lily.in humboldt and del norte counties of california and curry county, oregon, easter lilies (lilium longiflotum) are grown commercially in a 3- to 6-year rotation with pasture for cattle and sheep. bulbs are sold to greenhouse operations to produce flowering plants. the lesion nematode, pratylenchus penetrans, is a serious detriment to easter lily production. both soil and planting stock are often infested; typically, a dual nematicide application is used consisting of a preplant soil fumigation fo ...199819274250
two classes of proteins and mrnas in lilium longiflorum l. indentified by human vitronectin probes.vitronectin (vn) is a substrate adhesion molecule, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that facilitates cell adhesion and cell movement in animals. we have reported the cross-reactivity of a 55-kd protein in plants with rabbit anti-human vn antibodies and the presence of vn-like sequences in plant genomes using a human vn cdna probe. we have extended these studies by using human vn riboprobes to detect vn-like mrnas in lily (lilium longiflorum l.) and soybean. in both species, two mrnas were de ...19947512737
a method for producing synaptonemal complex complements in lily and mouse.a whole-mount procedure for producing pachytene synaptonemal complex complements of lilium longiflorum was developed. the method involves swelling of the meiotic nuclei followed by nonionic detergent lysis of the nuclear envelope. this technique adequately spreads out the long lily chromosomes while producing only minimal distortion of the chromosomal axes. the ultrastructure of the synaptonemal complex is normal, and the chromatin remains closely associated with the synaptonemal complex. the pr ...19892659658
pollen-specific skp1-like proteins are components of functional scf complexes and essential for lily pollen tube elongation.the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway mediates protein degradation and is involved in diverse aspects of plant development and differentiation, including pollen tube elongation and self-incompatibility. we characterized three lily (lilium longiflorum) skp1-like genes, lsk1-lsk3, that are specifically expressed in late pollen developmental stages and the elongating pollen tube. the encoded peptide sequences reveal that lsk1-lsk3 share high identity with arabidopsis ask1 and contain a putative n-termin ...200919578169
antifungal activity and fungal metabolism of steroidal glycosides of easter lily (lilium longiflorum thunb.) by the plant pathogenic fungus, botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea pers. fr. is a plant pathogenic fungus and the causal organism of blossom blight of easter lily (lilium longiflorum thunb.). easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, compounds which may play a role in the plant-pathogen interaction of easter lily. five steroidal glycosides, including two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, were isolated from l. longiflorum and evaluated for fungal growth inhibition activity against b. cinerea, using an in vitro p ...201121524113
dlh1 is a functional candida albicans homologue of the meiosis-specific gene dmc1.dmc1/lim15 homologue 1 (dlh1), a gene related to meiosis-specific genes, has been isolated from candida albicans, a fungus thought not to undergo meiosis. the deduced protein sequence of dlh1 contains 74% amino acid identity with dmc1p from saccharomyces cerevisiae and 63% with lim15p from the plant lilium longiflorum, meiosis-specific homologues of escherichia coli reca. candida dlh1 complements a dmc1/dmc1 null mutant in s. cerevisiae. high copy expression of dlh1 restores both sporulation and ...19968725225
plant clathrin heavy chain: sequence analysis and restricted localisation in growing pollen tubes.clathrin-coated vesicles were isolated from soybean (glycine max l.) cells in suspension culture and their purity was assessed using sds-page, peptide sequencing and electron microscopy. antibodies raised to these coated vesicles were used to immunoscreen a soybean cdna library in lambda gt11 and isolate a partial clone of the clathrin heavy chain (hc) gene. full-length cdna for soybean clathrin hc was deduced by 5' and 3' cdna amplification. the cdna encodes an amino acid sequence of 1,700 resi ...19968718669
a lily asr protein involves abscisic acid signaling and confers drought and salt resistance in arabidopsis.lla23, an abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced protein, was previously isolated from lily (lilium longiflorum) pollen. the expression of lla23 is induced under the application of abscisic acid (aba), nacl, or dehydration. to provide evidence on the biological role of lla23 proteins against drought, we used an overexpression approach in arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana). constitutive overexpression of lla23 under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter confers reduced sensitivity to a ...200516169963
