resistance to ketosis during prolonged fasting by rats fed on a diet containing undecanoic acid, an odd-carbon-number fatty acid.1. sixty-four male rats were fed on a nutritionally complete diet containing 30% of the dietary energy as fat. for thirty-two rats (control) the fat source was maize oil; for the remaining thirty-two rats (experimental) the fat source was triundecanoin-maize oil (7:3, w/w). 2. after 6 weeks, groups of control and experimental rats were fasted and killed on days 0, 1, 2, and 4 of the fasting period. in the experimental group, adipose-tissue fatty acids contained, on average, 246 mmol undecanoic a ...19761244841
preparation of rat epididymal alpha-l-fucosidase free from other glycosidases: its action on root-cap slime from zea mays l. 19761268868
protein quality of some representative latin american diets by rat bioassay.a study of the protein quality of twelve different food-mixtures common to latin america, was performed by rat bioassay. the individual foods were cooked and dried and then mixed in the appropriate proportions resembling the original meals. rats of the sprague-dawley strain were used for the bioassays. special emphasis was given to the methodology of the slope-ratio techniques preconized by hegsted and his associates who have claimed that classical bioassays overestimate the nutritive value of p ...19761271122
partial nucleotide sequence of the enzyme pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase of entamoeba histolytica hm1:imss.we isolated a clone from a lambda gt11 cdna library of e. histolytica, subcloned its insert in the vector ptz18r and sequenced it by the method of sanger. sequence comparison with genbank and of the corresponding amino acid sequence with the nbrf/pir data bank using the fasta program, showed homologies between 54.9 and 58.5% for the nucleotides and between 48.6 and 49.4% for the amino acids with pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinases from maize, flaveria trinervia and bacteroides symbiosus. the sequ ...19921340319
cloning, sequencing and expression in escherichia coli of the ptsi gene encoding enzyme i of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase transport system from streptococcus salivarius.we present the cloning and sequencing of the ptsi gene, encoding enzyme i (ei) of the phosphoenolpyruvate (pep): sugar phosphotransferase (pts) transport system from streptococcus salivarius. the ptsi gene corresponds to an open reading frame of 1731 nucleotides, which translates into a putative 577-amino acid (aa) protein with a m(r) of 62,948 and a pi of 4.49. the ei was produced in escherichia coli under the control of its own promoter located immediately upstream of ptsi, a situation never p ...19921427100
aflatoxins isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography from foods consumed in the gambia, west aflatoxin-specific, monoclonal antibody-based immunoaffinity chromatography method has been developed for the rapid isolation of aflatoxins from human foods. aflatoxins were isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography from a variety of cooked foods, including maize, rice, millets, groundnut sauces, and leaf sauces, collected in the gambia, west africa. the aflatoxins were measured by direct fluorescence or high-pressure liquid chromatography. the highest levels were found for groundnut sauces, ...19921344903
elevated levels of activator transposase mrna are associated with high frequencies of dissociation excision in arabidopsis.the activator (ac) element of maize is active at a low frequency in arabidopsis. to determine whether this is due to poor expression of the ac transposase gene, we obtained and studied 19 arabidopsis transformants containing fusions of the octopine synthase (ocs), nopaline synthase (nos), cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) 35s, or ac promoters to the transposase open reading frame. these transformants were examined both for their ability to drive excision of a dissociation (ds) element from a strep ...19921323366
sequence of a cdna encoding nitrite reductase from the tree betula pendula and identification of conserved protein regions.the sequence of an mrna encoding nitrite reductase (nir, ec from the tree betula pendula was determined. a cdna library constructed from leaf poly(a)+ mrna was screened with an oligonucleotide probe deduced from nir sequences from spinach and maize. a 2.5 kb cdna was isolated that hybridized to an mrna, the steady-state level of which increased markedly upon induction with nitrate. the nucleotide sequence of the cdna contains a reading frame encoding a protein of 583 amino acids that r ...19921347145
heritability of fumonisin b1 production in gibberella fujikuroi mating population a.fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by strains belonging to several different mating populations of gibberella fujikuroi (anamorphs, fusarium section liseola), a major pathogen of maize and sorghum worldwide. we studied the heritability of fumonisin production in mating population a by crossing fumonisin-producing strains collected from maize and sorghum in the united states with fumonisin-nonproducing strains collected from maize in nepal. random ascospore and tetrad progeny from three of these ...19921444389
an evolutionary perspective on glutathione transferases inferred from class-theta glutathione transferase cdna sequences.we report the cdna sequence for rat glutathione transferase (gst) subunit 5, which is one of at least three class theta subunits in this species. this sequence, when compared with that of subunit 12 recently published by ogura, nishiyama, okada, kajita, narihata, watabe, hiratsuka & watabe [(1991) biochem. biophys. res. commun. 181, 1294-1300] proves that theta is a separate multigene class of gst with little amino acid sequence identity with mu-, alpha- or pi-class enzymes. the amino acid seque ...19921445253
the ncypt1 gene from neurospora crassa is located on chromosome 2: molecular cloning and structural analysis.small gtp-binding proteins are encoded by ras-like genes and play a central role in cell differentiation and membrane vesicle transport. by screening genomic and cdna libraries of the ascomycete fungus neurospora crassa with zmypt genes from zea mays we have isolated a member of the ypt gene family, ncypt1. the gene resides on a 4 kb fragment of genomic dna and contains four introns, which interrupt the coding sequence of a protein of 203 amino acid residues. the ncytp1 gene was assigned to a si ...19921361212
mycological condition of maize products.maize and maize-related products were investigated in a collaborative study for viable moulds and antigenic extracellular polysaccharides (eps) produced by aspergillus and penicillium species. in addition, the samples were tested for the presence of aflatoxin b1. all maize products, with the exception of the heat processed products, contained viable moulds on an average of (log10 values) 3.3 +/- 0.7 colony-forming units per gram. in most samples a mixed mould flora was present. species of the ge ...19921445770
characterization of maize polyamine oxidase.some structural and biochemical characteristics of polyamine oxidase (pao) purified from maize shoots have been examined. the enzyme has only alanine as n-terminal amino acid and its n-terminal sequence shows a significant degree of homology with tryptophan 2-monooxygenase from pseudomonas syringae pv. savastanoi. the ph optimum for the stability of the native enzyme is 5, similar to that of the barley leaf enzyme. calorimetric analysis shows a single two-state transition at ph 6 with tm 49.8 de ...19901366693
molecular characterization of type 1 serine/threonine phosphatases from brassica oleracea.we describe the isolation of cdna clones encoding type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (pp1) from brassica oleracea stigmas. we demonstrate that pp1 form a multigene family in brassica. within their most conserved domain, these phosphatases are 80-90% identical at the amino acid level. one cdna (bopp1) was found to encode a protein that shows 78-80% sequence identity to maize, rabbit, and yeast pp1. the accumulation of bopp1 mrna is developmentally regulated. varying levels of bopp1-homol ...19921330067
contribution of the digestive tract microflora to amylomaize starch degradation in the study in vivo the contribution of the bacterial flora to amylomaize starch degradation in the rat, germ-free and conventional rats were fed on a diet containing either a normal maize starch or an amylomaize starch. in germ-free rats maize starch was almost totally digested in the small intestine, whereas 40% of the ingested amylomaize starch reached the caecum and 30% was excreted, despite the very high endogenous amylase activity. study by transmission electron microscopy of germ-free caecal ...19921377949
differences between the anticoccidial potencies of monensin in maize-based or wheat-based chicken diets.experiments were carried out to investigate why the anticoccidial ionophore monensin is more potent against the coccidium eimeria tenella in chickens fed on a maize-based diet (as in the usa) than in chickens fed on a wheat-based diet (as in the uk). the explanation seems to be that the pathogenicity of e. tenella is lower in maize-fed chickens than in wheat-fed chickens, whether monensin is present in the diet or not. possible reasons for this are suggested. the better survival of maize-fed bir ...19921386703
occurrence of mycotoxins in animal feeds.a total of 1120 grain samples of oats, wheat, rye, barley, and maize, delivered for processing of mixed feeds for animals, were collected during the years 1975 to 1979 from commercial feed mills located throughout poland. in addition, 625 samples of the commercially mixed feeds and protein concentrates were collected during 1976. for the mycotoxin survey, 751 laboratory samples were chosen at random and analyzed. when applying confirmatory tests neither aflatoxins b1, b2, g1, g2 nor sterigmatocy ...19921387162
sorghum mitochondrial atp6: divergent amino extensions to a conserved core polypeptide.sorghum mitochondrial atp6 occurs as one copy in the line tx398 and as two copies in is1112c. in is1112c a repeated sequence diverged within the atp6 open reading frames. the two open reading frames (1137 bp, atp6-1; 1002 bp, atp6-2) share an identical conserved region of 756 bp but are flanked 5' by divergent extensions of 246 (atp6-1) or 381 bp (atp6-2). tx398 carried only atp6-2. the breakpoint of the repeated sequence of the conserved core region corresponds to the amino acid sequence ser-pr ...19921387559
role of progesterone and oestradiol in the regulation of uterine oxytocin receptors in ewes.the interaction between oestrogen and progesterone in the regulation of the uterine oxytocin receptor in sheep was evaluated by measuring the binding of oxytocin to membrane preparations of caruncular and intercaruncular endometrium and myometrium. ovariectomized ewes were assigned in groups of five to each cell of a 4 x 2 factorial design. the four treatments were (a) vehicle (maize oil) for 12 days, (b) progesterone (10 mg day-1) for 9 days, (c) progesterone for 9 days followed by maize oil un ...19921317447
differential response of maize catalases to abscisic acid: vp1 transcriptional activator is not required for abscisic acid-regulated cat1 this paper we describe the distinctive responses of the maize catalases to the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (aba). we analyzed rna and enzyme accumulation in excised maize embryos and found that each catalase responded differently to exogenously applied aba. levels of cat1 transcript and enzyme activity rapidly increased. in contrast, levels of cat2 transcript and protein decreased, while cat3 transcript levels were not affected. in developing kernels of the aba-deficient/biosynthetic ...19921388272
weaning practices in ilorin community, nigeria.the paper examines the knowledge, attitude and practice of weaning in 516 mothers in ilorin community, the capital of kwara state of nigeria. women with a higher level of education and family income breastfed for a shorter period, and tended to wean earlier than the illiterate and low income group (p less than 0.05). two hundred and twenty-eight mothers (44.2%) had commenced weaning by 3 months of age while 433 (83.9%) had done so by 6 months. hunger, indicated by crying after a feed or demandin ...19921390380
effect of dietary fatty acid composition on inositol-, choline- and ethanolamine-phospholipids of mammary tissue and erythrocytes in the rat.the present study investigated the effect of feeding maize-oil, olive-oil and fish-oil diets, from weaning to adulthood, on rat mammary tissue and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid compositions. effects of diet on the relative proportions of membrane phospholipids in the two tissues were also investigated. mammary tissue phosphatidylinositol (pi) fatty acids were unaltered by diet, but differences in phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) and, to a lesser extent, phosphatidylcholine (pc) fractions were ...19921390603
structure and expression of the lignin o-methyltransferase gene from zea mays l.the isolation and characterization of cdna and homologous genomic clones encoding the lignin o-methyltransferase (omt) from maize is reported. the cdna clone has been isolated by differential screening of maize root cdna library. southern analysis indicates that a single gene codes for this protein. the genomic sequence contains a single 916 bp intron. the deduced protein sequence from dna shares significant homology with the recently reported lignin-bispecific caffeic acid/5-hydroxyferulic omts ...19921463825
arabidopsis and nicotiana anthocyanin production activated by maize regulators r and c1.anthocyanin pathway-specific transcriptional activators r and c1 from the monocot maize were expressed in two dicots, arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana tabacum. expression of r caused augmented anthocyanin pigmentation in both plant species and augmented trichome (hair) production in arabidopsis. alone, c1 had no effect. hybrid transgenic arabidopsis expressing both c1 and r produced anthocyanins in root, petal, and stamen tissues that normally never express anthrocyanins. when r was expressed ...19921465611
multiple ocs-like elements required for efficient transcription of the mannopine synthase gene of t-dna in maize protoplasts.regulatory elements controlling transcriptional activity of the mannopine synthase 2' promoter (mas 2') were defined by analysis of deletion mutants in transient expression assays in maize protoplasts. deletion of the region between -305 and -290 containing sequence similarity to the octopine synthase (ocs) promoter element reduced activity by 67% compared to wild type activity. less than 1% of the activity remained in 5' deletions downstream of -153. inclusion of various heterologous enhancer-l ...19921391767