a gain-of-function mutation of arabidopsis lipid transfer protein 5 disturbs pollen tube tip growth and fertilization.during compatible pollination of the angiosperms, pollen tubes grow in the pistil transmitting tract (tt) and are guided to the ovule for fertilization. lily (lilium longiflorum) stigma/style cys-rich adhesin (sca), a plant lipid transfer protein (ltp), is a small, secreted peptide involved in pollen tube adhesion-mediated guidance. here, we used a reverse genetic approach to study biological roles of arabidopsis thaliana ltp5, a sca-like ltp. the t-dna insertional gain-of-function mutant plant ...200920044438
introduction and differential use of various promoters in pollen grains of nicotiana glutinosa and lilium longiflorum.as part of our research to develop an alternative system for the transformation of recalcitrant plant species we investigated the use of the male gametophyte as a transformation vector. therefore the activity of four different promoters (camv 35s, lat52, chia pa2 and tr2') was analyzed in pollen of a dicot (nicotiana glutinosa) and a monocot (lilium longiflorum) plant species. gene constructs in which the ß-glucuronidase (gus) gene was placed under the control of these promoters were introduced ...199224213031
cloning and characterization of hsfa2 from lily (lilium longiflorum).heat shock transcription factors (hsfs) are the terminal components of the signal transduction chain mediating the activation of genes responsive to both heat stress and a large number of chemical stressors. this paper aims to clone hsf from lily and characterize its function by analyses of mrna expression, transactivation activity and thermotolerance of transgenic arabidopsis. in this study, the gene encoding hsfa2 with 1,053 bp open reading frame (orf) was cloned by rapid amplification of cdna ...201020499070
male gametic cell-specific histone gh2a gene of lilium longiflorum: genomic structure and promoter activity in the generative cell.a genomic clone containing the gh2a gene, a histone variant specifically expressed in male gametic cells within the pollen of lilium longiflorum, was isolated. sequence analysis revealed that the coding region of the gene is interrupted by one intron, as is the case with the somatic type of plant histone h2a genes, suggesting derivation from the same ancestral gene containing one intron. in addition, a 2.8-kbp fragment of the 5' upstream region of gh2a contained tata and caat boxes, but neither ...200516247554
ectopic expression of llag1, an agamous homologue from lily (lilium longiflorum thunb.) causes floral homeotic modifications in arabidopsis.the abc model for floral development was proposed more than 10 years ago and since then many studies have been performed on model species, such as arabidopsis thaliana, antirrhinum majus, and many other species in order to confirm this hypothesis. this led to additional information on flower development and to more complex molecular models. agamous (ag) is the only c type gene in arabidopsis and it is responsible for stamen and carpel development as well as floral determinacy. llag1, an ag homol ...200415155783
llhsfa1, a novel heat stress transcription factor in lily (lilium longiflorum), can interact with llhsfa2 and enhance the thermotolerance of transgenic arabidopsis thaliana.a heat stress transcription factor llhsfa1 in lily and its relationship with llhsfa2 was investigated, and its function in enhancing thermotolerance was confirmed by analyzing transgenic arabidopsis thaliana overexpressed llhsfa1. a large family of heat stress transcription factors that are involved in the heat stress response in plants can induce the expression of multiple genes related to thermotolerance including heat-shock proteins. in this study, a novel class a1 hsf named llhsfa1 was isola ...201424874231
repair of uv damage in plants by nucleotide excision repair: arabidopsis uvh1 dna repair gene is a homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae rad1.to analyze plant mechanisms for resistance to uv radiation, mutants of arabidopsis that are hypersensitive to uv radiation (designated uvh and uvr) have been isolated. uvr2 and uvr3 products were previously identified as photolyases that remove uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in the presence of visible light. plants also remove dimers in the absence of light by an as yet unidentified dark repair mechanism and uvh1 mutants are defective in this mechanism. the uvh1 locus was mapped to chromosome 5 an ...200010758502