[studies on the endocrine and spermiogenic functions of testes. i. relationship between the quality of dietary protein and testosterone content in testicular tissue of pubertal rats].growing, male wistar rats were fed for 21 days one of four qualitatively different proteins, as follows: 1. casein and 4% methionine (group k) 2. maize meal and amino acid supplement (group m + as) 3. maize meal alone (group m) 4. casein plus 4% of a 1:3 mixture of methionine and gelatin (group k/g) (these rations constitute a decreasing range of biological activity of the diet.) after 21 days of feeding these rations, the testosterone content per 100 g body weight averaged 80 ng in groups k and ...19751241656
[effect of the starch sources barley, corn, potatoes and their ration fractions on the nutrient digestibility and energy utilization in ruminants. 1. comparative studies of nutrient digestibility in cattle and sheep].rations with energy parts of 50, 25 and 10% from barley, maize and potatoes were investigated comparatively by means of total metabolism experiments with oxen with a view to arriving at a more precise estimation equation of net energy fat for cattle. parallel to the investigations with oxen the energy and nutrients digestibility of the rations in wethers was measured. the crude fibre content of the rations ranged from 166 to 271 g and the starch content from 69 to 330 g/kg dm. the daily starch i ...19921338356
a novel light-regulated promoter is conserved in cereal and dicot chloroplasts.the chloroplast psbd-psbc genes encode d2 and cp43, a reaction center protein and chlorophyll-binding antenna protein of photosystem ii, respectively. we have previously shown that differential accumulation of light-induced psbd-psbc mrnas in barley chloroplasts is due to transcription from a blue light-responsive promoter (lrp). it is hypothesized that the light-induced mrnas help to maintain levels of the d2 polypeptide, which is photodamaged and degraded in illuminated plants. to determine if ...19921392595
a rice cab gene promoter contains separate cis-acting elements that regulate expression in dicot and monocot plants.the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus are encoded by families of nuclear cab genes. the expression of most cab genes is tissue specific and photoregulated in angiosperms. in transgenic tobacco plants, expression of the reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (gus) is photoregulated and tissue specific from 5' upstream sequences of the rice cab1r gene; deletion of sequences upstream from position -170 with respect to the transcription start site elim ...19921392604
expression of the gene encoding the pr-like protein prms in germinating maize embryos.the prms protein is a pathogenesis-related (pr)-like protein whose mrna accumulates during germination of maize seeds. expression of the prms gene is induced after infection of maize seeds with the fungus fusarium moniliforme. to further our investigations on the expression of the prms gene we examined the accumulation of prms mrna in different tissues of maize seedlings infected with f. moniliforme and studied the effect of fungal elicitors, the mycotoxin moniliformin, the hormone gibberellic a ...19921495490
a restriction fragment length polymorphism map and electrophoretic karyotype of the fungal maize pathogen cochliobolus heterostrophus.a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) map has been constructed of the nuclear genome of the plant pathogenic ascomycete cochliobolus heterostrophus. the segregation of 128 rflp and 4 phenotypic markers was analyzed among 91 random progeny of a single cross; linkages were detected among 126 of the markers. the intact chromosomal dnas of the parents and certain progeny were separated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and hybridized with probes used to detect the rflps. in this way ...19921346261
specificity of zea mays histone deacetylase is regulated by phosphorylation.mono q ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (hplc) reveals that the main histone deacetylase activity (hd1) of germinating zea mays embryos consists of multiple enzyme forms. chromatography of hd1 after treatment with alkaline phosphatase yields two distinct histone deacetylase forms (hd1-a, hd1-b). the same is true for chromatography after phosphatase treatment of a total cell extract. one of these enzyme forms (hd1-a) is subject to phosphorylation, which causes a change in the s ...19921400375
degradation of maize stem by two rumen fungal species, piromyces communis and caecomyces communis, in pure cultures or in association with cellulolytic bacteria.two species of rumen fungi, piromyces (piromonas) communis fl and caecomyces (sphaeromonas) communis fg10, were cultured alone or in association with the cellulolytic bacteria ruminococcus flavefaciens or fibrobacter succinogenes on maize stem. a kinetic study of the degradation of the substrate was then made. after 48 h of culture, all non-lignified tissues observed by scanning electron microscopy disappeared with p communis and degradation was as complete as that observed in the rumen. in cont ...19921418394
complete sequence of maize stripe virus rna4 and mapping of its subgenomic rnas. 19921431817
the yptv1 gene encodes a small g-protein in the green alga volvox carteri: gene structure and properties of the gene product.small g-proteins encoded by ras-like genes are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. these g-proteins are believed to play a role in central processes, such as signal transduction, cell differentiation and membrane vesicle transport. by screening genomic and cdna libraries of the colonial alga, volvox carteri f. nagariensis, with ypt dna probes from zea mays, we have identified the first member of a ypt gene family, yptv1, within a green alga. the 1538-bp yptv1 gene of v. carteri consists of nine exon ...19921511889
studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (zea mays, imperata cylindrica, plantago major and orthosiphon stamineus).herbal remedies are widely used in vietnam alongside modern drugs. we assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional vietnamese herbal remedies from zea mays, imperata cylindrica, plantago major and orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. no influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. the present study indica ...19921434681
carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of human dietary change in the georgia bight.measurement of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta 13c and delta 15n) in samples of human bone collagen (n = 93) from a temporal series of four prehistoric (early preagricultural, late preagricultural, early agricultural, late agricultural) and two historic (early contact, late contact) periods from the georgia bight, a continental embayment on the southeastern u.s. atlantic coast, reveals a general temporal trend for less negative delta 13c values and less positive delta 15n values ...19921443094
zmhox1a, the product of a novel maize homeobox gene, interacts with the shrunken 26 bp feedback control element.a new maize homeobox gene was isolated by screening a lambda gt11 expression library with the 26 bp shrunken feedback control element. zmhox1a (zea mays homeobox) is an unidentified maize gene mapping to the long arm of chromosome 8. it is a member of a new class of maize homeobox genes only distantly related to the knotted class. the 3.1 kb zmhox1a transcript can be detected in different maize tissues and encodes a polypeptide of 719 amino acids. western blotting experiments detect the native 1 ...19921354614
expression of the maize mnsod (sod3) gene in mnsod-deficient yeast rescues the mutant yeast under oxidative stress.superoxide dismutases (sod) are ubiquitous in aerobic organisms and are believed to play a significant role in protecting cells against the toxic, often lethal, effect of oxygen free radicals. however, direct evidence that sod does in fact participate in such a protective role is scant. the mnsod-deficient yeast strain (sod2d) offered an opportunity to test the functional role of one of several sod isozymes from the higher plant maize in hopes of establishing a functional bioassay for other sods ...19921516816
a plant cdna that partially complements escherichia coli reca mutations predicts a polypeptide not strongly homologous to reca proteins.a plant (arabidopsis thaliana) cdna previously selected for its ability to partially complement the uv sensitivity of escherichia coli reca-uvrc-phr- mutants and designated drt100 (dna-damage repair/toleration) was subcloned into a high-copy-number plasmid and expressed via a bacterial promotor. it increased resistance of reca-uvrb-phr- bacteria to mitomycin c and methyl methanesulfonate as well as to uv light. this lack of specificity, and its ability to increase resistance in both uvrb- and uv ...19921518832
zambia: drought in monze district, zambia, the population must face the drought of 1991-92, corridor disease (tick-borne east coast fever), and aids. the ministry of agriculture in lusaka acted quick in securing available world stocks in maize which are being targeted to households most at risk of starvation. food and other interventions are also being targeted to aids families to help avoid family breakup and economic ruin. the tradition is that a dead man's relatives may seize belongings, even cooking pot ...19921354798
reductase activity encoded by the hm1 disease resistance gene in maize.the hm1 gene in maize controls both race-specific resistance to the fungus cochliobolus carbonum race 1 and expression of the nadph (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-dependent hc toxin reductase (hctr), which inactivates hc toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by the fungus to permit infection. several hm1 alleles were generated and cloned by transposon-induced mutagenesis. the sequence of wild-type hm1 shares homology with dihydroflavonol-4-reductase genes from maiz ...19921359642
the effects of feed intake and purified cellulose on the endogenous ileal amino acid flow in growing pigs.the effects of level of feed intake (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 kg/d) and body-weight of the pig (49 and 92 kg) in expt 1, and dietary neutral-detergent fibre (ndf; 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g/kg) in expt 2 on the endogenous ileal flow of amino acids (aa) and nitrogen were studied with protein-free diets into which purified wood cellulose was incorporated at the expense of maize starch. in expt 1, one of the protein-free diets containing 90 g ndf/kg was used. female pigs were fitted with a simple 't' cannul ...19921445825
a maize protein associated with the g-box binding complex has homology to brain regulatory proteins.the g-box element is a moderately conserved component of the promoter of many inducible genes, including the alcohol dehydrogenase genes of arabidopsis and maize. we used monoclonal antibodies generated against partially purified g-box binding factor (gbf) activity to characterize maize proteins that are part of the dna binding complex. antibodies interacted with partially purified maize gbf complexes to produce a slower migrating complex in the gel retardation assay. immunoprecipitation experim ...19921446170
haematological and hepatotoxic effects of silken styles of corn in albino rats.the alterations of haematological parameters in albino rats were studied after oral administration of an aqueous extract of silken styles of corn (zea maize linn.) at 50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 daily for 21 days. the following haematological values were significantly reduced on the 7th and 21st day following extract administration: haemoglobin (hb), red blood corpuscles (rbc), clotting time (ct), mean corpuscular volume (mcv), haematocrit (ht), serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (bun), cholesterol, ...19921447482
carotenoids in the retina--a review of their possible role in preventing or limiting damage caused by light and oxygen.two of the circa 600 naturally occurring carotenoids, zeaxanthin and lutein, the major carotenoids of maize and melon respectively, are the constituents of the macula lutea, the yellow spot in the macula, the central part of the retina in primates and humans. of the circa ten carotenoids found in the blood these two are specifically concentrated in this area, which is responsible for sharp and detailed vision. this paper reviews the ideas that this concentration of dietary carotenoids in the mac ...19921450592
heat shock hsp70 protein is chloroplast-encoded in the chromophytic alga pavlova lutherii.heat shock proteins are ubiquitous and highly conserved. recently they have become implicated in the import of proteins into organelles. all the heat shock genes characterized to date, however, are known or assumed to be encoded in the nuclear genome even if the corresponding protein can be localised in the mitochondrion or chloroplast. in contrast, we identify here an hsp70 gene in the unicellular chromophytic alga pavlova lutherii which is located on the chloroplast genome. localisation of thi ...19921536924
fungal transmission of a potyvirus: uredospores of puccinia sorghi transmit maize dwarf mosaic virus.maize dwarf mosaic virus (mdmv) and maize rust, puccinia sorghi schw., occur as natural infections on cultivated maize in south africa. p. sorghi often occurs as a secondary late infection on maize plants which have already been infected with mdmv earlier in the season, either seed or aphid transmitted. when mdmv isolates from maize plants naturally infected by both virus and fungus were propagated by sap inoculation in plant growth rooms, residual uredospores in the sap gave rise to the develop ...19921450745
differentiation of the four viruses of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup based on cytopathology.a cytological comparison has been made of representative isolates of johnsongrass mosaic (jgmv), maize dwarf mosaic (mdmv), sorghum mosaic (srmv) and sugarcane mosaic (scmv) viruses. these four viruses now encompass the complex of virus strains which were formerly considered as strains of sugarcane mosaic and/or maize dwarf mosaic viruses. the structure of the cytoplasmic cylindrical inclusions induced by these viruses, together with other cytological alterations, allow the four viruses to be di ...19921450762
rna editing in tobacco chloroplasts leads to the formation of a translatable psbl mrna by a c to u substitution within the initiation codon.the psbl gene which codes for a 38 amino acid peptide of photosystem ii, together with the photosynthetic genes psbe and psbf, is contained in a conserved position of many species of higher plant plastomes. the alignment of the psbl nucleotide sequences from ten species shows strong conservation, which is indicative of a functional gene. the tobacco and spinach psbl genes have, however, an acg codon instead of the initiator atg codon observed in the homologous position of the other eight species ...19921547774