characterization of cdnas induced in meiotic prophase in lily microsporocytes.to identify and analyze genes functioning during reproductive cell formation in higher plants, cdnas harboring the messages induced in meiotic prophase were isolated and characterized. a cdna library constructed from microsporocytes in meiotic prophase of lilium longiflorum was screened with a subtraction probe specific to meiotic prophase. clones selected were classified into 18 groups by cross hybridization and partial sequencing. northern blot analysis revealed that the transcripts correspond ...19947584025
isolation and structural determination of steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of easter lily (lilium longiflorum thunb.).the bulbs of the easter lily ( lilium longiflorum thunb.) are used as a food and medicine in several asian cultures, and they are cultivated as an ornamental plant throughout the world. a new steroidal glycoalkaloid and two new furostanol saponins, along with two known steroidal glycosides, were isolated from the bulbs of l. longiflorum. the new steroidal glycoalkaloid was identified as (22r,25r)-spirosol-5-en-3beta-yl o-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[6-o-acetyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]- ...201020681669
quantitative analysis of steroidal glycosides in different organs of easter lily (lilium longiflorum thunb.) by lc-ms/ms.the bulbs of the easter lily ( lilium longiflorum thunb.) are regularly consumed in asia as both food and medicine, and the beautiful white flowers are appreciated worldwide as an attractive ornamental. the easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, a group of compounds that may be responsible for some of the traditional medicinal uses of lilies. since the appearance of recent reports on the role steroidal glycosides in animal and human health, there is increasing interest in the conc ...201121235207
nonradioactive enzyme measurement by high-performance liquid chromatography of partially purified sugar-1-kinase (glucuronokinase) from pollen of lilium longiflorum.here we present a highly sensitive and simple high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) method that enables specific quantification of glucuronokinase activity in partially purified extracts from pollen of lilium longiflorum without radioactive labeled substrates. this assay uses a recombinant udp-sugar pyrophosphorylase with broad substrate specificity from pisum sativum (psusp) or arabidopsis thaliana (atusp) as a coupling enzyme. glucuronokinase was partially purified on a deae-sepharose ...200919272347
expression, localization, and function of a cis-prenyltransferase in the tapetum and microspores of lily anthers.the cis-prenyltransferase gene lla66 (lilium longiflorum anther-66), the first prenyltransferase to be identified in the tapetum and microspores, was selected from a suppression subtractive cdna library during microspore development in the anther of l. longiflorum. the lla66 cdna encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35.7 kda. the thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was employed to obtain the 5'-regulatory region of lla66. sequence ...201121757455
a comprehensive study of easter lily poisoning in cats.this study was conducted with 3 objectives in mind: first, to identify the toxic fraction (aqueous or organic) in leaves and flowers; second, to identify diagnostic marker(s) of toxicosis in cats; and, third, to evaluate the morphologic effects of intoxication. the study was conducted in 2 phases. phase 1 was to identify which extract, organic or aqueous, was nephrotoxic and also to determine the appropriate dose for use in the phase 2 studies. results indicated that only the aqueous extracts of ...200415586568
comparative genomic in situ hybridization (cgish) analysis on plant chromosomes revealed by labelled arabidopsis dna.a new approach for comparative cytogenetic banding analysis of plant chromosomes has been established. the comparative gish (cgish) technique is universally applicable to various complex genomes of monocotyledonae (triticum aestivum, agropyron elongatum, secale cereale, hordeum vulgare, allium cepa, muscari armenaticum and lilium longiflorum) and dicotyledonae (vicia faba, beta vulgaris, arabidopsis thaliana). labelled total genomic dna of a. thaliana generates signals at conserved chromosome re ...200111448038
21-kda polypeptide, a low-molecular-weight cyclophilin, is released from pollen of higher plants into the extracellular medium in vitro.calcium ions play a key role in the elongation and orientation of pollen tubes. we found that significant amounts of 21-kda polypeptide were specifically released into the extracellular medium when pollen grains of lily, lilium longiflorum thunb., were incubated in the presence of egta or at low concentrations of ca2+. this phenomenon was also dependent on ph and on the concentrations of mgcl2 in the medium; the release of 21-kda polypeptide from pollen was suppressed by increasing the mgcl2 con ...200414745555
two lily sepallata-like genes cause different effects on floral formation and floral transition in arabidopsis.two agl2-like mads-box genes, lily mads box gene (lmads) 3 and lmads4, with extensive homology of lmads3 to the arabidopsis sepallata3 were characterized from the lily (lilium longiflorum). both lmads3 and lmads4 mrna were detected in the inflorescence meristem, in floral buds of different developmental stages, and in all four whorls of the flower organ. lmads4 mrna is also expressed in vegetative leaf and in the inflorescence stem where lmads3 expression is absent. transgenic arabidopsis, which ...200314526112
ectopic expression of two mads box genes from orchid (oncidium gower ramsey) and lily (lilium longiflorum) alters flower transition and formation in eustoma grandiflorum.lisianthus [eustoma grandiflorum (raf.) shinn] is a popular cut flower crop throughout the world, and the demand for this plant for cut flowers and potted plants has been increasing worldwide. recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the transformation and regeneration of plants to become a powerful tool for improvement of lisianthus. we have established a highly efficient plant regeneration system and agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of e. grandiflorum. the greatest shoo ...200919639326
acute renal failure caused by lily ingestion in six cats.acute renal failure was diagnosed in 6 cats that had ingested easter lily or tiger lily plants. all 6 were treated medically; 2 underwent hemodialysis. three cats survived the acute episode, and although they had chronic renal failure, they survived for more than 1.5 years. two cats died despite aggressive medical management, including hemodialysis. one cat was euthanatized shortly after the diagnosis was made. three of the cats were oliguric or anuric at the time of initial examination, and all ...200212680447
a pollen-specific polygalacturonase from lily is related to major grass pollen allergens.a pollen-specific gene from lily (lilium longiflorum thunb. cv. snow queen), designated llp-pg, was characterized. southern blots of lily genomic dna indicated that llp-pg is a member of a small gene family. a thorough sequence analysis revealed that the llp-pg gene is interrupted by two introns and encodes a protein of 413 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 44 kda, and a pi of 8.1. evaluation of the hydropathy profile showed that the protein has a hydrophobic segment at the n-term ...200617097294
expression of the [beta]-glucuronidase gene in pollen of lily (lilium longiflorum), tobacco (nicotiana tabacum), nicotiana rustica, and peony (paeonia lactiflora) by particle bombardment.a [beta]-glucuronidase (gus) gene that is under the control of the anther-specific lat52 promoter of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) and the nopaline synthetase polyadenylation terminator was successfully expressed in pollen of lilium longiflorum, nicotiana tabacum, nicotiana rustica, and paeonia lactiflora using a pneumatic particle gun. the gus gene in plasmid pbi221 was also expressed, to a lesser extent, in pollen of all of these species. the presence of methanol in the substrate solution f ...199312231826
exocytosis precedes and predicts the increase in growth in oscillating pollen tubes.we examined exocytosis during oscillatory growth in lily (lilium formosanum and lilium longiflorum) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes using three markers: (1) changes in cell wall thickness by nomarski differential interference contrast (dic), (2) changes in apical cell wall fluorescence in cells stained with propidium iodide (pi), and (3) changes in apical wall fluorescence in cells expressing tobacco pectin methyl esterase fused to green fluorescent protein (pme-gfp). using pi fluor ...200919861555
c/d class mads box genes from two monocots, orchid (oncidium gower ramsey) and lily (lilium longiflorum), exhibit different effects on floral transition and formation in arabidopsis thaliana.we have characterized three c/d class mads box genes from an orchid (oncidium gower ramsey) and a lily (lilium longiflorum). omads4 of orchid and lmads10 of lily are c class gene orthologs, whereas omads2 of orchid is a putative d class gene ortholog. the identity of these three genes is further supported by the presence of conserved motifs in the c-terminal regions of the proteins. the mrna for these three genes can be detected in flowers and is absent in vegetative leaves. in flowers, omads4 a ...201020395287
a pollen-specific and desiccation-associated transcript in lilium longiflorum during development and stress.a cdna clone encoding a desiccation-induced protein (lla23) has been isolated from the mature pollen of a lilium longiflorum cdna library. sequence analysis revealed significant similarity between the predicted lla23 polypeptide, particularly at the c-terminal half of the sequence and a group of water-deficit/ripening-induced proteins. the expression of lla23 gene is pollen-specific and the transcript accumulates only at the later stage of pollen maturation prior to anthesis. premature drying of ...200010845461