present status of the sugarcane mosaic subgroup of potyviruses.until recently, sugarcane mosaic virus (scmv) was believed to be a single potyvirus consisting of a large number of strains, differing from each other in certain biological and antigenic properties. the use of affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies directed towards the surface-located, virus-specific amino termini of the coat proteins showed that 17 strains from australia and the united states represented four distinct potyviruses, namely johnsongrass mosaic virus (jgmv), maize dwarf mosaic vir ...19921450763
control of gene expression in tobacco cells using a bacterial operator-repressor system.we have investigated the efficacy of using the escherichia coli lac operator-repressor system to control plant gene expression. the laci gene was modified to allow optimal expression in plant cells and then placed downstream of the cauliflower mosaic virus (camv) 35s rna promoter. this construct was introduced into tobacco plants by leaf disc transformation. transgenic tobacco plants synthesized significant quantities of laci protein (up to 0.06% of total soluble protein). we have used the e.col ...19921563343
effect of niacin supplementation on the concentration of niacin in rumen and duodenal digesta and in whole blood of sheep.1. niacin concentrations in rumen liquor, duodenal digesta and blood, and daily duodenal flow of niacin were measured in four wethers which were fed an oatstraw grain concentrate diet (with normal niacin content) or an oatstraw maize diet (with low niacin content). the effect of an intraruminal supplementation of 2 mmoles nicotinic acid (nia) or nicotinamide (nam) on concentrations of nia and nam in gastrointestinal contents and blood and on daily duodenal flow of nia and nam was studied. the an ...19921455937
accelerated natural lactic fermentation of cereal-based formulas at reduced water required to dehydrate fermented cereal-based food formulas plays a significant part in the production cost. therefore the effect of reduced moisture content on the fermentation was investigated. generally, lactic fermentation at reduced moisture content resulted in increased final ph. significant acidification still occurred at 0.33 kg water/kg dry matter corresponding to either aw = 0.925 in a sorghum-maize-soya (sms) mixture, or aw = 0.950 in a sorghum-maize-milk powder (smm) mixture. a ...19921457290
hepatic lipidosis in pregnant cows on a dairy farm.a syndrome very similar to hepatic lipidosis is described in dairy cows during the dry period. after being sent to pasture the animals did not eat well for undetermined reasons. the disease phenomena were mainly observed in animals carrying twins. at post mortem examination severe falty infiltration was found in the 3 animals made available for post mortem examination. increase of the energy supply to the dry cows by addition of maize silage to the ration prevented new cases.19921485408
the effect of hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity and solubility on the immunogenicity of some natural and synthetic polymers.the general effects of solubility and hydrophobicity-hydrophilicity on the immunogenicity of synthetic and natural polymers are presented. the degree of hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity was determined from contact angle measurements. the surface tension components, obtained from the contact angles, were then correlated with the degree of immunogenicity for each substance. the results indicate that highly hydrophobic and highly hydrophilic polymers are not immunogenic. moderate hydrophobicity as ...19921487323
another african 1992, the worst drought in recorded history hit southern africa. it especially affected the eastern area of swaziland where staff at a rural district hospital, good shepherd hospital in siteki, struggled to treat rising numbers of ill and malnourished people. 10% of the population in this area reached the advanced stage of starvation. almost 50% did not have enough food to meet their nutritional needs. women had to travel as far as 15 miles to retrieve water from tankers and sometimes wai ...19921493396
[fumonisins--new metabolites of fusarium moniliforme--as contaminants of corn].strains of the fusarium moniliforme fungi, widely distributed contaminants of maize are shown to be highly toxic and carcinogenic and cause various animal and human diseases. the effect of temperature and incubation period on the production of fumonisins by f. moniliforme have been studied. the overall maximum yield of fumonisins was 17.5 g/kg maize. a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of fumonisins is proposed. the structural analysis of their tet ...19921494574
large-scale methylation patterns in the nuclear genomes of plants.methylation was investigated in compositional fractions of nuclear dna preparations (50-100 kb in size) from five plants (onion, maize, rye, pea and tobacco), and was found to increase from gc-poor to gc-rich fractions. this methylation gradient showed different patterns in different plants and appears, therefore, to represent a novel, characteristic genome feature which concerns the noncoding, intergenic sequences that make up the bulk of the plant genomes investigated and mainly consist of rep ...19921487140
trans replication and high copy numbers of wheat dwarf virus vectors in maize cells.the replication of shuttle vectors derived from wheat dwarf virus, a monopartite geminivirus, was studied in cultured maize endosperm cells, and in the black mexican sweet (bms) maize cell line. using in vivo labeling and dna methylation analysis, we showed that replication was initiated within 24 hrs after transfection, and did not require cell division in both cell lines. copy numbers of 30,000 ds dna molecules per cell were observed in endosperm cells after three days. the replication protein ...19921508689
inhibition of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases.monocyclic and tricyclic compounds possessing a nitrogen atom situated at a position corresponding to the carbenium ion of high energy intermediates or transition states involved during cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenes have been synthesized. these compounds were tested as inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene cycloartenol, lanosterol-, and beta(alpha)-amyrin-cyclases in vitro and in vivo, and their affinity was compared to that of formerly synthesized 8-aza-bicycl ...19921510977
characterization and expression of u1snrna genes from potato.u1 small nuclear rnas (u1snrnas) occur in the nucleus of plants and animals where, complexed with several proteins in the form of u1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (u1snrnps), they play an important role in precursor messenger rna (pre-mrna) splicing. ten potato u1snrna genes have been isolated on two genomic clones illustrating the clustering of this multigene family on the potato genome. based on both the sequence of their coding regions and upstream regulatory elements, seven of th ...19921511141
at-rich promoter elements of soybean heat shock gene gmhsp17.5e bind two distinct sets of nuclear proteins in vitro.a 33 bp double-stranded oligonucleotide homologous to two at-rich sequences located upstream (-907 to -889 and -843 to -826) to the start of transcription of heat shock gene gmhsp17.5e of soybean stimulated transcription when placed 5' to a truncated (-140) maize adh1 promoter. the chimeric promoter was assayed in vivo utilizing anaerobically stressed sunflower tumors transformed by a pti-based vector of agrobacterium tumefaciens. nuclear proteins extracted from soybean plumules were shown to bi ...19921511143
inhibition of aflatoxin production & growth of aspergillus flavus by eugenol & onion & garlic extracts.efficacy of natural non-toxic materials including extracts of onion and garlic as well as eugenol was tested against aflatoxin production by a. flavus in liquid smky medium and in maize grains. maximum inhibition in the mycelial growth occurred with garlic extract (61.94%), whereas inhibition of aflatoxin production was highest (60.44%) due to onion extract. eugenol was most suitable for inhibiting aflatoxin production (60.35%) on maize grains.19921512040
ochratoxin a production in bavarian cereal grains stored at 15 and 19% moisture content.wheat, barley, and maize, each in 15-kg parcels at 15 and 19% initial moisture content (imc), were kept in a bavarian farm granary from june through november 1990. during this period, the grain at each imc was analyzed for mycotoxins and monitored for grain temperature, carbon dioxide, seed germination, and microfloral incidence and abundance. barley and maize stored for 20 weeks at 19% imc contained ochratoxin a in amounts of 70 and 90 microg/kg, respectively. this mycotoxin was not detected in ...19921514845
duodenal ulcer in china.the author visited china in 1981 and 1984 and obtained data comparing the incidence of duodenal ulcer in the rice eating districts of the south with the incidence in the wheat, maize and millet eating areas of the north. the evidence suggested a higher prevalence of duodenal ulcer in the rice eating areas than in the wheat eating areas, and a low prevalence in association with millet eating. however, the differences were less marked than between similar rice and wheat eating areas of india. it i ...19921515570
[toxin-producing ability of molds of the genus alternaria].the ability to produce the alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (aoh), alternariol monomethyl ether (ame) and altenuene (alt) were studied on 87 alternaria strains. 50 isolates were studied to produce tenuazonic acid (tea). the strains were isolated from ccm-maize and stored hay. they were cultured under optimum conditions and analysed by various chromatographic methods for the 4 mycotoxins. all alternaria strains studied produced ame and tea, 77 per cent also aoh. a production of alt was detected ...19921609553
co-transcription of orf25 and coxiii in rice mitochondria.southern hybridization analysis using homologous maize probes indicated that orf25 and coxiii are closely linked in the mitochondrial genome of rice (oryza sativa) cultivar ir36. the two coding regions were found on the same 5.1 kb bamhi fragment, and this fragment was cloned, mapped and partially sequenced. using probes for each gene derived from the rice clone, a 2.4 kb dicistronic mrna transcript was found containing both orf25 and coxiii coding regions. multiple 5' ends were identified by pr ...19921617739
effects of unilateral parietal lesions on spatial localization in the the first of two experiments, rats with left or right parietal lesions and controls were tested in place and landmark navigation in the water maize. right parietal lesions resulted in deficits in both tasks, but especially landmark navigation. lateralized effects appeared mainly in latency to find the platform. experiment 2 investigated the role of the corpus callosum. split-brain rats with unilateral parietal lesions were tested on the same two tasks. place and landmark deficits were particu ...19921445658
the distribution of 5-methylcytosine in the nuclear genome of plants.we have determined the 5-methylcytosine (5mc) content in high molecular weight dna, from two dicot (tobacco and pea) and two monocot (wheat and maize) plant species, fractionated according to base composition. the results show that the proportion of 5mc in the genomic fractions increases linearly with their guanine + cytosine (g + c) content while the proportion of non-methylated cytosine remains almost constant. this can be interpreted as a consequence of a difference in mutation pressure relat ...19921620618
purification and characterization of a novel antimicrobial peptide from maize (zea mays l.) kernels.several small, acid-soluble, basic peptides with anti-microbial properties have been isolated from maize (inbred b73) kernels. one of these peptides (mbp-1) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. the peptide has a molecular weight of 4127.08 as determined by plasma desorption mass spectroscopy, has no free cysteines, and is predominantly alpha-helical as determined by circular dichroism. the primary sequence of the peptide (33 residues) has been determined by edman degradation and s ...19921527010
[fusarin c induced esophageal and forestomach carcinoma in mice and rats].fusarium moniliforme, a fungus of established carcinogenic potential, is one of the most common fungal contaminants of maize, millet and other grains in linxian, china, a high-risk county for human esophageal cancer. fusarin c, a major product of f. moniliforme grown on corn in the laboratory, is mutagenic in salmonella tester strains and in v79 cells. fusarin c treated rat esophageal epithelial cell line showed several characteristics of malignant transformations including the growth in nude mi ...19921396042
plant extracts induce chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges in chinese hamster ovary cells and human lymphocytes.effects of extracts from vicia faba were compared with those of zea mays for the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (sces) and of chromosome aberrations (cas) in chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells. ca induction by the maize extract was also tested in human lymphocytes. the extracts from roots and leaves of vicia faba induced cas and sces in cho cells. the extracts from maize leaves also induced sces and cas in cho cells, and cas in human lymphocytes. maize extracts were more potent in induci ...19921371591
in situ immunogold labeling analysis of the rice hoja blanca virus nucleoprotein and major noncapsid protein.ribonucleoprotein particles (rnps) of rice hoja blanca virus (rhbv) were purified and used for electron microscopic analysis and antibody production. antibodies made to rnps specifically decorated purified rnps. the rnps typically showed characteristic tenuivirus morphologies. they were approximately 8 nm in diameter, mostly circular in nature, and exhibited branching and a high degree of superhelicity. when the rnp antibodies were used for in situ immunogold labeling analysis of rhbv-infected t ...19921448918
the effect of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls and proanthocyanidin extracts from bean (vicia faba l.) hulls on nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in young chicks.proanthocyanidins were prepared from three bean (vicia faba l.) varieties by extracting hulls in aqueous acetone. the amounts of freeze-dried extracts recovered were 74, 89 and 97 g/kg hull for the varieties brunette, statissa and minica respectively. chicks (3 weeks old) were fed on a maize-soya-bean control diet or the same control diet substituted with either 30 g proanthocyanidin extracts/kg or 300 g proanthocyanidin-rich hulls/kg. chicks were tube-fed diets twice daily for 4 d. nutrient dig ...19921547203