massively parallelized pollen tube guidance and mechanical measurements on a lab-on-a-chip platform.pollen tubes are used as a model in the study of plant morphogenesis, cellular differentiation, cell wall biochemistry, biomechanics, and intra- and intercellular signaling. for a "systems-understanding" of the bio-chemo-mechanics of tip-polarized growth in pollen tubes, the need for a versatile, experimental assay platform for quantitative data collection and analysis is critical. we introduce a lab-on-a-chip (loc) concept for high-throughput pollen germination and pollen tube guidance for para ...201627977748
developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers.chimeric ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (ccamk) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (lilium longiflorum thumb. cv. nellie white) and tobacco (nicotiana tabacum l. cv. xanthi). previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that ccamk has dual modes of regulation by ca(2+) and ca(2+)/calmodulin. the unique structural features of ccamk include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like ca(2+)-binding domain. the ...199910436217
measuring the osmotic water permeability of the plant protoplast plasma membrane: implication of the nonosmotic volume.starting from the original theoretical descriptions of osmotically induced water volume flow in membrane systems, a convenient procedure to determine the osmotic water permeability coefficient (p (os)) and the relative nonosmotic volume (beta) of individual protoplasts is presented. measurements performed on protoplasts prepared from pollen grains and pollen tubes of lilium longiflorum cv. thunb. and from mesophyll cells of nicotiana tabacum l. and arabidopsis thaliana revealed low values for th ...200717568979
characterization of a lily tapetal transcript that shares sequence similarity with a class of intracellular pathogenesis-related (ipr) proteins.this study addresses isolating and characterizing a cdna clone corresponding to a tapetum-specific transcript, designated as pr-10a from lilium longiflorum. anther ontogeny is histologically divided into three consecutive phases. the first encompasses early proliferative stages and differentiation of the locules. the second concerns microspore development from the onset of meiosis through microspore maturation. the final phase involves pollen maturation, originating with microspore mitosis throu ...19979247549
a histone h3.3-like gene specifically expressed in the vegetative cell of developing lily pollen.to investigate the progression of the cell cycle during pollen development, two clones of histone h3 genes, yah3 and mph3, were isolated from cdna libraries of young anthers and mature pollen of lilium longiflorum. northern blot and reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) analyses demonstrated that yah3 transcripts were present in uninucleate microspores and generative cells at the postulated s phase of the cell cycle as well as in young anthers, meristematic root tips, and shoot apices that containe ...200515927943
characterization of a lily anther-specific gene encoding cytoskeleton-binding glycoproteins and overexpression of the gene causes severe inhibition of pollen tube growth.this work characterizes an anther/pollen-specific gene that encodes potential intermediate filament (if)-binding glycoproteins in lily (lilium longiflorum thunb. cv. snow queen) anthers during the development and pollen germination. llp13 is a single gene that encodes a polypeptide of 807 amino acids, and a calculated molecular mass of 91 kda. the protein contains a predicted transmembrane domain at the n-terminus and a conserved domain of unknown function (duf)593 at the c-terminal half of the ...201424944111
fimbrin1 is involved in lily pollen tube growth by stabilizing the actin fringe.an actin fringe structure in the subapex plays an important role in pollen tube tip growth. however, the precise mechanism by which the actin fringe is generated and maintained remains largely unknown. here, we cloned a 2606-bp full-length cdna encoding a deduced 77-kd fimbrin-like protein from lily (lilium longiflorum), named fimbrin1 (fim1). ll-fim1 was preferentially expressed in pollen and concentrated at actin fringe in the subapical region, as well as in longitudinal actin-filament bundles ...201223150633
lost in traffic? the k(+) channel of lily pollen, lilkt1, is detected at the endomembranes inside yeast cells, tobacco leaves, and lily pollen.fertilization in plants relies on fast growth of pollen tubes through the style tissue toward the ovules. this polarized growth depends on influx of ions and water to increase the tube's volume. k(+) inward rectifying channels were detected in many pollen species, with one identified in arabidopsis. here, an arabidopsis akt1-like channel (lilkt1) was identified from lilium longiflorum pollen. complementation of k(+) uptake deficient yeast mutants was only successful when the entire lilkt1 c-term ...201525713578