a common gene regulates pigmentation pattern in diverse plant species.the delila (del) gene regulates the pattern of red anthocyanin pigmentation in antirrhinum majus plants. we describe the cloning of the del locus by transposon tagging and show that it encodes a protein with extensive homology to products of the r gene family, which regulates pigmentation in maize. this shows that in spite of the many differences in morphology and coloration between maize and antirrhinum, the control of pigmentation pattern is mediated by a common regulator. the del and r produc ...19921547495
antifungal proteins from plants. purification, molecular cloning, and antifungal properties of chitinases from maize seed.we have purified two 28-kda chitinases, designated chitinase a (chit a) and chitinase b (chit b), from maize seeds to homogeneity and isolated cdna clones encoding these two enzymes using an oligonucleotide probe based on an amino acid sequence of a peptide derived from chit a. although these two enzymes share 87% homology in their amino acid sequences, which were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the isolated cdna clones, they are significantly different in their biochemical and in vitro ...19921551872
nutritional value of quality protein maize for starter and finisher swine.growth trials with starter (n = 120, 6.8 kg initially, 28 d of age, exp. 1) and finisher (n = 70, 59 kg initially, exp. 2) pigs were conducted to compare quality protein maize (qpm, .40% lysine) and normal corn (.31% lysine) in simple corn-based diets containing the same levels of soybean meal. in exp. 1, pig performance was similar (p greater than .10) on all diets, regardless of the level of soybean meal, suggesting that qpm and normal corn have similar feeding value in lysine-adequate (.99 to ...19921564005
biological activity and bioavailability of grain bound 14c-malathion residues in rats.paddy (unmilled rice), milled rice and maize-bound 14c residues were prepared using 14c-succinate-labelled malathion at 10 and 152 ppm. after 3 months, the bound residues accounted for 12%, 6.5% and 17.7% of the applied dose in paddy, milled rice and maize respectively in the grains treated at 10 ppm. the corresponding values for the 152 ppm were 16.6%, 8.5% and 18.8%. rats fed milled rice - bound 14c-residues eliminated 61% of the 14c in the faeces and 28% in the urine. the corresponding percen ...19921527358
effects of tryptophan supplementation to a maize-based diet on lipid metabolism in laying hens.1. experiments were conducted with laying hens to determine the effects of supplementing 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 or 4.0 g trp/kg diet to a maize and soyabean meal-based laying ration (basal tryptophan = 1.66 g/kg) on tissue lipid concentrations. 2. plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids were increased by supplementing the diet with 1.0 g trp/kg diet and decreased with 3.0 or 4.0 g trp/kg diet. a significant quadratic effect of supplemental tryptophan was observed on plasma l ...19921571803
effect of dietary medium chain triglyceride on protein and energy utilisation in growing chicks.1. protein, fat and energy retentions of chicks fed on diets containing medium chain triglyceride (mct) and long chain triglyceride (lct), at 100 and 200 g fat/kg diet, were investigated. maize oil was used as the lct source. the mct used was glyceryl tricaprylate. 2. body weight gain and food intake were decreased with the diets containing mct and these effects were greater at the higher fat concentration. protein retention was also reduced by dietary mct, although the efficiency of protein uti ...19921571807
studies on weaning diets in nigeria: 2 protein sources.protein isolates were extracted from melon, groundnut, and soybean cakes in an aqueous system that could potentially yield both oil and protein from oilseeds quantitatively. protein isolates obtained were 91.2, 78.6 and 79.5% of the total protein content of melon, groundnut and soybean cakes respectively. both cakes and isolates were assessed in a rat bioassay while breadfruit, cassava, and corn starch were also investigated as sources of carbohydrate. results showed that there were no significa ...19921574484
evidence for the presence of gtp-binding proteins in tobacco leaf and maize hypocotyl plasmalemma. 19921633991
bioavailability and biological activity of bound residues of radiolabelled pirimiphos-methyl in maize grains.using a 14c-labelled pirimiphos-methyl preparation, the percentage of pirimiphos-methyl residues bound to maize grains after 32 weeks of storage was 13% of the applied dosage, or 38% of total terminal residues. evidence is presented to show that bound residues of pirimiphos-methyl are bioavailable to the rat: 30%, 2% and approx. 6% of radioactivity were measured in urine expired air, and some organs respectively. a major portion of radioactivity (55%) was eliminated through faeces. grain-bound p ...19921527361
identification and characterisation of cdna clones encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from tobacco.cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cad, ec is an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis. we have previously isolated pure cad enzyme as two closely related polypeptides of 44 and 42.5 kda from tobacco stems. in this paper, we report partial amino acid sequences of these two polypeptides. based on the peptide sequences mixed oligonucleotides were used to screen a tobacco stem cdna library and cad cdna clones encoding the two polypeptides were identified. dna sequence comparisons indicate ...19921643282
gliadin induced changes in the expression of mhc-class ii antigens by human small intestinal epithelium. organ culture studies with coeliac disease mucosa.jejunal biopsies from 16 treated coeliac disease patients and from nine controls were cultured with and without a peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin. cultures with a peptic-tryptic digest of maize prolamins were also undertaken. frozen sections of baseline and cultured mucosa were stained by immunofluorescence with an anti-hla-dr monoclonal antibody. before culture the villous epithelium from both controls and treated coeliac disease expressed dr molecules while the crypt epithelium did not. when ...19921582589
a prediction of the three-dimensional structure of maize nadp(+)-dependent malate dehydrogenase which explains aspects of light-dependent regulation unique to plant enzymes.a model has been built for the plant nadp-malate dehydrogenase from zea mays, a key enzyme in photosynthesis, which undergoes light-dependent regulation. the model was based on sequence and presumed structural homology to the known three-dimensional structure of mammalian porcine cytosolic nad-malate dehydrogenase. a cystine-loop present in an extended c-terminal region of plant nadp-malate dehydrogenases was modelled using molecular mechanics and computer graphical methods, based on the assumpt ...19921583536
functional analysis of the transcriptional activator encoded by the maize b gene: evidence for a direct functional interaction between two classes of regulatory proteins.the b, r, c1, and pl genes regulating the maize anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway encode tissue-specific transcriptional activators. b and r are functionally duplicate genes that encode proteins with the basic-helix-loop-helix (b-hlh) motif found in myc proteins. c1 and pl encode functionally duplicate proteins with homology to the dna-binding domain of myb proteins. a member of the b-hlh family (b or r) and a member of the myb family (c1 or pl) are both required for anthocyanin pigmentat ...19921577278
intestinal mucosal morphometry and ileal epithelial renewal in conventional and germ-free rats fed an amylomaize starch diet.intestinal mucosal morphometry and ileal epithelial renewal were studied in conventional (cv) and germ-free (gf) rats fed either poorly digestible amylomaize or normal maize starch diets. intestinal morphometry and position of labelled enterocytes were studied at various times after tritiated thymidine injection. with amylomaize starch diet, no difference was observed in the size of crypts (c), villi (v) and c + v between duodenum and jejunum both in cv and gf rats. in the ileum, however, values ...19921575908
tamoxifen advances puberty in the white leghorn hen.1. tamoxifen (tam) administration advances puberty in cockerels. in the present study the effect of tam administration on the sexual development of white leghorn hens was studied. 2. two-week-old white leghorn females were injected intramuscularly with tam on alternate days at doses of 0.1 mg (0.1 tm), 1 mg (1tm), 5 mg (5tm) and 10 mg/kg body weight (10tm) respectively, while the controls were injected with maize oil (vehicle). the experiment was terminated at 23 weeks of age, when all the contr ...19921571794
complete nucleotide sequence of rna 4 of rice stripe virus isolate t, and comparison with another isolate and with maize stripe virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of rna 4 of rice stripe virus isolate t (rsv-t) was determined and found to consist of 2157 nucleotides, containing two open reading frames (orfs). one, deduced to be present in the 5'-proximal region of the viral-sense rna, encodes the stripe disease-specific protein with mr 20541, and the other orf, in the 5'-proximal region of the viral complementary sense rna, encodes an unknown protein with mr 32474. between these two orfs there is an intergenic non-coding r ...19921588328
the activation process of arabidopsis thaliana a1 gene encoding the translation elongation factor ef-1 alpha is conserved among arabidopsis thaliana, the activation process of the a1 ef-1 alpha gene depends on several elements. using the gus reporter gene, transient expression experiments have shown that mutations of upstream cis-acting elements of the a1 promoter, or the deletion of an intron located within the 5' non-coding region, similarly affect expression in dicot or monocot protoplasts. the results reported here strongly suggest that this 5' intron is properly spliced in zea mays. we show that two trans-acting ...19921600144
lactation performance of rural mesoamerindians.anthropometry, body composition and dietary intake of 30 lactating otomi indians of capulhuac, mexico, were studied to identify maternal factors which potentially limit lactation and thereby infant growth. human milk production, milk composition, and maternal dietary intake, body weight, skinfold thicknesses, and body composition were measured at 4 and 6 months postpartum. the 2h2o dose-to-mother method was used to estimate milk production and maternal total body water (tbw). fat-free mass (ffm) ...19921600932
effect of lactation feeding level on the performance and subsequent production of indigenous pigs in nigeria.a total of 72 indigenous nigerian sows with a live weight varying about 103 (+/- 6) kg on the 110th day of farrowing depending on feeding level was used to determine an optimum restrictive feeding level during the first lactation, 55 of which were also investigated in the following lactation under comparable conditions. during their 42-day lactation period the sows were fed 0.3 or 0.5 kg of a maize-groundnut-cake mixed feed (15% cp) per nursing piglet or ad libitum. the reduced overall feed inta ...19921524575
a possible hot spot for ac insertion in the maize p gene.we have analyzed the footprints left by a single ac transposable element during its intragenic transposition to different positions in the maize p gene. one site appears to have been visited twice by transposons, indicating that it may be an insertion hot spot. implications of this finding for the origin of the p-vv allele are discussed. analysis of transposon footprints may prove generally useful for establishing pedigree relationships among gene alleles.19911660568
characterization of the structure and transcription of an ubiquitin fusion gene from maize.we have identified a maize ubiquitin (ubi) fusion gene (ubf9) by screening a maize w22 genomic phage lambda library with a short (16-nucleotide) oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe derived from the sequence for the extension sequence of a yeast ub13 fusion gene. ubf9 consists of an ub monomer sequence (228 bp long) joined to an extension sequence (237 bp long). the extension sequence encodes a protein of 79 amino acids which shares extensive identity with similar extension aa sequences found in yeast ...19911660830
[sequence and primary structure analysis of specific dna fragment related to pollen fertility in radish chloroplast genome].nucleotide sequence of a radish chloroplast bafhi-ecori fragment (zl1) derived from b21, which is related to cytoplasmic male sterility and also found in radish 401b retaining line, has been determined. the results show that this fragment is 474bp in length, and is rich in at base components. the nucleotide sequence of zl1 has 96.6% homology as compared with the corresponding sequence of tobacco which is located at the positions from 142330 to 142803 in ira and from 100199 to 99726 in irb in the ...19921524844
catalase negative mutants of helicobacter pylori.nine strains of helicobacter pylori have been isolated exhibiting spontaneous mutations with a loss of catalase activity. growth characteristics in vitro were unaffected by the mutation showing that catalase is not essential for growth of helicobacter pylori. parent strains and mutants could not be distinguished morphologically from each other when compared by electron microscopy. restriction endonuclease digestion with hindiii, separated in an 0.7% agarose gel in tbe buffer, showed each pair to ...19921526235
calcium and phosphorus requirements of the very young turkey as determined by response surface analysis.the first experiment was a central composite rotatable design with calculated calcium levels of 6.2, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 11.8 g/kg diet and total phosphorus levels of 5.2, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, and 10.8 g/kg diet (2.8 g phytin-p/kg by analysis). this design involved three replicates for each rotatable point and fifteen replicates of the central point. the second experiment was a 4 x 4 factorial design with calculated ca levels of 8.0, 10.0, 12.0, and 14.0 g/kg diet and calculated total p levels of 7.0 ...19921622982
the effects of acute and chronic administration of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on ethanol-induced gastric haemorrhage in rats.female weanling rats in three equal groups (n 12) were given orally by intubation 1 ml micellar solution of taurocholic acid (10 mm) and either arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6), linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) or eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) at a concentration of 120 mm. after 1 h the rats were given intragastrically 2 ml absolute ethanol and were killed 1 h later. rats given oral 20:4 n-6 showed a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in the extent (%) of gastric mucosal haemorrhage compared with ei ...19921622986
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