application of colour laser microscope for observing living biological specimens.pollen-mother cells from lilium longiflorum, human metaphase chromosomes and human spermatozoa, were observed under a colour laser microscope. helical mitochondrial strands were clearly evident in the middle piece of human spermatozoa. the technique enables living specimens to be conveniently and effectively examined.19892630178
comparative transcriptomics of arabidopsis sperm cells.in flowering plants, the two sperm cells are embedded within the cytoplasm of the growing pollen tube and as such are passively transported to the embryo sac, wherein double fertilization occurs upon their release. understanding the mechanisms and conditions by which male gametes mature and take part in fertilization are crucial goals in the study of plant reproduction. studies of gene expression in male gametes of maize (zea mays) and plumbago and in lily (lilium longiflorum) generative cells a ...200818667720
targeting of pollen tubes to ovules is dependent on nitric oxide (no) signaling.the guidance signals that drive pollen tube navigation inside the pistil and micropyle targeting are still, to a great extent, unknown. previous studies in vitro showed that nitric oxide (no) works as a negative chemotropic cue for pollen tube growth in lily (lilium longiflorum). furthermore, arabidopsis thaliana atnos1 mutant plants, which show defective no production, have reduced fertility. here, we focus in the role of no in the process of pollen-pistil communication, using arabidopsis in-vi ...200819825574
actin binding protein 29 from lilium pollen plays an important role in dynamic actin remodeling.villin/gelsolin/fragmin superfamily proteins have been shown to function in tip-growing plant cells. however, genes encoding gelsolin/fragmin do not exist in the arabidopsis thaliana and rice (oryza sativa) databases, and it is possible that these proteins are encoded by villin mrna splicing variants. we cloned a 1006-bp full-length cdna from lilium longiflorum that encodes a 263-amino acid predicted protein sharing 100% identity with the n terminus of 135-abp (lilium villin) except for six c-te ...200717586658
functional analysis of three lily (lilium longiflorum) apetala1-like mads box genes in regulating floral transition and formation.three cdnas showing a high degree of homology to the squa subfamily of mads box genes were isolated and characterized from the lily (lilium longiflorum). lily mads box gene 5 (lmads5) showed high sequence identity to oil palm (elaeis guineensis) squamosa3 (egsqua3). lmads6 is closely related to lmads5 whereas lmads7 is more related to domads2, an orchid (dendrobium) gene in the squa subfamily. the expression pattern for these three genes was similar and their rnas were detected in vegetative ste ...200818367516
successful expression in pollen of various plant species of in vitro synthesized mrna introduced by particle bombardment.gold particles coated with beta-glucuronidase (gus) mrna with a 5' cap structure that had been synthesized in vitro were introduced, by use of a pneumatic particle gun, into pollen grains of lily (lilium longiflorum), freesia (freesia refracta) and tulip (tulipa gesneriana). a fluorometric assay for the gus activity indicated that in vitro synthesized gus mrna introduced into these pollen cells by particle bombardment was successfully expressed. gus activity in extracts of the bombarded lily pol ...19957599318
generative cell specific 1 is essential for angiosperm fertilization.the double fertilization process in angiosperms is based on the delivery of a pair of sperm cells by the pollen tube (the male gametophyte), which elongates towards an embryo sac (the female gametophyte) enclosing an egg and a central cell. several studies have described the mechanisms of gametophyte interaction, and also the fertilization process - from pollination to pollen tube acceptance. however, the mechanisms of gamete interaction are not fully understood. cytological studies have shown t ...200616378100
isolation and characterization of secretory vesicles in germinated pollen of lilium longiflorum. 20154325083
nondiffusional release of allergens from pollen grains of artemisia vulgaris and lilium longiflorum depends mainly on the type of the allergen.upon contact with a wet surface, mature pollen grains hydrate and release proteins including allergens. knowledge of the release mechanism of allergens that are mainly localized intracellularly may allow the design of strategies for inhibition of allergen release and the consequent sensitization process.200515785079
ectopic expression of arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2 aquaporins in lily pollen increases the plasma membrane water permeability of grain but not of tube protoplasts.to investigate the role of aquaporin-mediated water transport during pollen grain germination and tube growth, arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (pips) were expressed in pollen of lilium longiflorum (lily). successful expression of atpips in particle-bombarded lily pollen grains was monitored by co-expression with fluorescent proteins and single-cell rt-pcr, and by measuring the water permeability coefficient (p(os)) in swelling assays using protoplasts prepared from transf ...200818761636
cryofixing single cells and multicellular specimens enhances structure and immunocytochemistry for light microscopy.cryofixation is widely held to be superior to chemical fixation for preserving cell structure; however, the use of cryofixation has been limited chiefly to electron microscopy. to see if cryofixation would improve sample structure or antigenicity as observed through the light microscope, we cryofixed nicotiana alata and lilium longiflorum pollen tubes and tradescantia virginina stamen hairs by plunge freezing. after freeze-substitution, and embedding in butylmethylmethacrylate, we found using th ...19968683562
a genotype-specific pollen gene associated with self-incompatibility in lycopersicon peruvianum.self-incompatibility is a genetically controlled process used to prevent self-pollination. we report here the characterization of pollen cdna clones of lycopersicon peruvianum, and the identification of a genotype-specific pollen factor involved in self-incompatibility. to identify the latter, differential mrna display rt-pcr was performed on pollen cdnas from s12sa and s11sa genotypes. we isolated four cdna fragments expressed preferentially in s12sa pollen, and screened a cdna library from s12 ...200314651271
pollen tube growth and guidance: roles of small, secreted proteins.pollination is a crucial step in angiosperm (flowering plant) reproduction. highly orchestrated pollen-pistil interactions and signalling events enable plant species to avoid inbreeding and outcrossing as a species-specific barrier. in compatible pollination, pollen tubes carrying two sperm cells grow through the pistil transmitting tract and are precisely guided to the ovules, discharging the sperm cells to the embryo sac for fertilization.201121307038
bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from easter lily (lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.several lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (felis silvestris catus), among them easter lilies (lilium longiflorum). although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. we thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. the bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tenta ...201425269117
expression of a cystatin transgene can confer resistance to root lesion nematodes in lilium longiflorum cv. 'nellie white'.lilium longiflorum cv. 'nellie white' assumes a great economic importance as cut flowers, being one of the most valuable species (annual pot plants value above $20,000,000) in terms of wholesales in the us. the root lesion nematode pratylenchus penetrans (rln) constitutes one of the main pests for lily producers due to the significant root damage it causes. our efforts have focused on the generation of soybean hairy roots (as a transient test model) and stable transgenic lilies overexpressing a ...201525398618
plant 115-kda actin-filament bundling protein, p-115-abp, is a homologue of plant villin and is widely distributed in cells.in many cases, actin filaments are arranged into bundles and serve as tracks for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. we have isolated an actin-filament bundling protein, which is composed of 115-kda polypeptide (p-115-abp), from the germinating pollen of lily, lilium longiflorum [nakayasu et al. (1998) biochem: biophys. res. commun. 249: 61]. p-115-abp shared similar antigenicity with a plant 135-kda actin-filament bundling protein (p-135-abp), a plant homologue of villin. a full-length cdna c ...200314581634
use of lilium longiflorum, cv. ace pollen germination and tube elongation as a bioassay for the hepatocarcinogens, aflatoxins.although various animal tissues are used for bioassay of aflatoxins (b1, b2, g1, g2), a rapid bioassay dependent upon a plant part's response does not exist. both pollen germination (g) and tube elongation (te) were enhanced in a 3.0 mm kh2po4 (k)-containing but afb1-lacking, modified dickinson's medium. the b1 did not affect g when k was withheld but k supplementation impaired g above 15 micrograms/ml b1. without k, 5-20 stimulated but 25 and 30 micrograms/ml b1 inhibited te which was suppresse ...19817274186
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